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A road is an identifiable route, way or path between places.[1] Roads are typically smoothed, paved, or otherwise prepared to allow easy travel;[2] though they need not be, and historically many roads were simply recognizable routes without any formal construction or maintenance.[3]

The term was also commonly used to refer to roadsteads, waterways that lent themselves to use by shipping. Notable examples being Hampton Roads, in Virginia, the seaway Barry Roads in the Bristol Channel and Castle Roads, in Bermuda (also formerly in Virginia).

For purposes of international comparison, the OECD has defined[4] a road to be:

Definition:
Line of communication (travelled way) using a stabilized base other than rails or air strips open to public traffic, primarily for the use of road motor vehicles running on their own wheels.
Context:
Included are bridges, tunnels, supporting structures, junctions, crossings and interchanges. Toll roads are also included. Excluded are dedicated cycle paths.

In urban areas roads may diverge through a city or village and be named as streets, serving a dual function as urban space easement and route.[5] Economics and society depend heavily on efficient roads. In the European Union (EU) 44% of all goods are moved by trucks over roads and 85% of all persons are transported by cars, buses or coaches on roads.[6]

Interstate 80, the second-longest U.S. Interstate highway, runs from California to New Jersey
Castle Roads, in Bermuda. An example of the maritime application of the word roads.

The United States has the largest network of roadways of any country with 6,430,366 kilometres (3,995,644 mi) (2005). The People's Republic of China is second with 3,583,715 kilometres (2,226,817 mi) of roadway (2007) See List of countries by road network size. The Republic of India has the third largest road system in the world with 3,383,344 kilometres (2,102,312 mi) (2002). When looking only at expressways the National Trunk Highway System (NTHS) in People's Republic of China has a total length of 45,000 kilometres (28,000 mi) at the end of 2006, and 60,300 km at the end of 2008, second only to the United States with 90,000 kilometres (56,000 mi) in 2005.[7][8]

Contents

Historical road construction

A Greek street from the 3rd to 4th century BC in Velia, Italy. The Porta Rosa was the main street of Elea. It is paved with limestone blocks, with a gutter for the drainage of rain water.

That the first pathways were the trails made by animals has not been universally accepted, arguing that animals do not follow constant paths.[3] Others believe that some roads originated from following animal trails.[9][10] The Icknield Way is given as an example of this type of road origination, where man and animal both selected the same natural line.[11] By about 10,000 BC, rough pathways were used by human travelers.[3]

  • In 500 BC, Darius I the Great started an extensive road system for Persia (Iran), including the famous Royal Road which was one of the finest highways of its time.[14] The road remained in use after Roman times.
A paved Roman road in Pompeii, Italy.
  • In ancient times, transport by river was far easier and faster than transport by road,[13] especially considering the cost of road construction and the difference in carrying capacity between carts and river barges. A hybrid of road transport and ship transport beginning in about 1740 is the horse-drawn boat in which the horse follows a cleared path along the river bank.[15][16]
  • In the 1600s road construction and maintenance in Britain was traditionally done on a local parish basis.[13] This resulted in a poor and variable state of roads. To remedy this, the first of the "Turnpike Trusts" was established around 1706, to build good roads and collect tolls from passing vehicles. Eventually there were approximately 1,100 Trusts in Britain and some 36,800 km of engineered roads.[13] The Rebecca Riots in Carmarthenshire and Rhayader from 1839 to 1844 contributed to a Royal Commission leading to the demise of the system in 1844.[19]

Road transport economics

A road in Mumbai, India. Most of the roads across the world are built and maintained by the public sector
The Transfăgărăşan in Romania, first built as a military road.

Transport economics is a branch of economics that deals with the allocation of resources within the transport sector and has strong linkages with civil engineering. Transport economics differs from some other branches of economics in that the assumption of a spaceless, instantaneous economy does not hold. People and goods flow over networks at certain speeds. Demands peak. Advanced ticket purchase is often induced by lower fares. The networks themselves may or may not be competitive. A single trip (the final good from the point-of-view of the consumer) may require bundling the services provided by several firms, agencies and modes.

Although transport systems follow the same supply and demand theory as other industries, the complications of network effects and choices between non-similar goods (e.g. car and bus travel) make estimating the demand for transportation facilities difficult. The development of models to estimate the likely choices between the non-similar goods involved in transport decisions "discrete choice" models led to the development of the important branch of econometrics, and a Nobel Prize for Daniel McFadden.[20]

In transport, demand can be measured in numbers of journeys made or in total distance traveled across all journeys (e.g. passenger-kilometres for public transport or vehicle-kilometres of travel (VKT) for private transport). Supply is considered to be a measure of capacity. The price of the good (travel) is measured using the generalised cost of travel, which includes both money and time expenditure. The effect of increases in supply (capacity) are of particular interest in transport economics (see induced demand), as the potential environmental consequences are significant.

Road building and maintenance is an area of economic activity that remains dominated by the public sector (though often through private contractors).[21] Roads (except those on private property that are not accessible to the general public) are typically paid for by taxes (often raised through levies on fuel),[22] though some public roads, especially freeways are funded by tolls.[23]

Environmental aspects

Air pollution along Pasadena Highway in Los Angeles, United States
Promenade in Florence, Italy

Air pollution

Motor vehicles operating on roads contribute emissions, particularly for congested city street conditions and other low speed circumstances. Of particular concern are particulate emissions from diesel engines. Concentrations of air pollutants and adverse respiratory health effects are greater near the road than at some distance away from the road.[24] Road dust kicked up by vehicles may trigger allergic reactions.[25] Sand applied to icy roads can be ground up by traffic into fine particulates and contribute to air pollution.

Water pollution

Urban runoff from roads and other impervious surfaces is a major source of water pollution.[26] Rainwater and snowmelt running off of roads tends to pick up gasoline, motor oil, heavy metals, trash and other pollutants. Road runoff is a major source of nickel, copper, zinc, cadmium, lead and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), which are created as combustion byproducts of gasoline and other fossil fuels.[27]

De-icing chemicals and sand can run off into roadsides, contaminate groundwater and pollute surface waters.[28] Road salts (primarily chlorides of sodium, calcium or magnesium) can be toxic to sensitive plants and animals.[29] Sand can alter stream bed environments, causing stress for the plants and animals that live there.

Noise pollution

Motor vehicle traffic on roads generate noise pollution especially at higher operating speeds, near intersections and on uphill sections. Therefore, considerable noise health effects are expected from road systems used by large numbers of motor vehicles. Noise mitigation strategies exist to reduce sound levels at nearby sensitive receptors. The idea that road design could be influenced by acoustical engineering considerations first arose about 1973.[citation needed]

Driving on the right or the left

A sign on Australia's Great Ocean Road reminding foreign motorists to keep left.

Traffic flows on the right or on the left side of the road depending on the country.[30] In countries where traffic flows on the right, traffic signs are mostly on the right side of the road, roundabouts and traffic circles go counter-clockwise/anti-clockwise, and pedestrians crossing a two-way road should watch out for traffic from the left first.[31] In countries where traffic flows on the left, the reverse is true.

About 34% of the world by population drive on the left, and 66% keep right. By roadway distances, about 28% drive on the left, and 72% on the right,[32] even though originally most traffic drove on the left worldwide.[33]

Construction

Road tear up.ogv
A road being torn up.
Surveyor at work with a leveling instrument.
Asphalt layer and roller
Sub-base layer composed of cement-based material being applied during construction of the M8 motorway in Ireland.

Road construction requires the creation of a continuous right-of-way, overcoming geographic obstacles and having grades low enough to permit vehicle or foot travel.[34] (pg15) and may be required to meet standards set by law[35] or official guidelines.[36] The process is often begun with the removal of earth and rock by digging or blasting, construction of embankments, bridges and tunnels, and removal of vegetation (this may involve deforestation) and followed by the laying of pavement material. A variety of road building equipment is employed in road building.[37][38]

After design, approval, planning, legal and environmental considerations have been addressed alignment of the road is set out by a surveyor.[17] The Radii and gradient are designed and staked out to best suit the natural ground levels and minimize the amount of cut and fill.[36] (page34) Great care is taken to preserve reference Benchmarks [36] (page59)

Roadways are designed and built for primary use by vehicular and pedestrian traffic. Storm drainage and environmental considerations are a major concern. Erosion and sediment controls are constructed to prevent detrimental effects. Drainage lines are laid with sealed joints in the road easement with runoff coefficients and characteristics adequate for the land zoning and storm water system. Drainage systems must be capable of carrying the ultimate design flow from the upstream catchment with approval for the outfall from the appropriate authority to a watercourse, creek, river or the sea for drainage discharge.[36] (page38 to 40)

A Borrow pit (source for obtaining fill, gravel, and rock) and a water source should be located near or in reasonable distance to the road construction site. Approval from local authorities may be required to draw water or for working (crushing and screening) of materials for construction needs. The top soil and vegetation is removed from the borrow pit and stockpiled for subsequent rehabilitation of the extraction area. Side slopes in the excavation area not steeper than one vertical to two horizontal for safety reasons.[36] (page 53 to 56 )

Road construction on Marquette Avenue in Minneapolis, Minnesota, United States

Old road surfaces, fences, and buildings may need to be removed before construction can begin. Trees in the road construction area may be marked for retention. These protected trees should not have the topsoil within the area of the tree's drip line removed and the area should be kept clear of construction material and equipment. Compensation or replacement may be required if a protected tree is damaged. Much of the vegetation may be mulched and put aside for use during reinstatement. The topsoil is usually stripped and stockpiled nearby for rehabilitation of newly constructed embankments along the road. Stumps and roots are removed and holes filled as required before the earthwork begins. Final rehabilitation after road construction is completed will include seeding, planting, watering and other activities to reinstate the area to be consistent with the untouched surrounding areas.[36] (page 66 to 67 )

Processes during earthwork include excavation, removal of material to spoil, filling, compacting, construction and trimming. If rock or other unsuitable material is discovered it is removed, moisture content is managed and replaced with standard fill compacted to 90% relative compaction. Generally blasting of rock is discouraged in the road bed. When a depression must be filled to come up to the road grade the native bed is compacted after the topsoil has been removed. The fill is made by the "compacted layer method" where a layer of fill is spread then compacted to specifications, the process is repeated until the desired grade is reached.[36] (page 68 to 69 ).

Typical pavement strata for a heavily traveled road

General fill material should be free of organics, meet minimum California bearing ratio (CBR) results and have a low plasticity index. The lower fill generally comprises sand or a sand-rich mixture with fine gravel, which acts as an inhibitor to the growth of plants or other vegetable matter. The compacted fill also serves as lower-stratum drainage. Select second fill (sieved) should be composed of gravel, decomposed rock or broken rock below a specified Particle size and be free of large lumps of clay. Sand clay fill may also be used. The road bed must be "proof rolled" after each layer of fill is compacted. If a roller passes over an area without creating visible deformation or spring the section is deemed to comply.[36] (page 70 to 72 )

The completed road way is finished by paving or left with a gravel or other natural surface. The type of road surface is dependent on economic factors and expected usage. Safety improvements like Traffic signs, Crash barriers, Raised pavement markers, and other forms of Road surface marking are installed.

According to a May 2009 report by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) and TRIP—a national transportation research organization—driving on rough roads costs the average American motorist approximately $400 a year in extra vehicle operating costs. Drivers living in urban areas with populations more than 250,000 are paying upwards of $750 more annually because of accelerated vehicle deterioration, increased maintenance, additional fuel consumption, and tire wear caused by poor road conditions.

Construction Costs

According to www.nysthruway.gov, some typical costs to construct roads in several USA states include: CONSTRUCTION COST Expressway Section Per-Mile Cost Connecticut Turnpike $3,449,000 New Jersey Turnpike $2,200,000 Pennsylvania Turnpike (Delaware Extension) $1,970,000 Northern Indiana Toll Road $1,790,000 Garden State Parkway $1,720,000 Massachusetts Turnpike $1,600,000 Thruway, New York to Pennsylvania Line $1,547,000 Ohio Turnpike $1,352,000 Pennsylvania Turnpike (early construction) $736,000

Duplication

When a single carriageway road is converted into dual carriageway by building a second separate carriageway alongside the first, it is usually referred to as duplication[39], twinning or doubling. The original carriageway is changed from two-way to become one-way, while the new carriageway is one-way in the opposite direction. In the same way as converting railway lines from single track to double track, the new carriageway is not always constructed directly alongside the existing carriageway.

Maintenance

Baustelle.svg

Like all structures, roads deteriorate over time. Deterioration is primarily due to accumulated damage from vehicles, however environmental effects such as frost heaves, thermal cracking and oxidation often contribute.[40] According to a series of experiments carried out in the late 1950s, called the AASHO Road Test, it was empirically determined that the effective damage done to the road is roughly proportional to the 4th power of axle weight.[41] A typical tractor-trailer weighing 80,000 pounds (36.287 t) with 8,000 pounds (3.6287 t) on the steer axle and 36,000 pounds (16.329 t) on both of the tandem axle groups is expected to do 7,800 times more damage than a passenger vehicle with 2,000 pounds (0.907 t) on each axle. Potholes on roads are caused by rain damage and vehicle braking or related construction works.

Pavements are designed for an expected service life or design life. In some UK countries the standard design life is 40 years for new bitumen and concrete pavement. Maintenance is considered in the whole life cost of the road with service at 10, 20 and 30 year milestones.[42] Roads can be and are designed for a variety of lives (8-, 15-, 30-, and 60-year designs). When pavement lasts longer then its intended life, it may have been overbuilt, and the original costs may have been too high. When a pavement fails before its intended design life, the owner may have excessive repair and rehabilitation costs. Many concrete pavements built since the 1950s have significantly outlived their intended design lives.[43] Some roads like Chicago, Illinois's "Wacker Drive", a major two-level viaduct in downtown area are being rebuilt with a designed service life of 100 years.[44]

Virtually all roads require some form of maintenance before they come to the end of their service life. Pro-active agencies continually monitor road conditions and apply preventive maintenance treatments as needed to prolong the lifespan of their roads. Technically advanced agencies monitior the road network surface condition with sophisticated equipment such as laser/inertial Profilometers. These measurements include road curvature, cross slope, unevenness, roughness, rutting and texture (roads). This data is fed into a pavement management system, which recommends the best maintenance or construction treatment to correct the damage that has occurred.

Maintenance treatments for asphalt concrete generally include crack sealing, surface rejuvenating, fog sealing, micro-milling and surface treatments. Thin surfacing preserves, protects and improves the functional condition of the road while reducing the need for routing maintenance, leading to extended service life without increasing structural capacity.[45]

Failure to maintain roads properly can create significant costs to society, in a 2009 report released by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (USA) about 50% of the roads in the USA are in bad condition with urban areas worse. The report estimates that urban drivers pay an average of $746/year on vehicle repairs while the average US motorist pays about $335/year. In contrast, the average motorist pays about $171/year in road maintenance taxes (based on 600 gallons/year and $0.285/gallon tax).

Repair Techniques

There are many repair techniques for roads. Slab Stabilization and Joint Sealing, both Concrete Pavement Restoration (CPR) techniques, are often used in conjunction with other techniques.

Slab Stabilization

Distress and serviceability loss on concrete roads can be caused by loss of support due to voids beneath the concrete pavement slabs. The voids usually occur near cracks or joints due to surface water infiltration. The most common causes of voids are pumping, consolidation, subgrade failure and bridge approach failure. Slab stabilization is a non-destructive method of solving this problem and is usually employed with other Concrete Pavement Restoration (CPR) methods including patching and diamond grinding. The technique restores support to concrete slabs by filing small voids that develop underneath the concrete slab at joints, cracks or the pavement edge. The process consists of pumping a cementitous grout or polyurethane mixture through holes drilled through the slab. The grout can fill small voids beneath the slab and/or sub-base. The grout also displaces free water and helps keep water from saturating and weakening support under the joints and slab edge after stabilization is complete. The three steps for this method after finding the voids are locating and drilling holes, grout injection and post-testing the stabilized slabs.

Slab stabilization does not correct depressions, increase the design structural capacity, stop erosion or eliminate faulting. It does, however, restore the slab support, therefore, decreasing deflections under the load. Stabilization should only be performed at joints and cracks where loss of support exists. Visual inspection is the simplest manner to find voids. Signs that repair is needed are transverse joint faulting, corner breaks and shoulder drop off and lines at or near joints and cracks. Deflection testing is another common procedure utilized to locate voids. It is recommended to do this testing at night as during cooler temperatures, joints open, aggregate interlock diminishes and load deflections are at their highest.

Another testing method is ground penetrating radar. It pulses electromagnetic wave technology into the pavement and then ceases the transmission during which the transmitter-receiver detects signals that are deflected from the pavement. Yet another method is the epoxy/core test, which confirms void presence by visual and mechanical methods. It consists of drilling a 25 to 50 millimeter hole through the pavement and into the sub-base with a dry-bit roto-hammer. Next, a two-part epoxy is poured into the hole that is dyed for visual clarity. Once the epoxy is hardened, the technicians drill through the hole. If a void is present, the epoxy will stick to the core and provide physical evidence.

Common stabilization materials are pozzolan-cement grout and polyurethane. The requirements for slab stabilization are strength and the ability to flow into or expand to fill small voids. Colloidal mixing equipment is necessary to use the pozzolan-cement grouts. The contractor should place the grout using a positive-displacement injection pump or a non-pulsing progressive cavity pump. A drill is also necessary but it must produce a clean hole with no surface spalling or breakouts. The injection devices must include a grout packer that is capable of sealing a hole. The injection device must also have a return hose or a fast-control reverse switch in case workers detect slab movement on the uplift gauge. The uplift beam helps to monitor the slab deflection and has to have sensitive dial gauges. [46] [47]

Joint Sealing

Also called joint and crack repair, this method’s purpose is to minimize infiltration of surface water and incompressible material into the joint system. Joint sealants are also used to reduce dowel bar corrosion in Concrete Pavement Restoration (CPR) techniques. Successful resealing consists of old sealant removal, shaping and cleaning the reservoir, installing the backer rod and installing the sealant. Sawing, manual removal, plowing and cutting are methods used to remove the old sealant. Saws are used to shape the reservoir. When cleaning the reservoir, no dust, dirt or traces of old sealant should remain. Thus, it is recommended to water wash, sand-blast and then air blow to remove any sand, dirt or dust. The backer rod installation requires a double-wheeled, steel roller to insert the rod to the desired depth. After inserting the backer rod, the sealant is placed into the joint. There are various materials to choose for this method including hot pour bituminous liquid, silicone and preformed compression seals.

[48] [49] [50] [51]

Terminology

The A22(T) near Summer Hill, East Sussex, England, United Kingdom
Road in Kaluga Oblast, Russia
  • Alignment (road) - Cross slope/Banking/Superelevation, horizontal and vertical curvature of a road.
  • All-weather road - Unpaved road that is constructed of a material that does not create mud during rainfall.
  • Adverse camber - the situation where the road slopes towards the outside of a bend, increasing the chance of vehicles travelling at speed toppling or skidding. Usually only a found as a temporary situation during road maintenance.
  • Belisha Beacon - an orange globe, lit at night, used to highlight a pedestrian crossing.
  • Bollard - Rigid posts that can be arranged in a line to close a road or path to vehicles above a certain width
  • Byway - Highway over which the public have a right to travel for vehicular and other kinds of traffic, but which is used mainly as footpaths and bridleways
  • Bypass Road that avoids or "bypasses" a built-up area, town, or village
  • Bottleneck - Section of a road with a carrying capacity substantially below that of other sections of the same road
  • Botts' dots - Non-reflective raised pavement marker used on roads
  • Cat's eye - reflective raised pavement marker used on roads
  • Camber - the curvature of the road surface that encourages surface water to flow freely from the carriageway, or on bends angling of the surface to lean traffic 'into the bend' reducing the chance of a skid.
  • Chicane - Sequence of tight serpentine curves (usually an S-shape curve or a bus stop) in a roadway
  • Chipseal - Road surface composed of a thin layer of crushed stone 'chips' and asphalt emulsion. It seals the surface and protects it from weather, but provides no structural strength. It is cheaper than asphalt concrete or a concrete, in the U.S. it is usually only used on low volume rural roads
  • Corniche - Road on the side of a cliff or mountain, with the ground rising on one side and falling away on the other
  • Curb - Edge where a raised pavement/sidewalk/footpath, road median, or road shoulder meets an unraised street or other roadway.
  • Curb extension - (or also kerb extension, bulb-out, nib, elephant ear, curb bulge and blister) Traffic calming measure, intended to slow the speed of traffic and increase driver awareness, particularly in built-up and residential neighborhoods.
  • Fork - (literally "fork in the road") Type of intersection where a road splits
  • Guard rail - Prevents vehicles from veering off the road into oncoming traffic, crashing against solid objects or falling from a road
  • Green lane - (UK) Unsurfaced road, may be so infrequently used that vegetation colonises freely, hence 'green'. Many green lanes are ancient routes that have existed for millennia, similar to a Byway
  • Gutter - UK a drainage channel between the main carriageway and the edge of the road.
  • Interstate Highway System - United States System of Interstate and Defense Highways
  • Layby (Pullout, pull-off) - A paved area beside a main road where cars can stop temporarily to let another car pass.
  • Loose chippings - the hazard of stone chippings which have come loose.
  • Median - On divided roads, including expressways, motorways, or autobahns, the central reservation (British English), median (North American English), median strip (North American English and Australian English), neutral ground [Louisiana English] or central nature strip (Australian English) is the area which separates opposing lanes of traffic
  • Mountain pass - Lower point that allows easier access through a range of mountains
  • Milestone - One of a series of numbered markers placed along a road at regular intervals, showing the distance to destinations.
  • National Highway - Road built and maintained by a national authority.
  • Pavement - The road regarded as a geoconstruction. In the UK the term is road surface and the pavement is a pedestrian walkway alongside the road.
  • Pedestrian crossing - Designated point on a road at which some means are employed to assist pedestrians wishing to cross safely
  • Pelican crossing - (officially Pelicon crossing) UK a PEdestrian LIght CONtrolled crossing.
  • Private highway - Highway owned and operated for profit by private industry
  • Private road - Road owned and maintained by a private individual, organization, or company rather than by a government
  • Public space - Place where anyone has a right to come without being excluded because of economic or social conditions
  • Ranch road - U.S. road which serves to connect rural and agricultural areas to market towns
  • Road number - Often assigned to a stretch of public roadway. The number chosen is often dependent on the type of road, with numbers differentiating between interstates, motorways, arterial thoroughfares, and so forth
  • Road-traffic safety - Process to reduce the harm (deaths, injuries, and property damage) resulting from crashes of road vehicles traveling on public roads
  • Roadworks - Part or all of the road has to be occupied for work or maintenance relating to the road
  • Roughness - Deviations from a true planar pavement surface, which affects vehicle suspension deflection, dynamic loading, ride quality, surface drainage and winter operations. Roughness have wavelengths ranging from 500 mm up to some 40 m. The upper limit may be as high as 350 m when considering motion sickness aspects; motion sickness is generated by motion with down to 0.1 Hz frequency; in an ambulance car driving 35 m/s (126 km/h), waves with up to 350 m will excite motion sickness.
  • Roundabout UK a road junction where typically three or more roads are joined by a circular section of road. Traffic 'on the roundabout' has priority over traffic on approach roads, unless indicated otherwise. In countrys where traffic drives on the left the roundabout is travelled in a clockwise direction. Also known as an roundabout in parts of the UK.
  • Shoulder - A clear, level area beside the driving lane(s). It helps support the roadway, helps drain the pavement, provides room for bicyclists and, in areas without sidewalks, pedestrians, allows disabled to get out of the road; a hard shoulder is paved, a soft shoulder is unpaved.
  • State highway - Road numbered by the state, falling below numbered national highways (like U.S. Routes) in the hierarchy or a road maintained by the state, including nationally-numbered highways
  • Texture (roads) - Deviations from a true planar pavement surface, which affects the interaction between road and tire. Microtexture have wavelengths below 0.5 mm, Macrotexture below 50 mm and Megatexture below 500 mm.
  • Traffic calming - Set of strategies used by urban planners and traffic engineers which aim to slow down or reduce traffic, thereby improving safety for pedestrians and bicyclists as well as improving the environment for residents
  • Traffic island - UK a small raised area used to help define the traffic flow, and which may also act as a refuge for pedestrians crossing the carriageway or a location for signs, barriers or lights. A synonym for roundabout in some parts of the UK.
  • Traffic light - also known as a traffic signal, stop light, stop-and-go lights, robot or semaphore, is a signaling device positioned at a road intersection, pedestrian crossing, or other location in order to assign right of way to different approaches to an intersection
  • Zebra Crossing - UK a pedestrian crossing marked by black and white stripes on the carriageway.

See also

References

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  2. ^ "Road Infrastructure Strategic Framework for South Africa". A Discussion Document. National Department of Transport (South Africa). http://www.transport.gov.za/library/docs/rifsa/infor.html. Retrieved 2007-03-24. 
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  7. ^ China to build more highways in 2007
  8. ^ Expressways Being Built at Frenetic Pace
  9. ^ (PDF) Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design 2001, volume 28 (Self-organizing pedestrian movement). pp. 376. doi:10.1068/b2697. http://pedsim.elte.hu/pdf/envplanb.pdf. 
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  11. ^ "The Icknield Way Path". Icknield Way Association. 2004. http://www.icknieldwaypath.co.uk/. Retrieved 2007-04-29. 
  12. ^ "The Somerset Levels (the oldest timber trackway discovered in Northern Europe)". Current Archaeology 172. Current Archaeology. February 2001. http://www.archaeology.co.uk/ca/issues/ca172/ca172.htm. Retrieved 2007-03-25. 
  13. ^ a b c d e O'Flaherty, Coleman A. (2002). Highways: The Location, Design, Construction & Maintenance of Road Pavements. Elsevier. ISBN 0750650907. http://books.google.com/books?visbn=0750650907&id=Ren4sWQ3jKkC&pg=PA1&lpg=PA1&dq=ancient+Egyptians+stone+paved+road++Great+Pyramid+in+about+3000+BC&sig=c1OaZDxjJjjOlWtkM-8h1m3niCo#PPA2,M1. 
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  15. ^ "Horseboating" (Web). The Horseboating Society. http://www.horseboating.org.uk/. Retrieved 2007-04-09. 
  16. ^ "Horses and Canals 1760 - 1960 The people & the horses". Horse Drawn Boats. Canal Junction Ltd. http://www.canaljunction.com/craft/horsedrawn1.htm. Retrieved 2007-04-09. 
  17. ^ a b Hart-Davis, Adam (2001-06-01). "Roads and surveying". Discovering Roman Technology. BBC.CO.UK. http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/ancient/romans/tech_02.shtml. Retrieved 2007-04-22. 
  18. ^ Dr. Kasem Ajram (1992). The Miracle of Islam Science (2nd ed.). Knowledge House Publishers. ISBN 0-911119-43-4. 
  19. ^ "The Rebecca Riots". Rebecca and her daughters come to Rhayader. Victorian Powys for Schools. March 2002. http://history.powys.org.uk/school1/rhayader/rebcmenu.shtml. Retrieved 2007-04-28. 
  20. ^ "The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 2000". Daniel L. McFadden "for his development of theory and methods for analyzing discrete choice". Nobel Foundation. 2000. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/economics/laureates/2000/index.html. Retrieved 2007-05-02. 
  21. ^ Author = www.stat-usa.gov/ (2006-02-28). "International Market Research Reports". Australia CCG 2004 Update: Economic Trends and Outlook (E. INFRASTRUCTURE ). Industry Canada. http://strategis.ic.gc.ca/epic/site/imr-ri.nsf/en/gr126748e.html. Retrieved 2007-04-17. 
  22. ^ "State and Federal Gasoline Taxes". Maps, Reports and history of gas tax in the United States. American Road & Transportation Builders Association ("ARTBA"). http://www.artba.org/economics_research/current_issues/state_fed_gas_taxes.htm. Retrieved 2007-05-02. 
  23. ^ "International Bridge, Tunnel and Turnpike Association". April 16, 2007. http://ibtta.org/. Retrieved 2007-04-17. 
  24. ^ "Traffic-related Air Pollution near Busy Roads". American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine Vol 170. pp. 520-526. 2004. http://ajrccm.atsjournals.org/cgi/content/full/170/5/520. 
  25. ^ "Road Dust - Something To Sneeze About." Science Daily, 1999-11-30.
  26. ^ United States. National Research Council. Washington, DC. "Urban Stormwater Management in the United States." October 15, 2008. pp. 5, 110.
  27. ^ G. Allen Burton, Jr., Robert Pitt (2001). Stormwater Effects Handbook: A Toolbox for Watershed Managers, Scientists, and Engineers. New York: CRC/Lewis Publishers. ISBN 0-87371-924-7. http://unix.eng.ua.edu/~rpitt/Publications/BooksandReports/Stormwater%20Effects%20Handbook%20by%20%20Burton%20and%20Pitt%20book/MainEDFS_Book.html.  Chapter 2.
  28. ^ Charles Seawell and Newland Agbenowosi (1998)."Effects of Road Deicing Salts on Groundwater Systems." Virginia Polytechnic Institute, Department of Civil Engineering.
  29. ^ University of Minnesota (2009). "U of M research finds most road salt is making it into the state's lakes and rivers." 2009-02-10.
  30. ^ "Why In Britain Do We Drive On The Left?". 2Pass.co.uk. © 1996-2007. http://www.2pass.co.uk/goodluck.htm. Retrieved 2007-03-24. 
  31. ^ Kincaid, Peter (1986). The Rule of the Road: An International Guide to History and Practice. Greenwood Press. ISBN 0-313-25249-1. http://www.amazon.com/Rule-Road-International-History-Practice/dp/0313252491. 
  32. ^ Lucas, Brian (2005). "Which side of the road do they drive on?". http://www.brianlucas.ca/roadside/. Retrieved 2006-08-03. 
  33. ^ "Why do some countries drive on the right and others on the left?". http://users.pandora.be/worldstandards/driving%20on%20the%20left.htm. 
  34. ^ "Kitsap County Road Standards 2006" (Doc). Kitsap County, Washington. 2006. http://www.google.com/url?sa=t&ct=res&cd=4&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.kitsapgov.com%2FPW%2Fpdf%2FRevised%2520Road%2520Standards.doc&ei=CR4oRqeuCIuYgQOonvGyDQ&usg=AFrqEzc34dXvKRHE9kUtBqd8RfqzfNI2rA&sig2=nrd9wbiu_sCE4shhBWX6jw. Retrieved 2007-04-20. 
  35. ^ "Washington State County Road Standards". Chapter 35.78 RCW requires cities and counties to adopt uniform definitions and design standards for municipal streets and roads. Municipal Research & Services Center of Washington. 2005. http://www.mrsc.org/subjects/Transpo/stand/CoRdStand.aspx. Retrieved 2007-04-20. 
  36. ^ a b c d e f g h Shire of Wyndham East Kimberly (October 2006). "Guidelines for rural road design and construction technical specifications" (PDF). Western Australia (The Last Frontier). http://www.thelastfrontier.com.au/Publications/06K027005-061019-Rural%20Road%20Technical%20Specification%20complete%20(3).pdf. Retrieved 2007-04-24. 
  37. ^ "Road Building Equipment". Constructing roads into forestry work areas. Caterpillar. 2007. http://www.cat.com/cda/layout?m=62323&x=7. Retrieved 2007-04-20. 
  38. ^ "Volvo Construction Equipment (Europe)". Building the cities, towns, streets, highways and bridges in your neighborhood and in communities around the globe. Volvo. 2007. http://www.volvo.com/constructionequipment/europe/en-gb/work+solutions/government/introduction.htm. Retrieved 2007-04-20. 
  39. ^ Glossary: Princes Highway, Traralgon Bypass - Planning Assessment Report at The State of Victoria
  40. ^ "ISAP 9th Conference Titles & Abstracts (#09044)". Effects of Frost Heave on the Longitudinal Profile of Asphalt Pavements in Cold Regions. International Society for Asphalt Pavements. August 2002. http://www.asphalt.org/Pubs/9th_conf_abst.html. Retrieved 2007-05-13. 
  41. ^ The Motorway Achievement: Frontiers of Knowledge and Practice. Thomas Telford. 2002. pp. 252. ISBN 0727731971. http://books.google.com/books?id=7Yqxyefv-VAC&pg=PA252&ots=Yvl1puH55J&dq=4th+power+of+axle+weight&sig=qNz9nc_S0HgJDblEONAZXcS605g. 
  42. ^ O'Flaherty, Coleman A. (2002). Highways: The Location, Design, Construction & Maintenance of Road Pavements. Elsevier. pp. 252. ISBN 0750650907. http://books.google.com/books?id=Ren4sWQ3jKkC&pg=PA252&ots=9b8s3lyHfg&dq=Pavements+are+designed+for+an+expected+service+life&sig=Wl0QDnn4_4vaXb-TQI8TiBarVAw. 
  43. ^ "Road Map to the Future". United States Department of Transportation - Federal Highway Administration. July/August 2002. http://www.tfhrc.gov/pubrds/02jul/10.htm. Retrieved 2007-05-13. 
  44. ^ ISG Resources, Inc (December 2003). "Fly Ash Concrete Design for Chicago’s 100-Year Road Structure" (PDF). Case Study. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. http://www.epa.gov/epaoswer/osw/conserve/c2p2/cases/wacker-dr.pdf. Retrieved 2007-05-13. 
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  46. ^ [1] Minnesota DOT
  47. ^ Practical guidelines for CPR of Urban Roads: A compelling need for preserving city concrete streets led to the development of a methodology for scoping repairs and the undertaking of a comprehensive concrete pavement repair program in Grand Rapids, Michigan. June 2005. Better Roads.
  48. ^ [2] IGGA
  49. ^ [3] Minnesota DOT
  50. ^ How States Preserve Concrete Pavements: CPR pays off in extra pavement life. Better Roads. August 2005.
  51. ^ CPR brings dying pavement back to life: Georgia continues to be the leader in concrete pavement restoration, but as the word spreads other states are beginning to use this system to restore deteriorating pavements. April 1997, Roads & Bridges Magazine

External links


Source material

Up to date as of January 22, 2010
(Redirected to The Road article)

From Wikisource

The Road
by Jack London

Speaker Icon.svg one or more chapters are available in a spoken word format.

TO JOSIAH FLYNT

The Real Thing, Blowed in the Glass

    "Speakin' in general, I 'ave tried 'em all,
    The 'appy roads that take you o'er the world.
    Speakin' in general, I 'ave found them good
    For such as cannot use one bed too long,
    But must get 'ence, the same as I 'ave done,
    An' go observin' matters till they die."
                   --Sestina of the Tramp-Royal

PD-icon.svg This work is in the public domain in the United States because it was published before January 1, 1923.

The author died in 1916, so this work is also in the public domain in countries and areas where the copyright term is the author's life plus 80 years or less. This work may also be in the public domain in countries and areas with longer native copyright terms that apply the rule of the shorter term to foreign works.


Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010
(Redirected to road article)

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

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Wikipedia

Contents

English

Most common English words: tried « certainly « big « #555: road » husband » blockquote » effect

Etymology

From Old English rād (riding, hostile incursion) < Proto-Germanic *ridanan (to ride) < from Proto-Indo-European *reidh- (to ride). Cognate to West Frisian reed (unpaved road).

Pronunciation

Noun

PompeiiStreet.jpg

Singular
road

Plural
roads

road (plural roads)

  1. A narrow strip of land made suitable for travel between places. Modern roads are usually paved to accommodate wheeled vehicles.
    • 1852, Mrs M.A. Thompson, “The Tutor's Daughter”, in Graham's American Monthly Magazine of Literature, Art, and Fashion[1], page 266:
      In the lightness of my heart I sang catches of songs as my horse gayly bore me along the well-remembered road.
  2. By extension, the path or route one takes; an effort.
    Learning English is a long road for newcomers.

Hyponyms

Derived terms

Translations

Anagrams


Bible wiki

Up to date as of January 23, 2010

From BibleWiki


(1 Sam. 27:10; R.V., "raid"), an inroad, an incursion. This word is never used in Scripture in the sense of a way or path.

This entry includes text from Easton's Bible Dictionary, 1897.

what mentions this? (please help by turning references to this page into wiki links)


Simple English

[[File:|thumb|200px|right|A road made of gravel.]] A road is a piece of land which connects two or more places. Usually, a road has been made easy to travel on, for example by removing trees and stones so the ground is more level. Although many roads are made of gravel and dirt, some are made of concrete or brick.

People have been making roads for a long time. Roman roads and the Incan courier roads are famous. But transport by river was usually easier and faster than transport by road. In the industrial revolution, the railway was invented. A railway is a special type of road, using rails. Roads are now usually made for wheeled vehicles, like cars, to travel on.

Road building and care is usually paid for by taxes. Some roads have tolls, where people pay to use the road.

Other kinds of road








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