Rio de Janeiro (state): Wikis

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State of Rio de Janeiro
Flag of State of Rio de Janeiro Coat of arms of State of Rio de Janeiro
Motto
Recte Rem Publicam Gerere (Latin)
"Conduct the affairs of the public with righteousness"
Anthem
November 15th
Location of State of Rio de Janeiro in Brazil
Capital
(and largest city)
Rio de Janeiro
22°54′S 43°12′W / 22.9°S 43.2°W / -22.9; -43.2
Demonym Fluminense
Government
 -  Governor Sérgio Cabral Filho
 -  Vice Governor Luís Fernando de Sousa
Area
 -  Total 43,696.1 km2 (16,871.2 sq mi) (24th)
Population
 -  2006 estimate 15,561,720 (3rd)
 -  2005 census 15,397,366 
 -  Density 356.1 /km2 (922 /sq mi) (2nd)
GDP 2006 estimate
 -  Total R$ 275,363,000,000 (2nd)
 -  Per capita R$ 17,695 (3rd)
HDI (2005) 0.832 (high) (3rd)
Abbreviation BR-RJ
Time zone BRT (UTC-3)
 -  Summer (DST) BRST (UTC-2)
Website governo.rj.gov.br

Rio de Janeiro (Portuguese pronunciation: [ˈʁiu dʒi ʒaˈneiɾu] [1]) is one of the 26 states of Brazil.

It is located in the Brazilian geopolitical region of the Southeast (assigned by IBGE) and its boundaries, all of them with other Brazilian states in the Southeast region (Rio de Janeiro is the only state in the Southeast to share borders exclusively with other states in the same macroregion), are with Minas Gerais (N and NW), Espírito Santo (NE) and São Paulo (SW), and plus its shore line, in the Atlantic Ocean, to its East and South.

Rio de Janeiro has an area of 43,653 km² and its capital is the city of Rio de Janeiro, which was the capital of the Portuguese Colony of Brazil from 1763 to 1806, capital of the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves from 1806 to 1822, and capital of independent Brazil from 1822 to 1960.

The state's most populous cities are Rio de Janeiro, Nova Iguaçu, Niterói, Duque de Caxias, São Gonçalo, São João de Meriti, Campos dos Goytacazes, Petrópolis and Volta Redonda.

Its principal rivers are the Guandu River, the Piraí, the Paraíba do Sul, the Macaé and the Muriaé. Its climate is considered to be tropical.

Rio de Janeiro is made up of two distinct morphological areas: a plain, known as baixada, and a plateau, which are disposed in parallel fashion from the shoreline inland (towards Minas Gerais).

In the Brazilian flag, the state is represented by the Beta star in the Southern Cross (β = Mimosa).

Contents

Geography

The state is part of the Mata Atlântica biome, and its topography comprises both mountains and plains, located between the Mantiqueira Mountains and the Atlantic Ocean. Its coast is carved by the bays of Guanabara, Sepetiba, and Ilha Grande.

There are prominent slopes near the ocean, featuring also diverse environments, such as restinga vegetation, bays, lagoons and tropical forests.

Rio de Janeiro is the smallest state in the Southeast macroregion and one of the smallest in Brazil. It has, however, the third longest coastline in the country (second only to Bahia's and Maranhão's), extending 635 kilometers.

History

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Hereditary captainships

Paço Imperial, 18th century palace that served as seat for the colonial government, King John IV of Portugal and the two Emperors of Brazil.
Rio de Janeiro, the capital state of Rio de Janeiro.

Rio de Janeiro was originated from parts of the captainships of de Tomé and São Vicente. Between 1555 and 1567, the territory was busy with the Frenchmen, who intended to install a colony, France Antarctique. Aiming at to prevent the occupation of the Frenchmen, in March 1565, the city of Rio de Janeiro was established by Estácio de Sá.

In the 17th century, cattle and sugar cane stimulated the city's progress which was definitively assured when the port started to export the extracted gold of Minas Gerais in 18 century. In 1763, Rio de Janeiro became the headquarters of the Colonial Brazil and the capital of the colony. With the change of the royal family for Brazil, in 1808, the region very was benefited with urban reforms to shelter the Portuguese. Inside of the promoted changes they are distinguished: the transference of agencies of public administration and justice, the creation of new churches, hospitals, foundation of the first bank of the country - the Banco do Brasil - and the Imprensa Régia, with the Gazette do Rio of Janeiro. In following years had also appeared the Jardim Botânico, Academia Real Militar.

Thus, a process of cultural introduction, influenced not only by the arrival of the Royal Family, but also by the presence of European artists who had been hired to register the society and Brazilian nature. In this same time, was born the Escola Real de Ciências, Artes e Ofícios (The Royal School of Sciences, Arts, and Works).

The Neutral City

In 1834, the city of Rio de Janeiro was transformed into neutral city, remaining as capital of the country, while the captainships passed to being provinces, with its headquarters in Niterói, a neighbor city. In 1889, the city was changed into capital of the Republic, the neutral city in federal district and the province in State. With the change of the capital for Brasilia, in 1960, the city of Rio de Janeiro became the State of Guanabara.

The new State of Rio de Janeiro

In 1975, the states of Guanabara and Rio de Janeiro were merged under the name of Rio de Janeiro, with the city of Rio de Janeiro as state capital. The symbols of the former State of Rio de Janeiro were preserved, while the symbols of Guanabara were kept by the city of Rio de Janeiro. It should be noted that European presence in Rio de Janeiro is as old as Brazil itself, dating back to 1502 under this name.

Demographics

Cathedral in Petrópolis, a city with strong German influence.

According to the IBGE of 2008, there were 15,772,000 people residing in the state. The population density was 352.58 inhabitants per square kilometre (913.2 /sq mi).

Urbanization: 96.9% (2004); Population growth: 1.3% (1991-2000);

The last PNAD (National Research for Sample of Domiciles) census resulted in the following numbers: 8,595,740 White people (54.5%), 5,110,128 Brown (Multiracial) people (32.4%), 1,987,272 Black people (12.6%), 63,088 Asian or Amerindian people (0.4%).[2]

People of Portuguese ancestry predominate in most of the state. Other European ethnic groups, such as Swiss and Germans settled mostly in the mountainous areas (Nova Friburgo, Petrópolis, etc) and in the capital. Italians and Spaniards are also present in the capital as well as in the surrounding cities.[3][4]

People of African descent are numerous mostly in the capital city. Those of mixed-race ancestry (mulattoes) are the majority of the population in some towns.

Economy

The industrial sector is the largest component of GDP at 51.6%, followed by the service sector at 47.8%. Agriculture represents 0.6% of GDP (2004). Rio de Janeiro (state) exports: petroleum 44.8%, fuel 17.5%, siderurgy 13%, chemicals 3.6%, not ferrous metals 2.8%, vehicles 2.1% (2002).

Participation in the Brazilian economy: 15.6% (2004).[5]

Trivia

Vehicles: 3.915.724 (jan./2006); Mobile phones: 10 million (2006); Telephones: 5.3 million (2006). Cities: 92 (2006). Area: The state of Rio de Janeiro is more than double the size of: El Salvador, Slovenia, Chechnya, Hawaii (USA). It is slightly larger than: Denmark, Netherlands, Switzerland. The state is slightly smaller than: Estonia, Dominican Republic, Slovakia.

Education

The Palácio Universitário, a 19th century Neoclassical building that serves as campus of the UFRJ. The Institutes for Economy, Education and Administration, among others, are based here.

Colleges and Universities

Public Colleges

Private Colleges

  • Fundação Getúlio Vargas (FGV)
  • Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio);
  • Universidade do Grande Rio (UNIGRANRIO) (University of Great Rio);
  • Universidade Estácio de Sá
  • Universidade Gama Filho
  • Universidade Veiga de Almeida (UVA)
  • Universidade Cândido Mendes (UCAM)
  • Centro Universitário Augusto Motta (Unisuam)
  • and many more

Culture

Carnival

Carnival in Rio de Janeiro, famous for its production.

It is the great explosion of joy in Rio. A party uniting emotions, creativity, plasticity, colours, sounds and much fantasy. It is the greatest popular party in the world. A unique record of the rich cultural melting pot typical of Brazil.

New Year’s Eve

In Rio de Janeiro, New Year’s Eve celebration involves the whole city population. Local inhabitants and visitors join to celebrate taken by the same euphoria: to be in Rio. The party, one of the most famous in the world, is held on the famous beach of Copacabana, gathering thousands of people to enjoy musical performances and fireworks – increasingly exuberant year after year. One tradition is to give gifts to Yemanja, like flowers and even blancmange.

Infrastructure

International Airport

International Airport of Rio de Janeiro, located in the North Zone.

Since August 2004, with the transfer of many flights from Santos Dumont Airport, Rio de Janeiro-Galeão International Airport has returned to being the main doorway to Brazil. According to data from the official Brazilian travel bureau, Embratur, nearly 40% of foreign tourists who visit Brazil choose Rio as their gateway, meaning Galeão Airport. Besides linking Rio to the rest of Brazil with domestic flights, Galeão has connections to 18 other countries. It can handle up to 15 million passengers a year in two passenger terminals. Located 20 kilometers from downtown Rio, the international airport is served by several quick access routes, such as the Linha Vermelha and Linha Amarela freeways and Avenida Brasil, thus conveniently serving residents of the city’s southern, northern and western zones. There are special shuttle buses linking Galeão to Santos Dumont, and bus and taxi service to the rest of the city. The airport complex also has Brazil’s longest runway at 4,240 metres (13,900 ft), and one of South America’s largest and best equipped cargo logistics terminals.

Highways

The main Federal highways that cross the state are:

Sports

More notable sports events in Rio include the MotoGP Brazilian Grand Prix and the World Beach volleyball finals. Jacarepaguá was the place of Formula One Brazilian Grand Prix into 1978-1990 and the Champ Car event into 1996-1999. WCT/WQS Surf championships were contested on the beaches from 1985-2001. The city has built a new stadium near the Maracanã, to hold 45,000 people. It was named after Brazilian ex-FIFA president João Havelange. Sports are a very popular pastime in Rio de Janeiro. The most popular is futebol (soccer). Rio de Janeiro is home to four traditional Brazilian football clubs: Flamengo, Fluminense, Vasco, and Botafogo.

Rio de Janeiro will be hosting the 2014 FIFA World Cup.

On the 2nd of October, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, was selected to host the 2016 Olympic Games, which will be the first to be held in South America. [6]

State flag

In the foreground of the state flag, an eagle, symbol of Brazil's royal family, appears. In the background, the rock formation Dedo de Deus ("The Finger of God"), which is visible from the city of Rio de Janeiro in a clear day. The outer part of the coat of arms represents the state's agricultural richness, sugarcane (left) and coffee (right).

Cities

See also

References

  1. ^ In the variety of Brazilian Portuguese spoken in Rio de Janeiro. The European Portuguese pronunciation is: [ˈʁiu dɨ ʒɐˈnɐiɾu].
  2. ^ (in Portuguese) (PDF) Síntese de Indicadores Sociais 2008. State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: IBGE. 2008. ISBN 85-240-3919-1. http://www.ibge.gov.br/home/estatistica/populacao/condicaodevida/indicadoresminimos/sinteseindicsociais2008/indic_sociais2008.pdf. Retrieved 2009-02-04.  
  3. ^ A Colônia Suíça de Nova Friburgo
  4. ^ A colonização alemã em Petrópolis
  5. ^ (in Portuguese) (PDF) List of Brazilian states by GDP. State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: IBGE. 2004. ISBN 85-240-3919-1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Brazilian_states_by_GDP_participation. Retrieved 2007-07-18.  
  6. ^ The Guardian, October 2, 2009, Olympics 2016: Tearful Pele and weeping Lula greet historic win for Rio

External links

Coordinates: 22°54′36″S 43°10′32″W / 22.91°S 43.17556°W / -22.91; -43.17556


Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

South America : Brazil : Southeast : Rio de Janeiro
Contents
Beach in Búzios
Beach in Búzios
Rio de Janeiro is a state in Brazil.

Regions

Some of the state's regions of interest are:

  • Angra dos Reis - Beautiful two hour coastline including 365 islands
  • Arraial do Cabo
  • Búzios
  • Fumaça – It is a small village on the outskirts of Resende. This small village hides some of the most beautiful (and dangerous) waterfalls in Rio.
  • Itaguaí - Small suburb about 1 hour from the city
  • Niterói - Just across the bay from Rio de Janeiro, go here to see Oscar Niemeyer's amazing Niteroi Museum of Contemporary Art (shaped like a UFO).
  • Nova Iguaçu - Famous for its violence and crime. This city has a myth of the only Brazilian volcano (scientifically not a volcano).
  • Paraty - A 18th century well-preserved colonial town on the coast, just 260km West from Rio de Janeiro on the green coast
  • Penedo - A Brazilian version of "little Finland" with euro architecture, cobblestone streets, small shops and lots of trout restaurants. Just outside of Resende.
  • Petrópolis - A lovely city in the tops of the mountains. A good place to cool off from the Rio sun!
  • Resende
  • Rio de Janeiro
  • Teresopolis - A very nice city in the mountains close to Rio de Janeiro
  • Três Rios - Where three of the state's rivers meet. Near the border of Minas Gerais
  • Volta Redonda
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Simple English

Rio de Janeiro
[[File:|200px|]]
Flag of Rio de Janeiro
File:Brazil State
See other Brazilian States
Capital Rio de Janeiro
Largest City Rio de Janeiro
Area 43,696.054 km²
Population
  - Total
  - Density

14,381,282 (in the year 2000)
328.59 inh./km²
Governor Sérgio Cabral Filho (PMDB)
(since January 1, 2007)
Lieutenant Governor: Luiz Fernando Pezão
Demonym Fluminense
Timezone GMT-3
ISO 3166-2 BR-RJ

Rio de Janeiro is one of the 26 states of Brazil. Its capital is the city of Rio de Janeiro.

Rio de Janeiro is located in the Southeast Region of Brazil. It shares borders with Minas Gerais, Espírito Santo and São Paulo as well as the Atlantic Ocean. Rio de Janeiro has an area of 43,653 km².

The state's most largest cities are Rio de Janeiro, Nova Iguaçu, Niterói, Duque de Caxias, São Gonçalo, São João de Meriti, Campos dos Goytacazes, Petrópolis and Volta Redonda. Its main rivers are the Guandu River, the Piraí, the Paraíba do Sul, the Macaé and the Muriaé. It's climate is tropical.

Geography

The state is made up of both mountains and plains. It is located between the Mantiqueira Mountains and the Atlantic Ocean. The bays of Guanabara, Sepetiba, and Ilha Grande are on the coastline of Rio de Janeiro.

Rio de Janeiro is the smallest state in the Southeast Region and one of the smallest in Brazil. It has, however, the third longest coastline in the country (635 km).

Ethnic groups

Other websites


States of Brazil
Acre | Alagoas | Amapá | Amazonas | Bahia | Ceará | Espírito Santo | Goiás | Maranhão | Mato Grosso | Mato Grosso do Sul | Minas Gerais | Pará | Paraíba | Paraná | Pernambuco | Piauí | Rio de Janeiro | Rio Grande do Norte | Rio Grande do Sul | Rondônia | Roraima | Santa Catarina | São Paulo | Sergipe | Tocantins
Federal District: Brazilian Federal District

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