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Robert Kilwardby
Archbishop of Canterbury
Enthroned unknown
Reign ended 12 March 1278
Predecessor William Chillenden
Successor Robert Burnell
Consecration 26 February 1273
Personal details
Born c. 1215
Died 11 September 1279

Robert Kilwardby (c. 1215 – 11 September 1279) was an Archbishop of Canterbury in England and a cardinal.

Contents

Life

He studied at the University of Paris, where he soon became famous as a teacher of grammar and logic. He then joined the Dominican Order and turning his attention to theology,[1] and became regent at Oxford University before 1261,[2] probably by 1245.[3] He was chosen provincial prior of his order in England in 1261,[4] and in October 1272 Pope Gregory X terminated a dispute over the vacant archbishopric of Canterbury by appointing Kilwardby. He was provided to the archbishopric on 11 October 1272, given the temporalities on 12 December 1272, and consecrated on 26 February 1273.[5]

Although the new archbishop crowned Edward I and his queen Eleanor in August 1274, he took little part in business of state, but was energetic in discharging the spiritual duties of his office. He was charitable to the poor, and showed liberality to the Dominicans.[6]

In 1278 Pope Nicholas III made him Cardinal Bishop of Porto and Santa Rufina; he resigned his archbishopric and left England,[5] carrying with him the registers and other books and papers belonging to the see of Canterbury. He also left the see deep in debt again, after his predecessor had cleared the debt.[7] He died in Italy the following year. While in theory this was a promotion, probably it was not, as the pope was unhappy with Kilwardy's support of efforts to resist the payment of papal revenues and with the lack of effort towards the reforms demanded at the Council of Lyons in 1274.[8]

Kilwardby was the first member of a mendicant order to attain a high position in the English Church. Among his numerous writings, which became very popular among students, are De ortu scientiarum, De tempore, De Universali, and some commentaries on Aristotle. He was also the author of a summary of the writings of the Church Fathers, arranged alphabetically.[9]

De tempore has been translated and edited by Alexander Broadie recently, and published as On Time and Imagination, Part 2: Introduction and Translation (Oxford University Press, 1993), ISBN 0-19-726121-3. (Part 1 is the original text.)

A critical edition of De orto scientiarum was published by Albert G. Judy, O.P., Toronto: The Pontifical Institute of Mediaeval Studies, 1976, LXI, 255 pages, ISBN 0-88-844553-9.

His theological and philosophical views were summed up by David Knowles who said that he was a "conservative eclectic, holding the doctrine of seminal tendencies and opposing...the Aristotelian doctrine of the unity of form in beings, including man."[10] Some sources state that he was the author of Summa Philosophiae, a history and description of the schools of philosophical thought then current, but the writing style is not similar to his other works, and Knowles, for one, does not believe it was authored by Kilwardby.[11] It has been alleged that he was an opponent of Thomas Aquinas, and in 1277 he prohibited the teaching of thirty theses, some of which have been thought to touch upon Thomas Aquinas' teaching, though recent scholars, such as Roland Hissette, have challenged this interpretation.[12][13]

Notes

  1. ^ Lawrence "The Thirteenth Century" in Lawrence (ed.) The English Church & the Papacy in the Middle Ages p. 146
  2. ^ Knowles The Evolution of Medieval Thought p. 288
  3. ^ Leff Paris and Oxford Universities p. 290-293
  4. ^ British History Online Archbishops of Canterbury accessed on September 11, 2007
  5. ^ a b Fryde Handbook of British Chronology p. 233
  6. ^ Moorman Church Life in England in the Thirteenth Century p. 371
  7. ^ Moorman Church Life in England in the Thirteenth Century p. 173
  8. ^ Prestwich Edward I p. 249
  9. ^ Clanchy From Memory to Written Record p. 181
  10. ^ Knowles The Evolution of Medieval Thought p. 249
  11. ^ Knowles The Evolution of Medieval Thought p. 287
  12. ^ Burton Monastic and Religious Orders pp. 206–207
  13. ^ The Condemnations of 1277

References

  • This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica, Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain. The article is available here: Robert Kilwardby at Love to Know
  • British History Online Archbishops of Canterbury accessed on September 11, 2007
  • Burton, Janet (1994). Monastic and Religious Orders in Britain: 1000–1300. Cambridge Medieval Textbooks. Cambridge UK: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-37797-8.  
  • Clanchy, C. T. (1993). From Memory to Written Record: England 1066–1307 (Second Edition ed.). Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing. ISBN 978-0-631-16857-7.  
  • Fryde, E. B.; Greenway, D. E.; Porter, S.; Roy, I. (1996). Handbook of British Chronology (Third Edition, revised ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-56350-X.  
  • Hook, W. F., Lives of the Archbishops of Canterbury, vol. iii. (London, 1860—1876)
  • Knowles, Dom David The Evolution of Medieval Thought London:Longmans 1962
  • Lawrence, C. H. ed. The English Church and the Papacy in the Middle Ages Stroud:Sutton Publishing reprint 1999 ISBN 0-7509-1947-7
  • Lawrence, C. H. "The Thirteenth Century" in Lawrence, C. H. ed. The English Church and the Papacy in the Middle Ages Stroud:Sutton Publishing reprint 1999 ISBN 0-7509-1947-7
  • Leff, Gordon Paris and Oxford Universities in the Thirteenth and Fourteenth Centuries: An Institutional and Intellectual History Huntingdon, NY: Robert E. Krieger Publishing Company 1975 ISBN 0-88275-297-9
  • Moorman, John R. H. Church Life in England in the Thirteenth Century Revised Edition Cambridge:Cambridge University Press 1955
  • Quétif, J. and J. Echard, Scriptores ordinis Predicatorum (Paris, 1719—1721)
  • Prestwich, Michael Edward I New Haven:Yale University Press 1997 ISBN 0-300-07157-4
  • Trevet, Nicholas, Annales sex regum Angliae, edited by T. Hog (London, 1845)

External links

Catholic Church titles
Preceded by
Boniface of Savoy
(William Chillenden
chosen but set aside by the Pope)
Archbishop of Canterbury
1273–1278
Succeeded by
Robert Burnell
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1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

ROBERT KILWARDBY (d. 1279), archbishop of Canterbury and cardinal, studied at the university of Paris, where he soon became famous as a teacher of grammar and logic. Afterwards joining the order of St Dominic and turning his attention to theology, he was chosen provincial prior of his order in England in 1261, and in October 1272 Pope Gregory X. terminated a dispute over the vacant archbishopric of Canterbury by appointing Kilwardby. Although the new archbishop crowned Edward I. and his queen Eleanor in August 1274, he took little part in business of state, but was energetic in discharging the spiritual duties of his office. He was charitable to the poor, and showed liberality to the Dominicans. In 1278 Pope Nicholas III. made him cardinal-bishop of Porto and Santa Rufina; he resigned his archbishopric and left England, carrying with him the registers and other valuable property belonging to the see of Canterbury. He died in Italy on the 11th of September 1279. Kilwardby was the first member of a mendicant order to attain a high position in the English Church. Among his numerous writings, which became very popular among students, are De ortu scientiarum, De tempore, De Universali, and some commentaries on Aristotle.

See N. Trevet, Annales sex regum Angliae, edited by T. Hog (London, 1845); W. F. Hook, Lives of the Archbishops of Canterbury, vol. iii. (London, 1860-1876); J. Quetif and J. Echard, Scriptores ordinis Predicatorum (Paris, 1719-1721).


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