Rohingya language: Wikis

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Rohingya
Spoken in Burma, Bangladesh
Region Arakan region of Burma, south-eastern Chittagong region of Bangladesh
Total speakers
Language family Indo-European
Language codes
ISO 639-1 None
ISO 639-2 inc
ISO 639-3 rhg

Rohingya is a language spoken by the Rohingya people of Arakan (Rakhine), Burma (Myanmar). It is closely related to the Chittagonian language spoken in the neighboring southeastern Chittagong Division of Bangladesh.[1] It also has a large number of Urdu, Persian, Hindi, Arabic, Burmese and English loanwords.

Contents

Script

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History

Various writing systems are used, including Arabic, Urdu, Hanifi-Script and Burmese, and the newer Rohingyalish, based on the Roman alphabet.

Written in Arabic script, the first Rohingya language texts are more than 300 years old. While Arakan was under British rule (1826–1948), the Rohingya people used mainly English and Urdu for written communication. Since independence in 1948, Burmese has been used in all official communications. Since the early 1960s, Rohingya scholars have started to realize the need for a writing system suited to their own language.

In 1975 a writing system was developed using Arabic letters; other scholars adopted Urdu script to remedy some deficiencies of the Arabic. Neither proved satisfactory, however, and most Rohingyas found it difficult to read the language in either version.

Molana Hanif and his colleagues developed a new set of right-to-left oriented characters based mainly on Arabic script, with a few borrowings from Roman and Burmese. This approach was an improvement and was appreciated by Rohingya Islamic scholars, used to studying in Arabic and Urdu. However, the new script was criticized because the characters were very similar to each other, requiring longer memorization time and careful writing to avoid confusion. More importantly, it would require enormous work to standardize the new characters in today's computers and Internet media.

Soon afterwards, E.M. Siddique took a different approach, using Latin letters only. The result is a writing system known as Rohingyalish that comprises 26 Roman letters, five accented vowels, and two additional Latin characters for retroflex and nasal sounds.

Alphabet

A a B b C c Ç ç D d E e F f
G g H h I i J j K k L l M m
N n Ñ ñ O o P p Q q R r S s
T t U u V v W w X x Y y Z z

Fig-1. Rohingya Character Set Table

The character set table of the Rohingya language writing system uses the Latin letters shown above (ç and ñ with green background). The vowels are written both unaccented (aeiou) and accented (áéíóú). The use of c, ç and ñ is adapted to the language; c represents /ʃ/ (English sh), ç is a retroflex r, and ñ indicates a nasalized vowel (e.g., fañs /faⁿs/ 'five').

To type Rohingyalish in computers with Microsoft Windows, add the US International keyboard from the control panel and then remove the US keyboard. To type one of these characters ( áéíóúç ), first type the single quote( ' ) followed by the corresponding character in ( aeiouc ). To type ( ñ ), type ( ~ ) followed by ( n ). With the US International keyboard setting, the characters ( ', ", ~ and ^ ) work as trigger characters only (they are not displayed until you type another character), so to get them alone press the space bar after each one.

Grammar

Definite Articles

1. If a noun ends with a vowel then the article is either án or if singular, or ún if plural or uncountable.
Usually is used for round-fatty objects, and án for flat-thin objects.

      ( singular )                        ( plural )
 Kéti  án     (the farm)          Kéti  ún     (the farms)
 Fothú án     (the picture)       Fothú ún     (the pictures)
 Fata  wá     (the leave)         Fata  ún     (the leaves)
 boro  wá     (the large)         boro  ún     (the large)
                                  Lou   ún     (the blood)

2. If a noun ends with a consonant then the article is the end-consonant plus án or for singular or ún for plural.

 Debal  lán   (the wall)          Debal  lún   (the walls)
 Mes    sán   (the table)         Mes    sún   (the tables)
 Kitap  p(the book)          Kitap  pún   (the books)
 Manúic c(the man)           Manúic cún   (the men)

3. If a noun ends with r, then the article is g plus án or for singular or ún for plural.

 Tar   gán    (the wire)          Tar   gún   (the wires)
 Duar  gán    (the door)          Duar  gún   (the doors)
 Kuñir g(the dog)           Kuñir gún   (the dogs)
 Faár  g(the mountain)      Faár  gún   (the mountains)

Indefinite Articles

Indefinite articles can be used either before or after the noun. Uggwá usually is used for roll/round/fatty shaped objects and ekkán is for thin/flat shaped objects.

    ( singular )                     ( plural )
 Uggwá fata    (a leave)          Hodún fata    (some leaves)
 Ekkán fothú   (a picture)        Hodún Fothú   (some pictures)
     -or-                               -or-
 Fata  uggwá   (a leave)          Fata  hodún   (some leaves)
 Fothú ekkán   (a picture)        Fothú hodún   (some pictures)

Word Order

Rohingya word order is subject - object - verb.

Subject       Object            Verb
Aññí(I)       bát(rice)         hái(eat).
Ite(He)       TV(TV)            saá(watches).
Ibá(She)      sairkél(bicycle)  soré(rides).
Ítara(They)   hamot(to work)    za(go).

Tenses

Rohingya distinguishes 12 tenses, as shown in the examples below. In these tenses, the helping verb félai shows perfect action (comparable to English "has/have") and félaat shows perfect continuous action (compare English "has/have been"). The helping verb táki and táikki are comparable to English "be" and "been".

Verb-form-suffix (basic and/or helping verb) indicate both person and tense. The suffixes ~ir, ~yi, ~lám, ~youm are used for the first person, the suffixes ~or, ~yó, ~lá, ~bá for the 2nd person, and the suffixes ~ar, ~ye, ~l, ~bou for the 3rd person. Similarly ~ir, ~or, ~ar indicate present continuous tense, ~yi, ~yó, ~ye present perfect tense, ~lám, ~lá, ~l past tense, and ~youm, ~bá, ~bou future tense.


First person ( I ):

1. Present
(a)Aññí hái.                   (I eat.)
(b)Aññí háir.                  (I am eating.)
(c)Aññí hái félaiyi.           (I have eaten.)
(d)Aññí hái félair.            (I have been eating.)

2. Past
(a)Aññí háiyi.                 (I ate.) Note: refer near past.
   Aññí háailam.               (I ate.) Note: refer far past.
(b)Aññí háat táikkilám.        (I was eating.)  
(c)Aññí hái  félailám.         (I had eaten.)
(d)Aññí hái  félaat táikkilám. (I had been eating.)   

3. Future
(a)Aññí háiyoum.               (I will eat.)
(b)Aññí háat tákiyoum.         (I will be eating.)
(c)Aññí hái  félaiyoum.        (I will have eaten.)
(d)Aññí hái  félaat tákiyoum.  (I will have been eating.)

Second person ( You ):

1. Present
(a)Tuñí/Oñne hóo.                 [Tui hós.]                 (You eat.)
(b)Tuñí/Oñne hóor.                [Tui hóor.]                (You are eating.)
(c)Tuñí/Oñne hái  félai.        [Tui hái  félaiyós].       (You have eaten.)
(d)Tuñí/Oñne hái  féloor.         [Tui hái  féloor].         (You have been eating.)

2. Past 
(a)Tuñí/Oñne háiyo.               [Tui háiyós.]              (You ate.) Note: refer near past.
   Tuñí/Oñne háai.              [Tui háai.]              (You ate.) Note: refer far past.
(b)Tuñí/Oñne háat táikki.       [Tui háat táikki.]       (You were eating.)  
(c)Tuñí/Oñne hái  félai.        [Tui hái  félai.]        (You had eaten.)
(d)Tuñí/Oñne hái  félaat táikki.[Tui hái  félaat táikki.](You had been eating.)   

3. Future
(a)Tuñí/Oñne hái.               [Tui hái.]               (You will eat.)
(b)Tuñí/Oñne háat táki.         [Tui háat táki.]         (You will be eating.)
(c)Tuñí/Oñne hái  félai.        [Tui hái  félai.]        (You will have eaten.)
(d)Tuñí/Oñne hái  félaat táki.  [Tui hái  félaat táki.]  (You will have been eating.)

Third persons ( He/She/They ):

1. Present
(a)Ite/Ibá/Itará  há.                   (He/She/They eats/eats/eat.)
(b)Ite/Ibá/Itará  hár.                  (He/She/They is/is/are eating.)
(c)Ite/Ibá/Itará  hái félaiye.          (He/She/They has/has/have eaten.)
(d)Ite/Ibá/Itará  hái félaar.           (He/She/They has/has/have been eating.)

2. Past
(a)Ite/Ibá/Itará  háaiye.               (He/She/They ate.) Note: refer near past.
   Ite/Ibá/Itará  háail.                (He/She/They ate.) Note: refer far past.
(b)Ite/Ibá/Itará  háat táikkil.         (He/She/They was/was/were eating.)  
(c)Ite/Ibá/Itará  hái  félail.          (He/She/They had eaten.)
(d)Ite/Ibá/Itará  hái  félaat táikkil.  (He/She/They had been eating.)   

3. Future
(a)Ite/Ibá/Itará  háibou.               (He/She/They will eat.)
(b)Ite/Ibá/Itará  háat tákibou.         (He/She/They will be eating.)
(c)Ite/Ibá/Itará  hái  félaibou.        (He/She/They will has/has/have eaten.)
(d)Ite/Ibá/Itará  hái  félaat tákibou.  (He/She/They will has/has/have been eating.)

Pronouns

Number Person Gender Pronouns Possessive
adjectives
Subject Object Possessive Reflexive
Singular 1st m/f ( I ) aññí añáre añár aññínize añár
2nd m/f ( you ) tuñí
tui
oñne
tuáñre
toré
oñnoré
tuáñr
tor
oñnor
tuñínize
tuinize
oñnenize
tuáñr
tor
oñnor
3rd m ( he ) ite *
te *
uite **
íte **
itaré
taré
uitaré
ítare
itar
tar
uitar
ítar
itenize
tenize
uitenize
ítenize
itar
tar
uitar
ítar
m/f ( he/she ) ibá *
uibá **
íba **
ibáre
uibáre
íbaré
ibár
uibár
íbar
ibánize
uibánize
íbanize
ibár
uibár
íbar
n1 ( it )
n2 ( it )
yián
ibá
yiánóre
ibáre
yiánór
ibár
yiánnize
ibánize
yiánór
ibár
Plural 1st m/f ( we ) añára añáráre añárár añáránize añárár
2nd m/f ( you ) tuáñrá tuáñráre tuáñrár tuáñránize tuáñrár
3rd m/f ( they ) itará *
tará *
uitará **
ítara **
itaráre
taráre
uitaráre
ítararé
itarár
tarár
uitarár
ítarar
itaránize
taránize
uitaránize
ítaranize
itarár
tarár
uitarár
ítarar
n1 ( they )
n2 ( they )
iín *
uiín **
iínóre
uiínóre
iínór
uiínór
iínnize
uiínnize
iínór
uiínór

Gender: m=male, f=female, n=neuter., *=the person or object is near., **=the person or object is far.

Interrogative

The interrogative is indicated by at the end of the sentence.

Itattú górr ekkán asé ? [Does he have a house?]
Itattú górr ekkán asé. [He has a house.]
Ibá za ? [Does she go?]
Ibá za. [She goes?]
Itará giyé ? [Did they go?]
Itará giyé. [They went.]

Inflection for Person

Rohingya verbs indicate person by suffixes.

Present Tense
lek = write.(command)
lekí = I/we write.
lekó = You (sg./pl.) write.
lekós = You (sg.)(very closed) write.
leké = He/she/they write(s).

Present Continuous Tense
lekír = I/we am/are writing.
lekór = You(sg./pl.) are writing.
lekér = He/she/they is/are writing.

Present Perfect Tense
lekífélaiyi = I/we have written.
lekífélaiyo = You (sg./pl.) have written.
lekífélaiyós = You (sg.) have written. (used to very closed people)
lekífélaiye = He/she/they has/have written.

Future Tense
lekíyóum = I/we will write.
lekíbá = You (sg./pl.) will write.
lekíbi = You (sg.) will write. (used to very closed people)
lekíbóu = He/she/they will write.

Past Tense (Immediate/near past)
leikkí = I/we wrote.
leikkó = You (sg./pl.) wrote.
leikkós = You (sg.) wrote. (used to very closed people)
leikké = He/she/they wrote.

Past Tense (Remote past)
leikkílám = I/we wrote long ago.
leikkílá = You (sg./pl.) wrote long ago.
leikkílí = You (sg.) wrote long ago. (used to very closed people)
leikkíl = He/she/they wrote long ago.

Past Tense (If possibility)
lekítám = I/we would have written.
lekítá = You (sg./pl.) would have written.
lekítí = You (sg.) would have written. (used to very closed people)
lekítóu = He/she/they would have written.

Forming Noun, Doer, Tool, Action
lekóon = act of writing.
        e.g. Debalor uore lekóon gom noó. Writing on wall is not good.
lekóiya = writer.
        e.g. Itaráttú lekóiya bicí. They-have many writers.
lekóni = thing with which you write.
        e.g. Añártú honó lekóni nái. I-have no any writing-thing (i.e. pen, pencil)
lekát = in the action of writing.
        e.g. Tui lekát asós. You are busy-in-writing.

See also

References

External links

For further information on Rohingya Language please refer the following links.


Wikibooks

Up to date as of January 23, 2010
(Redirected to Rohingya/Introduction article)

From Wikibooks, the open-content textbooks collection

< Rohingya

Introduction
-What is Rohingya Language?

Rohingya Language is the written and spoken language of Rohingya Muslim people who are the aboriginals of Arakan State of Myanmar (formerly known as Burma) in South East Asia.

Arakan is one of the larger States of Myanmar and is a place of two sister communities, namely Rohingya of Islamic faith, and Rakhine of Buddhist faith, each speaking a totally different language. Myanmar is comprised of seven states and seven divisions. Seven States are homes for seven major minority-ethnic groups and seven divisions for a single majority-ethnic group known as Burman.

-Language Type

Rohingya language family can be traced back to Indo-Aryan, Indo-Iranian, Indo-European. A some what similar language, known as Chittagoni, is also spoken in the south-most region of Bangladesh bordering Arakan State of Myanmar. Rohingya's second language is either Urdu for studying at religious schools or Burmese for studying at government schools. The study of English is also very much encouraged. You can find many words from Urdu, Hindi, Burmese and English assimilated into Rohingya language.

-Script Types

The first Rohingya language written was in Arabic Script more than 300 years ago. The first person who revived the Arabic Script again is Master Sultan in Mid 1970s which is about 40 years ago. His great effort was much appreciated and he wrote a number of books that reached to many Rohingyas. However, due to lack of some sounds in Arabic script to fulfill Rohingya tongue, many ordinary Rohingyas find much difficulties in reading.

In early 1980s another scholar known as Maulana Hanif invented new characters mostly similar to Arabic script and a couple of other characters borrowed from Latin and Burmese. He managed to solve the reading problems significantly and his effort too was appreciated by many. But implementation of his characters in today's electronic media is not that simple because its writing system is right to left orientation and the shapes of characters changes by position within a word.

By the year 2000 a new intuitive, logical and revolutionary concept has been used by Eng. Mohammed Siddique to write Rohingya Language using Latin characters only. He made Rohingya language extremely easy enabling you to read and write within few minutes by just following seven simple rules. This new writing system is known as Rohingyalish or Rohingyalic and it has been recognized by ISO (International Organization for Standardization) on July 18, 2007 by assigning an International language code "ISO 639-3 rhg".

-Number of Alphabets

Aa Bb Cc Çç Dd Ee Ff
Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm
Nn Ññ Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss
Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz

Rohingya alphabets consist of all 26 English alphabets plus two Latin characters -Çç and Ññ - making a total of 28 alphabets. Out of these, five are used for forming three different types of vowels namely normal, stressed and two types of circular vowels.

There are six normal vowels - a, e, i, o, u, ou - where the sixth one is formed by joining two alphabets o and u. Stressed vowels are formed by using accented vowels - á, é, í, ó, ú, óu - where the sixth one being accented ó and normal u joined.

There are four circular vowels - ai, ei, oi, ui which are formed by just adding i next to the four normal vowels. And there are also stressed circular vowels - ái, éi, ói, úi - that are formed by adding the same i to each of the four accented vowels.


...Words borrowed from
...How Language developed
...Age of the writing system
...Usage in media
...Keyboard Type
-People of Arakan
...Types of people
...Types of Languages
...Types of Dialect
...Types of Religions
...Plain and mountainous people
-Religious effects
...Islamic religious study
...Buddhist effects
...Hindu Religion effects
-Similarities with other language
...Words from Rakhines
...Words from English
...Words from Hindi
...Words from Farsi
...Words from Burmese
...Words from Bangali
-How easy is the Language?
...Familiar Latin Alphabets
...Simplified Vowel Sounds
...Simplified Circular Sounds
...Simplified Extension, Rise and Fall definition
...Very Short time learning curve
...Implementation in computer and Internet
...Easy on mobile like devices
-Rohingya Grammar
...Article
...Sentence construction
...Pronouns
...Prepositions
...Relation pronouns
...Exclamation marks
...Rohingya phrases
-Rohingya Idoms
...Collected Idoms
-Rohingya Songs
...Mohd Shofu
...Best Rohingya Songs
-Future Development
...Addition of other alphabets
...Addition of other accented vowels
People
-Who is Rohingya
...Who are they?
...How they come into being?
...How they were suffered and massacred?
...How they migrated out?
-Rohingya Culture
...Its own culture
...Its own language
...Its own way of thinking
...Brave and industrious
-Political Status
...Extreme situation
...Under extinction
...Under extreme human rights violation
...Suffer in Education, Movements and Marriage
-Litracy rate
...Urdu Literacy
...Arabic Literacy
...Farsi Literacy
...Burmese Literacy
...English Literacy
History
-ISO recognition
...Recognition by ISO 17 July 2007
-International Recognition
...Usages by international level
Scripts
-Arabic scripts
...by Master Sultan
-Urdu Scripts
...by Others
-Hanifi Scripts
...by Maulana Hanifi
-Rohingyalish Scripts
...by Eng. Mohammed Siddique
Etymology
-Origin
Arakan
-About Arakan
-Arakan Map
-Religious back ground
-Other minorities in Arakan
Dictionary
-10,0000 words
Quran Translation
-Whole Quran translated
...How it is started
...Difficulties faces
...Objection from people
...Help from scholars
-Yasin translation
...People helped
...Serious time
...Advantages and disadvantages
-Writing the first Book One
...Changes required
-Writing Book Two
...The challenge
...Two different H's
Current Status
-Current trend
School Books
- Book One
-Book Two
-Book Three
-Book Four
References
-World Rohingya dictionaries
External Links
-Other Rohingya Websites
-Non-profit Organizations
-Political Organization


Simple English

Language name: Rohingya Population: Approximately 1 millions in Arakan, Burma, half a million in Makkah, Jeddah and Madinah of Saudi Arabia, 300000 in Karachi of Pakistan, 200000 in Cox's Bazaar District of Bangladesh (2006), 30000 in Malaysia, and others in Thailand, UAE and India.

Language map: Burma, Saudi Arabia, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Malaysia, Thailand, UAE

Alternate names: Rohinga, Rohinja, Ruaingga, Arakani, Arakanese(Muslims) Comments Muslim.

Writing System: Rohingyalish which was recognized by ISO on 18th July 2007 giving ISO code ISO 639-3 rhg.


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