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Rohingya people
Flag of the Rohingya Nation
Total population
About 729,000 (United Nations estimate 2009)
Regions with significant populations
Burma (Arakan), Bangladesh, Saudi Arabia, Pakistan,Thailand, Malaysia
,
Languages

Rohingya language

Religion

Sunni Islam

The Rohingya is a Muslim ethnic group of the Northern Arakan State of Western Burma (also known as Myanmar). The Rohingya population is mostly concentrated in two bordering townships of Arakan to Bangladesh, namely Maungdaw and Buthidaung, and is spread in three townships of Akyab, Rathedung and Kyauktaw.

Contents

History

It is thought, according to Rohingya history, that in the beginning of the 7th century AD, merchants from the Arab World, Mughal Empire and neighbouring Bengal began to settle in Arakan territory. In the 19th century, the British captured control of Arakan after the first Anglo–Burmese War and many more Bengalis from British East Bengal came to settle in Arakan.

It is thought, according to various indigenous ethnic groups of Burma, the local Arakanese people and the Burmese military government, that waves of later Bangali migrations to Arakan started in the 19th century after the British occupation.[1]

Language

A coin from Arakan used in Great Bengal minted 1554/5

The Rohingya language, known as Rohingyalish, is the modern written language of the Rohingya People of Arakan (Rakhine) State of Burma (Myanmar). It is linguistically similar to the Chittagonian language spoken in the southern most area of Bangladesh bordering Burma. Rohingya scholars have successfully written the Rohingya language in different scripts such as Arabic, Hanafi, Urdu, Roman and Burmese where Hanifi is newly developed alphabets derived from Arabic with the addition of four characters from Latin and Burmese.

The latest and the most successful one is that which uses Roman script only making it suitable with today's computer technology. It uses all 26 English alphabets A to Z and two additional Latin alphabets Ç (for retroflex R) and Ñ (for nasal sound). To accurately represent Rohingya tongue, it also uses five accented vowels (áéíóú). The intuitive design makes the language so easy that even non-Rohingya people can learn and write in a very short time. It has been recognized by ISO with ISO 639-3 "rhg" code.[2]

Religion

Religion is particularly important to the Rohingya people, who are predominantly Muslims. Mosques and religious schools occupy most villages. Traditionally, men pray in congregation and women pray at home.

Human rights violations & refugees

According to Amnesty International, the Muslim Rohingya people have continued to suffer from human rights violations under the Burmese junta since 1978, and many have fled to neighboring Bangladesh as a result:[3].

"The Rohingyas’ freedom of movement is severely restricted and the vast majority of them have effectively been denied Burma citizenship. They are also subjected to various forms of extortion and arbitrary taxation; land confiscation; forced eviction and house destruction; and financial restrictions on marriage. Rohingyas continue to be used as forced labourers on roads and at military camps, although the amount of forced labour in northern Rakhine State has decreased over the last decade."
"In 1978 over 200,000 Rohingyas fled to Bangladesh, following the ‘Nagamin’ (‘Dragon King’) operation of the Myanmar army. Officially this campaign aimed at "scrutinising each individual living in the state, designating citizens and foreigners in accordance with the law and taking actions against foreigners who have filtered into the country illegally." This military campaign directly targeted civilians, and resulted in widespread killings, rape and destruction of mosques and further religious persecution."
"During 1991-92 a new wave of over a quarter of a million Rohingyas fled to Bangladesh. They reported widespread forced labour, as well as summary executions, torture, and rape. Rohingyas were forced to work without pay by the Burmese army on infrastructure and economic projects, often under harsh conditions. Many other human rights violations occurred in the context of forced labour of Rohingya civilians by the security forces."

As of 2005, the UNHCR had been assisting with the repatriation of Rohingya from Bangladesh, but allegations of human rights abuses in the refugee camps have threatened this effort.[4]

Despite earlier efforts by the UN, the vast majority of Rohingya refugees have remained in Bangladesh, unable to return because of the negative attitude of the ruling regime in Myanmar. Now they are facing problems in Bangladesh as well where they do not receive support from the government any longer.[5] In February 2009, many Rohingya refugees were rescued by Acehnese sailors in the Strait of Malacca, after 21 days at sea.[6]

Over the years thousands of Rohingya also have fled to Thailand. There are roughly 111,000 refugees housed in 9 camps along the Thai-Myanmar border. There have been charges that groups of them have been shipped and towed out to open sea from Thailand, and left there. In February 2009 there was evidence of the Thai army towing a boatload of 190 Rohingya refugees out to sea. A group of refugees rescued by Indonesian authorities also in February 2009 told harrowing stories of being captured and beaten by the Thai military, and then abandoned at open sea. By the end of February there were reports that of a group of 5 boats were towed out to open sea, of which 4 boats sank in a storm, and 1 boat washed up on the shore. February 12, 2009 Thailand's prime minister Abhisit Vejjajiva said there were "some instances" in which Rohingya people were pushed out to sea.

"There are attempts, I think, to let these people drift to other shores. [...] when these practices do occur, it is done on the understanding that there is enough food and water supplied. [...] It's not clear whose work it is [...] but if I have the evidence who exactly did this I will bring them to account." [7]

The prime minister said he regretted "any losses", and was working on rectifying the problem.

Bangladesh has since announced it will repatriate around 9,000 Rohingya living in refugee camps in the country back to Burma, after a meeting with Burmese diplomats.[8][9] Steps to repatriate Rohingya began in 2005.

See also

Notes

References

External links

*Arakan Rohingya National Organization (ARNO)

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Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

Contents

English

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Wikipedia has an article on:

Wikipedia

Etymology

From Rohingya Rohing + Ya (the people of Rohing). Rohang is the old kingdom name of Arakan in present-day Myanmar (formerly known as Burma).

Proper noun

Singular
Rohingya

Plural
-

Rohingya

  1. The Indo-European language spoken in Arakan, Myanmar, closely related to Chittagonian.

Noun

Singular
Rohingya

Plural
Rohingya

Rohingya (plural Rohingya)

  1. The people of Arakan, Myanmar, who speak this language.

External links


Wikibooks

Up to date as of January 23, 2010

From Wikibooks, the open-content textbooks collection

/Introduction

Contents

Alphabet and pronunciation

Consonants

"c"  is pronounced as sh in shell.
"t"  is pronounced as t in tooth.
"th" is pronounced as t in ten.
"d"  is pronounced as d in Dubai.
"dh" is pronounced as d in day.
"ç"  is pronounced as retroflex r in Rohingya words caça, naça meaning mat, closed. 
"ñ"  is pronounced as silent n in Rohingya words fiañs, fañs meaning onion, five. It gives nasal sound.
"y"  is used as consonant only, not used as semi vowel. My is written as Mai. 
         

Vowels

Rohingya has 6 soft-sound(normal) vowels and 6 hard-sound(accented) vowels.

a  e  i  o  u  ou
á  é  í  ó  ú  óu

Each vowel gives only one sound as the bold vowels in the English phrase:-

"América on fúll tour" or in the Rohingya phrase:- 
"Alemi modúr houli" meaning International Honey Center.
  

Circular vowels

Rohingya uses at least 4 circular vowels (in each set) as:-

ai  ei  oi  ui   (for soft sounds)
ái  éi  ói  úi   (for hard sounds)

which are pronounced as in words Dáil, Féil, Owi, Búick respectively.

Long vowels and its variants

Rohingya uses double vowels to extend the sound. For example

aa  for simple extending of a sound, like Gaa means body. 
aá  for slow to raised up of a sound, like Gaá means sing and
áa  for raised to slowing down of a sound, like Gáa means infections.
 

Questions

In Rohingya Language yes/no questions are created by adding "né" at the end of the sentense:

  • Sálma'ttu uggwá bilai asé né? -- Is there a cat with Salma?
  • Sálma'ttu uggwá bilai asé. -- There-is a cat with Salma.
  • Ói, Sálma'ttu uggwá bilai asé. -- Yes, There'is a cat with Salma.
  • Osman ottú bilai asé né? -- Is there cat with Osman?
  • Osman ottú bilai nái. -- There-is-no cat with Osman.
  • Nái, Osman ottú bilai nái. -- No, There-is-no cat with Osman.

Relevant vocabulary

Sálma'ttu  = 'with Salma'
uggwá      = 'a'
bilai      = 'cat'
asé né     = 'is there'
Osman ottú = 'with Osman'
nái        = 'no' or 'there is no'

Other questions are created by question pronouns like:

  • hoçé - where
  • hoñótté - when
  • hone - who
  • ki - what
  • hotúkkun - how long/when
  • hoddúr - how far/how much
  • hodún - how much
  • hondila - what kind
  • honnán - which one
  • kengóri - how

Hoçé - Where

  • Tui hoçé zaibi? - Where will you go?
  • Ite/Ibá hoçé zaibou? - Where will he/she go?
  • Tui hoçé zaifaribí? -Where can you go?

Hoñótté - When

  • Ibá hoñótte zaibou? - When will she go?
  • Ali hoñótte aibou? - When will Ali come?
  • Tui añár loi hoñótte dehá óibi? - When will you see me?

Hone - Who

  • Hone hoódde? - Who is saying?
  • Tuñí honnwá? - Who are you?
  • Tuñí haré soódde? - Whom you are looking for?

Ki - What

  • Yián ki? - What is it?
  • Tuñí ki gorór? - What are you doing?

Hotúkkun - How long

  • (Thaim) hotúkkun laiggé? - How long it took (time)?
  • Tui hotúkkun ot zaibi? - When will you go?

Hoddúr - How far/How much

  • Ham hoddúr óiye? - How far is work done?
  • Lamba hoddúr? - How much is the length?
  • Tuñí hoddúr zaiba? - How far will you go?

Hodún - How much

  • Yián hodún? - How much is it?
  • Tuñí hodún soódde? - How much you want?
  • Tuñí hodún loiba? - How much you want to buy?

Hondila - What kind

  • Tuáñrtú hondila hoor fosón de? - What kind of clothes do you like?
  • Tuáñrtú hondila ham fosón de? - What kind of work do you like?
  • Tuáñrtú hondila lageddé? - Whta kind do you need?

Honnán - Which

  • Tuñí honnán basíba? - Which one you choose?
  • Tuñí hoñíkkyá zaiba? - Which way you go?

Honíkká - Any body/Any where

  • Honíkká asé né? - Any body is there?
  • Ite honíkká no zaibóu? - He will not go any where?

Kengóri - How

  • Ali kengóri aibóu? - How will Ali come?
  • Ite eskul kengóri banaibóu? - How will he build school?

Vocabulary

Days

Saturday - Cónibar
Sunday - Roibar
Monday - Cómbar
Tuesday - Monggolbar
Wednesday- Buidhbar
Thursday - Bicíbbar
Friday - Cúkkubar

Months

    • Arabic way**

1. Mohórom
2. Sófor
3. Robiul Áwal
4. Robiul Táni
5. Jomadil Áwal
6. Jomadil Táni
7. Rojob
8. Cáaban
9. Romzan
10. Cáwal
11. Dulkáda
12. Dulhájj

    • Rohingya Way**

1. Soit
2. Boicák
3. Zer
4. Acár
5. Cón
6. Bádo
7. Acín
8. Hati
9. Oón
10. Fuc
11. Mak
12. Fóon

Time

This morning = Aijja beínna
This afternoon = Aijja Duíjja
This evening = Aijja Ázinna
Today = Aijja
Tonight = Aijja Raitta
Tomorrow = Hailla (or Aiyédde Hailla)
Yesterday = Goto Hailla
Day before yesterday = Goto Foóuru
Day after tomorrow =Foóuru (or Aiyédde Foóuru)
A week = Ek háfta
Last week = Goto Háfta
Next week = Tarfor Háfta
Everyday = Fottídin (or Foittódin)
Every week = Fottí háfta
Every month = Fottí mác
Every year = Fottí bosór

Numbers

One = Ek
Two = Dui
Three = Tin
Four = Sair
Five = Fañs
Six = Só
Seven = Háñt
Eight = Añctho
Nine = No
Ten = Doc
Eleven = Egaro
Twelve = Baró
Thirteen = Teró
Fourteen = Soiddó
Fifteen = Fundóroh
Sixteen = Cúlloh
Seventeen = Háñtaroh/Cáñtaroh
Eightteen = Añçároh
Nineteen = Unnúic
Twenty = Kuri
Twenty-one = Ekkuri ek
Twenty-five = Ekkuri fañs
Twenty-nine = Ekkuri no
Thirty = Tiríc
Forty = Calic
Fifty = Fonjaic
Sixty = Áith/Háith
Seventy = Óttoir/Cóttoir
Eighty = Ací
Ninety = Nobboi
Hundred = Cót
Thousand = Házar
100 Thousands = Lak (1,00,000)
10 Million = Kurul (1,00,00,000)
Billion = Kuthí (1,00,00,00,000)

Ordinals

First = Ek lombór
Second = Dui lombór
Third = Tin lombór
Fourth = Sair lombór
Fifth = Fañs lombór
Sixth = Só lombór
Seventh = Háñt lombór
Eight = Añctho lombór
Ninth = No lombór
Tenth = Doc lombór
Eleventh = Egaro lombór
Eighteenth = Añçáro lombór
Twentieth = Kuri lombór
Twenty first = Ek kuri ek lombór
Thirtieth = Tiríc lombór

Direction

East - Fuk
West - Fosím
North - Uttor
South - Doóin
Northeast - Uttor-e-Fuge
Northwest - Uttor-e-Fosíme
Southeast - Doóin-e-Fuge
Southwest - Doóin-e-Fusíme

Dimension

Length = Lamba
Breadth = Fatóijjá/Baiththá/Dhák/Sáith
Height = Usol/Bor
Thickness = Dhaço/mutha
Depth = Mur/mutha

Phrases

Good morning/afternoon/evening/night = Assolámu Aláikum
How are you? - Keén aso?
Yes = Ói
No = Noó
No, It is not = Noó, Yián noó
Thank you = Cúkuria
Thank you very much = Bicí cúkuria
Please = Meérbanigori

Household Items

Górr = house
Sáman = items
Górror Sáman = household iems

used in the kitchen

ooin = fire
faní = water
Sulá = stove
Geés = gas
Dargwá = fire wood
hána = food
Decci = dish
gúroni = dish cover borton, sóonn = plate
golóic = glass
gaála = bowl
hoddá = curry cup
fiala = tea cup
finic = tea plate
bát = cooked rice
dhowá = woodern tool used to take cooked rice into plate
sálon = curry
almali = woodern cupboard in the kitchen
sábun, sábon = soap
besón = basin
fáik = water tap
hani = rag
dostorhána = table cloth
camic = spoon
zúl = curry soup
cúrha = curry soup
súp = soup
áñdhdhi = bone
keñça = fish bone
mas = fish
gusto = meat
kela = banana
gula = fruit
sanni = salad
moris = chilli
nun = table salt
fiañs = onion
roóun = garlic
ada = gingar
tel = cooking oil
mosólla = spicy items
óloiddá = yellow
rañdó = cook
sórot, thándhà = cold
gorom = hot
dani = container (nun or dani = salt bottle)
boróf = ice
boróf ór fethi = refrigerator
raáis kúker = rice cooker
precar kúker = pressure cooker
tondul = oven
maikruwéif = microwave oven
átfúsoní = towel for drying wet hand
gula gala = fruits and vegetables
dat kílani = tooth peek
hát dúoní = hand wash bowl
zog = jug
flas = plus
fúrróin = sweeper
faám = pump
kusani = sweeper
mes = table
saá = tea
saá fata = tea leaves
siní = sugar
modú = honey
andha = egg
ruthi = bread
dut = milk
mithái = chocalate
miçá = sweet
hóro = soar
tita = bitter
zál = hot (due to hot chilli)
gíi = ghee
isamas = shrimp
hoñsi = lemon
fan = bittle
faça = grinding rock
uñta = grinding roll of rock
beg = bag
dhula = basket
doo = knife
súri = kitchen knife
kuçoni = cutting plate
kuñrani = slicer
ficóni = grinder
ficóni micín = grinder machine
gúñçoni = hand mixer
decci dholoni = dish washing wires
uzón =weigh
soil = rice
roc = juice
dhail = lentil
dhañçi = handle
botol = bottle
galén = water gallon
sáta = dust
sátar gadhdhá = dust bin
sábon or faní = liquid soap
foóum = foam
centhár = slipper
habos or rul= paper roll
góuçi = clock
kesi = scissor
dóroni = holder
bór = heavy
fatol = light
uzu = straight
behañ = not staright
usol = high
bañçí = short
thaim = time
minóth = minute

Name of Diseases

Kensar =cancer
Bor Biaram = Colara

Sul zórer = hair falling
Sul fager = hair graying
Sul fúaná = dry hair
Sulot sussuri = dandruff
Talu = bald

Matá hóñrar = headache
Matá thon-tho-nar = head pain
Matá bór óiye = head heavy sensation
Matá ek dhák síri zargói = severe one sided head pain
Matát kúth marer = poking pain in the head
Matá furer = head burning
Matá gúrar = head stiring sensation
Matá gorom óizagói = heating in the head
Matá thók-thók hoñrar = hammering pain in the head

Gaa hoñrar = body pain
Gaa bic óiye = body pain
Gaa sissiar = body pain
Gaa írirar = body pain
Gaa moth-moçar = body brittle sensation
Gaat zor = fever
Gaalami = heavy motion

Baáre zar = frequent motion
Dat thon-thonar = toothache
Feth hoñrar = stomach pain
Gaa furer = body burning sensation
Gaa zoler = body burning sensation
thándhi = cold
sína zoler = chest burning
niác than = breathing difficulty
feth fúlar = stomach fullness
dañra sissiar = back pain
dóra = waist pain
añçú bic = knee pain
siní biaram = sugar

Súañfira = sudden unconciousness
Áta = decéntary
Lou Áta = blood decéntary
Dhák baijjani = pain in the rib
Hórai = urinary infection
Thúiththa = piles
Dhónu Thokkor = sudden squeez-treat with ATS
Zulantai = sudden stomach squeez caused by cold
Baái uçá = food poison
Kurus = skin becoming white
feñsara = skin infection
fúra = pimple with puss
góñsi = little pimple due to heat
bic thúañ = painful pimple
gula = dangerous pimple
luti= pimple
Bat = skin deep infection formed puss inside
Beng bat= another kind of skin deep infection
Fisála = blockage at both side of the throat
Thúañ = watery pimple
Zor Thúañ = watery pimple after fever
Soru = a kind of skin infection
Fúla = body swelling
Dóoñni = difficult in breath taking
hañc = cough
hoo = vomiting
Gola fúla = neck swelling
Finak = extra flesh in the nose.
Cóccúl =
Añma = eye sight blurring
Añccwá = blur
Fakkwá = infection between fingers and toes
Ketur = eye related dieses
Doout = a kind of skin infection
Sammwa Doout = a kind of skin infection
Dóra = waist pain
Maiccáta =
Cánni = tooth decay

Humen shelters

áñis = small roof attached to the side of a house for poor family living
bacá = a small temprary bamboo shelter
bildhíng =building
duan = shop
eskul, eckul = school
fonjahana = small religious teaching shelter
gañt = a digging or hollow
górr = house/home
gudam = house made of mud, a warehouse to store goods
hóla = a temporary work place used while harvesting agricultural products
kuthá = house made of bricks usually refer to buildings
kondhoul = disaster safe building
kúñdah = cave
lamba thambu = long shelter house
modorósa = Arabic or religious school
mosóit = mosque
thambu = tent
thék górr = small home
thong= small shelter but high
usol bildhíng = high rise building
usol kuthá = high rise building

Calling to family members and relatives

óma = oh mother
óuma = oh mother
maá = oh mother
maaré = oh mother
mamá = oh mother
mamáni = oh mother
maóu = oh mother
óumaaré = calling mother (while in distress)

óba = oh father
óbaá = oh father
babá = father
babáre = oh father
óubaaré = calling father (while in distress)

óbu = oh elder sister
óubu = oh elder sister
bubú = oh elder sister
buburé = oh elder sister
bubuní = oh elder sister
bubuniré = oh elder sister (while in a hurry)

bodda = brother
óubodda = oh brother
boddaré = oh my brother

sañsa = father's brother
jeçá = father's elder brother
hakku = father's younger brother
hála = mother's sister
mamu = uncle


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