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The Romani minority in Romania (census 2002)

The Roma (Roma in Romani; Romi, Rromi or Ţigani in Romanian) constitute one of the major minorities in Romania. According to the 2002 census, they number 535,250 people or 2.5% of the total population, being the second-largest ethnic minority in Romania after Hungarians.[1] The Roma are, however, also Romania's most socially and economically disadvantaged minority, with high illiteracy levels, and unofficial sources claim that there are between 0.7 and 2.5 million Roma in the country,[2][3][4][5] or approximately 3 to 11% of the total population. This may be caused either by the fact that many Roma do not declare their ethnicity in the census, or do not have an identity card or birth certificate.[6] Since 2007 members of this ethnic group have migrated in Spain, France and Italy.

Contents

Religion

According to the 2002-census, 81.9% of the Roma are Orthodox Christians, 6.4% Pentecostals, 3.8% Roman Catholics, 3% Calvinists, 1.1% Greek Catholics, 0.9% Baptists, 0.8% Adventists, while the rest belong to other religions (Islam, Lutheranism etc)[7]

Terminology

In Romani, the native language of the Roma, the word for people is (phonemically) /roma/ or /ʀoma/ depending on dialect (/rom/ or /ʀom/ in the singular). Starting from the 1990s, the word has also been officially used in the Romanian language, although it has been used by Romani activists in Romania as far back as 1933.[8]

There are two spellings of the word in Romanian: rom (plural romi), and rrom (plural rromi). The first spelling is preferred by the majority of Romani NGOs.[9] The two forms reflect the fact that for some speakers of Romani there are two different "r-like" phonemes: /r/ and /ʀ/ [10]. In the government-sponsored (Courthiade) writing system /ʀ/ is spelt rr. The final i in rromi is the Romanian (not Romani) plural.

The traditional and colloquial Romanian name for Roma, also widely used by the press[citation needed], is "ţigani" (cognate with Hungarian cigány, Greek ατσίγγανοι (atsinganoi), French tsiganes, Portuguese ciganos, Dutch zigeuner, German Zigeuner). The term is considered to be highly pejorative in Romania [11][12]

Demographic history

The presence of the Roms within the territory of present-day Romania dates back to the 14th century. The population of Roms fluctuated depending on diverse historical and political events.

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Before 1856

Until their liberation on February 20, 1856, most Roms lived in slavery. They could not leave the property of their owner (the boyars and the orthodox monasteries). In the first half of the XVIII-th century, 102,000 Roma lived in the Danubian Principalities, comprising 2.7% of the population (90,000 or 4.1% in Wallachia and 12,000 or 0.8% in Moldavia).[13] Other sources claim that around 200,000 to 250,000 Roms (approx. 7% of the country's population) lived in slavery.[14]

Between 1856 and 1918

After their liberation in 1856, a significant number of Roms left Walachia and Moldavia.

In 1886 the number of Roms was estimated at around 200,000, or 3.2% of Romania's population.[15] The 1899 census counted around 210,806 "others", of whom roughly half (or 2% of the country's population) were Roma.

In Bessarabia, annexed by the Russian Empire in 1812, the Roms had been liberated in 1861, and many of them migrated to other regions of the Empire,[16] while important communities remained in Soroca, Otaci and the surroundings of Cetatea Albă, Chişinău, Bălţi.

Between 1918 and 1945

The 1918 union with Transylvania, Banat, Bukovina and Bessarabia increased the number of ethnic Roma.

The first census in interwar Romania took place in 1930. 242,656 persons (1.6%) were registered as Gypsies (ţigani).

The territory lost in 1940 caused a drop in the number Roma, leaving a high number especially in Southern Dobrouja and Northern Transylvania.

The Romanian government of Ion Antonescu deported 25,000 Roma to Transnistria; of these, 11,000 died.[17] In all, from the territory of present-day Romania (including Northern Transylvania), 36,000 Roma perished during the Second World War.[18]

Between 1945 and 2007

Though the persecution of Roma ended after 1945, their social situation didn't improve substantially. According to various census data, their number was:

Roma
1956 104,216 (0.6%)
1966 64,197 (0.3%)
1977 227,398 (1%)
1992 409,723 (1.8%)
2002 535,250 (2.4%)

The reason for the small number of registered Roms in 1966 is unknown. The 1966-census data is suspected to be manipulated.[19]

Estimations put a higher number of Roma in Romania. According to a study of the Research Institute for Quality of Life from 1998 and published in 2000, there are 1,452,700 to 1,588,552 heteroidentified Roms (of whom 922,465 to 1,002,381 autoidentified).[19] Some other estimations put a number of 700,000[20]-760,000[21] to 1,800,000-2,500,000[22] though the authors don't justify those numbers.

After 2007

The accession of Romania to the European Union in 2007 determined many members of the Romani minority, the most socially disadvantaged ethnic group in Romania, to migrate in masses to various Western countries (mostly to Spain, Italy, Austria, Germany, France) hoping to find a better life. The exact number of emigrants in unknown. Florin Cioabă, an important leader of the Romani community (also known as the "King of all Gipsies") declared in an interview that he worries that Romania may lose its Romani minority.[23] The next population census will take place in 2011.[24]

Cultural influence

Romani music has had a significant influence in Romanian culture, as most lăutari (wedding and party musicians) are of Romani ethnicity.[25][26] Renowned Romanian Romani musicians and bands include Grigoraş Dinicu, Johnny Răducanu, Ion Voicu and Taraf de Haïdouks. In recent years, some Romani artists have started to publish traditional Romani music in albums as a measure of ethnic preservation.

The musical genre manele, a part of Romanian pop culture, is often sung by Romani singers in Romania and has been influenced in part by Romani music, but mostly by Oriental music brought in Romania from Turkey during the 19th century. A subject of controversy, this kind of music is both considered to be low-class kitsch by some people in Romania and enjoyed by others as fun party music.

Integration in Romanian society

According to a 2009 report of the European Fundamental Rights Agency, the discrimination perception of the Romani community of Romania is lower than that of the other EU countries covered by the report. The perceived discrimination levels given by the report are:

  • Czech Republic 64%: Hungary 62%: Poland 59%: Greece 55%: Slovakia 41%: Bulgaria 26%: Romania 25%:

Based on this report, Romanian newspapers have stated that the Romani minority in Romania is the 'least discriminated Romani minority in Eastern Europe' .[27]

However, the same report suggested that the favorable responses from Bulgaria and, to a lesser extent, Romania be regarded with caution, as the low levels of reported discrimination might be a result of the high levels of segregation between Roma and non-Roma:

spatial segregation is high amongst the Roma; (that is, they are living in areas predominantly populated by other Roma): highest in Bulgaria (72%), Romania (66%), Slovakia (65%) and Greece (63%). The implications of this should be borne in mind when looking at the results, as higher levels of spatial segregation imply that Roma respondents are cut-off from mainstream society, which, on the one hand implies that they experience high levels of discrimination, but, on the other hand, may serve to shelter them from discriminatory treatment as contact with the majority population is limited [28]

A 2000 EU report about Roma said that in Romania… the continued high levels of discrimination are a serious concern.. and progress has been limited to programmes aimed at improving access to education.[29]

The EU has launched a program entitled Decade of Roma Inclusion to combat this and other problems.[30]

Self-proclaimed "Romani royalty"

The Romani community has:

  • An Emperor of Roma from Everywhere, as Iulian Rădulescu proclaimed himself.[31] In 1997, Iulian Rădulescu announced the creation of Cem Romengo - the first Rom state in Târgu Jiu, in southwest Romania. According to Rădulescu, "this state has a symbolic value and does not affect the sovereignty and unity of Romania. It does not have armed forces and does not have borders". According to the 2002 population census, in Târgu Jiu there are 96,79% Romanians (93.546 people), 3,01% (Roma) (2.916 people) and 0,20% others.[32]
  • A King of Roma. In 1992, Ioan Cioabă proclaimed himself King of Rroma at Horezu, "in front of more than 10,000 Rroms" (according to his son's declaration). His son, Florin Cioabă, succeeded him as king.[33]
  • An International King of Roma. On August 31, 2003, according to a decree issued by Emperor Iulian, Ilie Stănescu was proclaimed king. The ceremony took place in Curtea de Argeş Cathedral, the Orthodox Church where Romania's Hohenzollern monarchs were crowned and are buried. Ilie Stănescu died in December, 2007.[34]
  • A Queen of European Roma - Lucica Tudor

Early age marriage scandal

On September 27, 2003, Ana Maria Cioabă, the 12-year-old daughter of Florin Cioabă (the King of Roma) was forced to marry Mihai Birita, a 15-year-old boy. Since both were below Romania's legal age of marriage (set at 16), no official marriage ceremony was performed. Ana Maria Cioabă fled from the wedding, but her father brought her back and she was forcibly married.[35] Particularly controversial was the fact that the groom showed the wedding guests a bloodied bed sheet to prove that the marriage had been consummated; in Romania, the age of consent is 15 years old, so sexual contact with the 12-year-old girl was illegal under Romanian law. A friend of her, Ms Dana Chendea, said "She told me it was the worst thing that ever happened to her. She felt like a huge rock fell on her."[35]

Baroness Emma Nicholson, the European Parliament rapporteur for Romania, said that it was a rape and the child must be given over to foster care. Subsequently, the Romanian authorities decided that Ana-Maria Cioabă and Mihai Birita must live separately and must not have any sexual relationships until the legal age of marriage. Ana-Maria was not, however, sent to foster care.[36]

Doru-Viorel Ursu, a former Romanian Minister of the Interior (1990–1991),[37] was the godfather of the young bride.[38]

Florin Cioabă said that he believes, also, that there shouldn't be marriages between Romani children anymore, but he argued that hundred years old traditions cannot be changed over night.[39]

The median age at which the first marriage for Romani girls happen is 19.[40]

Image gallery

Notable people

See also

References

  1. ^ 2002 census data, based on Population by ethnicity, gives a total of 535,250 Roma in Romania. This figure is disputed by other sources, because at the local level, many Roma declare a different ethnicity (Romanian, but also Hungarian in Transylvania and Turkish in Dobruja) for fear of discrimination. Many are not recorded at all, since they do not have ID cards [1].
  2. ^ http://www.anr.gov.ro/docs/statistici/Public_policies_for_Roma_in_Romania_2000_2005_190.pdf
  3. ^ Rumänien sieht Ende starker Auswanderung (Schweiz, NZZ Online)
  4. ^ European effort spotlights plight of the Roma
  5. ^ The Roma of Eastern Europe: Still Searching for Inclusion
  6. ^ (Romanian) Popescu, Eugenia (February 22, 2006). "Rromii sunt, in continuare, victime ale intolerantei si discriminarii" (Roma are still victims of intolerance and discrimination). Cronica Română. http://www.cronicaromana.ro/consiliul-europei-ne-bate-iar-obrazul-rromii-sunt-in-continuare-victime-ale-intolerantei-si-discriminarii.html. 
  7. ^ Census 2002, by religion
  8. ^ "Ziua Activistului Rom", http://www.calendarintercultural.ro/agenda.php?detalii=1617&eventdate=1251320400, retrieved 2009-01-28 
  9. ^ http://www.romanes.ro
  10. ^ Matras, Yaron (2002). Romani: A Linguistic Introduction, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-512-63165-3.
  11. ^ [2]. To be or not to be gypsy
  12. ^ "Discriminarea se invata in familie", http://www.cronicaromana.ro/index.php?editie=850&art=40421, retrieved 2009-01-28 
  13. ^ Neueste Erdbeschreibung und Staatenkunde. Zweiter Band. von Dr. F.H.Ungewitter. Dresden, 1848
  14. ^ Viorel Achim, The Roma in Romanian History, Central European University Press, Budapest, 2004.
  15. ^ Mayers Konversationslexikon, 1892
  16. ^ Ion Nistor, Istoria Basarabiei, Humanitas, Bucuresti, 1991
  17. ^ The report of the International Commission on the Holocaust in Romania (PDF), from Yad Vashem
  18. ^ Society for Threatened Peoples
  19. ^ a b http://www.edrc.ro/docs/docs/Romii_din_Romania.pdf
  20. ^ http://www.nzz.ch/nachrichten/schweiz/rumaenien_sieht_ende_starker_auswanderung_1.698521.html
  21. ^ Alexandre Zouev, Peter Ustinov. Generation in jeopardy: children in Central and Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union. Published by UNICEF.
  22. ^ UNDP report At Risk (2006) and Roma Education Fund report (April 2007)
  23. ^ Regele Cioabă se plânge la Guvern că rămâne fără supuşi - Gandul
  24. ^ Recensământul populaţiei va avea loc în 2011
  25. ^ Rites of Passage and Oral Storytelling in Romanian Epic and the New Testament 2002 Margaret H. Beissinger
  26. ^ Podcast of lecture by Dr. Margaret H. Beissinger, Princeton University “Traditional Romani (Gypsy) Musicians and Oral Epic in the Balkans: A Comparison of Performance and Performers” Thursday, March 22nd, 2007 at University of Pennsylvania
  27. ^ http://www.evz.ro/articole/detalii-articol/849107/Romii-sunt-cel-mai-putin-discriminati-in-Romania/
  28. ^ http://fra.europa.eu/fraWebsite/attachments/EU-MIDIS_ROMA_EN.pdf
  29. ^ [http://ec.europa.eu/employment_social/fundamental_rights/pdf/pubst/roma04_en.pdf "The Situation of Roma in an Enlarged European Union"]. European Commission. http://ec.europa.eu/employment_social/fundamental_rights/pdf/pubst/roma04_en.pdf. 
  30. ^ Decade of Roma inclusion web site
  31. ^ (Romanian) "Regele Cioabă vs. Iulian impăratul". Maxim. http://www.maxim.ro/circus/feature/841/regale_cioaba_vs_iulian_imparatul.html. 
  32. ^ http://recensamant.referinte.transindex.ro/?pg=3&id=1244
  33. ^ (Romanian) Popan, Cosmin (June 10, 2006). "Cioabă şi oalele sparte din şatră". Cotidianul. http://n.cotidianul.ro/index.php?id=5662&art=13735&diraut=151&cHash=53b2f5a80c. 
  34. ^ (Romanian) "La Mânăstirea Curtea de Argeş s-au sfinţit doar podoabele specifice rromilor". Curierul Naţional. September 3, 2003. http://www.curierulnational.ro/?page=articol&editie=301&art=20984. 
  35. ^ a b "Wedding of 12-year-old gypsy princess not recognised". The Sydney Morning Herald. October 2, 2003. http://www.smh.com.au/articles/2003/10/01/1064988272280.html?from=storyrhs. 
  36. ^ (Romanian) "Ana-Maria Cioaba şi Mihai Birita, nevoiţi să locuiască separat". Adevărul. October 3, 2003. http://www.adevarulonline.ro/index.php?section=articole&screen=index&id=55171&search=Ana-Maria. 
  37. ^ (Romanian) "Doru-Viorel Ursu: Curriculum Vitae". Structura Parlamentului României 1992-1996. Chamber of Deputies of Romania. http://www.cdep.ro/pls/parlam/structura.mp?idm=325&cam=2&leg=1992&pag=0&idl=1. 
  38. ^ (Romanian) Duca, Dan. "Cioabă face revoluţie în şatră". Cotidianul. http://www.cotidianul.ro/index.php?id=44&art=7508&cHash=b39510a62b. 
  39. ^ RAZBOI TOTAL IN TIGANIE - Imparatul Iulian si Regele Cioaba il fac praf pe deputatul Niky Scorpion
  40. ^ Romii din România

External links



The Roma (Roma in Romani; Romi, Rromi or Ţigani in Romanian) constitute one of the major minorities in Romania. According to the 2002 census, they number 535,250 people or 2.5% of the total population, being the second-largest ethnic minority in Romania after Hungarians.[1] The Roma are, however, also Romania's most socially and economically disadvantaged minority, with high illiteracy levels, and unofficial sources claim that there are between 0.7 and 2.5 million Roma in the country,[2][3][4][5] or approximately 3 to 11% of the total population. This may be caused either by the fact that many Roma do not declare their ethnicity in the census, or do not have an identity card or birth certificate.[6] Since 2007 members of this ethnic group have migrated in Spain, France and Italy.

Contents

Religion

According to the 2002-census, 81.9% of the Roma are Orthodox Christians, 6.4% Pentecostals, 3.8% Roman Catholics, 3% Calvinists, 1.1% Greek Catholics, 0.9% Baptists, 0.8% Adventists, while the rest belong to other religions (Islam, Lutheranism etc)[7]

Terminology

In Romani, the native language of the Roma, the word for people is (phonemically) /roma/ or /ʀoma/ depending on dialect (/rom/ or /ʀom/ in the singular). Starting from the 1990s, the word has also been oficially used in the Romanian language, although it has been used by Romani activists in Romania as far back as 1933.[8]

There are two spellings of the word in Romanian: rom (plural romi), and rrom (plural rromi). The first spelling is preferred by the majority of Roma NGOs.[9] The two forms reflect the fact that for some speakers of Romani there are two different "r-like" phonemes: /r/ and /ʀ/ [10]. In the government-sponsored (Courthiade) writing system /ʀ/ is spelt rr. The final i in rromi is the Romanian (not Romani) plural.

The traditional and colloquial Romanian name for Roma, also widely used by the press, is "ţigani" (cognate with Hungarian cigány, Greek ατσίγγανοι (atsinganoi), French gitans, Spanish gitanos, Portuguese ciganos, Dutch zigeuner, German Zigeuner). The term is highly pejorative in Romania.[11][12]

Demographic history

The presence of the Roms within the territory of present-day Romania dates back to the 14th century. The population of Roms fluctuated depending on diverse historical and political events.

Before 1856

Until their liberation in 1856, most Roms lived in slavery. They could not leave the property of their owner (the boyars and the orthodox monasteries). In the first half of the XVIII-th century, 102,000 Roma lived in the Danubian Principalities, comprising 2.7% of the population (90,000 or 4.1% in Wallachia and 12,000 or 0.8% in Moldavia). [13] Other sources claim that around 200,000 to 250,000 Roms (approx. 7% of the country's population) lived in slavery.[14]

Between 1856 and 1918

After their liberation in 1856, a significant number of Roms left Walachia and Moldavia.

In 1886, the number of Roms was estimated at around 200,000 or 3.2% of Romania's population.[15] The 1899-census counted around 210,806 "others", of whom roughly the half (or 2% of the countries population) were Roma.

In Bessarabia, annexed by the Russian Empire in 1812, the Roms had been liberated in 1861 and many of them migrated to other regions of the Empire,[16] while important communities left in Soroca, Otaci and the surroundings of Cetatea Albă, Chişinău, Bălţi.

Between 1918 and 1945

The 1918 union with Transylvania, Banat, Bukovina and Bessarabia increased the number of ethnic Roma.

The first census in interwar Romania took place in 1930. 242,656 persons (1.6%) were registered as Gypsies (ţigani).

The territory lost in 1940 caused a drop in the number Roma, leaving a high number especially in Southern Dobrouja and Northern Transylvania.

The Romanian government of Ion Antonescu deported 25,000 Roma to Transnistria; of these, 11,000 died.[17] In all, from the territory of present-day Romania (including Northern Transylvania), 36,000 Roma perished during the Second World War.[18]

Between 1945 and 2007

Though the persecution of Roma ended after 1945, their social situation didn't improve substantially. According to various census data, their number was:

Roma
1956 104,216 (0.6%)
1966 64,197 (0.3%)
1977 227,398 (1%)
1992 409,723 (1.8%)
2002 535,250 (2.4%)

The reason for the small number of registered Roms in 1966 is unkonwn. The 1966-census data is suspected to be manipulated.[19]

Estimations put a higher number of Roma in Romania. According to a study of the Research Institute for Quality of Life from 1998 and published in 2000, there are 1,452,700 to 1,588,552 heteroidentified Roms (of whom 922,465 to 1,002,381 autoidentified).[20] Some other estimations put a number of 700,000[21]-760,000[22] to 1,800,000-2,500,000[23] though the authors don't justify those numbers.

After 2007

The accession of Romania to the European Union in 2007 determined many members of the Romani minority, the most socially disadvantaged ethnic group in Romania, to migrate in masses to various Western counties (mostly to Spain, Italy, Austria, Germany, France) hoping to find a better life. The exact number of emigrants in unknown. In Italy, 60% of the 152,000 Romani individuals living in 700 camps are immigrants, many from Romania and the Balkans.[24] Unofficial estimates place the size of the Romanian Romani community in Spain at around 100,000.[25]

The next population census will take place in 2011.[26]

Cultural influence

Romani music has had a significant influence in Romanian culture, as most lăutari (wedding and party musicians) are of Romani ethnicity.[27][28] Renowned Romanian Romani musicians and bands include Grigoraş Dinicu, Johnny Răducanu, Ion Voicu and Taraf de Haïdouks. In recent years, some Romani artists have started to publish traditional Romani music in albums as a measure of ethnic preservation.

The musical genre manele, a part of Romanian pop culture, is often sung by Romani singers in Romania and has been influenced in part by Romani music, but mostly by Oriental music brought in Romania from Turkey during the 19th century. A subject of controversy, this kind of music is both considered to be low-class kitsch by some people in Romania and enjoyed by others as fun party music.

Integration in Romanian society

According to a 2009 report of the European Fundamental Rights Agency, the discrimination perception of the Romani community of Romania is lower than that of the other EU countries covered by the report. The perceived discrimination levels given by the report are:

  • Czech Republic 64%: Hungary 62%: Poland 59%: Greece 55%: Slovakia 41%: Bulgaria 26%: Romania 25%:

Based on this report, Romanian newspapers have stated that the Romani minority in Romania is the 'least discriminated Romani minority in Eastern Europe' .[29]

However, the same report suggested that the favorable responses from Bulgaria and, to a lesser extent, Romania be regarded with caution, as the low levels of reported discrimination might be a result of the high levels of segregation between Roma and non-Roma:

spatial segregation is high amongst the Roma; (that is, they are living in areas predominantly populated by other Roma): highest in Bulgaria (72%), Romania (66%), Slovakia (65%) and Greece (63%). The implications of this should be borne in mind when looking at the results, as higher levels of spatial segregation imply that Roma respondents are cut-off from mainstream society, which, on the one hand implies that they experience high levels of discrimination, but, on the other hand, may serve to shelter them from discriminatory treatment as contact with the majority population is limited [30]

A 2000 EU report about Roma said that in Romania… the continued high levels of discrimination are a serious concern.. and progress has been limited to programmes aimed at improving access to education.[31]

The EU has launched a program entitled Decade of Roma Inclusion to combat this and other problems.[32]

Self-proclaimed leaders

The Romani community has:

  • An Emperor of Roma from Everywhere, as Iulian Rădulescu proclaimed himself.[33] In 1997, Iulian Rădulescu announced the creation of Cem Romengo - the first Rom state in Târgu Jiu, in southwest Romania. According to Rădulescu, "this state has a symbolic value and does not affect the sovereignty and unity of Romania. It does not have armed forces and does not have borders". According to 2006 population census, from the total of 104.596 people : 96,79% are Romanians (93.546 people), 3,01% Gypsies (Roma) (2.916 people) and 0,20% others.
  • A King of Roma. In 1992, Ioan Cioabă proclaimed himself King of Rroma at Horezu, "in front of more than 10,000 Rroms" (according to his son's declaration). His son, Florin Cioabă, succeeded him as king.[34]
  • An International King of Roma. On August 31, 2003, according to a decree issued by Emperor Iulian, Ilie Stănescu was proclaimed king. The ceremony took place in Curtea de Argeş Cathedral, the Orthodox Church where Romania's Hohenzollern monarchs were crowned and are buried. Ilie Stănescu died in December, 2007.[35]

Early age marriage scandal

On September 27, 2003, Ana Maria Cioabă, the 12-year-old daughter of Florin Cioabă (the King of Roma) was forced to marry Mihai Birita, a 15-year-old boy. Since both were below Romania's legal age of marriage (set at 16), no official marriage ceremony was performed. Ana Maria Cioabă fled from the wedding, but her father brought her back and she was forcibly married.[36] Particularly controversial was the fact that the groom showed the wedding guests a bloodied bed sheet to prove that the marriage had been consummated; in Romania, the age of consent is 15 years old, so sexual contact with the 12-year-old girl was illegal under Romanian law. A friend of her, Ms Dana Chendea, said "She told me it was the worst thing that ever happened to her. She felt like a huge rock fell on her."[36]

Baroness Emma Nicholson, the European Parliament rapporteur for Romania, said that it was a rape and the child must be given over to foster care. Subsequently, the Romanian authorities decided that Ana-Maria Cioabă and Mihai Birita must live separately and must not have any sexual relationships until the legal age of marriage. Ana-Maria was not, however, sent to foster care.[37]

Doru-Viorel Ursu, a former Romanian Minister of the Interior (1990–1991),[38] was the godfather of the young bride.[39]

Florin Cioabă said that he believes, also, that there shouldn't be marriages between Romani children anymore, but he argued that hundred years old traditions cannot be changed over night.[40]

The median age at which the first marriage for Romani girls happen is 19.[41]

Image gallery

Notable people

See also

References

External links

Template:Romani diaspora

Template:Romanianethnicgroups


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