The Right Reverend and Right Honourable
The Lord Runcie
|Archbishop of Canterbury|
|Birth name||Robert Alexander Kennedy Runcie|
|Born||2 October 1921
Great Crosby, Lancashire, England
|Died||11 July 2000 (aged 78)
St Albans, Hertfordshire, England
|Buried||St Albans Cathedral|
He was born and spent his early life in Great Crosby, a suburb of Liverpool, Lancashire, to middle class and rather non-religious parents. He initially attended St Luke's Church, Crosby (where he was confirmed in 1936), before switching to the Anglo-Catholic St Faith's Church about a mile down the road. He was educated at Merchant Taylors' School, Crosby before going up to Brasenose College, Oxford.
He earned a commission in the Scots Guards during World War II, serving as a tank commander and earning the Military Cross for two feats of bravery in March 1945: he rescued one of his men from a crippled tank under heavy enemy fire, and the next day took his own tank into an exceptionally exposed position in order to knock out three anti-tank guns. In May 1945 he was among the first British troops to enter Bergen-Belsen.
On his return to Oxford, he surprised many by taking first class honours in Greats. He was a member of both Tory and Socialist societies at Oxford, and through that he had his first dealings with the young Margaret Roberts, a relationship which was to prove pivotal during his archiepiscopate.
Runcie studied for ordination at Westcott House, Cambridge where he received a diploma, rather than a second bachelor's degree in theology. He was ordained in the Diocese of Newcastle in 1950 to serve as a curate in the parish of All Saints in the wealthy Newcastle upon Tyne suburb of Gosforth, then a rapidly growing suburban area. Rather than the conventional minimum three year curacy, after only two years Runcie was invited to return to Westcott House as Chaplain and, later, Vice-Principal. In 1956 he was elected Fellow and Dean of Trinity Hall, Cambridge, where he would meet his future wife, Rosalind, the daughter of the college bursar.
In 1960 he returned to the world of the theological college, becoming Principal of Cuddesdon, near Oxford, where he spent ten years and transformed what had been a rather monastic and traditionally Anglo-Catholic institution into a stronghold of the liberal catholic wing of the Church of England. In this period his name became more and more strongly spoken of as a future bishop, and speculation was confirmed when he was appointed Bishop of St Albans in 1970.
Like Gosforth in the 1950s, the Diocese of St Albans was a booming suburban area, popular with families moving out of a depopulating London. As well as diocesan work, he worked with broadcasters as Chairman of the Central Religious Advisory Committee, and was appointed Chairman of the joint Anglican-Orthodox Commission.
Runcie was selected as Archbishop of Canterbury in 1979. Ironically, in view of his future relations with the Conservative government, there is evidence that Runcie was actually the second choice of the Crown Appointments Commission, the first choice, Hugh Montefiore, having proven politically unacceptable to the then newly elected Conservative government.
During his time as Archbishop of Canterbury he witnessed a breaking down of traditionally convivial relations between the Conservative Party and the Church of England, which was habitually if rather inaccurately described as "the Tory party at prayer". This was due mainly to the Church's pronouncements on political matters and Margaret Thatcher's support for the ethos of individualism and wealth creation, and her claim that "there is no such thing as society", which many in the Anglican church thought was uncaring and anti-Christian. However, this seven word phrase, extracted from a 1987 interview with Woman's Own magazine, has a subtly different impact when taken within the context of the interview as a whole.
|“||I think we've been through a period where too many people have been given to understand that if they have a problem, it's the government's job to cope with it. 'I have a problem, I'll get a grant.' 'I'm homeless, the government must house me.' They're casting their problem on society. And, you know, there is no such thing as society. There are individual men and women, and there are families. And no government can do anything except through people, and people must look to themselves first. It's our duty to look after ourselves and then, also to look after our neighbour. People have got the entitlements too much in mind, without the obligations. There's no such thing as entitlement, unless someone has first met an obligation.||”|
With a dramatic gesture of goodwill, he knelt in prayer with Pope John Paul II in Canterbury Cathedral during John Paul's visit to Great Britain in 1982.
In 1985 there was friction between the Church of England and members of the Conservative Government, in particular Norman Tebbit, over the Church's report "Faith in the City", which criticised the government's handling of social problems in British inner-city areas. As a result of this, Tebbit became a strong supporter of the disestablishment of the Church of England, claiming that institutions affiliated to the British state should not express what he saw as overtly partisan political views.
When Runcie visited the Pope in 1989, he set out to reconcile the Church of England with the Church of Rome. Runcie advocated the Papacy as having a 'primacy of honour' rather than 'primacy of jurisdiction' over the Anglican church, a proposal consistent with the report of the Anglican Roman Catholic International Commission. The Pope did not go along with this, however, claiming that the Papacy already has primacy of jurisdiction over all other churches regardless of whether or not this is officially recognised and also that the doctrines of the Roman Catholic Church would not change to accommodate Runcie's proposals.
In terms of internal Anglican matters, much of Runcie’s archiepiscopate was taken up with the debate over whether to proceed with the ordination of women in the Church of England as well as the fallout from the ordination of women priests and consecration of women bishops in other parts of the Anglican Communion. Runcie's position on the matter had been described as "nailing his colours firmly to the fence" – his liberal catholic theology conflicting with his instinctive conservatism. As a result, he often seemed like a rabbit in the headlights, mistrusted by both sides of the debate. The traditionalist wing of Anglo-Catholicism, in particular, felt that he had betrayed them by not becoming a forthright opponent of women priests and resented him as a result.
The church's attitude to homosexuality was also a divisive issue during this period, although it did not assume the crisis proportions it would in the late 1990s and 2000s. Although in public Runcie stuck to official Church of England policy as set out in the publication Issues in Human Sexuality, that homosexual practice was not ideal for lay people and unacceptable for clergy, in private he held a more sympathetic view and consciously ordained a number of openly gay men as priests.
On his retirement as Archbishop of Canterbury, he was created a life peer, as Baron Runcie, of Cuddesdon in the County of Oxfordshire, enabling him to remain in the House of Lords where he had previously sat as a Lord Spiritual. He died of cancer in St Albans in 2000, and is buried in the grounds of St Albans Cathedral.
Lord Runcie's widow, Rosalind, whom he married on 5 September 1957, was formerly well-known as a pianist. They have two children: James Runcie, a novelist, and Rebecca Runcie, as well as four grandchildren: Rosie, Charlotte, Matthew and Edward.
1970 – 1980
|Primate of All England
1980 – 1991
1980 – 1991