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Richard of Shrewsbury, 1st Duke of York: Wikis

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Richard of Shrewsbury
Duke of York; Duke of Norfolk
Spouse Anne de Mowbray, 8th Countess of Norfolk
House House of York
Father Edward IV
Mother Elizabeth Woodville
Born 17 August 1473(1473-08-17)
Shrewsbury, Shropshire
Died unknown and disputed

Richard of Shrewsbury, 1st Duke of York and 1st Duke of Norfolk (17 August 1473 – 1483?) was the sixth child and second son of King Edward IV of England and Elizabeth Woodville. He was born in Shrewsbury. He was a younger brother of Elizabeth of York, Mary of York, Cecily of York, Edward V of England and Margaret Plantagenet (Princess of York). He was also an older brother of Anne of York, George Plantagenet, Duke of Bedford, Catherine of York and Bridget of York.

Contents

Dukedoms

He was created Duke of York in 1474. From this time on, it became a tradition for the second son of the English sovereign to be Duke of York. On 15 January 1478, when he was about 4 years old, he married the 5-year-old Anne de Mowbray, 8th Countess of Norfolk, who had inherited the vast Mowbray estates in 1476. Because York's father-in-law's dukedom had become extinct when Anne could not inherit it, he was created Duke of Norfolk in 1481.

Heir presumptive

Edward V and the Duke of York in the Tower of London by Paul Delaroche

His father died on 9 April 1483. Thus his brother Edward, Prince of Wales, became King of England and was acclaimed as such, and Richard his Heir Presumptive. This was not to last. Robert Stillington, the Bishop of Bath and Wells, testified that Edward IV had agreed to marry Lady Eleanor Talbot in 1461. Lady Eleanor was still alive when Edward married Elizabeth Woodville in 1464. The Regency council under Richard Plantagenet, 1st Duke of Gloucester, concluded that this was a case of bigamy, invalidating the second marriage and the legitimacy of all children of Edward IV by this marriage. Under Richard's influence, both Edward and Richard were declared illegitimate and removed from the line of succession on 25 June 1483. The Duke of Gloucester, as a surviving younger brother of Edward IV, became Richard III.

Later life

The Duke of York was sent to the Tower of London by King Richard in mid-1483. What happened to him and his brother—the Princes in the Tower—after that has been the subject of much speculation and debate. The view of some professional historians is that they were murdered not long afterwards on Richard's orders, but various alternative views have been put forward. In the 1490s, Perkin Warbeck claimed to be Richard, Duke of York, but he is generally considered to have been an imposter, and was labelled thus by the Tudor regime. The skeletons of two children discovered in a chest in the Tower in 1674 were presumed to be the princes, but the evidence is not conclusive.

Coat of arms of Richard, 1st Duke of York

Titles, styles, honours and arms

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Arms

As son of the sovereign, Richard was granted use of the arms of the kingdom, differentiated by a label argent, on the first point a canton gules.[1]

Ancestry

In popular culture

The comedy series The Black Adder features an alternative history where Richard succeeded his uncle King Richard III to the throne as King Richard IV of England (portrayed by Brian Blessed).

Richard appears in Philippa Gregory's 2009 fictionalized novel The White Queen, which follows the theory that Richard's mother, Elizabeth Woodville, never gave young Richard over to the custody of his uncle, instead swapping him with a changeling and sending the true prince into hiding in Tournai, Belgium. He appears later in the novel under the assumed name, Perkin Warbeck.

See also

References

  • Ashley, Mike (2002). British Kings & Queens. Carroll & Graf. ISBN 0-7867-1104-3.   page 218
  • Weir, Alison (1995). The Princes in the Tower. Ballantine Books.. ISBN 0-3453-9178-0.  

External links

Richard of Shrewsbury, 1st Duke of York and 1st Duke of Norfolk
Born: 17 August 1473 Died: 1483?
English royalty
Preceded by
Edward, Prince of Wales
Heir to the Throne
as heir presumptive
9 April 1483 – 22 June 1483
Succeeded by
Edward of Middleham,
Prince of Wales
Political offices
Preceded by
The 4th Duke of Norfolk
Earl Marshal
1476 – 1483
Succeeded by
The 1st Duke of Norfolk
Peerage of England
New creation Duke of York
2nd creation
1474 – 1483
Extinct
Duke of Norfolk
2nd creation
1481 – 1483

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