The Full Wiki

Robot: Wikis

  
  
  
  
  
  

Did you know ...


More interesting facts on Robot

Include this on your site/blog:

Encyclopedia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

ASIMO, a humanoid robot manufactured by Honda
.A robot is an automatically guided machine, able to do tasks on its own.^ SuperBot Modular Robot Connects With NASA SuperBot is a modular robot prototype that will choose its own way to explore and perform tasks in space.
  • Robotics in Science Fiction 9 February 2010 16:35 UTC www.technovelgy.com [Source type: General]

Another common characteristic is that by its appearance or movements, a robot often conveys a sense that it has intent or agency of its own.[1][2]

Contents

Definitions

A laparoscopic robotic surgery machine
The word robot can refer to both physical robots and virtual software agents, but the latter are usually referred to as bots.[3] .There is no consensus on which machines qualify as robots, but there is general agreement among experts and the public that robots tend to do some or all of the following: move around, operate a mechanical limb, sense and manipulate their environment, and exhibit intelligent behavior, especially behavior which mimics humans or other animals.^ There was no other way around it.
  • AT&T blocks 4chan « Erling Løken Andersen 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC stormen.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Fixing relationships can be done in all sorts of political environments, where there is a will and some maturity to do it.
  • AT&T blocks 4chan « Erling Løken Andersen 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC stormen.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Psikharpax Le Robot Rat Avoid human beings and feed - just the sort of behaviors that robotic rats need.
  • Robotics in Science Fiction 9 February 2010 16:35 UTC www.technovelgy.com [Source type: General]

.There is conflict about whether the term can be applied to remotely operated devices, as the most common usage implies, or solely to devices which are controlled by their software without human intervention.^ KOBIAN Emotionally Demonstrative Robot There have been physically demonstrative robots in science fiction; but most of them follow a common path.
  • Robotics in Science Fiction 9 February 2010 16:35 UTC www.technovelgy.com [Source type: General]

^ Secom Robot X Security Guard Works For Less The Secom Robot X security guard, which can be controlled remotely or pre-programmed, will not be sold to customers; it will replace human security guards for half the cost.
  • Robotics in Science Fiction 9 February 2010 16:35 UTC www.technovelgy.com [Source type: General]

In South Africa, robot is an informal and commonly used term for a set of traffic lights.
Stories of artificial helpers and companions and attempts to create them have a long history but fully autonomous machines only appeared in the 20th century. .The first digitally operated and programmable robot, the Unimate, was installed in 1961 to lift hot pieces of metal from a die casting machine and stack them.^ Be The Soul Of The New Machine This tele-operated robot will move along with you as you walk, and let you manipulate objects in a remote environment.
  • Robotics in Science Fiction 9 February 2010 16:35 UTC www.technovelgy.com [Source type: General]

.Today, commercial and industrial robots are in widespread use performing jobs more cheaply or with greater accuracy and reliability than humans.^ Fuel Powered Muscles For Robots Will it be possible to have a human-sized robot that can perform the same work as a person on battery power alone?
  • Robotics in Science Fiction 9 February 2010 16:35 UTC www.technovelgy.com [Source type: General]

^ ERNIE The Robot Pharmacist - More Accurate Than Humans A robot pharmacist named ERNIE dispenses more than 90 percent of Evergreen Hospital Medical Center's drugs.
  • Robotics in Science Fiction 9 February 2010 16:35 UTC www.technovelgy.com [Source type: General]

^ Sushi Robot Digs Uncanny Valley Deeper Is this really more repulsive than, for example, a Terminator-style full human skin covering a metal endoskeleton?
  • Robotics in Science Fiction 9 February 2010 16:35 UTC www.technovelgy.com [Source type: General]

They are also employed for jobs which are too dirty, dangerous or dull to be suitable for humans. .Robots are widely used in manufacturing, assembly and packing, transport, earth and space exploration, surgery, weaponry, laboratory research, and mass production of consumer and industrial goods.^ Robots Making Smaller Robots Making Smaller Robots Robotic technologies make possible smaller and smaller manufactured goods - too small for people to make.
  • Robotics in Science Fiction 9 February 2010 16:35 UTC www.technovelgy.com [Source type: General]

^ ROKVISS Telepresence Robot Heading To Space Station The ROKVISS robot will leave Earth aboard the Progress M-51 spaceship on December 24th.
  • Robotics in Science Fiction 9 February 2010 16:35 UTC www.technovelgy.com [Source type: General]

^ PETMAN Humanoid Robot This robot will be used for product testing of protective gear by the US Army.
  • Robotics in Science Fiction 9 February 2010 16:35 UTC www.technovelgy.com [Source type: General]

[4]
.It is difficult to compare numbers of robots in different countries, since there are different definitions of what a "robot" is.^ Robotic Cow Tongues Artists are supposed to see things differently; raw meat definitely makes a comeback here.
  • Robotics in Science Fiction 9 February 2010 16:35 UTC www.technovelgy.com [Source type: General]

The International Organization for Standardization gives a definition of robot in ISO 8373: "an automatically controlled, reprogrammable, multipurpose, manipulator programmable in three or more axes, which may be either fixed in place or mobile for use in industrial automation applications."[5] This definition is used by the International Federation of Robotics, the European Robotics Research Network (EURON), and many national standards committees.[6]
.The Robotics Institute of America (RIA) uses a broader definition: a robot is a "re-programmable multi-functional manipulator designed to move materials, parts, tools, or specialized devices through variable programmed motions for the performance of a variety of tasks."^ Shrapnel-Locating Autonomous Robot This autonomous robotic arm uses a biopsy needle and a special technique to find bits of shrapnel as small as 2 mm needle fragments in the body.
  • Robotics in Science Fiction 9 February 2010 16:35 UTC www.technovelgy.com [Source type: General]

^ SwisTrack Swarm Analysis Of Robots And Roaches Swarms need to be studied - this tool can be used on insects or robots.
  • Robotics in Science Fiction 9 February 2010 16:35 UTC www.technovelgy.com [Source type: General]

^ Robot English Teacher From KAIRA A robotic english teacher is now being used in pilot programs in Seoul, Korea.
  • Robotics in Science Fiction 9 February 2010 16:35 UTC www.technovelgy.com [Source type: General]

[7] .The RIA subdivides robots into four classes: devices that manipulate objects with manual control, automated devices that manipulate objects with predetermined cycles, programmable and servo-controlled robots with continuous point-to-point trajectories, and robots of this last type which also acquire information from the environment and move intelligently in response.^ HRP-3 Promet Robot Blue Collar Style Robots need to be able to work in the real world, not just inside controlled environments.
  • Robotics in Science Fiction 9 February 2010 16:35 UTC www.technovelgy.com [Source type: General]

^ Luke Arm Robotic Prosthesis This is a different type of device; one of the design requirements was that it had no invasive controls.
  • Robotics in Science Fiction 9 February 2010 16:35 UTC www.technovelgy.com [Source type: General]

^ Be The Soul Of The New Machine This tele-operated robot will move along with you as you walk, and let you manipulate objects in a remote environment.
  • Robotics in Science Fiction 9 February 2010 16:35 UTC www.technovelgy.com [Source type: General]

.There is no one definition of robot which satisfies everyone, and many people have their own.^ When they came for me, there was no one left to speak out.
  • AT&T blocks 4chan « Erling Løken Andersen 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC stormen.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Panasonic Robot Bed Transformer There should probably be some sort of law that keeps otherwise healthy people from getting one of these.
  • Robotics in Science Fiction 9 February 2010 16:35 UTC www.technovelgy.com [Source type: General]

^ Sick Patient Robot Does More Than Say 'Ah' This robotic patient is no dummy - it has at least one thing that no other robot patient has.
  • Robotics in Science Fiction 9 February 2010 16:35 UTC www.technovelgy.com [Source type: General]

[8] For example, Joseph Engelberger, a pioneer in industrial robotics, once remarked: "I can't define a robot, but I know one when I see one."[9] According to Encyclopaedia Britannica, a robot is "any automatically operated machine that replaces human effort, though it may not resemble human beings in appearance or perform functions in a humanlike manner".[10] Merriam-Webster describes a robot as a "machine that looks like a human being and performs various complex acts (as walking or talking) of a human being", or a "device that automatically performs complicated often repetitive tasks", or a "mechanism guided by automatic controls".[11]
.Modern robots are usually used in tightly controlled environments such as on assembly lines because they have difficulty responding to unexpected interference.^ HRP-3 Promet Robot Blue Collar Style Robots need to be able to work in the real world, not just inside controlled environments.
  • Robotics in Science Fiction 9 February 2010 16:35 UTC www.technovelgy.com [Source type: General]

^ Ubiko Robot A Fireman's Friend This catlike robot is a better friend to firemen than that organic Dalmatian creature they use.
  • Robotics in Science Fiction 9 February 2010 16:35 UTC www.technovelgy.com [Source type: General]

^ Reply Simply because they think they can control what we do or don’t know.
  • AT&T blocks 4chan « Erling Løken Andersen 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC stormen.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Because of this, most humans rarely encounter robots. .However, domestic robots for cleaning and maintenance are increasingly common in and around homes in developed countries, particularly in Japan.^ Micro-Mouse Robots With Grippers Tournament New development at the 29th All Japan micro-mouse games held at the Tsukuba International Congress Center.
  • Robotics in Science Fiction 9 February 2010 16:35 UTC www.technovelgy.com [Source type: General]

^ ReadyBot Robot Ready To Clean Your Kitchen This little robot is made from common components to do a common job - clean up the kitchen.
  • Robotics in Science Fiction 9 February 2010 16:35 UTC www.technovelgy.com [Source type: General]

^ Toyota Delivery Robot Home Helper This one-armed prototype could be pretty handy around the house, especially if you're laid up.
  • Robotics in Science Fiction 9 February 2010 16:35 UTC www.technovelgy.com [Source type: General]

Robots can also be found in the military.

Defining characteristics

KITT is mentally anthropomorphic, while ASIMO is physically anthropomorphic
.While there is no single correct definition of "robot,"[12] a typical robot will have several, or possibly all, of the following characteristics.^ KOBIAN Emotionally Demonstrative Robot There have been physically demonstrative robots in science fiction; but most of them follow a common path.
  • Robotics in Science Fiction 9 February 2010 16:35 UTC www.technovelgy.com [Source type: General]

^ Skypark Robotic Parking Garage: The Future Of Enormous Machines We're all fascinated by the successful miniaturization of devices; is there room in our future for really enormous machines?
  • Robotics in Science Fiction 9 February 2010 16:35 UTC www.technovelgy.com [Source type: General]

.It is an electric machine which has some ability to interact with physical objects and to be given electronic programming to do a specific task or to do a whole range of tasks or actions.^ Teleo-Reactive Programs Are Reaching Their Goals Teleo-Reactive Programs (TRPs) help robots and other machine intelligences achieve goals, not just specific behaviors.
  • Robotics in Science Fiction 9 February 2010 16:35 UTC www.technovelgy.com [Source type: General]

^ Domo Robot: Unstructured Interaction Over Time Designed specifically to interact with people in unstructred environments for long periods, not just short tasks.
  • Robotics in Science Fiction 9 February 2010 16:35 UTC www.technovelgy.com [Source type: General]

It may also have some ability to perceive and absorb data on physical objects, or on its local physical environment, or to process data, or to respond to various stimuli. .This is in contrast to a simple mechanical device such as a gear or a hydraulic press or any other item which has no processing ability and which does tasks through purely mechanical processes and motion.^ Sick Patient Robot Does More Than Say 'Ah' This robotic patient is no dummy - it has at least one thing that no other robot patient has.
  • Robotics in Science Fiction 9 February 2010 16:35 UTC www.technovelgy.com [Source type: General]

^ What this does tell us is that someone is using either their users or just redirecting others in a botnet to bounce attacks through 4chan.
  • AT&T blocks 4chan « Erling Løken Andersen 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC stormen.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Mental agency
.For robotic engineers, the physical appearance of a machine is less important than the way its actions are controlled.^ WiiBot Kuka Robot Controlled WiiMotely Two engineers create a non-trivial fencing and tennis-playing robot - part Kuka, part Wii.
  • Robotics in Science Fiction 9 February 2010 16:35 UTC www.technovelgy.com [Source type: General]

^ Hull Cockpit For Haptic Control Of Halluc II Robot What's even better than a cool robot?
  • Robotics in Science Fiction 9 February 2010 16:35 UTC www.technovelgy.com [Source type: General]

^ Hajime 33 Robot Kicks, Walks I'm very impressed by the height of this robot; this remote-controlled player is taller than you are.
  • Robotics in Science Fiction 9 February 2010 16:35 UTC www.technovelgy.com [Source type: General]

.The more the control system seems to have agency of its own, the more likely the machine is to be called a robot.^ Bandit Robot Personal Trainer Socially assistive robotics seems like an interesting field of study, but I'm not sure about robot drill instructors.
  • Robotics in Science Fiction 9 February 2010 16:35 UTC www.technovelgy.com [Source type: General]

^ Phasma Insect Robot Runs Like A Bug This insectile remote-controlled robot is designed to run like an insect from the ground up; that's what makes the video a bit creepy.
  • Robotics in Science Fiction 9 February 2010 16:35 UTC www.technovelgy.com [Source type: General]

^ Dragon Runner Robot Always Lands On Its Feet Enough about dog-like robots - the more feline Dragon Runner always lands on its feet.
  • Robotics in Science Fiction 9 February 2010 16:35 UTC www.technovelgy.com [Source type: General]

An important feature of agency is the ability to make choices. Higher-level cognitive functions, though, are not necessary, as shown by ant robots.
.
  • A clockwork car is never considered a robot.
  • A remotely operated vehicle is sometimes considered a robot (or telerobot).^ Be The Soul Of The New Machine This tele-operated robot will move along with you as you walk, and let you manipulate objects in a remote environment.
    • Robotics in Science Fiction 9 February 2010 16:35 UTC www.technovelgy.com [Source type: General]

    [13]
  • A car with an onboard computer, like Bigtrak, which could drive in a programmable sequence, might be called a robot.
  • A self-controlled car which could sense its environment and make driving decisions based on this information, such as the 1990s driverless cars of Ernst Dickmanns or the entries in the DARPA Grand Challenge, would quite likely be called a robot.
  • A sentient car, like the fictional KITT, which can make decisions, navigate freely and converse fluently with a human, is usually considered a robot.
Physical agency
However, for many laymen, if a machine appears to be able to control its arms or limbs, and especially if it appears anthropomorphic or zoomorphic (e.g. ASIMO or Aibo), it would be called a robot.
  • A player piano is rarely characterized as a robot.[14]
  • .
  • A CNC milling machine is very occasionally characterized as a robot.
  • A factory automation arm is almost always characterized as an industrial robot.
  • An autonomous wheeled or tracked device, such as a self-guided rover or self-guided vehicle, is almost always characterized as a mobile robot or service robot.
  • A zoomorphic mechanical toy, like Roboraptor, is usually characterized as a robot.^ Gyrosphere Robot Climbs Out Of Holes Nothing like spherical robots; I'm guessing that the Rovers will make a big comeback on the remake of The Prisoner this fall.
    • Robotics in Science Fiction 9 February 2010 16:35 UTC www.technovelgy.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Starfish Robot Shows Robotic Introspection And Self-Modeling Amazing proprioceptive robot creates a model of its shape automatically; it can sense damage to itself and reconfigure its walk.
    • Robotics in Science Fiction 9 February 2010 16:35 UTC www.technovelgy.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Shrapnel-Locating Autonomous Robot This autonomous robotic arm uses a biopsy needle and a special technique to find bits of shrapnel as small as 2 mm needle fragments in the body.
    • Robotics in Science Fiction 9 February 2010 16:35 UTC www.technovelgy.com [Source type: General]

    [15]
  • A mechanical humanoid, like ASIMO, is almost always characterized as a robot, usually as a service robot.
.Even for a 3-axis CNC milling machine using the same control system as a robot arm, it is the arm which is almost always called a robot, while the CNC machine is usually just a machine.^ Shrapnel-Locating Autonomous Robot This autonomous robotic arm uses a biopsy needle and a special technique to find bits of shrapnel as small as 2 mm needle fragments in the body.
  • Robotics in Science Fiction 9 February 2010 16:35 UTC www.technovelgy.com [Source type: General]

^ Himawari Homotropic Sunflower Robot This robot shows real progress toward what Philip K. Dick called 'homotropic' machines - robots that seek out and follow people.
  • Robotics in Science Fiction 9 February 2010 16:35 UTC www.technovelgy.com [Source type: General]

^ HRP-3 Promet Robot Blue Collar Style Robots need to be able to work in the real world, not just inside controlled environments.
  • Robotics in Science Fiction 9 February 2010 16:35 UTC www.technovelgy.com [Source type: General]

Having eyes can also make a difference in whether a machine is called a robot, since humans instinctively connect eyes with sentience. However, simply being anthropomorphic is not a sufficient criterion for something to be called a robot. .A robot must do something; an inanimate object shaped like ASIMO would not be considered a robot.^ Claytronics: Robot Swarm-Based 3D Shape-Shifting Objects This is pretty much a blue-sky project, but I did like the video; any help remembering the sf reference would be appreciated.
  • Robotics in Science Fiction 9 February 2010 16:35 UTC www.technovelgy.com [Source type: General]

^ A robotic tentacle funded by DARPA proves adept at manipulating irregularly shaped (ie natural) objects; just like the Tripod tentacles from War of the Worlds.
  • Robotics in Science Fiction 9 February 2010 16:35 UTC www.technovelgy.com [Source type: General]

^ Robot Skin Soft Like Yours Artificial robot skin now smooth and soft, just like you've always dreamed robot skin would feel.
  • Robotics in Science Fiction 9 February 2010 16:35 UTC www.technovelgy.com [Source type: General]

Etymology

A scene from Karel Čapek's 1920 play R.U.R. (Rossum's Universal Robots), showing three robots
The word robot was introduced to the public by Czech writer Karel Čapek in his play R.U.R. (Rossum's Universal Robots), published in 1920.[16] .The play begins in a factory that makes artificial people called robots, but they are closer to the modern ideas of androids, creatures who can be mistaken for humans.^ IMPASS Robot 'Smart Wheel' Video They're making great progress with Neal Stephenson's 'smart wheels' - take a look at the video.
  • Robotics in Science Fiction 9 February 2010 16:35 UTC www.technovelgy.com [Source type: General]

^ Robots Making Smaller Robots Making Smaller Robots Robotic technologies make possible smaller and smaller manufactured goods - too small for people to make.
  • Robotics in Science Fiction 9 February 2010 16:35 UTC www.technovelgy.com [Source type: General]

^ Himawari Homotropic Sunflower Robot This robot shows real progress toward what Philip K. Dick called 'homotropic' machines - robots that seek out and follow people.
  • Robotics in Science Fiction 9 February 2010 16:35 UTC www.technovelgy.com [Source type: General]

They can plainly think for themselves, though they seem happy to serve. At issue is whether the robots are being exploited and the consequences of their treatment.
However, Karel Čapek himself did not coin the word. .He wrote a short letter in reference to an etymology in the Oxford English Dictionary in which he named his brother, the painter and writer Josef Čapek, as its actual originator.^ Advice to a Young Man upon First Going to Oxford In Ten Letters, From an Uncle to His Nephew (English) (as Author) Berens, E.M. .
  • Browse By Author: B - Project Gutenberg 10 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

[16] In an article in the Czech journal Lidové noviny in 1933, he explained that he had originally wanted to call the creatures laboři (from Latin labor, work). However, he did not like the word, and sought advice from his brother Josef, who suggested "roboti". The word robota means literally work, labor or serf labor, and figuratively "drudgery" or "hard work" in Czech and many Slavic languages. Traditionally the robota was the work period a serf had to give for his lord, typically 6 months of the year.[17] Serfdom was outlawed in 1848 in Bohemia, so at the time Čapek wrote R.U.R., usage of the term robota had broadened to include various types of work, but the obsolete sense of "serfdom" would still have been known.[18][19]
.The word robotics, used to describe this field of study, was coined by the science fiction writer Isaac Asimov.^ And, yes, it was predicted by science fiction writers.
  • Robotics in Science Fiction 9 February 2010 16:35 UTC www.technovelgy.com [Source type: General]

^ Bandit Robot Personal Trainer Socially assistive robotics seems like an interesting field of study, but I'm not sure about robot drill instructors.
  • Robotics in Science Fiction 9 February 2010 16:35 UTC www.technovelgy.com [Source type: General]

^ Hong Kong has been testing robotic police officers for years, and has now introduced RobotCop III. (re: Isaac Asimov, 3/11/2004 ) .
  • Robotics in Science Fiction 9 February 2010 16:35 UTC www.technovelgy.com [Source type: General]

Social impact

.As robots have become more advanced and sophisticated, experts and academics have increasingly explored the questions of what ethics might govern robots' behavior,[20] and whether robots might be able to claim any kind of social, cultural, ethical or legal rights.^ Twendy-One Robot Is Your Humanoid Helper Twendy-One is the kind of robot that might be taking care of you (or your father or grandfather) in a few years - in Japan.
  • Robotics in Science Fiction 9 February 2010 16:35 UTC www.technovelgy.com [Source type: General]

^ Robots Get More Sensitive Sensors Nanoparticles help robots become more sensitive; thin films provide a sense of touch as good as yours.
  • Robotics in Science Fiction 9 February 2010 16:35 UTC www.technovelgy.com [Source type: General]

^ Sneaky Robots Are Right Around The Corner Although this is undoubtedly useful behavior for guard robots, is 'sneakiness' a trait we want to see in robots?
  • Robotics in Science Fiction 9 February 2010 16:35 UTC www.technovelgy.com [Source type: General]

[21] .One scientific team has said that it is possible that a robot brain will exist by 2019.[22] Others predict robot intelligence breakthroughs by 2050.[23] Recent advances have made robotic behavior more sophisticated.^ Robots With Human Brains What is self-organizing and intelligent and comes in a convenient paste?
  • Robotics in Science Fiction 9 February 2010 16:35 UTC www.technovelgy.com [Source type: General]

^ RobiQ Nanny Robot Philip K. Dick saw this one coming more than fifty years ago.
  • Robotics in Science Fiction 9 February 2010 16:35 UTC www.technovelgy.com [Source type: General]

^ Teleo-Reactive Programs Are Reaching Their Goals Teleo-Reactive Programs (TRPs) help robots and other machine intelligences achieve goals, not just specific behaviors.
  • Robotics in Science Fiction 9 February 2010 16:35 UTC www.technovelgy.com [Source type: General]

[24]
.Robotics have also been introduced into the lives of elementary and high school students with the company FIRST (For Inspiration and Recognition of Science and Technology).^ First Thought-Controlled Combat Robot Science and science fiction are neck and neck, as the first thought-controlled fighting robot premieres at the same time as a movie with thought-controlled robotic soldiers.
  • Robotics in Science Fiction 9 February 2010 16:35 UTC www.technovelgy.com [Source type: General]

^ Reborg-Q Security Robot Now With Face Recognition This robot from ALSOK is the first to have roving face recognition capabilities.
  • Robotics in Science Fiction 9 February 2010 16:35 UTC www.technovelgy.com [Source type: General]

The organization is the foundation for the FIRST Robotics Competition, FIRST LEGO League, Junior FIRST LEGO League, and FIRST Tech Challenge competitions.
.Vernor Vinge has suggested that a moment may come when computers and robots are smarter than humans.^ ERNIE The Robot Pharmacist - More Accurate Than Humans A robot pharmacist named ERNIE dispenses more than 90 percent of Evergreen Hospital Medical Center's drugs.
  • Robotics in Science Fiction 9 February 2010 16:35 UTC www.technovelgy.com [Source type: General]

^ Robots With Human Brains What is self-organizing and intelligent and comes in a convenient paste?
  • Robotics in Science Fiction 9 February 2010 16:35 UTC www.technovelgy.com [Source type: General]

^ RobiQ Nanny Robot Philip K. Dick saw this one coming more than fifty years ago.
  • Robotics in Science Fiction 9 February 2010 16:35 UTC www.technovelgy.com [Source type: General]

He calls this "the Singularity."[25] He suggests that it may be somewhat or possibly very dangerous for humans.[26] This is discussed by a philosophy called Singularitarianism.
.In 2009, experts attended a conference hosted by the Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence (AAAI) to discuss whether computers and robots might be able to acquire any autonomy, and how much these abilities might pose a threat or hazard.^ Autotelematic Spider Bots These spider bots are much friendlier looking than the killer-spider-robots seen earlier this week.
  • Robotics in Science Fiction 9 February 2010 16:35 UTC www.technovelgy.com [Source type: General]

^ SentiSight Object Recognition For Robot Overlords Until they can easily acquire the ability to recognize objects, robots will be no threat to us.
  • Robotics in Science Fiction 9 February 2010 16:35 UTC www.technovelgy.com [Source type: General]

^ Predator, Prey Robots Evolve Just how much help should human beings give to robots as they evolve toward greater functionality?
  • Robotics in Science Fiction 9 February 2010 16:35 UTC www.technovelgy.com [Source type: General]

.They noted that some robots have acquired various forms of semi-autonomy, including being able to find power sources on their own and being able to independently choose targets to attack with weapons.^ Soft Robot Powered By Shape Memory Alloy Spokes A remarkable new kind of robotic locomotion has emerged in the form of small "robots" that are constructed in the shape of a wheel.
  • Robotics in Science Fiction 9 February 2010 16:35 UTC www.technovelgy.com [Source type: General]

^ SentiSight Object Recognition For Robot Overlords Until they can easily acquire the ability to recognize objects, robots will be no threat to us.
  • Robotics in Science Fiction 9 February 2010 16:35 UTC www.technovelgy.com [Source type: General]

^ Predator, Prey Robots Evolve Just how much help should human beings give to robots as they evolve toward greater functionality?
  • Robotics in Science Fiction 9 February 2010 16:35 UTC www.technovelgy.com [Source type: General]

They also noted that some computer viruses can evade elimination and have achieved "cockroach intelligence." .They noted that self-awareness as depicted in science-fiction is probably unlikely, but that there were other potential hazards and pitfalls.^ KOBIAN Emotionally Demonstrative Robot There have been physically demonstrative robots in science fiction; but most of them follow a common path.
  • Robotics in Science Fiction 9 February 2010 16:35 UTC www.technovelgy.com [Source type: General]

^ They've been getting into the science fiction section of the library again, eh?
  • Robotics in Science Fiction 9 February 2010 16:35 UTC www.technovelgy.com [Source type: General]

[25] .Various media sources and scientific groups have noted separate trends in differing areas which might together result in greater robotic functionalities and autonomy, and which pose some inherent concerns.^ Predator, Prey Robots Evolve Just how much help should human beings give to robots as they evolve toward greater functionality?
  • Robotics in Science Fiction 9 February 2010 16:35 UTC www.technovelgy.com [Source type: General]

[27][28][29]
.Some experts and academics have questioned the use of robots for military combat, especially when such robots are given some degree of autonomous functions.^ Shrapnel-Locating Autonomous Robot This autonomous robotic arm uses a biopsy needle and a special technique to find bits of shrapnel as small as 2 mm needle fragments in the body.
  • Robotics in Science Fiction 9 February 2010 16:35 UTC www.technovelgy.com [Source type: General]

^ Vecna BEAR Robot For Battlefield Extraction And Retrieval Interesting new robot design could be useful for battlefield medical care and other military uses.
  • Robotics in Science Fiction 9 February 2010 16:35 UTC www.technovelgy.com [Source type: General]

^ The Sailor's Word-Book An Alphabetical Digest of Nautical Terms, including Some More Especially Military and Scientific, but Useful to Seamen; as well as Archaisms of Early Voyagers, etc.
  • Browse By Author: B - Project Gutenberg 10 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

[30] .There are also concerns about technology which might allow some armed robots to be controlled mainly by other robots.^ There are snake-arm robots in planes - not on planes, but in them.
  • Robotics in Science Fiction 9 February 2010 16:35 UTC www.technovelgy.com [Source type: General]

^ Luke Arm Robotic Prosthesis This is a different type of device; one of the design requirements was that it had no invasive controls.
  • Robotics in Science Fiction 9 February 2010 16:35 UTC www.technovelgy.com [Source type: General]

^ How about some nice, caring 'intelligent robot swarms?'
  • Robotics in Science Fiction 9 February 2010 16:35 UTC www.technovelgy.com [Source type: General]

[31] .The US Navy has funded a report which indicates that as military robots become more complex, there should be greater attention to implications of their ability to make autonomous decisions.^ Can an autonomous robot make an ethical decision?
  • Robotics in Science Fiction 9 February 2010 16:35 UTC www.technovelgy.com [Source type: General]

^ RoCo Robotic Computer Monitor You spend more time with your computer than with some of your friends; maybe it should know you better.
  • Robotics in Science Fiction 9 February 2010 16:35 UTC www.technovelgy.com [Source type: General]

^ EATR Robot Is A Vegetarian It turns out that reports of, well, ghoulish behavior on the part of Energetically Autonomous Tactical Robot were completely unfounded.
  • Robotics in Science Fiction 9 February 2010 16:35 UTC www.technovelgy.com [Source type: General]

[32][33] .One researcher states that autonomous robots might be more humane, as they could make decisions more effectively.^ Can an autonomous robot make an ethical decision?
  • Robotics in Science Fiction 9 February 2010 16:35 UTC www.technovelgy.com [Source type: General]

^ IMPASS Robot 'Smart Wheel' Video They're making great progress with Neal Stephenson's 'smart wheels' - take a look at the video.
  • Robotics in Science Fiction 9 February 2010 16:35 UTC www.technovelgy.com [Source type: General]

^ ERNIE The Robot Pharmacist - More Accurate Than Humans A robot pharmacist named ERNIE dispenses more than 90 percent of Evergreen Hospital Medical Center's drugs.
  • Robotics in Science Fiction 9 February 2010 16:35 UTC www.technovelgy.com [Source type: General]

However, other experts question this.[34]
.Some public concerns about autonomous robots have received media attention.^ How about some nice, caring 'intelligent robot swarms?'
  • Robotics in Science Fiction 9 February 2010 16:35 UTC www.technovelgy.com [Source type: General]

^ Always concerned about their aging population, Japanese roboticists have created a robotic instructor to lead the way to health.
  • Robotics in Science Fiction 9 February 2010 16:35 UTC www.technovelgy.com [Source type: General]

[35] .One robot in particular, the EATR, has generated concerns over its fuel source as it can continually refuel itself using organic substances.^ EATR - DARPA's Energetically Autonomous Tactical Robot Is a voracious autonomous robot able to feed itself and sustain free movement throughout all of eternity a really neat idea?
  • Robotics in Science Fiction 9 February 2010 16:35 UTC www.technovelgy.com [Source type: General]

^ Demolition Robots Help Destroy Building Robots suspended from cranes will be used to demolish the structure of one of Madrid's tallest buildings.
  • Robotics in Science Fiction 9 February 2010 16:35 UTC www.technovelgy.com [Source type: General]

^ Robotic Exoskeleton For Construction Workers Exoskeletons for soldiers are cool, but I'll never use one.
  • Robotics in Science Fiction 9 February 2010 16:35 UTC www.technovelgy.com [Source type: General]

[36] .Although the engine for the EATR is designed to run on biomass and vegetation[37] specifically selected by its sensors which can find on battlefields or other local environments the project has stated that chicken fat can also be used.^ Vecna BEAR Robot For Battlefield Extraction And Retrieval Interesting new robot design could be useful for battlefield medical care and other military uses.
  • Robotics in Science Fiction 9 February 2010 16:35 UTC www.technovelgy.com [Source type: General]

^ 'Electric Sheep' Runs On Real Grass - EATR Robot An 'electric sheep' that actually runs on biomass?
  • Robotics in Science Fiction 9 February 2010 16:35 UTC www.technovelgy.com [Source type: General]

^ Robotic Fish To Detect Pollution These lifelike robotic fish will use chemical sensors to find the source of hazardous pollutants in the water.
  • Robotics in Science Fiction 9 February 2010 16:35 UTC www.technovelgy.com [Source type: General]

[38]
.Another significant military robot is the SWORDS robot, which is currently used in ground-based combat.^ Vecna BEAR Robot For Battlefield Extraction And Retrieval Interesting new robot design could be useful for battlefield medical care and other military uses.
  • Robotics in Science Fiction 9 February 2010 16:35 UTC www.technovelgy.com [Source type: General]

^ Spherical Robot Lego Mindstorms NXT-Based I just like spherical robots; this very nicely implemented bot uses a Lego Mindstorms NXT kit as the basis for the locomotive power.
  • Robotics in Science Fiction 9 February 2010 16:35 UTC www.technovelgy.com [Source type: General]

^ MAST Spider Robots Like Minority Report Here we have yet another instance in which a government contractor might as well have just used the movie as the spec.
  • Robotics in Science Fiction 9 February 2010 16:35 UTC www.technovelgy.com [Source type: General]

It can use a variety of weapons, and there is some discussion of giving it some degree of autonomy in battleground situations.[39][40][41]
Unmanned combat air vehicles (UCAVs), which are an upgraded form of UAVs, can do a wide variety of missions, including combat. .UCAVs are being designed such as the Mantis UCAV which would have the ability to fly themselves, to pick their own course and target, and to make most decisions on their own.^ You won’t believe that a company that makes such software would do that, and that’s exactly the point.
  • AT&T blocks 4chan « Erling Løken Andersen 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC stormen.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[42]
The AAAI has studied this topic in depth[20] and its president has commissioned a study to look at this issue.[43]
Some have suggested a need to build "Friendly AI", meaning that the advances which are already occurring with AI should also include an effort to make AI intrinsically friendly and humane.[44] .Several such measures reportedly already exist, with robot-heavy countries such as Japan and South Korea[45] having begun to pass regulations requiring robots to be equipped with safety systems, and possibly sets of 'laws' akin to Asimov's Three Laws of Robotics.^ Three Laws of Robotics (Rules of Robotics) - the original robot laws .
  • Robotics in Science Fiction 9 February 2010 16:35 UTC www.technovelgy.com [Source type: General]

^ ApriAttenda Robot Nurse For Aging Japan Three main factors are pushing the Japanese into creating these robotic servants, which they will then market around the world.
  • Robotics in Science Fiction 9 February 2010 16:35 UTC www.technovelgy.com [Source type: General]

^ SWORDS - First Robots To Break Asimov's First Law Of Robotics Next month, the US Army will be putting robot soldiers in the field in Iraq.
  • Robotics in Science Fiction 9 February 2010 16:35 UTC www.technovelgy.com [Source type: General]

[46][47] .An official report was issued in 2009 by the Japanese government's Robot Industry Policy Committee.^ MAST Spider Robots Like Minority Report Here we have yet another instance in which a government contractor might as well have just used the movie as the spec.
  • Robotics in Science Fiction 9 February 2010 16:35 UTC www.technovelgy.com [Source type: General]

[48] .Chinese officials and researchers have issued a report suggesting a set of ethical rules, as well as a set of new legal guidelines referred to as "Robot Legal Studies."^ NOROS-1 Chinese Italian Lunar Robot Chinese and Italian researchers hard at work on a lunar exploration robot.
  • Robotics in Science Fiction 9 February 2010 16:35 UTC www.technovelgy.com [Source type: General]

^ Vecna BEAR Rescue Robot Prototype Ready The Vecna BEAR is evolving rapidly; new prototypes testing very well.
  • Robotics in Science Fiction 9 February 2010 16:35 UTC www.technovelgy.com [Source type: General]

[49] Some concern has been expressed over a possible occurrence of robots telling apparent falsehoods.[50]

Technological trends

.Various techniques have emerged to develop the science of robotics and robots.^ Terminator Salvation Motorcycle Robot Like Ghostrider Those neat motorcycles from Terminator Salvation have a real world development predecessor, as well as a science fictional predecessor.
  • Robotics in Science Fiction 9 February 2010 16:35 UTC www.technovelgy.com [Source type: General]

.One method is Evolutionary robotics, in which a number of differing robots are submitted to tests.^ Luke Arm Robotic Prosthesis This is a different type of device; one of the design requirements was that it had no invasive controls.
  • Robotics in Science Fiction 9 February 2010 16:35 UTC www.technovelgy.com [Source type: General]

.Those which perform best are used as a model to create a subsequent "generation" of robots.^ Starfish Robot Shows Robotic Introspection And Self-Modeling Amazing proprioceptive robot creates a model of its shape automatically; it can sense damage to itself and reconfigure its walk.
  • Robotics in Science Fiction 9 February 2010 16:35 UTC www.technovelgy.com [Source type: General]

^ Funktionide Blob: A Video Love Story In spite of the best efforts of the electroactive polymer blob's creator, the idea of a robotic blob that crawls into bed with me does not relax me.
  • Robotics in Science Fiction 9 February 2010 16:35 UTC www.technovelgy.com [Source type: General]

^ Robot Fashion Models Finally, fashion models can be as thin as they need to be; if aluminum is used, they can be lighter, too.
  • Robotics in Science Fiction 9 February 2010 16:35 UTC www.technovelgy.com [Source type: General]

.Another method is Developmental robotics, which tracks changes and development within a single in the areas of problem-solving and other functions.^ Self-Reconfigurable Robots Get It Together This robot comes apart into clusters that can call to each other and reconnect; watch the video and imagine what will be possible in another five years.
  • Robotics in Science Fiction 9 February 2010 16:35 UTC www.technovelgy.com [Source type: General]

^ Plasmobot Amorphous Biological Robot 'The plasmodium is capable of solving complex computational tasks, such as the shortest path between points and other logical calculations.'
  • Robotics in Science Fiction 9 February 2010 16:35 UTC www.technovelgy.com [Source type: General]

Technological development

Overall trends
.Japan hopes to have full-scale commercialization of service robots by 2025. Much technological research in Japan is led by Japanese government agencies, particularly the Trade Ministry.^ Robots Take 3.5M Jobs In Japan By 2025 Extremely low birth rates in Japan make this news a blessing, rather than a curse.
  • Robotics in Science Fiction 9 February 2010 16:35 UTC www.technovelgy.com [Source type: General]

^ Huggable Robotic Bear Companion From MIT The lovable robot bear from Spielberg's A.I. is getting much closer, thanks to efforts of researchers at MIT. (re: Brian Aldiss, 8/2/2006 ) .
  • Robotics in Science Fiction 9 February 2010 16:35 UTC www.technovelgy.com [Source type: General]

^ ApriAttenda Robot Nurse For Aging Japan Three main factors are pushing the Japanese into creating these robotic servants, which they will then market around the world.
  • Robotics in Science Fiction 9 February 2010 16:35 UTC www.technovelgy.com [Source type: General]

[51]
.As robots become more advanced, eventually there may be a standard computer operating system designed mainly for robots.^ Elios Giant Insect Rescue Robot Design Cool rescue robot design might creep you out just a bit while you were lying there waiting to be rescued.
  • Robotics in Science Fiction 9 February 2010 16:35 UTC www.technovelgy.com [Source type: General]

^ Robots Get More Sensitive Sensors Nanoparticles help robots become more sensitive; thin films provide a sense of touch as good as yours.
  • Robotics in Science Fiction 9 February 2010 16:35 UTC www.technovelgy.com [Source type: General]

^ Robotic Cable Inspection System This unique robot operates under very difficult and constrained conditions; we need one of these for the space elevator program, too.
  • Robotics in Science Fiction 9 February 2010 16:35 UTC www.technovelgy.com [Source type: General]

.Robot Operating System (ROS) is an open-source set of programs being developed at Stanford University, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and the Technical University of Munich, Germany, among others.^ Robot English Teacher From KAIRA A robotic english teacher is now being used in pilot programs in Seoul, Korea.
  • Robotics in Science Fiction 9 February 2010 16:35 UTC www.technovelgy.com [Source type: General]

^ Limb System Robot Arm Stronger Than Yours This is a remarkable development; Touch Bionics is the creator of an amazingly usable bionic hand as well.
  • Robotics in Science Fiction 9 February 2010 16:35 UTC www.technovelgy.com [Source type: General]

^ Robotic Fish From China A robotic fish designed for underwater archaeology, mapping, water cultivation and even fishing has been co-developed by the Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics.
  • Robotics in Science Fiction 9 February 2010 16:35 UTC www.technovelgy.com [Source type: General]

.ROS provides ways to program a robot's navigation and limbs regardless of the specific hardware involved.^ Teleo-Reactive Programs Are Reaching Their Goals Teleo-Reactive Programs (TRPs) help robots and other machine intelligences achieve goals, not just specific behaviors.
  • Robotics in Science Fiction 9 February 2010 16:35 UTC www.technovelgy.com [Source type: General]

^ Robotic Ankle Exoskeleton Helps Users Regain Limb Function Research provides a device that both supports the ankle, and helps interpret the brain's signals.
  • Robotics in Science Fiction 9 February 2010 16:35 UTC www.technovelgy.com [Source type: General]

It also provides high-level commands for items like image recognition and even opening doors. .When ROS boots up on a robot's computer, it would obtain data on attributes such as the length and movement of robots' limbs.^ Plasmobot Amorphous Biological Robot 'The plasmodium is capable of solving complex computational tasks, such as the shortest path between points and other logical calculations.'
  • Robotics in Science Fiction 9 February 2010 16:35 UTC www.technovelgy.com [Source type: General]

It would relay this data to higher-level algorithms. Microsoft is also developing a "Windows for robots" system with its Robotics Developer Studio, which has been available since 2007.[52]
New functions and abilities
The Caterpillar Company is making a dump truck which can drive itself without any human operator.[53]
.Many future applications of robotics seem obvious to people, even though they are well beyond the capabilities of robots available at the time of the prediction.^ Segway Robotic Mobility Platform Looks Like A Tumblebug This nifty little item might be usable by engineers as well as by their robotic applications.
  • Robotics in Science Fiction 9 February 2010 16:35 UTC www.technovelgy.com [Source type: General]

^ Dog Wan Robot Available For Lease Here's a cute little robotic dog ready to lease in Japan; it can even carry a small bag for you.
  • Robotics in Science Fiction 9 February 2010 16:35 UTC www.technovelgy.com [Source type: General]

^ If they can’t even do that, what makes all you people think that they can take out AT&T. Fuck anonymous and /b/ and all those new/old fags.
  • AT&T blocks 4chan « Erling Løken Andersen 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC stormen.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.As early as 1982 people were confident that someday robots would:[54] 1. clean parts by removing molding flash 2. spray paint automobiles with absolutely no human presence 3. pack things in boxes -- for example, orient and nest chocolate candies in candy boxes 4. make electrical cable harness 5. load trucks with boxes -- a packing problem 6. handle soft goods, such as garments and shoes 7. shear sheep 8. prosthesis 9. cook fast food and work in other service industries 10. household robot.^ Robots Making Smaller Robots Making Smaller Robots Robotic technologies make possible smaller and smaller manufactured goods - too small for people to make.
  • Robotics in Science Fiction 9 February 2010 16:35 UTC www.technovelgy.com [Source type: General]

^ KAR Kitchen Assistant Robot Joins Kitchen Bot Squad KAR will need to work with all the other helper robots in the kitchen - take a look at the competition for this new bot from Panasonic.
  • Robotics in Science Fiction 9 February 2010 16:35 UTC www.technovelgy.com [Source type: General]

^ Obrero Robot Has The Soft Touch It would be a pleasure to shake hands with this robot, which uses sensitive manipulation to gauge just the right gripping force.
  • Robotics in Science Fiction 9 February 2010 16:35 UTC www.technovelgy.com [Source type: General]

Generally such predictions are overly optimistic in timescale.

Research robots

.While most robots today are installed in factories or homes, performing labour or life saving jobs, many new types of robot are being developed in laboratories around the world.^ Robots Take 3.5M Jobs In Japan By 2025 Extremely low birth rates in Japan make this news a blessing, rather than a curse.
  • Robotics in Science Fiction 9 February 2010 16:35 UTC www.technovelgy.com [Source type: General]

^ Prototype Jockey-Ridden Hopping Robot A new sport in the process of being born?
  • Robotics in Science Fiction 9 February 2010 16:35 UTC www.technovelgy.com [Source type: General]

^ CareBot MSR Personal Care Robot New entry in the home and health care robotics area; it can even make use of your own family's colloquial expressions.
  • Robotics in Science Fiction 9 February 2010 16:35 UTC www.technovelgy.com [Source type: General]

.Much of the research in robotics focuses not on specific industrial tasks, but on investigations into new types of robot, alternative ways to think about or design robots, and new ways to manufacture them.^ Only a prototype, but I still think that Heinlein was on to something when he wondered about dishwashing robots.
  • Robotics in Science Fiction 9 February 2010 16:35 UTC www.technovelgy.com [Source type: General]

^ Kiyomuri Samurai Robot Now With Improved Gait Stabilization Kiyomuri may not have much in the way of sword-wielding skills, but he's got the walk down pat.
  • Robotics in Science Fiction 9 February 2010 16:35 UTC www.technovelgy.com [Source type: General]

^ Heart Robot Wants To Feel Your Love I'm not sure whether or not this robot crosses the uncanny valley, but I think it's part way through creepy valley.
  • Robotics in Science Fiction 9 February 2010 16:35 UTC www.technovelgy.com [Source type: General]

.It is expected that these new types of robot will be able to solve real world problems when they are finally realized.^ Is this really the world's smallest robot?
  • Robotics in Science Fiction 9 February 2010 16:35 UTC www.technovelgy.com [Source type: General]

^ Dyson Intelligent Vacuum Cleaner Is Self-Diagnosing James Dyson has added a new feature to his vacuum cleaners - they can tell service personnel exactly what the problem is.
  • Robotics in Science Fiction 9 February 2010 16:35 UTC www.technovelgy.com [Source type: General]

^ HRP-3 Promet Robot Blue Collar Style Robots need to be able to work in the real world, not just inside controlled environments.
  • Robotics in Science Fiction 9 February 2010 16:35 UTC www.technovelgy.com [Source type: General]

[citation needed]
A microfabricated electrostatic gripper holding some silicon nanowires.[55]
  • Care-Providing Robots:
    Fig. 1: The Care-Providing robot FRIEND. (Photo: IAT)
    The Care-Providing robot FRIEND is a semi-autonomous robot designed to support disabled and elderly people in their daily life activities, like preparing and serving a meal, or reintegration in professional life. FRIEND make it possible for such people, e.g. patients which are paraplegic, have muscle diseases or serious paralysis, e.g. due to strokes, to perform special tasks in daily life self-determined and without help from other people like therapists or nursing staff. .The robot FRIEND is the third generation of such robots developed at the Institute of Automation (IAT) of University of Bremen within different research projects[56][57].^ Robotic Fish From China A robotic fish designed for underwater archaeology, mapping, water cultivation and even fishing has been co-developed by the Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics.
    • Robotics in Science Fiction 9 February 2010 16:35 UTC www.technovelgy.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Life Detector Robot To Find Life On Distant Worlds Zoe, which was developed by Carnegie Mellon University, detects life by looking for natural fluorescence from cells that contain chlorophyll.
    • Robotics in Science Fiction 9 February 2010 16:35 UTC www.technovelgy.com [Source type: General]

    Within the last project, AMaRob (AMaRob web page), an interdisciplinary consortium, consisting of technicians, designers as well as therapists and further representatives of various interest groups, influences the development of FRIEND. Besides covering the various technical aspects, also design aspects were included as well as requirements from daily practice given by therapists, in order to develop a care-providing robot that is suitable for daily life activities. The AMaRob project was founded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF – Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung) within the “Leitinnovation Servicerobotik”.
  • Nanorobots: Nanorobotics is the still largely hypothetical technology of creating machines or robots at or close to the scale of a nanometer (10−9 meters). Also known as nanobots or nanites, they would be constructed from molecular machines. So far, researchers have mostly produced only parts of these complex systems, such as bearings, sensors, and Synthetic molecular motors, but functioning robots have also been made such as the entrants to the Nanobot Robocup contest.[58] Researchers also hope to be able to create entire robots as small as viruses or bacteria, which could perform tasks on a tiny scale. Possible applications include micro surgery (on the level of individual cells), utility fog,[59] manufacturing, weaponry and cleaning.[60] .Some people have suggested that if there were nanobots which could reproduce, the earth would turn into "grey goo", while others argue that this hypothetical outcome is nonsense.^ This might turn into a fight on multiple levels; both a legal struggle and, well, other sorts of struggle.
    • AT&T blocks 4chan « Erling Løken Andersen 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC stormen.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Yes, some people here may be a dumbass but there’s no need to leave a one word reply.
    • AT&T blocks 4chan « Erling Løken Andersen 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC stormen.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    [61][62]
  • Reconfigurable Robots: A few researchers have investigated the possibility of creating robots which can alter their physical form to suit a particular task,[63] like the fictional T-1000. .Real robots are nowhere near that sophisticated however, and mostly consist of a small number of cube shaped units, which can move relative to their neighbours, for example SuperBot.^ Really, 4chan couldn’t even take down scientology and scientology is nowhere near as big as AT&T which has monetary resources beyond that of all of 4chan.
    • AT&T blocks 4chan « Erling Løken Andersen 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC stormen.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Algorithms have been designed in case any such robots become a reality.[64]
  • Soft Robots: Robots with silicone bodies and flexible actuators (air muscles, electroactive polymers, and ferrofluids), controlled using fuzzy logic and neural networks, look and feel different from robots with rigid skeletons, and are capable of different behaviors.[65]
A swarm of robots from the Open-source Micro-robotic Project
  • Swarm robots: Inspired by colonies of insects such as ants and bees, researchers are modeling the behavior of swarms of thousands of tiny robots which together perform a useful task, such as finding something hidden, cleaning, or spying. Each robot is quite simple, but the emergent behavior of the swarm is more complex. The whole set of robots can be considered as one single distributed system, in the same way an ant colony can be considered a superorganism, exhibiting swarm intelligence. The largest swarms so far created include the iRobot swarm, the SRI/MobileRobots CentiBots project[66] and the Open-source Micro-robotic Project swarm, which are being used to research collective behaviors.[67][68] Swarms are also more resistant to failure. Whereas one large robot may fail and ruin a mission, a swarm can continue even if several robots fail. This could make them attractive for space exploration missions, where failure can be extremely costly.[69]
  • Haptic interface robots: Robotics also has application in the design of virtual reality interfaces. Specialized robots are in widespread use in the haptic research community. These robots, called "haptic interfaces," allow touch-enabled user interaction with real and virtual environments. Robotic forces allow simulating the mechanical properties of "virtual" objects, which users can experience through their sense of touch.[70] Haptic interfaces are also used in robot-aided rehabilitation.

Varying cultural perceptions

.Roughly half of all the robots in the world are in Asia, 32% in Europe, and 16% in North America, 1% in Australasia and 1% in Africa.^ Bergsoe, Wilhelm The Lock and Key Library The Most Interesting Stories of All Nations: North Europe — Russian — Swedish — Danish — Hungarian (English) (as Contributor) Bergsoe, Wilhelm .
  • Browse By Author: B - Project Gutenberg 10 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

[71] 30% of all the robots in the world are in Japan.[72] .This means that Japan has the most robots in the world out of all the countries, and is in fact leading the world's robotics.^ Reply The fact that they went after /b/ means they just went after some of the most talented non-payed hackers in the world, and i think they’ve found they’re next target .
  • AT&T blocks 4chan « Erling Løken Andersen 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC stormen.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Their tactics against Scientology have done ZILCH despite the fact most ordinary folks in that “real world” really don’t even enjoy Scientology.
  • AT&T blocks 4chan « Erling Løken Andersen 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC stormen.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[73] Japan is actually said to be the robotic capital of the world.[74]
.In Japan and South Korea, ideas of future robots have been mainly positive, and the start of the pro-robotic society there is thought to be possibly due to the famous 'Astro Boy'. Asian societies such as Japan, South Korea, and more recently, China, believe robots to be more equal to humans, having them care for old people, play with or teach children, or replace pets etc.^ Reply At&t ive been having more and more problems with them lately i have no idea what there doing but its making me want to change providers more .
  • AT&T blocks 4chan « Erling Løken Andersen 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC stormen.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But I don’t believe in having to pay more for free speech.
  • AT&T blocks 4chan « Erling Løken Andersen 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC stormen.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[75] The general view in Asian cultures is that the more robots advance, the better, which is the opposite of the Western belief.
"This is the opening of an era in which human beings and robots can co-exist," says Japanese firm Mitsubishi about one of the many humanistic robots in Japan.[76] South Korea aims to put a robot in every house there by 2015-2020 in order to help catch up technologically with Japan.[45][77]
.Western societies are more likely to be against, or even fear the development of robotics, through much media output in movies and literature that they will replace humans.^ Well, this giant wasn’t sleeping, and is MUCH more likely to use the A-Bomb as a first-resort.
  • AT&T blocks 4chan « Erling Løken Andersen 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC stormen.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Some believe that the West regards robots as a 'threat' to the future of humans, partly due to religious beliefs about the role of humans and society.[74][78] Obviously, these boundaries are not clear, but there is a significant difference between the two cultural viewpoints.

Contemporary uses

At present there are 2 main types of robots, based on their use: general-purpose autonomous robots and dedicated robots.
TOPIO, a humanoid robot developed by TOSY that can play ping-pong.[79]
Robots can be classified by their specificity of purpose. A robot might be designed to perform one particular task extremely well, or a range of tasks less well. Of course, all robots by their nature can be re-programmed to behave differently, but some are limited by their physical form. For example, a factory robot arm can perform jobs such as cutting, welding, gluing, or acting as a fairground ride, while a pick-and-place robot can only populate printed circuit boards.

General-purpose autonomous robots

General-purpose autonomous robots are robots that can perform a variety of functions independently. .General-purpose autonomous robots typically can navigate independently in known spaces, handle their own re-charging needs, interface with electronic doors and elevators and perform other basic tasks.^ Given the fact this is an internet entity we’re talking about, I just don’t think 4chan and Anon have it in them to handle it any other way.
  • AT&T blocks 4chan « Erling Løken Andersen 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC stormen.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Like computers, general-purpose robots can link with networks, software and accessories that increase their usefulness. .They may recognize people or objects, talk, provide companionship, monitor environmental quality, respond to alarms, pick up supplies and perform other useful tasks.^ Should people be able to tell others how to run a business and insist they run it a certain way?
  • AT&T blocks 4chan « Erling Løken Andersen 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC stormen.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

General-purpose robots may perform a variety of functions simultaneously or they may take on different roles at different times of day. .Some such robots try to mimic human beings and may even resemble people in appearance; this type of robot is called a humanoid robot.^ Yes, some people here may be a dumbass but there’s no need to leave a one word reply.
  • AT&T blocks 4chan « Erling Løken Andersen 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC stormen.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some of you are gonna rage at this comment and think ATT is even at least partly good for trying to stop “child pornography”.
  • AT&T blocks 4chan « Erling Løken Andersen 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC stormen.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ How to Analyze People on Sight Through the Science of Human Analysis: The Five Human Types (English) (as Author) Benedictsson, Victoria .
  • Browse By Author: B - Project Gutenberg 10 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

A general-purpose robot acts as a guide during the day and a security guard at night

Types of robots

A Pick and Place robot in a factory
At the end of 2008, there were over 1 million industrial robots and an estimated 7 million service robots in use.[80] Industrial robot, as defined by ISO 8373, is "an automatically controlled, reprogrammable, multipurpose manipulator programmable in three or more axes, which may be either fixed in place or mobile for use in industrial automation applications." Most commonly, industrial robots are fixed robotic arms and manipulators used primarily for production and distribution of goods. The term "service robot" is less well-defined. IFR has proposed a tentative definition, "A service robot is a robot which operates semi- or fully autonomously to perform services useful to the well-being of humans and equipment, excluding manufacturing operations."

Robots increased productivity, accuracy, and endurance

Automation increases productivity, improves reliability and reduces the price of goods, such automobiles and electronics.[citation needed]

Some examples of factory robots

  • Car production: Over the last three decades automobile factories have become dominated by robots. A typical factory contains hundreds of industrial robots working on fully automated production lines, with one robot for every ten human workers. On an automated production line, a vehicle chassis on a conveyor is welded, glued, painted and finally assembled at a sequence of robot stations.
.
An intelligent AGV drops-off goods without needing lines or beacons in the workspace
  • Packaging: Industrial robots are also used extensively for palletizing and packaging of manufactured goods, for example for rapidly taking drink cartons from the end of a conveyor belt and placing them into boxes, or for loading and unloading machining centers.
  • Electronics: Mass-produced printed circuit boards (PCBs) are almost exclusively manufactured by pick-and-place robots, typically with SCARA manipulators, which remove tiny electronic components from strips or trays, and place them on to PCBs with great accuracy.^ Reply 4chan is very good about taking off all forms of “Child Pornography”.
    • AT&T blocks 4chan « Erling Løken Andersen 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC stormen.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ They are a lot more powerful than they appear and people should take a good look into the company’s history before taking action.
    • AT&T blocks 4chan « Erling Løken Andersen 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC stormen.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    [81] Such robots can place hundreds of thousands of components per hour, far out-performing a human in speed, accuracy, and reliability.[82]
  • Automated guided vehicles (AGVs): Mobile robots, following markers or wires in the floor, or using vision[83] or lasers, are used to transport goods around large facilities, such as warehouses, container ports, or hospitals.[84]
    • Early AGV-Style Robots were limited to tasks that could be accurately defined and had to be performed the same way every time. Very little feedback or intelligence was required, and the robots needed only the most basic exteroceptors (sensors). The limitations of these AGVs are that their paths are not easily altered and they cannot alter their paths if obstacles block them. If one AGV breaks down, it may stop the entire operation.
    • Interim AGV-Technologies developed that deploy triangulation from beacons or bar code grids for scanning on the floor or ceiling. In most factories, triangulation systems tend to require moderate to high maintenance, such as daily cleaning of all beacons or bar codes. Also, if a tall pallet or large vehicle blocks beacons or a bar code is marred, AGVs may become lost. Often such AGVs are designed to be used in human-free environments.
    • Intelligent AGVs (i-AGVs) such as SpeciMinder,[85] ADAM,[86] Tug[87] and MT 400 with Motivity[88] are designed for people-friendly workspaces. They navigate by recognizing natural features. 3D scanners or other means of sensing the environment in two or three dimensions help to eliminate cumulative errors in dead-reckoning calculations of the AGV's current position. .Some AGVs can create maps of their environment using scanning lasers with simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) and use those maps to navigate in real time with other path planning and obstacle avoidance algorithms.^ Reply What some of you don’t realize, more specifically those saying “Good!
      • AT&T blocks 4chan « Erling Løken Andersen 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC stormen.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      They are able to operate in complex environments and perform non-repetitive and non-sequential tasks such as transporting photomasks in a semiconductor lab, specimens in hospitals and goods in warehouses. For dynamic areas, such as warehouses full of pallets, AGVs require additional strategies using three-dimensional sensors such as time-of-flight or stereovision cameras.
A U.S. Marine Corps technician prepares to use a telerobot to detonate a buried improvised explosive device near Camp Fallujah, Iraq

Dirty, dangerous, dull or inaccessible tasks

There are many jobs which humans would rather leave to robots. The job may be boring, such as domestic cleaning, or dangerous, such as exploring inside a volcano.[89] Other jobs are physically inaccessible, such as exploring another planet,[90] cleaning the inside of a long pipe, or performing laparoscopic surgery.[91]
  • Telerobots: When a human cannot be present on site to perform a job because it is dangerous, far away, or inaccessible, teleoperated robots, or telerobots are used. Rather than following a predetermined sequence of movements, a telerobot is controlled from a distance by a human operator. The robot may be in another room or another country, or may be on a very different scale to the operator. For instance, a laparoscopic surgery robot allows the surgeon to work inside a human patient on a relatively small scale compared to open surgery, significantly shortening recovery time.[91] When disabling a bomb, the operator sends a small robot to disable it. Several authors have been using a device called the Longpen to sign books remotely.[92] Teleoperated robot aircraft, like the Predator Unmanned Aerial Vehicle, are increasingly being used by the military. These pilotless drones can search terrain and fire on targets.[93][94] Hundreds of robots such as iRobot's Packbot and the Foster-Miller TALON are being used in Iraq and Afghanistan by the U.S. military to defuse roadside bombs or Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs) in an activity known as explosive ordnance disposal (EOD).[95]
The Roomba domestic vacuum cleaner robot does a single, menial job
The ANATROLLER ARI-100 is a modular mobile robot used for cleaning hazardous environments
  • In the home: As prices fall and robots become smarter and more autonomous, simple robots dedicated to a single task work in over a million homes. They are taking on simple but unwanted jobs, such as vacuum cleaning and floor washing, and lawn mowing. .Some find these robots to be cute and entertaining, which is one reason that they can sell very well.
  • Elder Care: The population is aging in many countries, especially Japan, meaning that there are increasing numbers of elderly people to care for, but relatively fewer young people to care for them.^ I am aged enough to recall the very first one that even had mouse support and two clickable buttons, nevermind all this fancy stuff they have anymore.
    • AT&T blocks 4chan « Erling Løken Andersen 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC stormen.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ When they came for me, there was no one left to speak out.
    • AT&T blocks 4chan « Erling Løken Andersen 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC stormen.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The people that mostly complain here and find it is only because some site said it was a big deal or popular.
    • AT&T blocks 4chan « Erling Løken Andersen 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC stormen.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    [96][97] Humans make the best carers, but where they are unavailable, robots are gradually being introduced.[98]
  • Duct Cleaning: In the hazardous and tight spaces of a building's duct work, many hours can be spent cleaning relatively small areas if a manual brush is used. Robots have been used by many duct cleaners primarily in the industrial and institutional cleaning markets, as they allow the job to be done faster, without exposing workers to the harmful enzymes released by dust mites. For cleaning high-security institutions such as embassies and prisons, duct cleaning robots are vital, as they allow the job to be completed without compromising the security of the institution. Hospitals and other government buildings with hazardous and cancerogenic environments such as nuclear reactors legally must be cleaned using duct cleaning robots, in countries such as Canada, in an effort to improve workplace safety in duct cleaning.

Potential problems

Fears and concerns about robots have been repeatedly expressed in a wide range of books and films. A common theme is the development of a master race of conscious and highly intelligent robots, motivated to take over or destroy the human race. (See The Terminator, Runaway, Blade Runner, Robocop, the Replicators in Stargate, the Cylons in Battlestar Galactica, The Matrix, THX-1138, and I, Robot.) Some fictional robots are programmed to kill and destroy; others gain superhuman intelligence and abilities by upgrading their own software and hardware. Examples of popular media where the robot becomes evil are 2001: A Space Odyssey, Red Planet, ... Another common theme is the reaction, sometimes called the "uncanny valley", of unease and even revulsion at the sight of robots that mimic humans too closely.[99] Frankenstein (1818), often called the first science fiction novel, has become synonymous with the theme of a robot or monster advancing beyond its creator. In the TV show, Futurama, the robots are portrayed as humanoid figures that live alongside humans, not as robotic butlers. They still work in industry, but these robots carry out daily lives.
Manuel De Landa has noted that "smart missiles" and autonomous bombs equipped with artificial perception can be considered robots, and they make some of their decisions autonomously. He believes this represents an important and dangerous trend in which humans are handing over important decisions to machines.[100]
Marauding robots may have entertainment value, but unsafe use of robots constitutes an actual danger. A heavy industrial robot with powerful actuators and unpredictably complex behavior can cause harm, for instance by stepping on a human's foot or falling on a human. Most industrial robots operate inside a security fence which separates them from human workers, but not all. Two robot-caused deaths are those of Robert Williams and Kenji Urada. .Robert Williams was struck by a robotic arm at a casting plant in Flat Rock, Michigan on January 25, 1979.[101] 37-year-old Kenji Urada, a Japanese factory worker, was killed in 1981; Urada was performing routine maintenance on the robot, but neglected to shut it down properly, and was accidentally pushed into a grinding machine.^ Killed two boys as a 10-year-old .
  • People by Last Names: B 10 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: General]

[102]

Timeline

Date Significance Robot name Inventor
1st century AD and earlier Descriptions of over a hundred machines and automata, including a fire engine, wind organ, coin-operated machine, and steam-powered aeliopile, in Pneumatica and Automata by Heron Ctesibius, Philo, Heron, and others
1206 First programmable humanoid automata, consisting of a boat with four robotic musicians Robot band[103] Al-Jazari
c. 1495 Designs for a humanoid robot Mechanical knight Leonardo da Vinci
1738 Mechanical duck that was able to eat, flap its wings, and excrete Digesting Duck Jacques de Vaucanson
1800s Japanese mechanical toys that served tea, fired arrows, and painted Karakuri toys Hisashige Tanaka
1921 First fictional automata called "robots" appear in the play R.U.R. Rossum's Universal Robots Karel Čapek
1928 Humanoid robot, based on a suit of armor with electrical actuators, exhibited at the annual exhibition of the Model Engineers Society in London Eric W. H. Richards
1930s Humanoid robot exhibited at the 1939 and 1940 World's Fairs Elektro Westinghouse Electric Corporation
1948 Simple robots exhibiting biological behaviors[104] Elsie and Elmer William Grey Walter
1956 First commercial robot, from the Unimation company founded by George Devol and Joseph Engelberger, based on Devol's patents[105] Unimate George Devol
1961 First installed industrial robot Unimate George Devol
1963 First palletizing robot[106] Palletizer Fuji Yusoki Kogyo
1973 First robot with six electromechanically driven axes[107] Famulus KUKA Robot Group
1975 Programmable universal manipulation arm, a Unimation product PUMA Victor Scheinman

History

Many ancient mythologies include artificial people, such as the mechanical servants built by the Greek god Hephaestus[108] (Vulcan to the Romans), the clay golems of Jewish legend and clay giants of Norse legend, and Galatea, the mythical statue of Pygmalion that came to life. .In Greek drama, Deus Ex Machina was contrived as a dramatic device that usually involved lowering a deity by wires into the play to solve a seemingly impossible problem.^ Reply I would like to see it get completely sovled too but it will never really be solved because of the power plays involved.
  • AT&T blocks 4chan « Erling Løken Andersen 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC stormen.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In the 4th century BC, the Greek mathematician Archytas of Tarentum postulated a mechanical steam-operated bird he called "The Pigeon". Hero of Alexandria (10–70 AD) created numerous user-configurable automated devices, and described machines powered by air pressure, steam and water.[109] Su Song built a clock tower in China in 1088 featuring mechanical figurines that chimed the hours.[110]
Al-Jazari's programmable humanoid robots
Al-Jazari (1136–1206), a Muslim inventor during the Artuqid dynasty, designed and constructed a number of automated machines, including kitchen appliances, musical automata powered by water, and the first programmable humanoid robots in 1206.[103][111] The robots appeared as four musicians on a boat in a lake, entertaining guests at royal drinking parties. His mechanism had a programmable drum machine with pegs (cams) that bumped into little levers that operated percussion instruments. The drummer could be made to play different rhythms and different drum patterns by moving the pegs to different locations.[103][111]

Early modern developments

Tea-serving karakuri, with mechanism, 19th century. Tokyo National Science Museum.
.Leonardo da Vinci (1452–1519) sketched plans for a humanoid robot around 1495. Da Vinci's notebooks, rediscovered in the 1950s, contain detailed drawings of a mechanical knight now known as Leonardo's robot, able to sit up, wave its arms and move its head and jaw.^ Leonardo Da Vinci (English) (as Author) Brodhead, Eva Wilder, 1870-1915 .
  • Browse By Author: B - Project Gutenberg 10 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

[112] The design was probably based on anatomical research recorded in his Vitruvian Man. It is not known whether he attempted to build it. In 1738 and 1739, Jacques de Vaucanson exhibited several life-sized automatons: a flute player, a pipe player and a duck. The mechanical duck could flap its wings, crane its neck, and swallow food from the exhibitor's hand, and it gave the illusion of digesting its food by excreting matter stored in a hidden compartment.[113] Complex mechanical toys and animals built in Japan in the 1700s were described in the Karakuri zui (Illustrated Machinery, 1796)

Modern developments

The Japanese craftsman Hisashige Tanaka (1799–1881), known as "Japan's Edison" or "Karakuri Giemon", created an array of extremely complex mechanical toys, some of which served tea, fired arrows drawn from a quiver, and even painted a Japanese kanji character.[114] In 1898 Nikola Tesla publicly demonstrated a radio-controlled torpedo.[115] Based on patents for "teleautomation", Tesla hoped to develop it into a weapon system for the US Navy.[116][117]
The first Unimate
In 1926, Westinghouse Electric Corporation created Televox, the first robot put to useful work. .They followed Televox with a number of other simple robots, including one called Rastus, made in the crude image of a black man.^ One thing they can’t calculate is the tenacity and lengths to which /b/ will go to, even those of them who don’t use ATT as an ISP, just to prove a simple point.
  • AT&T blocks 4chan « Erling Løken Andersen 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC stormen.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In the 1930s, they created a humanoid robot known as Elektro for exhibition purposes, including the 1939 and 1940 World's Fairs.[118][119] In 1928, Japan's first robot, Gakutensoku, was designed and constructed by biologist Makoto Nishimura.
The first electronic autonomous robots were created by William Grey Walter of the Burden Neurological Institute at Bristol, England in 1948 and 1949. They were named Elmer and Elsie. These robots could sense light and contact with external objects, and use these stimuli to navigate.[120]
The first truly modern robot, digitally operated and programmable, was invented by George Devol in 1954 and was ultimately called the Unimate. Devol sold the first Unimate to General Motors in 1960, and it was installed in 1961 in a plant in Trenton, New Jersey to lift hot pieces of metal from a die casting machine and stack them.[121]

Literature

A gynoid, or robot designed to resemble a woman, can appear comforting to some people and disturbing to others[99]
Robotic characters, androids (artificial men/women) or gynoids (artificial women), and cyborgs (also "bionic men/women", or humans with significant mechanical enhancements) have become a staple of science fiction.
The first reference in Western literature to mechanical servants appears in Homer's Iliad. In Book XVIII, Hephaestus, god of fire, creates new armor for the hero Achilles, assisted by robots.[122] According to the Rieu translation, "Golden maidservants hastened to help their master. They looked like real women and could not only speak and use their limbs but were endowed with intelligence and trained in handwork by the immortal gods." .Of course, the words "robot" or "android" are not used to describe them, but they are nevertheless mechanical devices human in appearance.^ The only answer is to stop using their services and getting the word out about how they have started this.
  • AT&T blocks 4chan « Erling Løken Andersen 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC stormen.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They are a service provider, you don’t like their ways of doing things, stop using them and let capitalism take it’s course.
  • AT&T blocks 4chan « Erling Løken Andersen 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC stormen.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The most prolific author of stories about robots was Isaac Asimov (1920–1992), who placed robots and their interaction with society at the center of many of his works.^ Stories about the Instinct of Animals, Their Characters, and Habits (English) (as Author) Bingley, William, 1774-1823 .
  • Browse By Author: B - Project Gutenberg 10 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ If The Consumerist updated their contact information as much as they posted stories about poor johnny bravo who didn’t get his double latte at Starbucks, their beloved EECB’s might actually work for once.
  • AT&T blocks 4chan « Erling Løken Andersen 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC stormen.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A Story of the Red Cross Glimpses of Field Work (English) (as Author) Barton, William Eleazar, 1861-1930 .
  • Browse By Author: B - Project Gutenberg 10 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

[123][124] .Asimov carefully considered the problem of the ideal set of instructions robots might be given in order to lower the risk to humans, and arrived at his Three Laws of Robotics: a robot may not injure a human being or, through inaction, allow a human being to come to harm; a robot must obey orders given to it by human beings, except where such orders would conflict with the First Law; and a robot must protect its own existence as long as such protection does not conflict with the First or Second Law.^ The First Amendment would only apply (in this instance) it if was a governmental agency expression laws that forbid freedom of speech on the Internet.
  • AT&T blocks 4chan « Erling Løken Andersen 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC stormen.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[125] These were introduced in his 1942 short story "Runaround", although foreshadowed in a few earlier stories. Later, Asimov added the Zeroth Law: "A robot may not harm humanity, or, by inaction, allow humanity to come to harm"; the rest of the laws are modified sequentially to acknowledge this.
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the first passage in Asimov's short story "Liar!" (1941) that mentions the First Law is the earliest recorded use of the word robotics. Asimov was not initially aware of this; he assumed the word already existed by analogy with mechanics, hydraulics, and other similar terms denoting branches of applied knowledge.[126]

See also

Main list: Topic outline of robotics
  • For classes and types of robots see Category:Robots.
  • FIRST - For Inspiration and Recognition of Science and Technology; an organization that founded various robotics competitions for elementary and high school students.

Notes and references

  1. ^ "ROBOT" Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary. 2010.
  2. ^ American Heritage Dictionary
  3. ^ "Telecom glossary "bot"". Alliance for Telecommunications Solutions. 2001-02-28. Archived from the original on 2008-07-14. http://web.archive.org/web/20070202121608/http://www.atis.org/tg2k/_bot.html. Retrieved 2007-09-05. 
  4. ^ "About us". http://www.emrotechnologies.com/. 
  5. ^ "Definition of a robot" (PDF). Dansk Robot Forening. Archived from the original on 2008-07-15. http://web.archive.org/web/20070628064010/http://www.dira.dk/pdf/robotdef.pdf. Retrieved 2007-09-10. 
  6. ^ "Robotics-related Standards Sites". European Robotics Research Network. http://www.euron.org/resources/standards.html. Retrieved 2008-07-15. 
  7. ^ Lee, Dai Gil (2005). Axiomatic Design and Fabrication of Composite Structures. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0195178777. http://books.google.com/books?id=JDOfVxRC8x8C&pg=PA513&lpg=PA513&source=web&ots=_iMgIErG60&sig=uo7dgICtMBdETyNieUmktCBSnHI. Retrieved 2007-10-22. 
  8. ^ Polk, Igor (2005-11-16). "RoboNexus 2005 robot exhibition virtual tour". Robonexus Exhibition 2005. http://www.virtuar.com/click/2005/robonexus/index.htm. Retrieved 2007-09-10. 
  9. ^ Harris, Tom. "How Robots Work". How Stuff Works. http://science.howstuffworks.com/robot.htm. Retrieved 2007-09-10. 
  10. ^ "Robot (technology)". Encyclopaedia Britannica Online. http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/505818/robot. Retrieved 2008-08-04. 
  11. ^ "Robot". Merriam-Webster Dictionary. http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/robot. Retrieved 2008-08-04. 
  12. ^ "Your View: How would you define a robot?". CBC News. 2007-07-16. http://www.cbc.ca/technology/technology-blog/2007/07/your_view_how_would_you_define.html. Retrieved 2007-09-05. 
  13. ^ "Real Robots on the Web". NASA Space Telerobotics Program. 1999-10-15. http://ranier.hq.nasa.gov/telerobotics_page/realrobots.html. Retrieved 2007-09-06. 
  14. ^ "The Grand Piano Series: The History of The Robot". Nimbus Records. http://www.wyastone.co.uk/nrl/gp_robot.html. Retrieved 2007-09-08. 
  15. ^ Marc Perton (2005-07-29). "Roboraptor review - this one has teeth (in the discussion below, several people talk about RoboRaptor as being a real robot.". Engadget. http://www.engadget.com/2005/07/29/roboraptor-review-this-one-has-teeth/. Retrieved 2008-08-07. 
  16. ^ a b Zunt, Dominik. "Who did actually invent the word "robot" and what does it mean?". The Karel Čapek website. http://capek.misto.cz/english/robot.html. Retrieved 2007-09-11. 
  17. ^ Including Slovak, Ukrainian, Russian and Polish. The origin of the word is the Old Church Slavonic rabota "servitude" ("work" in contemporary Bulgarian and Russian), which in turn comes from the Indo-European root *orbh-.
  18. ^ "Čapek's R.U.R.". Karelcapek.net. http://www.karelcapek.net/rur.htm. Retrieved 2008-07-15. 
  19. ^ Robot is cognate with the German word Arbeiter (worker). In Hungary, the robot was a feudal service, similar to corvee which was rendered to local magnates by peasants every year. "The Dynasties recover power". http://www.age-of-the-sage.org/history/1848/reaction.html. Retrieved 2008-06-25. 
  20. ^ a b AAAI webpage of materials on robot ethics.
  21. ^ AAAI compilation of articles on robot rights, Sources compiled up to 2006.
  22. ^ Scientists Predict Artificial Brain in 10 Years, by Kristie McNealy M.D. July 29, 2009.
  23. ^ Robot: Mere Machine to Transcendent Mind By Hans Moravec, Google Books.
  24. ^ Robots Almost Conquering Walking, Reading, Dancing, by Matthew Weigand, Korea Itimes, Monday, August 17, 2009.
  25. ^ a b Scientists Worry Machines May Outsmart Man By JOHN MARKOFF, NY Times, July 26, 2009.
  26. ^ The Coming Technological Singularity: How to Survive in the Post-Human Era, by Vernor Vinge, Department of Mathematical Sciences, San Diego State University, (c) 1993 by Vernor Vinge.
  27. ^ Gaming the Robot Revolution: A military technology expert weighs in on Terminator: Salvation., By P. W. Singer, slate.com Thursday, May 21, 2009.
  28. ^ Robot takeover, gyre.org.
  29. ^ robot page, engadget.com.
  30. ^ Call for debate on killer robots, By Jason Palmer, Science and technology reporter, BBC News, 8/3/09.
  31. ^ Robot Three-Way Portends Autonomous Future, By David Axe wired.com, August 13, 2009.
  32. ^ New Navy-funded Report Warns of War Robots Going "Terminator", by Jason Mick (Blog), dailytech.com, February 17, 2009.
  33. ^ Navy report warns of robot uprising, suggests a strong moral compass, by Joseph L. Flatley engadget.com, Feb 18th 2009.
  34. ^ New role for robot warriors; Drones are just part of a bid to automate combat. Can virtual ethics make machines decisionmakers?, by By Gregory M. Lamb / Staff writer, Christian Science Monitor, February 17, 2010.
  35. ^ "Biomass-Eating Military Robot Is a Vegetarian, Company Says". FOXNews.com. 2009-07-16. http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,533382,00.html. Retrieved 2009-07-31. 
  36. ^ Shachtman, Noah (2009-07-17). "Danger Room What’s Next in National Security Company Denies its Robots Feed on the Dead". Wired. http://www.wired.com/dangerroom/2009/07/company-denies-its-robots-feed-on-the-dead/. Retrieved 2009-07-31. 
  37. ^ Press release, RTI Inc. (2009 July 16). Cyclone Power Technologies Responds to Rumors about “Flesh Eating” Military Robot, pp. 1-2.
  38. ^ Press release, RTI Inc. (2009 April 6). "Brief Project Overview", EATR: ENERGETICALLY AUTONOMOUS TACTICAL ROBOT, pp. 22.
  39. ^ WIRED: First Armed Robots on Patrol in Iraq
  40. ^ WIRED: Armed Robots Pushed To Police
  41. ^ America's Robot Army
  42. ^ The Present and Future of Unmanned Drone Aircraft: An Illustrated Field Guide; Inside the wild kingdom of the world’s newest and most spectacular species of unmanned aircraft, from swarming insect ’bots that can storm a burning building to a seven-ton weaponized spyplane invisible to radar. By Eric Hagerman, Popular Science, 02/23/2010.
  43. ^ AAAI Presidential Panel on Long-Term AI Futures 2008-2009 Study, Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence, Accessed 7/26/09.
  44. ^ Article at Asimovlaws.com, July 2004, accessed 7/27/09.
  45. ^ a b Robotic age poses ethical dilemma; BBC News; 2007-03-07; retrieved on 2007-01-02;
  46. ^ Asimov's First Law: Japan Sets Rules for Robots, By Bill Christensen, livescience.com, May 26, 2006.
  47. ^ Japan drafts rules for advanced robots, UPI via physorg.com, April 6th, 2007.
  48. ^ Report compiled by the Japanese government's Robot Industry Policy Committee -Building a Safe and Secure Social System Incorporating the Coexistence of Humans and Robots, Official Japan government press release, Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry, March 2009.
  49. ^ Toward the human-Robot Coexistence Society: on Safety intelligence for next Generation Robots, report by Yueh-Hsuan Weng, China Ministry of the Interior, International Journal of Social Robotics, April 7, 2009.
  50. ^ Evolving Robots Learn To Lie To Each Other, Popular Science, August 19, 2009.
  51. ^ Research and Development for Next-generation Service Robots in Japan, United Kingdom Foreign Ministry report, by Yumiko Moyen, Science and Innovation Section, British Embassy, Tokyo, Japan, January 2009.
  52. ^ Robots to get their own operating system, by Mehret Tesfaye Ethipian Review, August 13th, 2009.
  53. ^ The Caterpillar Self-Driving Dump Truck, By Tim McKeough, fastcompany.com, Nov 25, 2008.
  54. ^ "Robotics in practice: Future capabilities" by Joseph F. Engelberger. in "Electronic Servicing & Technology" magazine 1982 August.
  55. ^ Michael Hahn (1997-04-01). "Fullerene Nanogears". NASA. http://grin.hq.nasa.gov/ABSTRACTS/GPN-2000-001535.html. Retrieved 2008-05-27. 
  56. ^ Martens, C., Prenzel, O., Gräser, A. (2007). "The Rehabilitation Robots FRIEND-I & II: Daily Life Independency through Semi-Autonomous Task-Execution". I-Tech Education and Publishing (Vienna, Austria): 137-162. ISBN 978-3-902613-04-2. http://intechweb.org/downloadpdf.php?id=556. 
  57. ^ Ivlev, O., Martens, C., Gräser, A. (2005). "Rehabilitation Robots FRIEND-I and FRIEND-II with the dexterous lightweight manipulator". Restoration of Wheeled Mobility in SCI Rehabilitation 17. 
  58. ^ Techbirbal: Nanobots Play Football
  59. ^ KurzweilAI.net: Utility Fog: The Stuff that Dreams Are Made Of
  60. ^ (Eric Drexler 1986) Engines of Creation, The Coming Era of Nanotechnology
  61. ^ Chris Phoenix (2003-12). "Of Chemistry, Nanobots, and Policy". Center for Responsible Nanotechnology. http://www.crnano.org/Debate.htm. Retrieved 2007-10-28. 
  62. ^ Nanotechnology pioneer slays “grey goo” myths. Institute of Physics Electronics Journals. 2004-06-07. http://www.iop.org/EJ/news/-topic=763/journal/0957-4484. Retrieved 2007-10-28. 
  63. ^ (1996) LEGO(TM)s to the Stars: Active MesoStructures, Kinetic Cellular Automata, and Parallel Nanomachines for Space Applications
  64. ^ (Robert Fitch, Zack Butler and Daniela Rus) Reconfiguration Planning for Heterogeneous Self-Reconfiguring Robots
  65. ^ John Schwartz. "In the Lab: Robots That Slink and Squirm". nytimes.com. http://www.nytimes.com/2007/03/27/science/27robo.html?pagewanted=1&_r=1&ei=5070&en=91395fe7439a5b72&ex=1177128000. Retrieved 2008-09-22. 
  66. ^ ((cite web|http://www.activrobots.com/RESEARCH/wheelchair.html|title=SRI/MobileRobots Centibot project))
  67. ^ "Open-source micro-robotic project". http://www.swarmrobot.org. Retrieved 2007-10-28. 
  68. ^ "Swarm". iRobot Corporation. http://www.irobot.com/sp.cfm?pageid=149. Retrieved 2007-10-28. 
  69. ^ Knapp, Louise (2000-12-21). "Look, Up in the Sky: Robofly". Wired Magazine. http://www.wired.com/science/discoveries/news/2000/12/40750. Retrieved 2008-09-25. 
  70. ^ "The Cutting Edge of Haptics". MIT Technology review. http://www.technologyreview.com/read_article.aspx?id=17363&ch=biotech&sc=&pg=1. Retrieved 2008-09-25. 
  71. ^ Robots Today and Tomorrow: IFR Presents the 2007 World Robotics Statistics Survey; World Robotics; 2007-10-29; retrieved on 2007-12-14
  72. ^ Reporting by Watanabe, Hiroaki; Writing and additional reporting by Negishi, Mayumi; Editing by Norton, Jerry;Japan's robots slug it out to be world champ; Reuters; 2007-12-02; retrieved on 2007-01-01
  73. ^ Lewis, Leo; The robots are running riot! Quick, bring out the red tape; TimesOnline; 2007-04-06; retrieved on 2007-01-02
  74. ^ a b Biglione, Kirk; The Secret To Japan's Robot Dominance; Planet Tokyo; 2006-01-24; retrieved on 2007-01-02
  75. ^ Robot Helpers, USA Today, April 11, 2004.
  76. ^ Domestic robot to debut in Japan ; BBC News; 2005-08-30; retrieved on 2007-01-02
  77. ^ Chamberlain, Ted; Photo in the News: Ultra-Lifelike Robot Debuts in Japan; National Geographic News; 2005-06-10; retrieved on 2008-01-02
  78. ^ Yang, Jeff; ASIAN POP Robot Nation Why Japan, and not America, is likely to be the world's first cyborg society; SFGate; 2005-08-25; retrieved on 2007-01-02
  79. ^ "Nano technology | Computer | Robot | TOSY TOPIO - Table Tennis Playing Robot". DigInfo News. http://www.diginfo.tv/2007/12/05/07-0601-d.php. Retrieved 2007-12-05. 
  80. ^ http://www.ifr.org/service-robots/statistics/
  81. ^ "Contact Systems Pick and Place robots". Contact Systems. http://www.contactsystems.com/c5_series.html. Retrieved 2008-09-21. 
  82. ^ "SMT pick-and-place equipment". Assembleon. http://www.assembleon.com/surface-mount-assembly/pick-and-place-equipment/a-series/. Retrieved 2008-09-21. 
  83. ^ "Smart Caddy". Seegrid. http://www.smartcaddy.net. Retrieved 2007-09-13. 
  84. ^ "The Basics of Automated Guided Vehicles". Savant Automation, AGV Systems. http://www.agvsystems.com/basics/vehicle.htm. Retrieved 2007-09-13. 
  85. ^ "SpeciMinder". CSS Robotics. http://www.ccsrobotics.com/products/speciminder.html. Retrieved 2008-09-25. 
  86. ^ "ADAM robot". RMT Robotics. http://www.rmtrobotics.com/tire_agv.html. Retrieved 2008-09-25. 
  87. ^ "Can Do". Aethon. http://www.aethon.com/can_do_tug.html. Retrieved 2008-09-25. 
  88. ^ "Delivery Robots & AGVs". Mobile Robots. http://www.mobilerobots.com/AGV.html. Retrieved 2008-09-25. 
  89. ^ "Dante II, list of published papers". The Robotics Institute of Carnegie Mellon University. http://www.ri.cmu.edu/projects/project_163.html. Retrieved 2007-09-16. 
  90. ^ "Mars Pathfinder Mission: Rover Sojourner". NASA. 1997-07-08. http://mars.jpl.nasa.gov/MPF/rover/sojourner.html. Retrieved 2007-09-19. 
  91. ^ a b "Robot assisted surgery: da Vinci Surgical System". Brown University Division of Biology and Medicine. http://biomed.brown.edu/Courses/BI108/BI108_2005_Groups/04/davinci.html. Retrieved 2007-09-19. 
  92. ^ "Celebrities set to reach for Atwood's LongPen". cbc.ca. http://www.cbc.ca/arts/books/story/2007/08/15/longpen-trial.html. Retrieved 2008-09-21. 
  93. ^ Graham, Stephen (2006-06-12). "America's robot army". New Statesman. http://www.newstatesman.com/200606120018. Retrieved 2007-09-24. 
  94. ^ "Battlefield Robots: to Iraq, and Beyond". Defense Industry Daily. 2005-06-20. http://www.defenseindustrydaily.com/battlefield-robots-to-iraq-and-beyond-0727. Retrieved 2007-09-24. 
  95. ^ Shachtman, Noah (2005-11). "The Baghdad Bomb Squad". Wired Magazine. http://www.wired.com/wired/archive/13.11/bomb.html?pg=3&topic=bomb. Retrieved 2007-09-14. 
  96. ^ Jeavans, Christine (2004-11-29). "Welcome to the ageing future". BBC News. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk/4012797.stm. Retrieved 2007-09-26. 
  97. ^ "Statistical Handbook of Japan: Chapter 2 Population". Statistics Bureau & Statistical Research and Training Institute. http://www.stat.go.jp/english/data/handbook/c02cont.htm. Retrieved 2007-09-26. 
  98. ^ "Robotic future of patient care". E-Health Insider. 2007-08-16. http://www.e-health-insider.com/comment_and_analysis/250/robotic_future_of_patient_care. Retrieved 2007-09-26. 
  99. ^ a b Ho, C. C.; MacDorman, K. F.; Pramono, Z. A. D. (2008). "Human emotion and the uncanny valley: A GLM, MDS, and ISOMAP analysis of robot video ratings". Proceedings of the Third ACM/IEEE International Conference on Human-Robot Interaction. March 11-14. Amsterdam.. http://www.macdorman.com/kfm/writings/pubs/Ho2007EmotionUncanny.pdf. Retrieved 2008-09-24. 
  100. ^ *Manuel de Landa, War in the Age of Intelligent Machines, New York: Zone Books, 1991, 280 pages, Hardcover, ISBN 0-942299-76-0; Paperback, ISBN 0-942299-75-2.
  101. ^ Kiska, Tim (1983-08-11). "Death on the job: Jury awards $10 million to heirs of man killed by robot at auto plant". Philadelphia Inquirer. pp. A10. http://docs.newsbank.com/g/GooglePM/PI/lib00187,0EB295F7D995F801.html. Retrieved 2007-09-11. 
  102. ^ "Trust me, I'm a robot". The Economist. 2006-06-08. http://www.economist.com/displaystory.cfm?story_id=7001829. Retrieved 2007-04-30. 
  103. ^ a b c Fowler, Charles B. (October 1967), "The Museum of Music: A History of Mechanical Instruments", Music Educators Journal 54 (2): 45–49, doi:10.2307/3391092 
  104. ^ "Imitation of Life: A History of the First Robots". http://www.cerebromente.org.br/n09/historia/turtles_i.htm. Retrieved 2008-09-25. 
  105. ^ Waurzyniak, Patrick (2006-07). "Masters of Manufacturing: Joseph F. Engelberger". Society of Manufacturing Engineers 137 (1). http://www.sme.org/cgi-bin/find-articles.pl?&ME06ART39&ME&20060709#article. Retrieved 2008-09-25. 
  106. ^ "Company History". Fuji Yusoki Kogyo Co.. http://www.fujiyusoki.com/English/rekishi.htm. Retrieved 2008-09-12. 
  107. ^ "KUKA Industrial Robot FAMULUS". http://www.kuka-robotics.com/en/company/group/milestones/1973.htm. Retrieved 2008-01-10. 
  108. ^ Deborah Levine Gera (2003). Ancient Greek Ideas on Speech, Language, and Civilization. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0199256167. http://books.google.com/books?id=h5tKJvApybsC&pg=PA114&lpg=PA114&dq=hephaestus+handmaidens&source=web&ots=AmE4CYagER&sig=qoE-R-FGa3CRe9fKPjBKCdk24C4. 
  109. ^ O'Connor, J.J. and E.F. Robertson. "Heron biography". The MacTutor History of Mathematics archive. http://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/Biographies/Heron.html. Retrieved 2008-09-05. 
  110. ^ "Earliest Clocks". A Walk Through Time. NIST Physics Laboratory. http://physics.nist.gov/GenInt/Time/early.html. Retrieved 2008-08-11. 
  111. ^ a b Professor Noel Sharkey, A 13th Century Programmable Robot, University of Sheffield.
  112. ^ "Leonardo da Vinci's Robots". Leonardo3.net. http://www.leonardo3.net/leonardo/books%20I%20robot%20di%20Leonardo%20-%20Taddei%20Mario%20-%20english%20Leonardo%20robots%201.html. Retrieved 2008-09-25. 
  113. ^ Wood, Gabby. "Living Dolls: A Magical History Of The Quest For Mechanical Life", The Guardian, 2002-02-16.
  114. ^ N. Hornyak, Timothy (2006). Loving the Machine: The Art and Science of Japanese Robots. New York: Kodansha International. ISBN 4-7700-3012-6. 
  115. ^ Cheney, Margaret (1989). Tesla, man out of time. New York: Dorset Press. ISBN 0-88029-419-1. 
  116. ^ US patent 613809
  117. ^ "Tesla - Master of Lightning". PBS.org. http://www.pbs.org/tesla. Retrieved 2008-09-24. 
  118. ^ "Robot Dreams : The Strange Tale Of A Man's Quest To Rebuild His Mechanical Childhood Friend". The Cleveland Free Times. http://www.freetimes.com/stories/13/35/robot-dreams-the-strange-tale-of-a-mans-quest-to-rebuild-his-mechanical-childhood-friend. Retrieved 2008-09-25. 
  119. ^ Scott Schaut (2006). Robots of Westinghouse: 1924-Today. Mansfield Memorial Museum. ISBN 0978584414. 
  120. ^ Owen Holland. "The Grey Walter Online Archive". http://www.ias.uwe.ac.uk/Robots/gwonline/gwonline.html. Retrieved 2008-09-25. 
  121. ^ "Robot Hall of Fame - Unimate". Carnegie Mellon University. http://www.robothalloffame.org/unimate.html. Retrieved 2008-08-28. 
  122. ^ "Comic Potential : Q&A with Director Stephen Cole". Cornell University. http://www.arts.cornell.edu/theatrearts/CTA/Program%20Notes/comic%20potential.asp. Retrieved 2007-11-21. 
  123. ^ He wrote "over 460 books as well as thousands of articles and reviews", and was the "third most prolific writer of all time [and] one of the founding fathers of modern science fiction". White, Michael (2005). Isaac Asimov: a life of the grand master of science fiction. Carroll & Graf. p. 1–2. ISBN 0786715189. http://books.google.com/books?id=EWbMiyS9v98C. 
  124. ^ R. Clarke. "Asimov's Laws of Robotics - Implications for Information Technology". Australian National University/IEEE. http://www.anu.edu.au/people/Roger.Clarke/SOS/Asimov.html. Retrieved 2008-09-25. 
  125. ^ Seiler, Edward; Jenkins, John H. (2008-06-27). "Isaac Asimov FAQ". Isaac Asimov Home Page. http://www.asimovonline.com/asimov_FAQ.html. Retrieved 2008-09-24. 
  126. ^ White, Michael (2005). Isaac Asimov: A Life of the Grand Master of Science Fiction. Carroll & Graf. pp. 56. ISBN 0-7867-1518-9. 

Further reading

  • Cheney, Margaret [1989:123] (1981). Tesla, Man Out of Time. Dorset Press. New York. ISBN 0-88029-419-1
  • Craig, J.J. (2005). Introduction to Robotics. Pearson Prentice Hall. Upper Saddle River, NJ.
  • Needham, Joseph (1986). Science and Civilization in China: Volume 2. Taipei: Caves Books Ltd.
  • Sotheby's New York. The Tin Toy Robot Collection of Matt Wyse, (1996)
  • Tsai, L. W. (1999). Robot Analysis. Wiley. New York.
  • DeLanda, Manuel. War in the Age of Intelligent Machines. 1991. Swerve. New York.
  • Journal of Field Robotics
  • Robotics education website

External links

General news and developments
  • robots.net general robot-related news and technological developments.
Research
Other links

Simple English

File:HONDA
A robot

A robot is a machine or a computer program which seems to have a life of its own.

Many people think that a robot:

  • Is not 'natural' / was made by man.
  • Can see, hear or feel.
  • Can do a job / useful work.
  • Is intelligent, or can make choices.
  • Can be programmed to do different things.
  • Can move.
  • Seems to have a life of its own, like an animate object.[1]
  • Is roughly the same shape as a human.

There are many books, movies, and video games with robots in them.

Contents

Eastern and Western Views

Eastern Thoughts on Robots

Roughly half of all the robots in the world are in Asia, 32% in Europe, and 16% in North America, 1% in Australasia and 1% in Africa[2]. 30% of all the robots in the world are in Japan[3]. Japan has the most robots in the world, and is in fact the leader in the world robotics industry[4]. Japan is actually said to be the robotic capital of the world[5].

In Japan and South Korea, ideas of future robots have been mainly positive, and the start of the pro-robotic society there is thought to be possibly due to the famous 'Astroboy'. China has also recently expressed similar views on robotics to Japan and South Korea, but is at the moment behind America and Europe in robotic development. The East (Japan, South Korea, and more recently, China) believes robots to be more equal to humans, having them care for old people, play with or teach children, or replace pets etc. The general view of the East is that the more robots advance, the better, which is the opposite of the Western belief.

"This is the opening of an era in which human beings and robots can co-exist," says Japanese firm Mitsubishi about one of the many humanistic robots in Japan[6].

In this sense, people in Japan are much more likely to be affected by Technosexuality, as they are much more exposed to robots in their society. South Korea aims to put a robot in every house there by 2015-2020 in order to help catch up technologically with Japan[7]. This will obviously have an impact on the technosexuality of South Korea. China, like South Korea, wishes to catch up with Japan, and has been developing robots very quickly. After China becomes more developed, and each person has more money to view the media, where robots could be seen, or to buy robots, as is happening in Japan and South Korea, technosexuality will probably rise there too, when considering the current opinions of the people of robots.

With a limited number of robots in the rest of the world away from Japan, and even in Japan too, movies and literature are the where most of the technosexuality will be towards. Futuristic images/descriptions or robots may encourage technosexuality. At the moment, there are not that many real human-like robots in the world. The most human-like robot in the world, 'Actroid', made my Japanese company 'Kokoro' a division of 'Sanrio', is a good example of the target for technosexuality[8].

Western Thoughts on Robots

Western societies are more likely to be against, or even fear the development of robotics, through much media output in movies and literature that they will replace humans.

The West regards robots as a 'threat' to the future of humans, which is also muchly due to religious influence of the Abrahamic religions, in which creating machines that can think for themselves would almost be playing God[9][10]. Obviously, these boundaries are not clear, but there is a significant difference between the two ideologies.

Robot Laws

The writer Isaac Asimov told many stories about robots who had three robot laws to keep them safe, as well as to keep humans safe from them.

  1. A robot may not injure a human being or, through inaction, allow a human being to come to harm.
  2. A robot must obey orders given to it by human beings, except where such orders would conflict with the First Law.
  3. A robot must protect its own existence as long as such protection does not conflict with the First or Second Law.

These were not used in real life when he invented them. However, in today's world robots are more complicated, and one day real laws may be needed, much like Isaac Asimov's original three laws.

These laws are talked about in the Megaman video games.

South Korea is the first country in the world to have laws about robots[7].

Other pages

Other websites

Wikibooks has more about this subject:
Error creating thumbnail: sh: convert: command not found
The English Wiktionary has a dictionary definition (meanings of a word) for:
Research societies
Encyclopaedias

References

  1. Brandweek: Even Robot Suicide Is No Laughing Matter
  2. Robots Today and Tomorrow: IFR Presents the 2007 World Robotics Statistics Survey; World Robotics; 2007-10-29; retrieved on 2007-12-14
  3. Reporting by Watanabe, Hiroaki; Writing and additional reporting by Negishi, Mayumi; Editing by Norton, Jerry;Japan's robots slug it out to be world champ; Reuters; 2007-12-02; retrieved on 2007-01-01
  4. Lewis, Leo; The robots are running riot! Quick, bring out the red tape; TimesOnline; 2007-04-06; retrieved on 2007-01-02
  5. Biglione, Kirk; The Secret To Japan's Robot Dominance; Planet Tokyo; 2006-01-24; retrieved on 2007-01-02
  6. Domestic robot to debut in Japan ; BBC News; 2005-08-30; retrieved on 2007-01-02
  7. 7.0 7.1 Robotic age poses ethical dilemma; BBC News; 2007-03-07; retrieved on 2007-01-02;
  8. Chamberlain, Ted; Photo in the News: Ultra-Lifelike Robot Debuts in Japan; National Geographic News; 2005-06-10; retrieved on 2008-01-02
  9. Biglione, Kirk; The Secret To Japan's Robot Dominance; Planet Tokyo; 2006-01-24; retrieved on 2007-01-02
  10. Yang, Jeff; ASIAN POP Robot Nation Why Japan, and not America, is likely to be the world's first cyborg society; SFGate; 2005-08-25; retrieved on 2007-01-02


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 24, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Robot, which are similar to those in the above article.








Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address
Message