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Robert Baden-Powell,
1st Baron Baden-Powell
22 February 1857 (1857-02-22) – 8 January 1941 (1941-01-09) (aged 83)
Robert Baden-Powell
Founder of Scouting
Nickname B-P
Place of birth Paddington, London, England
Place of death Nyeri, Kenya
Service/branch British Army
Years of service 1876–1910
Rank Lieutenant-General
Commands held Chief of Staff, Second Matabele War (1896–1897)
5th Dragoon Guards in India (1897)
Inspector General of Cavalry, England (1903)
Battles/wars Anglo-Ashanti Wars,
Second Matabele War,
Siege of Mafeking,
Second Boer War
Awards Ashanti Star (1895),[1]
Matabele Campaign, British South Africa Company Medal (1896),[2]
Queen's South Africa Medal (1899),[3]
King's South Africa Medal ( 1902),[4]
Boy Scouts Silver Wolf
Boy Scouts Silver Buffalo Award (1926),[5]
World Scout Committee Bronze Wolf (1935),[6]
Großes Dankabzeichen des ÖPB (1927)
Großes Ehrenzeichen der Republik am Bande (1931)
Goldene Gemse (1931)
Grand-Cross in the Order of Orange-Nassau (1932),
Order of Merit (1937),
Wateler Peace Prize (1937)
Order of St Michael and St George,
Royal Victorian Order,
Order of the Bath
Other work Founder of the international Scouting Movement; writer; artist

Robert Stephenson Smyth Baden-Powell, 1st Baron Baden-Powell (pronounced /ˈbeɪdən ˈpoʊəl/) OM, GCMG, GCVO, KCB (22 February 1857 – 8 January 1941), also known as B-P or Lord Baden-Powell, was a lieutenant-general in the British Army, writer, and founder of the Scout Movement.

After having been educated at Charterhouse School, Baden-Powell served in the British Army from 1876 until 1910 in India and Africa. In 1899, during the Second Boer War in South Africa, Baden-Powell successfully defended the town in the Siege of Mafeking. Several of his military books, written for military reconnaissance and scout training in his African years, were also read by boys. Based on those earlier books, he wrote Scouting for Boys, published in 1908 by Pearson, for youth readership. During writing, he tested his ideas through a camping trip on Brownsea Island with the local Boys' Brigade and sons of his friends that began on 1 August 1907, which is now seen as the beginning of Scouting.

After his marriage to Olave St Clair Soames, Baden-Powell, his sister Agnes Baden-Powell and notably his wife actively gave guidance to the Scouting Movement and the Girl Guides Movement. Baden-Powell lived his last years in Nyeri, Kenya, where he died and was buried in 1941.


Early life

Baden-Powell was born as Robert Stephenson Smyth Powell, or more familiarly as Stephe Powell, at 6 Stanhope Street (now 11 Stanhope Terrace), Paddington in London, on 22 February 1857.[7] Robert Stephenson, the railway and civil engineer being his godfather and namesake.[8] His father Reverend Baden Powell, a Savilian Professor of Geometry at Oxford University, already had four teenage children from the second of his two previous marriages. On 10 March 1846 at St Luke's Church, Chelsea, Reverend Powell married Henrietta Grace Smyth (3 September 1824 – 13 October 1914), eldest daughter of Admiral William Henry Smyth and 28 years his junior. Quickly they had Warington (early 1847), George (late 1847), Augustus (1849) and Francis (1850). After three further children who died when very young, they had Stephe, Agnes (1858) and Baden (1860). The three youngest children and the often ill Augustus were close friends. Reverend Powell died when Stephe was three, and as tribute to his father and to set her own children apart from their half-siblings and cousins, the mother changed the family name to Baden-Powell. Subsequently, Stephe was raised by his mother, a strong woman who was determined that her children would succeed. Baden-Powell would say of her in 1933 "The whole secret of my getting on, lay with my mother."[7][9][10]

After attending Rose Hill School, Tunbridge Wells, during which his favourite brother Augustus died, Stephe Baden-Powell was awarded a scholarship to Charterhouse, a prestigious public school. His first introduction to Scouting skills was through stalking and cooking game while avoiding teachers in the nearby woods, which were strictly out-of-bounds. He also played the piano and violin, was an ambidextrous artist, and enjoyed acting. Holidays were spent on yachting or canoeing expeditions with his brothers.[7]

Military career

In 1876, R.S.S. Baden-Powell, as he styled himself then, joined the 13th Hussars in India with the rank of lieutenant. He enhanced and honed his military scouting skills amidst the Zulu in the early 1880s in the Natal province of South Africa, where his regiment had been posted, and where he was Mentioned in Despatches. During one of his travels, he came across a large string of wooden beads, worn by the Zulu king Dinizulu, which was later incorporated into the Wood Badge training programme he started after he founded the Scouting Movement. Baden-Powell's skills impressed his superiors and he was Brevetted Major as Military Secretary and senior Aide-de-camp of the Commander-in-Chief and Governor of Malta, his uncle General Sir Henry Augustus Smyth.[7] He was posted in Malta for three years, also working as intelligence officer for the Mediterranean for the Director of Military Intelligence.[7] He frequently travelled disguised as a butterfly collector, incorporating plans of military installations into his drawings of butterfly wings.[11]

Baden-Powell returned to Africa in 1896 to aid the British South Africa Company colonials under siege in Bulawayo during the Second Matabele War.[12] This was a formative experience for him not only because he had the time of his life commanding reconnaissance missions into enemy territory in Matobo Hills, but because many of his later Boy Scout ideas took hold here.[13] It was during this campaign that he first met and befriended the American scout Frederick Russell Burnham, who introduced Baden-Powell to the American Old West and woodcraft (i.e., scoutcraft), and here that he wore his signature Stetson campaign hat and kerchief for the first time.[7] After Rhodesia, Baden-Powell took part in a successful British invasion of Ashanti, West Africa in the Fourth Ashanti War, and at the age of 40 was promoted to lead the 5th Dragoon Guards in 1897 in India.[14] A few years later he wrote a small manual, entitled Aids to Scouting, a summary of lectures he had given on the subject of military scouting, to help train recruits. Using this and other methods he was able to train them to think independently, use their initiative, and survive in the wilderness.

Baden-Powell was accused of illegally executing a prisoner of war, Matabele chief Uwini, in 1896, who had been promised his life would be spared if he surrendered. Uwini was shot by firing squad under Baden-Powell's instructions. Baden-Powell was cleared by an inquiry, and later claimed he was "released without a stain on my character". Robin Clay, Baden-Powell's grandson, commented in 2009, "We all make mistakes."[15][16][17]

He returned to South Africa prior to the Second Boer War and was engaged in further military actions against the Zulus. By this time, he had been promoted to be the youngest colonel in the British Army. He was responsible for the organisation of a force of frontiersmen to assist the regular army. While arranging this, he was trapped in the Siege of Mafeking, and surrounded by a Boer army, at times in excess of 8,000 men. Although wholly outnumbered, the garrison withstood the siege for 217 days. Much of this is attributable to cunning military deceptions instituted at Baden-Powell's behest as commander of the garrison. Fake minefields were planted and his soldiers were ordered to simulate avoiding non-existent barbed wire while moving between trenches.[18] Baden-Powell did most of the reconnaissance work himself.[19]

Contrary views of Baden-Powell's actions during the Siege of Mafeking pointed out that his success in resisting the Boers was secured at the expense of the lives of African soldiers and civilians, including members of his own African garrison. Pakenham stated that Baden-Powell drastically reduced the rations to the natives' garrison.[20] However, Pakenham decidedly retreated from this position.[7][21]

Baden-Powell on patriotic postcard in 1900

During the siege, a cadet corps, consisting of white boys below fighting age, was used to stand guard, carry messages, assist in hospitals and so on, freeing the men for military service. Although Baden-Powell did not form this cadet corps himself, and there is no evidence that he took much notice of them during the Siege, he was sufficiently impressed with both their courage and the equanimity with which they performed their tasks to use them later as an object lesson in the first chapter of Scouting for Boys. The siege was lifted in the Relief of Mafeking on 16 May 1900. Promoted to major-general, Baden-Powell became a national hero.[22] After organising the South African Constabulary, the national police force, he returned to England to take up a post as Inspector General of Cavalry in 1903. In 1907 he was appointed to command a division in the newly-formed Territorial Force.[23]

In 1910 Lieutenant-General Baden-Powell decided to retire from the Army reputedly on the advice of King Edward VII, who suggested that he could better serve his country by promoting Scouting.[24][25]

On the outbreak of World War I in 1914, Baden-Powell put himself at the disposal of the War Office. No command, however, was given him, for, as Lord Kitchener said: "he could lay his hand on several competent divisional generals but could find no one who could carry on the invaluable work of the Boy Scouts."[26] It was widely rumoured that Baden-Powell was engaged in spying, and intelligence officers took great care to inculcate the myth.[27]

Scouting movement

Pronunciation of Baden-Powell
/ˈbeɪdən ˈpoʊ.əl/
Man, Nation, Maiden
Please call it Baden.
Further, for Powell
Rhyme it with Noel

—Verse by B-P

On his return from Africa in 1903, Baden-Powell found that his military training manual, Aids to Scouting, had become a best-seller, and was being used by teachers and youth organisations.[28] Following his involvement in the Boys' Brigade as Brigade Secretary and Officer in charge of its scouting section, with encouragement from his friend, William Alexander Smith, Baden-Powell decided to re-write Aids to Scouting to suit a youth readership. In August 1907 he held a camp on Brownsea Island for twenty-two boys from local Boys Brigade companies and sons of friends of Baden-Powell's from public schools Eton and Harrow to test out the applicability of his ideas. Baden-Powell was also influenced by Ernest Thompson Seton, who founded the Woodcraft Indians. Seton gave Baden-Powell a copy of his book The Birch Bark Roll of the Woodcraft Indians and they met in 1906.[29][30] The first book on the Scout Movement, Baden-Powell's Scouting for Boys was published in six instalments in 1908, and has sold approximately 150 million copies as the fourth bestselling book of the 20th century.[31]

Reviewing the Boy Scouts of Washington D.C. from the portico of the White House: Baden-Powell, President Taft, British ambassador Bryce (1912)
Three Scouting pioneers: Robert Baden-Powell (seated) Ernest T. Seton (left), and Dan Beard (right)

Boys and girls spontaneously formed Scout troops and the Scouting Movement had inadvertently started, first as a national, and soon an international obsession. The Scouting Movement was to grow up in friendly parallel relations with the Boys' Brigade. A rally for all Scouts was held at Crystal Palace in London in 1909, at which Baden-Powell discovered the first Girl Scouts. The Girl Guide Movement was subsequently founded in 1910 under the auspices of Baden-Powell's sister, Agnes Baden-Powell. Baden-Powell's friend, Juliette Gordon Low, was encouraged by him to bring the Movement to America, where she founded the Girl Scouts of the USA.

In 1920, the 1st World Scout Jamboree took place in Olympia, and Baden-Powell was acclaimed Chief Scout of the World. Baden-Powell was created a Baronet in the 1921 New Year Honours and Baron Baden-Powell, of Gilwell, in the County of Essex, on 17 September 1929, Gilwell Park being the International Scout Leader training centre.[32] After receiving this honour, Baden-Powell mostly styled himself "Baden-Powell of Gilwell".

In 1929, during the 3rd World Scout Jamboree, he received as a present a new 20 horse power Rolls-Royce car (chassis number GVO-40, registration OU 2938) and an Eccles Caravan.[33] This combination well served the Baden-Powells in their further travels around Europe. The caravan was nicknamed Eccles and is now on display at Gilwell Park. The car, nicknamed Jam Roll, was sold after his death by Olave Baden-Powell in 1945. Jam Roll and Eccles were reunited at Gilwell for the 21st World Scout Jamboree in 2007. Recently it has been purchased on behalf of Scouting and is owned by a charity, B-P Jam Roll Ltd. Funds are being raised to repay the loan that was used to purchase the car.[33][34] Baden-Powell also had a positive impact on improvements in youth education.[35] Under his dedicated command the world Scouting Movement grew. By 1922 there were more than a million Scouts in 32 countries; by 1939 the number of Scouts was in excess of 3.3 million.[36]

At the 5th World Scout Jamboree in 1937, Baden-Powell gave his farewell to Scouting, and retired from public Scouting life. 22 February, the joint birthday of Robert and Olave Baden-Powell, continues to be marked as Founder's Day by Scouts and Thinking Day by Guides to remember and celebrate the work of the Chief Scout and Chief Guide of the World.

In his final letter to the Scouts, Baden-Powell wrote:

...I have had a most happy life and I want each one of you to have a happy life too. I believe that God put us in this jolly world to be happy and enjoy life. Happiness does not come from being rich, nor merely being successful in your career, nor by self-indulgence. One step towards happiness is to make yourself healthy and strong while you are a boy, so that you can be useful and so you can enjoy life when you are a man. Nature study will show you how full of beautiful and wonderful things God has made the world for you to enjoy. Be contented with what you have got and make the best of it. Look on the bright side of things instead of the gloomy one. But the real way to get happiness is by giving out happiness to other people. Try and leave this world a little better than you found it and when your turn comes to die, you can die happy in feeling that at any rate you have not wasted your time but have done your best. 'Be Prepared' in this way, to live happy and to die happy — stick to your Scout Promise always — even after you have ceased to be a boy — and God help you to do it.[37]

Personal life

In January 1912, Baden-Powell met the woman who would be his future wife, Olave St Clair Soames, on the ocean liner, Arcadian, heading for New York to start one of his Scouting World Tours.[38][39] She was a young woman of 23, while he was 55. They became engaged in September of the same year, causing a media sensation due to Baden-Powell's fame. To avoid press intrusion, they married in secret on 30 October 1912.[40] The Scouts of England each donated a penny to buy Baden-Powell a wedding gift, a car (note that this is not the Rolls-Royce they were presented with in 1929). There is a monument to their marriage inside St Mary's Church, Brownsea Island.

Baden-Powell and Olave lived in Pax Hill near Bentley, Hampshire from about 1919 until 1939.[41] The Bentley house was a gift of her father.[42] Directly after he had married, Baden-Powell began to suffer persistent headaches, which were considered by his doctor to be of psychosomatic origin and treated with dream analysis.[7] The headaches disappeared upon his moving into a makeshift bedroom set up on his balcony.

Baden-Powell with wife and three children, 1917

The Baden-Powells had three children, one son and two daughters, who all acquired the courtesy title of "The Honourable" in 1929 as children of a baron. The son succeeded his father in 1941 to the Baden-Powell barony and the title of Baron Baden-Powell.[32]

  • Arthur Robert Peter (Peter), later 2nd Baron Baden-Powell (1913–1962). He married Carine Crause-Boardman in 1936, and had three children: Robert Crause, later 3rd Baron Baden-Powell; David Michael (Michael), current heir to the titles, and Wendy.
  • Heather (1915–1986), who married John King and had two children: Michael, who died in the sinking of the SS Heraklion, and Timothy,
  • Betty (1917–2004), who married Gervase Charles Robert Clay in 1936 and had three sons and one daughter: Robin, Crispin, Gillian and Nigel.

In 1939, he and his wife moved to a cottage he had commissioned in Nyeri, Kenya, near Mount Kenya, where he had previously been to recuperate. The small one-room house, which he named Paxtu, was located on the grounds of the Outspan Hotel, owned by Eric Sherbrooke Walker, Baden-Powell's first private secretary and one of the first Scout inspectors.[7] Walker also owned the Treetops Hotel, approx 17 km out in the Aberdare Mountains, often visited by Baden-Powell and people of the Happy Valley set. The Paxtu cottage is integrated into the Outspan Hotel buildings and serves as a small Scouting museum. I have gone home Baden-Powell died on 8 January 1941 and is buried in Nyeri, in St. Peter's Cemetery [43] His gravestone bears a circle with a dot in the centre, which is the trail sign for "Going home", or "I have gone home":[44] When his wife Olave died, her ashes were sent to Kenya and interred beside her husband. Kenya has declared Baden-Powell's grave a national monument.[45]

Personal beliefs

A World War I propaganda poster drawn by Baden-Powell

Jeal argues that Baden-Powell's distrust of communism led to his implicit support, through naïveté, of fascism. In 1939 Baden-Powell noted in his diary: "Lay up all day. Read Mein Kampf. A wonderful book, with good ideas on education, health, propaganda, organization etc.—and ideals which Hitler does not practise himself."[7]:550

He also admired Benito Mussolini, and some early Scouting badges had a swastika symbol on them.[46] According to his biographer Rosenthal, Baden-Powell used the swastika because he was a Nazi sympathizer. Jeal, however, argues that Baden-Powell was naïve of the symbol's growing association with fascism and maintained that his use of the symbol related to its earlier, original meaning of "good luck" in Sanskrit, for which purpose the symbol had been used for centuries prior to the rise of fascism. Despite these early sympathies, Baden-Powell was a target of the Nazi regime in the Black Book, which listed individuals who were to be arrested during and after an invasion of Great Britain as part of Operation Sealion. Scouting was regarded as a dangerous spy organization by the Nazis.[47]

Artist and writer

Baden-Powell made paintings and drawings almost every day of his life. Most have a humorous or informative character.[7] He published books and other texts during his years of military service both to finance his life and to educate his men.[7]

Baden-Powell was regarded as an excellent storyteller. During his whole life he told 'ripping yarns' to audiences.[7] After having published Scouting for Boys, Baden-Powell kept on writing more handbooks and educative materials for all Scouts, as well as directives for Scout Leaders. In his later years, he also wrote about the Scout Movement and his ideas for its future. He spent the last decade of his life in Africa, and many of this later books had African themes.


Early discussion of Baden-Powell's sexuality focused on his relationship with his close friend Kenneth McLaren.[48]:217–218[49]:48 Tim Jeal's later biography Baden-Powell discusses the relationship and concludes that there is no evidence that this friendship was physical[7]:82. Jeal then examines Baden-Powell's views on women, his appreciation of the male form, his military relationships and his marriage, concluding that Baden-Powell was a repressed homosexual.[7]:103 Jeal's conclusion is disputed, but not yet examined in any detail by scholars.[50]:6


Military books
  • 1884: Reconnaissance and Scouting
  • 1885: Cavalry Instruction
  • 1889: Pigsticking or Hoghunting
  • 1896: The Downfall of Prempeh
  • 1897: The Matabele Campaign
  • 1899: Aids to Scouting for N.-C.Os and Men
  • 1900: Sport in War
  • 1901: Notes and Instructions for the South African Constabulary
  • 1914: Quick Training for War
Scouting books
  • 1908: Scouting for Boys
  • 1909: Yarns for Boy Scouts
  • 1912: Handbook for Girl Guides (co-authored with Agnes Baden-Powell)
  • 1913: Boy Scouts Beyond The Sea: My World Tour
  • 1916: The Wolf Cub's handbook
  • 1918: Girl Guiding
  • 1919: Aids To Scoutmastership
  • 1921: What Scouts Can Do: More Yarns[51]
  • 1922: Rovering to Success
  • 1929: Scouting and Youth Movements
  • 1935: Scouting Round the World
  • est 1939: Last Message to Scouts
Other books
  • 1905: Ambidexterity (co-authored with John Jackson)
  • 1915: Indian Memories
  • 1915: My Adventures as a Spy[52]
  • 1916: Young Knights of the Empire: Their Code, and Further Scout Yarns[53]
  • 1921: An Old Wolf's Favourites
  • 1927: Life's Snags and How to Meet Them
  • 1933: Lessons From the Varsity of Life
  • 1934: Adventures and Accidents
  • 1936: Adventuring to Manhood
  • 1937: African Adventures
  • 1938: Birds and beasts of Africa
  • 1939: Paddle Your Own Canoe
  • 1940: More Sketches Of Kenya
  • 1905 John Smith[54]
Cover of second part of Scouting for Boys, January 1908


Statue of Baden-Powell by Don Potter in front of Baden-Powell House in London
Memorial to Baden-Powell, "Chief Scout of the World", at Westminster Abbey

In 1937 Baden-Powell was appointed to the Order of Merit, one of the most exclusive awards in the British honours system, and he was also awarded 28 decorations by foreign states, including the Grand Officer of the Portuguese Order of Christ[55], the Grand Commander of the Greek Order of the Redeemer (1920),[56] the Commander of the French Légion d'honneur (1925), the First Class of the Hungarian Order of Merit (1929), the Grand Cross of the Order of the Dannebrog of Denmark, the Grand Cross of the Order of the White Lion, the Grand Cross of the Order of the Phoenix, and the Order of Polonia Restituta.

The Silver Wolf Award worn by Robert Baden-Powell is handed down the line of his successors, with the current Chief Scout, Bear Grylls wearing this original award.

The Bronze Wolf Award, the only distinction of the World Organization of the Scout Movement, awarded by the World Scout Committee for exceptional services to world Scouting, was first awarded to Baden-Powell by a unanimous decision of the then International Committee on the day of the institution of the Bronze Wolf in Stockholm in 1935. He was also the first recipient of the Silver Buffalo Award in 1926, the highest award conferred by the Boy Scouts of America.

In 1927 at the Swedish National Jamboree he was awarded by the Österreichischer Pfadfinderbund with the "Großes Dankabzeichen des ÖPB.[57]:113

In 1931 Baden-Powell received the highest award of the First Austrian Republic (Großes Ehrenzeichen der Republik am Bande) out of the hands of President Wilhelm Miklas.[57]:101 Baden-Powell was also one of the first and few recipients of the Goldene Gemse, the highest award conferred by the Österreichischer Pfadfinderbund.[58]

In 1931, Major Frederick Russell Burnham dedicated Mount Baden-Powell[59] in California to his old Scouting friend from forty years before.[60][61] Today their friendship is honoured in perpetuity with the dedication of the adjoining peak, Mount Burnham.[62]

Baden-Powell was nominated for the Nobel Peace Prize on numerous occasions, including 10 separate nominations in 1928.[63]

As part of the Scouting 2007 Centenary, Nepal renamed Urkema Peak to Baden-Powell Peak.


The family name legally changed from Powell to Baden-Powell by Royal Licence on 30 April 1902.[32]
  • 1857-1860: Robert Stephenson Smyth Powell
  • 1860-1876: Robert Stephenson Smyth Baden-Powell
  • 1876: Sub-Lieutenant Robert Stephenson Smyth Baden-Powell
  • 1876-1884: Lieutenant Robert Stephenson Smyth Baden-Powell
  • 1884-1892: Captain Robert Stephenson Smyth Baden-Powell
  • 1892-1896: Major Robert Stephenson Smyth Baden-Powell
  • 1896-25 April 1897: Major (Bvt. Lieutenant-Colonel) Robert Stephenson Smyth Baden-Powell
  • 25 April-7 May 1897: Lieutenant-Colonel Robert Stephenson Smyth Baden-Powell
  • 7 May 1897-1901: Lieutenant-Colonel (Bvt. Colonel) Robert Stephenson Smyth Baden-Powell
  • 1901-1902: Major-General Robert Stephenson Smyth Baden-Powell
  • 1902-1907: Major-General Robert Stephenson Smyth Baden-Powell, CB
  • 1907-12 October 1909: Lieutenant-General Robert Stephenson Smyth Baden-Powell, CB
  • 12 October-9 November 1909: Lieutenant-General Sir Robert Stephenson Smyth Baden-Powell, KCVO, CB
  • 9 November 1909-1912: Lieutenant-General Sir Robert Stephenson Smyth Baden-Powell, KCB, KCVO
  • 1912-1923: Lieutenant-General Sir Robert Stephenson Smyth Baden-Powell, KCB, KCVO, KStJ
  • 1923-1927: Lieutenant-General Sir Robert Stephenson Smyth Baden-Powell, Bt, GCVO, KCB, KStJ
  • 1927-1929: Lieutenant-General Sir Robert Stephenson Smyth Baden-Powell, Bt, GCMG, GCVO, KCB, KStJ
  • 1929-1937: Lieutenant-General The Right Honourable The Lord Baden-Powell, GCMG, GCVO, KCB, KStJ
  • 1937-1941: Lieutenant-General The Right Honourable The Lord Baden-Powell, OM, GCMG, GCVO, KCB, KStJ

See also


  1. ^ "Ashanti Campaign, 1895". The Pine Tree Web. Retrieved 17 June 2009. 
  2. ^ "Matabele Campaign". The Pine Tree Web. Retrieved 2 December 2006. 
  3. ^ "Queen's South Africa Medal". The Pine Tree Web. Retrieved 2 December 2006. 
  4. ^ "Kings's South Africa Medal". The Pine Tree Web. Retrieved 2 December 2006. 
  5. ^ "Fact Sheet: The Silver Buffalo Award". Fact sheet. Boy Scouts of America, Troop 14. 1926. Retrieved 2 December 2006. 
  6. ^ "The Library Headlines". ScoutBase UK. Retrieved 2 December 2006. 
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Jeal, Tim (1989). Baden-Powell. London: Hutchinson. ISBN 0-09-170670-X. 
  8. ^ "The life of Robert Stephenson — A Timeline". Robert Stephenson Trust. Retrieved 13 October 2009. 
  9. ^ Palstra, Theo P.M. (April 1967). Baden-Powel, zijn leven en werk. De Nationale Padvindersraad. 
  10. ^ Drewery, Mary (1975). Baden-Powell: The Man Who Lived Twice. Hodder and Stoughton. ISBN 0-340-18102-8. 
  11. ^ Baden-Powell, Sir Robert (1915). "My Adventures As A Spy". Pine Tree Web. Retrieved 17 June 2009. 
  12. ^ Baden-Powell, Robert (1897). The Matabele Campaign, 1896. Greenwood Press. ISBN 0837135664. 
  13. ^ Proctor, Tammy M. (July 2000). "A Separate Path: Scouting and Guiding in Interwar South Africa". Comparative Studies in Society and History 42 (3). ISSN 3548-1356. 
  14. ^ Barrett, C.R.B. (1911). History of The XIII. Hussars. Edinburgh and London: William Blackwood and Sons. Retrieved 2 January 2007. 
  15. ^ "Founder of Scouts Lord Baden-Powell had rebel executed". The Sunday Times. 6 December 2009. Retrieved 9 December 2009. 
  16. ^ "Boy Scout founder Lord Baden-Powell 'Executed PoW'". BBC News. 9 December 2009. Retrieved 9 December 2009. 
  17. ^ "Baden-Powell Reneged on Promise to Spare Rebel Leader". Zimbabwe Independent Assistance Network. 6 December 2009. Retrieved 9 December 2009. 
  18. ^ Latimer, Jon (2001). Deception in War. London: John Murray. pp. 32–5. 
  19. ^ Conan-Doyle, Sir Arthur (1901). "The Siege of Mafeking". Pine Tree Web. Retrieved 17 November 2006. 
  20. ^ Pakenham, Thomas (1979). The Boer War. New York: Avon Books. ISBN 0-380-72001-9. 
  21. ^ Pakenham, Thomas (2001). The Siege of Mafeking. 
  22. ^ "Robert Baden-Powell: Defender of Mafeking and Founder of the Boy Scouts and the Girl Guides". Past Exhibition Archive. National Portrait Gallery. Retrieved 17 November 2006. 
  23. ^ Reported as "a Yorkshire division" in The Times, 29 October 1907, p.6; the Dictionary of National Biography lists it as the Northumbrian Division, which encompassed units from the North and East Ridings of Yorkshire as well as Northumbria proper.
  24. ^ Baden-Powell, Robert; Stephenson Smyth Baden-Powell Baden-Powell of Gilwell, Robert; Boehmer, Elleke (2005). Scouting for Boys: A Handbook for Instruction in Good Citizenship. Oxford University Press. p. lv. ISBN 9780192802460. 
  25. ^ "Lord Robert Baden-Powell "B-P" – Chief Scout of the World". The Wivenhoe Encyclopedia. Retrieved 17 November 2006. 
  26. ^ Saint George Saunders, Hilary (1948). "Chapter II, ENTERPRISE, Lord Baden-Powell". The Left Handshake. Retrieved 2 January 2007. 
  27. ^ Baden-Powell, Sir Robert (1915). "My Adventures as a Spy". PineTree.web. Retrieved 17 November 2006. 
  28. ^ Peterson, Robert (2003). "Marching to a Different Drummer". Scouting. Boy Scouts of America. Retrieved 2 January 2007. 
  29. ^ "Ernest Thompson Seton and Woodcraft". InFed. 2002. Retrieved 7 December 2006. 
  30. ^ "Robert Baden-Powell as and Educational Innovator". InFed. 2002. Retrieved 7 December 2006. 
  31. ^ Extrapolation for global range of other language publications, and related to the number of Scouts, make a realistic estimate of 100 to 150 million books. Details from Jeal, Tim. Baden-Powell. London: Hutchinson. ISBN 0-09-170670-X. 
  32. ^ a b c "Family history, Person Page 876". The Peerage. Retrieved 1 January 2007. 
  33. ^ a b "What ever happened to Baden-Powell's Rolls Royce?". Retrieved 8 November 2008. 
  34. ^ ""Johnny" Walker's Scouting Milestones". Retrieved 3 September 2008. 
  35. ^ "Baden-Powell as an Educational Innovator". Infed Thinkers. Retrieved 4 February 2006. 
  36. ^ Nagy, László (1985). 250 Million Scouts. Geneva: World Scout Foundation. 
  37. ^ Baden-Powell, Sir Robert. "B-P's final letter to the Scouts". Girl Guiding UK. Retrieved 4 August 2007. 
  38. ^ Baden-Powell, Olave. "Window on My Heart". The Autobiography of Olave, Lady Baden-Powell, told to Mary Drewery. Hodder and Stoughton. Retrieved 16 November 2006. 
  39. ^ "Fact Sheet: The Three Baden-Powell's: Robert, Agnes, and Olave" (PDF). Girl Guides of Canada. Archived from the original on 9 March 2008. Retrieved 2 January 2007. 
  40. ^ "Olave St Clair Baden-Powell (née Soames), Baroness Baden-Powell; Robert Baden-Powell, 1st Baron Baden-Powell". National Portrait Gallery. Retrieved 16 November 2006. 
  41. ^ "Wey people, the big names of the valley". Wey River freelance community. Retrieved 29 April 2007. 
  42. ^ Wade, Eileen K.. "Pax Hill". PineTree Web. Retrieved 16 November 2006. 
  43. ^ ""B-P" – Chief scout of the world". Baden-Powell. World Organization of the Scout Movement. Retrieved 16 November 2006. 
  44. ^ Robert Stephenson Smyth Baden-Powell at Find a Grave
  45. ^ Olave St. Clair Baden-Powell at Find a Grave
  46. ^ "Boy Scout medal with fleur-de-lis and swastika, 1930s". The Learning Federation. Retrieved 3 September 2008. 
  47. ^ Schellenberg, Walter (2000). Invasion, 1940: The Nazi Invasion Plan for Britain. London: St Ermin's Press. 
  48. ^ Brendon, Piers (1979), Eminent Edwardians, Martin Secker & Warburg, ISBN 0-436-06810-9 
  49. ^ Rosenthal, Michael (1986), The Character Factory: Baden-Powell and the Origins of the Boy Scout Movement, Pantheon Books, ISBN 0-394-51169-7 
  50. ^ Block, Nelson R.; Proctor, Tammy M., eds (2009). Scouting Frontiers: Youth and the Scout Movement’s First Century. Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing. p. 6. ISBN 1-4438-0450-9. 
  51. ^ Lord Baden-Powell of Gilwell. What Scouts Can Do: More Yarns. Retrieved 1 August 2007. 
  52. ^ My Adventures as a Spy at Project Gutenberg
  53. ^ Young Knights of the Empire: Their Code, and Further Scout Yarns at Project Gutenberg
  54. ^ "John Smith". The Library of Virginia. Retrieved 29 July 2007. 
  55. ^ "Supplement to the London Gazette". London Gazette. 1 June 1920. Retrieved 17 June 2009. 
  56. ^ "Decoration Conferred by His Majesty the King of the Hellenes". The London Gazette. 22 October 1920. Retrieved 10 February 2010. 
  57. ^ a b Pribich, Kurt (2004) (in German). Logbuch der Pfadfinderverbände in Österreich. Vienna: Pfadfinder-Gilde-Österreichs. 
  58. ^ Wilceczek, Hans Gregor (1931) (in German). Georgsbrief des Bundesfeldmeisters für das Jahr 1931 an die Wölflinge, Pfadfinder, Rover und Führer im Ö.P.B.. Vienna: Österreichischer Pfadfinderbund. p. 4. 
  59. ^ "Mount Baden-Powell". USGS. Retrieved 17 April 2006. 
  60. ^ "Dedication of Mount Baden-Powell". The Pine Tree Web. Retrieved 23 April 2006. 
  61. ^ Burnham, Frederick Russell (1944). Taking Chances. Haynes. xxv-xxix. ISBN 1-879356-32-5. 
  62. ^ "Mapping Service". Mount Burnham. Retrieved 17 April 2006. 
  63. ^ "Nomination Database: Baden-Powell". The Nomination Database for the Nobel Peace Prize, 1901-1955. Retrieved 3 October 2007. 

Related readings: biographies

External links

Peerage of the United Kingdom
New title Baron Baden-Powell
1929 – 1941
Succeeded by
Peter Baden-Powell
Baronetage of the United Kingdom
New title Baronet
(of Bentley)
1922 – 1941
Succeeded by
Peter Baden-Powell
New title Chief Scout of the British Empire
1908 – 1941
Succeeded by
Lord Somers
New title Chief Scout of the World
1920 – 1941
never assigned again


Up to date as of January 14, 2010
(Redirected to Robert Baden-Powell article)

From Wikiquote

Robert Stephenson Smyth Baden-Powell, 1st Baron Baden-Powell of Gilwell (22 February 18578 January 1941) Soldier, writer and founder of the world Scouting movement.


  • Be Prepared.
    • The motto Baden-Powell chose for the Scouting movement.
  • The secret of sound education is to get each pupil to learn for himself, instead of instructing him by driving knowledge into him on a stereotyped system.
  • Scouting is not an abstruse or difficult science: rather it is a jolly game if you take it in the right light. In the same time it is educative, and (like Mercy) it is apt to benefit him that giveth as well as him that receives.
    • Aids to Scoutmastership (1920) Preface
  • The Scoutmaster guides the boy in the spirit of an older brother.... He has simply to be a boy-man, that is: (1) He must have the boy spirit in him: and must be able to place himself in the right plane with his boys as a first step. (2) He must realise the needs, outlooks and desires of the different ages of boy life. (3) He must deal with the individual boy rather than with the mass. (4) He then needs to promote a corporate spirit among his individuals to gain the best results.
    • Aids to Scoutmastership (1920)
  • It is the Patrol System that makes the Troop, and all Scouting for that matter, a real co-operative matter.
    • Aids to Scoutmastership (1920)
  • If a man cannot make his point to keen boys in ten minutes, he ought to be shot!
    • The Scouter (November 1928); Reprinted in Footsteps of the Founder (1987)
  • No one can pass through life, any more than he can pass through a bit of country, without leaving tracks behind, and those tracks may often be helpful to those coming after him in finding their way.
  • The most worth-while thing is to try to put happiness into the lives of others.
    • Letter (September, 1940)
  • Somewhere about 1893 I started teaching Scouting to young soldiers in my regiment. When these young fellows joined the Army they had learned reading, writing, and arithmetic in school but as a rule not much else. They were nice lads and made very good parade soldiers, obeyed orders, kept themselves clean and smart and all that, but they had never been taught to be men, how to look after themselves, how to take responsibility, and so on. They had not had my chances of education outside the classroom.
    They had been brought up in the herd at school, they were trained as a herd in the Army; they simply did as they were told and had no ideas or initiative of their own. In action they carried out orders, but if their officer was shot they were as helpless as a flock of sheep. Tell one of them to ride out alone with a message on a dark night and ten to one he would lose his way.
    I wanted to make them feel that they were a match for any enemy, able to find their way by the stars or map, accustomed to notice all tracks and signs and to read their meaning, and able to fend for themselves away from regimental cooks and barracks.
  • Leave this world a little better than you found it.
    • Baden-Powell's Last Message (1945)
  • "Here is the hatchet of war, of enmity, of bad feeling, which I now bury in Arrowe," said the Chief, at the same time plunging a hatchet in the midst of a barrel of golden arrows."

    "From all corners of the earth," said the Chief as soon as the cheering had subsided "you have journeyed to this great gathering of World Fellowship and Brotherhood. Today I send you out from Arrowe to all the World, bearing my symbol of Peace and Fellowship, each one of you my ambassador bearing my message of Love and Fellowship on the wings of Sacrifice and Service, to the end of the Earth. From now on the Scout symbol of Peace is the Golden Arrow. Carry it fast and far so that all men may know the Brotherhood of Man."

    "To THE NORTH—From the Northlands you came at the call of my horn to this great gathering of Fellowship and Brotherhood."
    "Today I send you back to your homelands across the great North Seas as my Ambassadors of Peace and Fellowship among the Nations of the World."
    "I bid you farewell."

    "TO THE SOUTH—From the Southland you came at the call of my horn to this great gathering of Fellowship and Brotherhood."
    "Today I send you back to your homes under the Southern Cross as my Ambassadors of Peace and Fellowship among the Nations of the World."
    "I bid you farewell."

    "TO THE WEST—From the Westlands you came at the call of my horn to this great gathering of Fellowship and Brotherhood."
    "Today I send you back to your homes in the Great Westlands to the Pacific and beyond as my Ambassadors of Peace and Fellowship among the Nations of the World."
    "I bid you farewell."

    "TO THE EAST—From the Eastlands you came at the call of my horn to this great gathering of Fellowship and Brotherhood."
    "Today I send you back to your homes under the Starry Skies and Burning Suns to your people of the thousand years, bearing my symbol of Peace and Fellowship to the Nations of the Earth, pledging you to keep my trust."
    "I bid you farewell."
    • Burying the Hatchet - BP Closing Address at the 3rd World Jamboree, Arrowe Park, 12 August 1929
  • "Happiness is not mere pleasure not the outcome of wealth. It is the result of active work rather than passive enjoyment of pleasure."
    • How to be happy though rich or poor (1930)
  • I have gone home.
    • The Boy Scout trail sign on his simple tombstone in a tiny cemetery of Nyeri, Kenya.

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