Robert Bulwer-Lytton, 1st Earl of Lytton: Wikis

  
  

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The Earl of Lytton 
GCB GCSI GCIE PC

The Earl of Lytton. Signed photo from The University of Glasgow: Old and New, 1450–1891]]

In office
12 April 1876 – 8 June 1880
Monarch Victoria
Preceded by The Lord Northbrook
Succeeded by The Marquess of Ripon

In office
1887 – 1891
Monarch Victoria
Preceded by The Viscount Lyons
Succeeded by The Marquess of Dufferin and Ava

Born 8 November 1831 (1831-11-08)
Died 24 November 1891 (1891-11-25)
Nationality British
Spouse(s) Edith Villiers (d. 1936)
Alma mater University of Bonn

Edward Robert Lytton Bulwer-Lytton, 1st Earl of Lytton GCB GCSI GCIE PC (8 November 1831 – 24 November 1891) was an English statesman and poet. He served as Viceroy of India during the Great Famine of 1876–78. His uncompromising implementation of Britain's trading policy is blamed for the severity of the famine, which killed up to 10 million people.[1] He worked as a poet under the pen name of Owen Meredith.

Contents

Background and education

He was a son of novelists Edward Bulwer-Lytton, 1st Baron Lytton and Rosina Doyle Wheeler. He was educated at Harrow School and at the University of Bonn.

Diplomatic career

In 1849 he entered the Diplomatic Service, aged 18, when he was appointed as attaché (private secretary) to his uncle, Sir Henry Bulwer, who was Minister at Washington, DC.[2] It was at this time he met Henry Clay and Daniel Webster.[2] He began his salaried diplomatic career in 1852 as an attaché to Florence, followed by Paris in 1854 and the Hague in 1856 .[2] In 1858 he was transferred to St Petersburg, Constantinople and Vienna.[2] In 1860 he was appointed British Consul General at Belgrade.[2]

In 1862 Lytton was promoted to 'Second Secretary' in Vienna, but his success in Belgrade led to Lord Russell appointing him 'Secretary of the Legation' at Copenhagen in 1863. During this time he twice acted as Chargé d'Affaires in the Schleswig-Holstein conflict.[2] In 1864 he was transferred to the Greek court to advise the young Danish Prince. In 1865 he advanced to Lisbon where he conclude a major commercial treaty with Portugal.[2]

After an appointment to Madrid he became Secretary to the Embassy at Vienna and, in 1872, Paris.[2] By 1874 he was appointed British Minister Plenipotentiary at Lisbon where he remained until being appointed Governor General and Viceroy of India in 1876.[2]

Viceroy of India

Edward Robert Bulwer-Lytton, 1st Earl of Lytton

Indian Famine

Lord Lytton arrived as Viceroy of India in 1876. In the same year, a famine broke out in south India which claimed between 6.1 million and 10.3 million people. [1]

While some Historians claim the famine was due to natural causes and thus the British Government bore no responsibility, some British and American historians recently argued the famine was man-made due to Lytton's policies.[3][4]

Second Anglo-Afghan War, 1878–1880

In September 1878, Lytton sent an emissary to Afghanistan who was refused entry. A month later in October 1878, he ordered an invasion which not only failed in its objective, but whose costs (and brutality) became a major issue in the defeat of Disraeli's Conservative government by Gladstone's Liberals in 1880 [5]. Lytton resigned with Disraeli.

Midway on his journey [to India] he met, by prearrangement, in Egypt, the Prince of Wales, then returning from his tour through India. Immediately on his arrival in Calcutta he was sworn in as Governor General and Viceroy, and on 1 January 1876, surrounded by all the Princes of Hindustan, he presided at the gorgeous ceremonial on the plains of Delhi, which marked the Proclamation of her Majesty, Queen Victoria, as Empress of India. After this the Queen conferred upon him the honor of the Grand Cross of the civil division of the Order of the Bath. In 1879 an attempt was made to assassinate Lord Lytton, but he happily escaped uninjured. The principal event of his viceroyality was the Afghan war, which resulted disastrously for the British troops. (New York Times 1891.[2])

In 1877, Lord Lytton convened a durbar (imperial assembly) in Delhi which was attended by around 84,000 people including princes and title holders. In 1878, he promulgated the Vernacular Press Act, which empowered him to confiscate the press and paper of a local language newspaper publishing 'seditious material'. The resulted in public outcry in Calcutta led by the Indian Association.

Politics and return to diplomatic career

In 1880 he resigned his Viceroyality simultaneously with the Prime Minister Benjamin Disraeli, and was created Earl of Lytton, in the County of Derby, and Viscount Knebworth, of Knebworth in the County of Hertford.[2] On 10 January 1881, Lytton made his maiden speech in the House of Lords, in which he joined others in attacking Gladstone's Afghan policy. In the summer session of 1881, he joined others in opposing Gladstone's second "Irish Land Bill".[6] As soon as the summer session was over, he undertook "a solitary ramble about the country. He visited Oxford for the first time, went for a trip on the Thames, and then revisited the hydropathic establishment at Malvern, where he had been with his father as a boy".[7] He saw this as an antidote to the otherwise indulgent lifestyle that came with his career, and used his sojourn there to undertake a critique of a new volume of poetry by his old friend Wilfrid Blunt.[8] In 1887 he was appointed Ambassador to Paris,[2] after the post was made vacant by the resignation of Lord Lyon. Having previously expressed an interest in the post, Lytton accepted, finding himself "once more back in his old profession".[9]

Owen Meredith

The Rt Hon. The Lord Lytton

When Lytton was twenty-five years old, he published in London a volume of poems under the name of Owen Meredith. He went on to publish several other volumes under the same name. The most popular one is "Lucile", a story in verse published in 1860. His publicatiuons included:[2]

  • Clytumnestra and other poems, 1855
  • The Wanderers, 1859
  • Lucile, 1860.
  • The Ring of Ainasis, 1863
  • Fables in Song, 1874
  • Speeches of Edward Lord Lytton with some of his Political Writingss, Hitherto unpublished, and a Prefactory Memoir by His Son, 1874
  • The Life Letters and Literary Remains of Edward Bulwer, Lord Lytton, 1863
  • Glenaveril, 1885
  • After Paradise, or Legends of Exile, 1887

Marriage and children

Edith Villiers, Countess Lytton

On 4 October 1864 Lytton married Edith Villiers. She was a daughter of Edward Ernest Villiers (1806–1843) and Elizabeth Charlotte Liddell.

Her paternal grandparents were George Villiers and Theresa Parker. Her maternal grandparents were Thomas Liddell, 1st Baron Ravensworth and his wife Maria Susannah Simpson.

George Villiers was a son of Thomas Villiers, 1st Earl of Clarendon and Charlotte Capell. Theresa Parker was a daughter of John Parker, 1st Baron Boringdon and his second wife Theresa Robinson. Maria Susannah Simpson was a daughter of John Simpson and Anne Lyon.

Charlotte Capell was a daughter of William Capell, 3rd Earl of Essex and Lady Jane Hyde. Theresa Robinson was a daughter of Thomas Robinson, 1st Baron Grantham and Frances Worsley. Anne Lyon was a daughter of Thomas Lyon, 8th Earl of Strathmore and Kinghorne and Jean Nicholsen.

Lady Jane Hyde was a daughter of Henry Hyde, 4th Earl of Clarendon and Jane Leveson-Gower.

They had at least seven children:

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Davis, Mike. Late Victorian Holocausts. 1. Verso, 2000. ISBN 1859847390 pg 7
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m New York Times, 25 November 1891, Wednesday, Death of Lord Lytton, A Sudden Attack of Heart Disease in Paris. No Time for Assistance. His Long Career as a Diplomat in Englaaand's Service, His Literary Work as Owen Meredith
  3. ^ The British Created an Indian Holocaust, by Kathakali Chatterjee, University of Wisconsinm 17 July 2007
  4. ^ Mike Davis, 2001. Late Victorian Holocausts: El Nino Famines and the Making of the Third World. Verso, London
  5. ^ David Washbrook, ‘Lytton, Edward Robert Bulwer-, first earl of Lytton (1831–1891)’, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, Sept 2004; online edn, Jan 2008 accessed 29 September 2008
  6. ^ Balfour, Lady Betty, ed (1906). Personal & Literary Letters of Robert First Earl of Lytton. Vol.2 of 2 (2nd ed.). London: Longmans, Green, and Co. pp. 225-226. http://www.archive.org/details/personalliterary00lyttuoft. Retrieved 27 November 2009.   Full text at Internet Archive (archive.org)
  7. ^ Balfour, Lady Betty (1906) p.234
  8. ^ Balfour, Lady Betty (1906) pp.236-238
  9. ^ Balfour, Lady Betty (1906) pp.329-320

External links

Government offices
Preceded by
The Lord Northbrook
Viceroy of India
1876–1880
Succeeded by
The Marquess of Ripon
Diplomatic posts
Preceded by
The Viscount Lyons
British Ambassador to France
1887–1891
Succeeded by
The Marquess of Dufferin and Ava
Academic offices
Preceded by
Edmund Law Lushington
Rector of the University of Glasgow
1887–1890
Succeeded by
Arthur Balfour
Peerage of the United Kingdom
New creation Earl of Lytton
1880–1891
Succeeded by
Victor Bulwer-Lytton
Preceded by
Edward Bulwer-Lytton
Baron Lytton
1873–1891

Quotes

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiquote

Robert Bulwer-Lytton, 1st Earl of Lytton (8 November 183124 November 1891) was an English statesman, serving as Viceroy of India; and poet, under the pen name of Owen Meredith.

Sourced

Genius does what it must, talent does what it can.
  • The world is filled with folly and sin,
    And Love must cling, where it can, I say:
    For Beauty is easy enough to win;
    But one is n't loved every day.
    • Changes, reported in Bartlett's Familiar Quotations, 10th ed. (1919).
  • Art is Nature made by Man
    To Man the interpreter of God.
    • The Artist, reported in Bartlett's Familiar Quotations, 10th ed. (1919).
  • The things which must be must be for the best.
    • Imperfection, reported in Bartlett's Familiar Quotations, 10th ed. (1919).
  • Oh, moment of sweet peril, perilous sweet!When woman joins herself to man.
    • The Wanderer, Prologue, Stanza 1, reported in Bartlett's Familiar Quotations, 10th ed. (1919).
  • The ages roll
    Forward; and forward with them draw my soul
    Into Time’s infinite sea.
    And to be glad or sad I care no more;
    But to have done and to have been before
    I cease to do and be!
    • The Wanderer, Book iv, Stanza 9, reported in Bartlett's Familiar Quotations, 10th ed. (1919).
  • Genius does what it must, talent does what it can.
    • Last Words, reported in Bartlett's Familiar Quotations, 10th ed. (1919).
Robert Bulwer-Lytton

Lucile (1860)

  • We may live without poetry, music and art;
    We may live without conscience and live without heart;
    We may live without friends; we may live without books;
    But civilized man can not live without cooks.
    He may live without books,—what is knowledge but grieving?
    He may live without hope—what is hope but deceiving?
    He may live without love,—what is passion but pining?
    But where is the man that can live without dining?
    • Part i, canto ii.
  • Those true eyes
    Too pure and too honest in aught to disguise
    The sweet soul shining through them.
    • Part ii, canto ii. Compare: "Ils sont si transparents qu’ils laissent voir votre âme" (translated: Eyes so transparent that through them the soul is seen), Theophile Gautier, The Two Beautiful Eyes.
  • The man who seeks one thing in life and but one
    May hope to achieve it before life is done;
    But he who seeks all things, wherever he goes
    Only reaps from the hopes which around him he sows
    A harvest of barren regrets.
    • Part ii, canto ii.
  • Thought alone is eternal.
    • Part ii, canto vi.
  • Let any man show the world that he feels
    Afraid of its bark and ’t will fly at his heels:
    Let him fearlessly face it, ’t will leave him alone:
    But ’t will fawn at his feet if he flings it a bone.
    • Part ii, canto vii.
  • The world is a nettle; disturb it, it stings.
    Grasp it firmly, it stings not.
    • Part iii, canto ii. Quoted by Walt Whitman in Roaming in Thought.

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