Roald Amundsen: Wikis

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Roald Engelbregt Gravning Amundsen

Roald Engelbregt Gravning Amundsen
Born 16 July 1872(1872-07-16)
Borge, Østfold, Norway
Died c. 18 June 1928 (aged 55)
unknown
Occupation Explorer
Parents Jens Amundsen, Hanna Sahlqvist

Roald Engelbregt Gravning Amundsen (Norwegian pronunciation: [ˈɾuːɑl ˈɑmʉnsən]; 16 July 1872 – c. 18 June 1928) was a Norwegian explorer of polar regions. He led the first Antarctic expedition to reach the South Pole between 1910 and 1912. He was also the first person to reach both the North and South Poles.[1][2] He is known as the first to traverse the Northwest Passage. He disappeared in June 1928 while taking part in a rescue mission. Amundsen with Douglas Mawson, Robert Falcon Scott, and Ernest Shackleton, was a key expedition leader during the Heroic Age of Antarctic Exploration.

Contents

Early life

Amundsen was born to a family of Norwegian shipowners and captains in Borge, between the towns Fredrikstad and Sarpsborg. His father was Jens Amundsen. The fourth son in the family, his mother chose to keep him out of the maritime industry of the family and pressured him to become a doctor, a promise that Amundsen kept until his mother died when he was aged 21, then quitting university for a life at sea.[3] Amundsen had hidden a lifelong desire inspired by Fridtjof Nansen's crossing of Greenland in 1888 and the doomed Franklin expedition. As a result, he decided on a life of intense exploration.

Polar treks

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Belgian Antarctic Expedition 1897–99

He was a member of the Belgian Antarctic Expedition (1897–99) as first mate. This expedition, led by Adrien de Gerlache using the ship the Belgica, became the first expedition to winter in Antarctica.[4] The Belgica, whether by mistake or design, became locked in the sea ice at 70°30'S off Alexander Island, west of the Antarctic Peninsula. The crew then endured a winter for which the expedition was poorly prepared. By Amundsen's own estimation, the doctor for the expedition, American Frederick Cook, probably saved the crew from scurvy by hunting for animals and feeding the crew fresh meat, an important lesson for Amundsen's future expeditions.

Northwest Passage

In 1903, Amundsen led the first expedition to successfully traverse Canada's Northwest Passage between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans (something explorers had been attempting since the days of Christopher Columbus, John Cabot, Jacques Cartier, and Henry Hudson), with six others in a 47 ton steel seal hunting vessel, Gjøa. Amundsen had the ship outfitted with a small gasoline engine.[5] They travelled via Baffin Bay, Lancaster and Peel Sounds, and James Ross, Simpson and Rae Straits and spent two winters near King William Island in what is today Gjoa Haven, Nunavut, Canada.[4][5]

During this time Amundsen learned from the local Netsilik people about Arctic survival skills that would later prove useful. For example, he learned to use sled dogs and to wear animal skins in lieu of heavy, woolen parkas. After a third winter trapped in the ice, Amundsen was able to navigate a passage into the Beaufort Sea after which he cleared into the Bering Strait, thus having successfully navigated the Northwest Passage.[3] Continuing to the south of Victoria Island, the ship cleared the Canadian Arctic Archipelago on August 17, 1905, but had to stop for the winter before going on to Nome on the Alaska Territory's Pacific coast. Five hundred miles (800 km) away, Eagle City, Alaska, had a telegraph station; Amundsen travelled there (and back) overland to wire a success message (collect) on December 5, 1905. Nome was reached in 1906. Due to water as shallow as 3 ft (0.91 m), a larger ship could never have used the route.

It was at this time that Amundsen received news that Norway had formally become independent of Sweden and had a new king. Amundsen sent the new King Haakon VII news that it "was a great achievement for Norway." He hoped to do more he said and signed it "Your loyal subject, Roald Amundsen."

South Pole expedition (1910–12)

After crossing the Northwest Passage, Amundsen made plans to go to the North Pole and explore the North Polar Basin. Amundsen had problems and hesitation raising funds for the departure and upon hearing in 1909 that first Frederick Cook and then Robert Peary claimed the Pole, he decided to reroute to Antarctica.[6] However, he did not make these plans known and misled both the Englishman, Robert F. Scott and the Norwegians.[6] Using the ship Fram ("Forward"), earlier used by Fridtjof Nansen, he left Norway for the south, leaving Oslo on June 3, 1910.[6][7] At Madeira, Amundsen alerted his men that they would be heading to Antarctica in addition to sending a telegram to Scott notifying him simply: "BEG TO INFORM YOU FRAM PROCEEDING ANTARCTIC--AMUNDSEN."[6] The expedition arrived at the eastern edge of Ross Ice Shelf at a large inlet called the Bay of Whales on January 14, 1911 where Amundsen located his base camp and named it Framheim. Further, Amundsen eschewed the heavy wool clothing worn on earlier Antarctic attempts in favour of Eskimo-style skins.[3]

Using skis and dog sleds for transportation Amundsen and his men created supply depots at 80°, 81° and 82° South on the Barrier, along a line directly south to the Pole.[3] Amundsen also planned to kill some of his dogs on the way and use them as a source for fresh meat. A premature attempt, which included Hjalmar Johansen, Kristian Prestrud and Jørgen Stubberud, set out on 8 September, 1911, but had to be abandoned due to extreme temperatures. The painful retreat caused a tempering quarrel within the group, with the result that Johansen and others were sent to explore King Edward VII Land.

A second attempt with a team, consisting of Olav Bjaaland, Helmer Hanssen, Sverre Hassel, Oscar Wisting, and Amundsen himself, departed on October 19, 1911. They took four sledges and 52 dogs. Using a route along the previously unknown Axel Heiberg Glacier they arrived at the edge of the Polar Plateau on November 21 after a four-day climb. On December 14, 1911, the team of six, with 16 dogs, arrived at the Pole (90°00'S). They arrived 35 days before Scott’s group. Amundsen named their South Pole camp Polheim, “Home on the Pole.” Amundsen renamed the Antarctic Plateau as King Haakon VII’s Plateau. They left a small tent and letter stating their accomplishment, in case they did not return safely to Framheim. The team returned to Framheim on January 25, 1912, with 11 dogs. Amundsen’s success was publicly announced on March 7, 1912, when he arrived at Hobart, Australia.

Amundsen’s expedition benefited from careful preparation, good equipment, appropriate clothing, a simple primary task (Amundsen did no surveying on his route south and is known to have taken only two photographs), an understanding of dogs and their handling, and the effective use of skis. In contrast to the misfortunes of Scott’s team, the Amundsen’s trek proved rather smooth and uneventful.

In Amundsen’s own words:

"I may say that this is the greatest factor -- the way in which the expedition is equipped -- the way in which every difficulty is foreseen, and precautions taken for meeting or avoiding it. Victory awaits him who has everything in order -- luck, people call it. Defeat is certain for him who has neglected to take the necessary precautions in time; this is called bad luck."
--from The South Pole, by Roald Amundsen.

Amundsen wrote about the expedition in The South Pole: an account of the Norwegian Antarctic Expedition in the "Fram", 1910-12, published in 1912.

Later life

Captain Roald Amundsen at the wheel leaving home for the North Pole

In 1918, Amundsen began an expedition with a new ship Maud, which was to last until 1925. Maud sailed West to East through the Northeast Passage, now called the Northern Route (1918-1920). Amundsen planned to freeze the Maud into the polar ice cap and drift towards the North Pole (as Nansen had done with the Fram), but in this he was not successful. However, the scientific results of the expedition, mainly the work of Harald Sverdrup, were of considerable value. Many of these carefully-collected scientific data had been lost during the ill-fated journey of Peter Tessem and Paul Knutsen, two crew members sent on a mission by Amundsen, but they were later retrieved by Russian scientist Nikolay Urvantsev as they lay abandoned on the Kara Sea shores.[8]

In 1923, Amundsen and Oskar Omdal, of the Royal Norwegian Navy, attempted to fly from Wainwright, Alaska to Spitsbergen across the North Pole. Amundsen and Omdal's aircraft was damaged and they abandoned the journey.

In 1925, accompanied by Lincoln Ellsworth, pilot Hjalmar Riiser-Larsen, and three other team members, Amundsen took two Dornier Do J flying boats, the N-24 and N-25 to 87° 44' north. It was the northernmost latitude reached by plane up to that time. The planes landed a few miles apart without radio contact, yet the crews managed to reunite. One of the aircraft, the N-24 was damaged. Amundsen and his crew worked for over three weeks to clean up an airstrip to take off from ice. They shoveled 600 tons of ice while consuming only one pound (400 g) of daily food rations. In the end, six crew members were packed into the N-25. In a remarkable feat, Riiser-Larsen took off, and they barely became airborne over the cracking ice. They returned triumphant when everyone thought they had been lost forever.

In 1926, Amundsen and fifteen other men (including Ellsworth, Riiser-Larsen, Oscar Wisting, and the Italian air crew led by aeronautical engineer Umberto Nobile) made the first crossing of the Arctic in the airship Norge designed by Nobile. They left Spitsbergen on 11 May 1926, and they landed in Alaska two days later. The three previous claims to have arrived at the North Pole – by Frederick Cook in 1908; Robert Peary in 1909; and Richard Evelyn Byrd in 1926 (just a few days before the Norge) – are all disputed, as being either of dubious accuracy or outright fraud. Some of those disputing these earlier claims therefore consider the crew of the Norge to be the first verified explorers to have reached the North Pole. If the Norge expedition was actually the first to the North Pole, Amundsen and Oscar Wisting would therefore be the first persons to attain each geographical pole, by ground or by air, as the case may be.

Disappearance and death

Amundsen monument in Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard, Norway

Amundsen disappeared on June 18, 1928 while flying on a rescue mission with Norwegian pilot Leif Dietrichson, French pilot Rene Guilbaud, and three more Frenchmen, looking for missing members of Nobile's crew, whose new airship Italia had crashed while returning from the North Pole. Afterwards, a wing-float and bottom gasoline tank from the French Latham 47 flying boat he was in, improvised into a replacement wing-float, was found near the Tromsø coast. It is believed that the plane crashed in fog in the Barents Sea, and that Amundsen was killed in the crash, or died shortly afterwards. His body was never found. The search for Amundsen was called off in September by the Norwegian Government. In 2003 it was suggested that the plane went down northwest of Bear Island.[citation needed]

Both in 2004 and in late August 2009 an unsuccessful search was made by the Royal Norwegian Navy for the wreckage of Amundsen's plane, using the unmanned submarine Hugin 1000. The search focused on a 40 square mile area of the sea floor, and was documented by the German production company ContextTV.[9]

Legacy

A number of places have been named after him:

Several ships are named after him:

Other tributes include:

Works by Amundsen

  • Nordvestpassagen, 2-vols, 1907. Translated as The North-West Passage: Being the Record of a Voyage of Exploration of the ship "Gjøa" 1903-1907, 1908.
  • Sydpolen, 2-vols, 1912. Translated as The South Pole: An Account of the Norwegian Antarctic Expedition in the "Fram," 1910-1912, translated by A. G. Chater, 1912.
  • Nordostpassagen. Maudfærden langs Asiens kyst 1918 – 1920. H. U. Sverdrups ophold blandt tsjuktsjerne. Godfred Hansens depotekspedition 1919 – 1920. Gyldendal, Kristiania 1921.
  • Gjennem luften til 88° Nord (by Roald Amundsen, Lincoln Ellsworth and other members of the expedition, 1925). Translated as Our Polar Flight: The Amundsen-Ellsworth Polar Flight, 1925; also as My Polar Flight, 1925.
  • Den første flukt over polhavet, with Lincoln Ellsworth and others, 1926. Translated as The First Flight Across the Polar Sea, 1927; also as The First Crossing of the Polar Sea, 1927.
  • Mitt liv som polarforsker, 1927. Translated as My Life as an Explorer, 1927.

Bibliography

See also

Notes

  1. ^ "Roald Amundsen and the 1925 North Pole Expedition". Historynet.com. http://www.historynet.com/roald-amundsen-and-the-1925-north-pole-expedition.htm. Retrieved 2010-03-11. 
  2. ^ "Roald Amundsen". Pbs.org. http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/ice/peopleevents/pandeAMEX87.html. Retrieved 2010-03-11. 
  3. ^ a b c d Thomas, Henry; Dana Lee Thomas (1972). Living Adventures in Science. Ayer Publishing. pp. 196–201. ISBN 0836925734. http://books.google.com/books?id=FFXyKIa_-vgC&dq=roald+amundsen+story. 
  4. ^ a b The Houghton Mifflin Dictionary of Biography. Houghton Mifflin Reference Books. 2003. pp. 43 1696. ISBN 061825210X. 
  5. ^ a b Kingston, Thomas (1979). A History of Scandinavia: Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Finland, and Iceland. U of Minnesota Press. p. 298. ISBN 0816637997. 
  6. ^ a b c d Simpson-Housley, Paul (1992). Antarctica: Exploration, Perception and Metaphor. Routledge. pp. 24–37. ISBN 0415082250. http://books.google.com/books?id=M1ql3mx8xYgC&dq=amundsen+antarctica. 
  7. ^ Amundsen, Roald (1913). The South Pole: An Account of the Norwegian Antarctic Expedition.... L. Keedick. p. 1. 
  8. ^ William Barr, The Last Journey of Peter Tessem and Paul Knutsen, 1919
  9. ^ Rincon, Paul (2009-08-24). "BBC". BBC News. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/8214237.stm. Retrieved 2010-03-11. 
  10. ^ Civilization Revolution: Great People "CivFanatics" Retrieved on 4th September 2009

External links

Works by Amundsen:


1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

"ROALD AMUNDSEN (1872-), Norwegian polar explorer, was born at Borge, Smaalenene, Norway, July 16 1872, the son of a shipowner. He was educated at Christiania and afterwards studied medicine for two years. Later, however, he went to sea, and from 18 9 7 to 1899 served as mate on the " Belgica " with Capt. Adrien de Gerlache's Antarctic expedition. In 1901-2 he made an expedition to the Arctic regions which resulted in some valuable observations, and from 1903 to 1906 was in command of the "Gjda " on its voyage through the north-west passage between the Arctic and Pacific oceans (see 21.953). The " Gjda " made a second Arctic expedition between 1910 and 1912. Towards the end of 1910 Amundsen started in Nansen's famous ship, the " Fram," for the Antarctic regions. The polar continent was crossed under good conditions, the weather being excellent, while the arrangements for food and transport worked without a hitch. The South Pole was reached between Dec. 14 and 17 1911, the Norwegian party thus outstripping by about a month the British expedition led by Capt. Scott (see Antarctic Regions). In June 1918 Amundsen left Norway in the " Maud " with the intention of drifting across the Arctic ocean, but at the end of 1919 was forced to abandon the attempt (see Arctic Regions). Capt. Amundsen has published The North-West Passage (1907), and The South Pole (1912), and has received many honours from learned societies.


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Simple English

File:Nlc
Roald Amundsen
File:Roald
Captain Roald Amundsen at the wheel leaving home for the North Pole.
File:Siberian Huskies
Huskies: the kind of dogs used by Amundsen

Roald Engelbregt Gravning Amundsen was a Norwegian man who explored the Arctic and the South Pole. Amundsen was born 16 July 1872- He disappeared in June 1928 while taking part in a rescue mission. Probably he died 18 June 1928.

Amundsen was the first man to reach the South Pole. On 19 December 1911, he came to the South Pole together with his men. The Royal Navy Captain Robert Falcon Scott came 35 days later.

Amundsen was also the first man known to travel the Northwest Passage.rue:Руал Амундсен


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