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Robert Bolt
Born Robert Oxton Bolt
15 August 1924(1924-08-15)
Sale, Cheshire, England, UK
Died 21 February 1995 (aged 70)
Petersfield, Hampshire, England, UK
Spouse(s) Celia Ann Roberts (1949–1967)
Sarah Miles (1967–1976)
Ann Queensberry (1980–1985)
Sarah Miles (1988–1995)

Robert Oxton Bolt, CBE (15 August 1924 – 21 February 1995) was an English playwright and a two-time Oscar winning screenwriter.

Contents

Career

He was born in Sale, Cheshire. At Manchester Grammar School his affinity for Sir Thomas More first developed. He attended Manchester University, and after war service Exeter University. For many years he taught English and history at Millfield School and only became a full time writer at the age of 33 when his play The Flowering Cherry was staged in London in 1958, with Celia Johnson and Ralph Richardson.

Although he was best known for his original play A Man for All Seasons - a depiction of Sir Thomas More's clash with King Henry VIII over his divorce from Catherine of Aragon - which won awards on the stage and in its film version, most of his writing was screenplays for films or television.

Bolt was known for dramatic works that placed their protagonists in tension with the prevailing society. He won great renown for A Man for All Seasons, his first iteration of this theme, but he developed it in his existential script for Lawrence of Arabia (1962). In Lawrence, he succeeded where several before him had failed, at turning T. E. Lawrence's Seven Pillars of Wisdom into a cogent screenplay by turning the entire book on its head and making it a search for the identity of its author. Lawrence, by Bolt, is presented as a misfit both in English and Arab society.

It was at this time that Bolt himself fell foul of the law and was arrested and imprisoned for protesting nuclear proliferation. He refused to be "bound over" (i.e, to sign a declaration that he would not engage in such activities again) and was sentenced to one month in prison because of this. The producer of the Lawrence film, Sam Spiegel, persuaded Bolt to sign after he had served only two weeks. Bolt later regretted his actions, and did not speak to Spiegel again after the film was completed.

Later, with Doctor Zhivago, he invested Boris Pasternak's novel with the characteristic Bolt sense of narrative and dialogue - human, short and telling. The Bounty was Bolt's first project after a stroke, which affected not only his movement, but his speech. In it, Fletcher Christian takes the "Lawrence" role of a man in tension with his society who in the process loses touch with his own identity. The Mission was Bolt's final film project, and once again represented his thematic preoccupations, this time with 18th century Jesuits in South America.

Bolt's final produced script was Political Animal, later made into the TV movie Without Warning: The James Brady Story (1991), about the attempted assassination of Ronald Reagan and the struggles of his press secretary, James Brady, to recover from a near-fatal gunshot injury he received in the process. Bolt was initially reluctant to make the film, but after meeting with Brady he felt he could relate to Brady's struggles with a cerebral injury; thus, a lot of his own experiences recovering from his stroke found their way into the script.

Personal life

Bolt was married four times, twice to British actress Sarah Miles. His first wife was Celia Ann "Jo" Roberts, by whom he had three children; they divorced in 1963. He was married to Miles from 1967 until 1976; Bolt had his fourth child, Thomas, with Miles. In the early 1980s, he had a short-lived third marriage, to Ann Queensberry before remarrying Sarah Miles in 1988, with whom he remained until his death in 1995[1].

He had four children: Sally (who died in a car crash in 1982), Ben (who later became a film and television director), Joanna, and Tom.

Death

Bolt suffered a heart attack and a stroke that left him paralysed in 1979. He died aged 70, in Petersfield, Hampshire, England, following a long illness.

Honours

He had been appointed CBE in 1972.

Partial list of plays

Bolt wrote several plays for BBC Radio in the '50s, as well as several unproduced plays, so this list is incomplete. Many of his early radio plays were for children, and only a few (see below) were adapted for the stage.

  • The Last of the Wine (1956) - A play showcasing the reactions of ordinary Englishmen to the advent of nuclear armageddon - one of Bolt's pet political issues. One of Bolt's radio plays which Bolt tried to adapt to the stage. However, the play was either never performed or performed a few times and then cancelled. Wine has never been published or performed since.
  • The Critic and the Heart (1957) - Bolt's first professionally produced work, it involves Winifred Blazer, a middle-aged spinster whose life is ruined by the arrival of a mean-spirited art critic into her life. It was a very modest success; Bolt was never satisfied with it, and greatly re-wrote it, retitled Brother and Sister, in a version produced in 1967.
  • The Flowering Cherry (1958) - concerns an aging man who loses touch with reality and gradually isolates those around him. Ran on the West End starring Ralph Richardson and Celia Johnson (succeeded by Wendy Hiller) to success but mixed reviews - many critics felt it too closely resembled Arthur Miller's Death of a Salesman - and had a brief but unsuccessful run on Broadway starring Hiller and Eric Portman.
  • The Tiger and the Horse (1960) - this play is the first of Bolt's to develop his themes of individualism, society, authority, and politics. It concerns an aging college professor, John Dean, who is running for Vice-Chancellor of a prestigious university, but finds his election undermined by his daughter's love affair, a political petition, and his wife's deteriorating mental state. The play starred Michael and Vanessa Redgrave, among others. It was also the first play directed by Bolt's frequent collaborator, celebrated actor-director Noel Willman.
  • A Man for All Seasons (1960) - as mentioned above, involves Sir Thomas More's conflict with Henry VIII over his break with the Catholic Church. Adapted from a radio play Bolt had written in 1954, it is generally regarded as Bolt's finest work - and certainly his most successful. The play develops in full his themes of individuality versus society and authority as corrupt. The strain of Brechtianism which would pervade many of his later works is first present here, in the character of the 'Common Man', who both narrates and takes part in the action as various minor characters. The original run starred Paul Scofield as Thomas More, as well as Keith Baxter as Henry VIII, George Rose as the Common Man, Leo McKern as the Common Man in the West End production and Thomas Cromwell in the Broadway show (a role originated in London by Andrew Keir and later taken over by Thomas Gomez), and Albert Dekker as the Duke of Norfolk. It was a huge critical and commercial success on both sides of the Atlantic, has had several revivals, and was made into an equally acclaimed film in 1966.
  • Gentle Jack (1963) - a somewhat unusual work by Bolt, a comedy involving Man's involvement with Nature. A banker, Jacko, is sent to the countryside on vacation, and becomes influenced by a Nature spirit who convinces him to abandon his mundane, materialistic life and live in a state of nature, indulging in base pleasures such as murder, sex, and general mischief. Jack, however, is torn between his desire to inhabit both the "Natural" and "Logical" Worlds. It was one of Bolt's few unsuccessful plays; Bolt, who considered the play his best work for the stage, regretted this, feeling that perhaps he had not articulated his points well enough. The play starred Kenneth Williams, Michael Bryant, Siân Phillips, Edith Evans, Timothy West and Bernard Kay in its run; the play has not been professionally produced since.
  • The Thwarting of Baron Bolligrew (1964) - a children's play, involving a heroic knight, Oblong Fitz-Oblong, sent to slay a vicious dragon on a far-away island, leading him to face off with the crooked Baron Bolligrew, who controls the island, and an evil wizard he recruits to help him. The work contains many of Bolt's favorite themes of integrity and honor - as well as Brechtian devices which fit naturally within the general fantasy setting of the story. The show was commissioned by the Royal Shakespeare Company for a showing at Christmastime, 1964. Among the original cast were John Normington as Fitz-Oblong, Michael Jayston as the play's narrator, Bolt perennial Leo McKern as the title character, and a very young Malcolm McDowell in a small part; a revival in the late 1960s featured Roy Kinnear as Fitz-Oblong. Paul Scofield provided a voice recording for the dragon. Like A Man for All Seasons, the play had been written for the BBC, and in 1995 was re-written into a children's book. The play was extremely popular, and throughout the 1960s/70s, it had a yearly revival at Christmas in Britain.
  • Vivat! Vivat Regina! (1971) - Bolt's most successful show after A Man for All Seasons, a historical account of the reigns of Mary Stuart, Queen of Scots, and Elizabeth I of England, comparing and contrasting the personalities and reigns of the two female rulers. Highly successful, it ran for several months on Broadway, winning several Tony nominations. The original cast included Eileen Atkins as Elizabeth and Bolt's wife Sarah Miles as Mary.
  • State of Revolution (1977) - An in-depth political depiction of the Russian Revolution of 1917, focusing on Lenin as "a great man possessed by a terrible idea", and the struggles of Leon Trotsky and Joseph Stalin to gain power under him. It is told from the point-of-view of Lunacharsky, Lenin's Minister of Education. The original cast included Michael Bryant as Lenin, Terence Rigby as Stalin, Brian Blessed as Maxim Gorky, and Michael Kitchen as Trotsky. Though meticulously researched, the play received mixed reviews and had a short run before being shelved. Bolt himself felt that he hadn't gotten the play quite right.

State of Revolution was Bolt's final produced play, though he wrote several others that were never published or produced. He spent much of the mid-to-late 1970s, working on a play about portrait artist Augustus John (famous for a series of portraits of T. E. Lawrence), but his work on The Bounty, and later his failing health, forced him to abandon it.

Screenplays

Bolt may be best-remembered for his work on film and television screenplays. Bolt's work for director David Lean garnered him particular acclaim and recognition, and Bolt tried his hand at directing with the unsuccessful Lady Caroline Lamb (1972). While many criticized Bolt for focusing more on the personal aspects of his protagonists than the broader political context (particularly with Lawrence and Man), most critics and audiences alike praised his screenplays. Bolt won two Oscars, two BAFTA Awards, and won or was nominated for several others.

  • Lawrence of Arabia (with Michael Wilson) (1962) - despite disputes between Wilson and Bolt over who contributed what to the script, Bolt provided most of the film's dialogue and the interpretation of the characters while Wilson provided the story and outline. Wilson was uncredited, and Bolt alone was nominated for, but did not win, an Academy Award. Bolt and Lean refused to recognize Wilson's contribution to the film, and Wilson was not credited until 1995.
  • Doctor Zhivago (1965) - Bolt won an Oscar for Best Adapted Screenplay
  • A Man for All Seasons (1966) - Bolt won the Oscar again, adapting his own play to the screen (with some help from Constance Willis).
  • Krasnaya Palatka, released in the U.S. as "The Red Tent", (1969) (uncredited additional dialogue)
  • Ryan's Daughter (1970)
  • Lady Caroline Lamb (1972) (also directed)
  • The Bounty (1984)
  • The Mission (1986) (originally published as a novel)
  • A Man for All Seasons (1988)
  • A Dry White Season (uncredited revisions of screenplay)
  • Without Warning: The James Brady Story (1991) (TV)

Bolt also worked on the early drafts of the script for Gandhi, but his script was considered unsatisfactory and he was replaced by John Briley. Bolt also had several unrealized projects, including a TV miniseries of Gore Vidal's novel, Burr and an adaptation of Madeline L'Engle's A Wrinkle in Time.

After being paid $400,000 US plus ten percent of profits for his Ryan's Daughter screenplay, Bolt became for a time the highest-paid screenwriter in Hollywood (with only William Goldman in serious competition).

Bibliography

  • Prufer, Sabine. The Individual at the Crossroads: The Works of Robert Bolt, Novelist, Dramatist, Screenwriter. Frankfurt-am-Man; New York: P. Lang, 1998
  • Turner, Adrian. Robert Bolt: Scenes from Two Lives. London: Hutchinson, 1998. ISBN 0-09-180176-1.

References

  1. ^ TURNER, ADRIAN (1998). ROBERT BOLT: SCENES FROM TWO LIVES. HUTCHINSON. ISBN 0-09-180176-1.  

External links

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Quotes

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiquote

Robert Oxton Bolt (1924-08-151995-02-20) was an English playwright and screenwriter.

Sourced

A Man for All Seasons (1960)

  • Roper: So now you'd give the Devil benefit of law!
    More: Yes. What would you do? Cut a great road through the law to get after the Devil?
    Roper: I'd cut down every law in England to do that!
    More: Oh? And when the last law was down, and the Devil turned round on you — where would you hide, Roper, the laws all being flat? This country's planted thick with laws from coast to coast — man's laws, not God's — and if you cut them down — and you're just the man to do it — d'you really think you could stand upright in the winds that would blow then? Yes, I'd give the Devil benefit of law, for my own safety's sake.
    • Act I
  • Roper: This was not practical; this was moral!
    More: Oh, now I understand you, Will. Morality's not practical. Morality's a gesture. A complicated gesture learned from books.
    • Act II
  • Cromwell: you brought yourself to where you are now.
    More: yes. still, in another sense i was brought.
  • Cromwell: The King's a man of conscience and he wants either Sir Thomas More to bless his marriage or Sir Thomas More destroyed.
    Rich: They seem odd alternatives, Secretary.
    Cromwell: Do they? That's because you're not a man of conscience. If the King destroys a man, that's proof to the King that it must have been a bad man, the kind of man a man of conscience ought to destroy — and of course a bad man's blessing's not worth having. So either will do.
    • Act II
  • More: I will not take the oath. I will not tell you why I will not.
    Norfolk: Then your reasons must be treasonable!
    More: Not "must be;" may be.
    Norfolk: It's a fair assumption!
    More: The law requires more than an assumption; the law requires a fact.
    • Act II
  • Norfolk: I'm not a scholar, as Master Cromwell never tires of pointing out, and frankly I don't know whether the marriage was lawful or not. But damn it, Thomas, look at those names... You know those men! Can't you do what I did, and come with us for friendship?
    More: And when we stand before God, and you are sent to Paradise for doing according to your conscience, and I am damned for not doing according to mine, will you come with me, for friendship?
    Cranmer: So those of us whose names are there are damned, Sir Thomas?
    More: I don't know, Your Grace. I have no window to look into another man's conscience. I condemn no one.
    Cranmer: Then the matter is capable of question?
    More: Certainly.
    Cranmer: But that you owe obedience to your King is not capable of question. So weigh a doubt against a certainty — and sign.
    More: Some men think the Earth is round, others think it flat; it is a matter capable of question. But if it is flat, will the King's command make it round? And if it is round, will the King's command flatten it? No, I will not sign.
    • Act II
  • Cromwell: You don't seem to appreciate the seriousness of your position.
    More: I defy anyone to live in that cell for a year and not appreciate the seriousness of his position.
    Cromwell: Yet the State has harsher punishments.
    More: You threaten like a dockside bully.
    Cromwell: How should I threaten?
    More: Like a Minister of State, with justice!
    Cromwell: Oh, justice is what you're threatened with.
    More: Then I'm not threatened.
    • Act II
  • More: You want me to swear to the Act of Succession?
    Margaret: "God more regards the thoughts of the heart than the words of the mouth." Or so you've always told me.
    More: Yes.
    Margaret: Then say the words of the oath and in your heart think otherwise.
    More: What is an oath then but words we say to God?
    • Act II
  • When a man takes an oath, Meg, he's holding his own self in his own hands. Like water. And if he opens his fingers then — he needn't hope to find himself again.
    • Sir Thomas More, Act II
  • Margaret: Haven't you done as much as God can reasonably want?
    More: Well... finally... it isn't a matter of reason; finally it's a matter of love.
    Alice: You're content, then, to be shut up here with mice and rats when you might be home with us!
    More: Content? If they'd open a crack that wide I'd be through it. Well, has Eve run out of apples?
    Margaret: I've not yet told you what the house is like, without you.
    More: Don't, Meg.
    Margaret: What we do in the evenings, now that you're not there.
    More: Meg, have done!
    Margaret: We sit in the dark because we've no candles. And we've no talk because we're wondering what they're doing to you here.
    More: The King's more merciful than you. He doesn't use the rack.
    • Act II
  • More: I am faint when I think of the worst that they may do to me. But worse than that would be to go without you not understanding why I go.
    Alice: I don't!
    More: Alice, if you can tell me that you understand, I think I can make a good death, if I have to.
    Alice: Your death's no "good" to me!
    More: Alice, you must tell me that you understand!
    Alice: I don't! I don't believe this had to happen.
    More: If you say that, Alice, I don't know how I'm to face it.
    Alice: It's the truth!
    More: You're an honest woman.
    Alice: Much good it may do me! I'll tell you what I'm afraid of: that when you're gone, I shall hate you for it.
    • Act II
  • Jailer: You understand my position, sir, there's nothing I can do; I'm a plain, simple man and just want to keep out of trouble.
    More: Oh, Sweet Jesus! These plain, simple men!
    • Act II
  • Have patience, Margaret, and trouble not thyself. Death comes for us all; even at our birth — even at our birth, death does but stand aside a little. And every day he looks toward us and muses somewhat to himself whether that day or he next he will draw nigh. It is the law of nature, and the will of God. You have long known the secrets of my heart.
    • Sir Thomas More, Act II

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