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Roma in Hungary
Magyar cigányok
Magyarországi romák
Civil Ensign of Hungary.svgRoma flag.svg
Total population
205,720 (census 2001)[1]
Estimates: 450,000 to 1,000,000[2][3][4]
[5][6][7][8][9]
Regions with significant populations
Northern Hungary, Northern Great Plain, Southern Transdanubia
Languages

mainly Hungarian (91-92%)[10]

Religion

Roman Catholicism (almost exclusively), other Christian[11]

The Roma (Hungarian: cigányok or romák) in Hungary represents ~2% (2001 census) or 6-11% (unofficial estimation) of the total population. Since World War II, the number of Roma has increased rapidly, multiplying sevenfold in the last century. Today every fifth or sixth newborn is Roma. Estimates based on current demographic trends project that in 2050, 20.9% of the population (2.9 million people) will be Roma.[12] The Roma continue to be among the poorest in the country. Their birth rates are much higher and their average expected life span is significantly lower than the national average. Roma continue to be discriminated and live a harsh life in Hungary. They often face hardship and prejudice, and many live in poverty.

Contents

History and language

Hungarian Romani family (1905)
Young Hungarian Roma dancing

Roma first appeared in Hungary in the 14th and 15th centuries, fleeing the conquering Turks in the Balkans. A significant number migrated further to West European countries. Since they were thought to be Egyptian pilgrims in some places, they are still known by the term 'Gypsy' in these areas today. These people, with an alien culture and unfamiliar with agricultural production, were soon expelled and deported from Western Europe, sometimes brutally. Some tribes managed to hold onto homes in the Mediterranean region but the majority retreated to Central and Eastern Europe.

In the mid-18th century Maria Theresa (1740-1780) and Joseph II (1780-1790) dealt with the Romani question by the contradictory methods of enlightened absolutism. Maria Theresa enacted a decree prohibiting the use of the name 'Gypsy' and requiring the terms 'new peasant" and 'new Hungarian' to be used instead. She later placed restrictions on Romani marriages, and ordered children to be taken away from Romani parents, so that they could be raised in 'bourgeois or peasant' families. Finally Joseph II even prohibited use of the Romani language in 1783. The forced assimilation essentially proved successful - in the 19th and 20th centuries the vast majority of the Romani population, who had settled hundreds of years earlier and held onto their customs and culture for a long time, gave up, even forgetting their native language and assimilating in Hungarian society, Romani minority that’s being persecuted in Hungary.

Hungarian discrimination against Roma

Endemic discrimination against Roma appears to be growing, even as Hungary is transforming itself. Attacks on Roma, open discrimination and abuse by government officials exist, and appear to be part of a broad social pattern of discrimination and marginalization which seems likely to continue in Hungary well into the foreseeable future. There is evidence that this discrimination increases at times of economic hardship.[13]

Whereas almost half the Hungarian secondary school students enroll in vocational secondary schools or comprehensive grammar schools, which provide better chances, only one in five Romani children does so. Moreover, the drop-out rate in secondary schools is significant.[14] The Roma struggle to succeed in Hungary's educational system. Only 61% of Hungarian Roma aged 15 and above have completed primary education, and just 13% have completed secondary education.

This may be caused in part by the original culture of Romani people, which they carried with them from India, and which was reinforced during their centuries of nomadic existence; they could ignore or get around many of the laws of the nations through which they traveled. Even today, having been largely settled for much of the twentieth century, they have not managed to fully integrate. Much of the Romani population are pretty poor. They are not provided with fair and equal access to educational resources, resulting in high unemployment, and the perpetual cycle of poverty that keeps them from social mobility.[15] Currently, around 90% of Romani children complete primary education. A research of sample schools however suggests that the drop-out rate among Roma is still almost twice as high as among non-Roma.[16]

The share of Romani students entering secondary education has increased greatly, with the percentage of Romani children not pursuing any secondary education dropping from 49% to 15% between 1994 and 1999. But that increase is almost exclusively due to increased enrollment in the lowest levels of education, which provide only limited chances for employment.

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Parody of Roma

Sándor Fábry's RTL Klub TV program "Esti Showder", a popular talk show on Hungarian commercial TV, broadcast a "Romani show" on November 6. The project was potentially very risky as it was only last spring that TV2 ran their highly controversial and damaging program "Big Romani Wedding", in which it had presented Romani men as criminals and thieves and the women as prostitutes. However, the ratings for the "Big Roma Wedding" were high, and the RTL Klub "Esti Showder" approached the Roma community directly. He invited some Romani entrepreneurs, musicians, and artists to the studio for the production and, thus, made the parody of quite a different color. After the show had been aired, the RTL Klub issued a statement that "prominent Romani politicians had given their approval and appreciated that the show rectified the reputation of Romani community defamed by TV2" in March. "Showder" is a pun merging the words `show` and 'sóder' - which means "gravel" in Hungarian but also means "talk" in obsolete Hungarian slang. The word "esti" could be translated as "tonight" or "night time".[17]

Other examples

Cooperation between Roma and non-Roma is also taking place around the Opre Roma ("Rise Up, Roma") community in eastern Hungary. Romani residents in the area were to be evicted from their homes, but they have found unlikely support from local citizens and church members.

There are problems related to the Romani minority in Hungary, and the very subject is a heated and disputed topic.

Objective problems:

  • Education/poor chances for work: slightly more than 80% of Romani children complete primary education, but only one third continue studies into the intermediate (secondary) level. This is far lower than the more than 90% proportion of children of non-Romani families who continue studies at an intermediate level. Less than 1% of Roma hold higher educational certificates.
  • Poverty: most of the Romani people live in significantly worse conditions than others.
  • Bad health conditions: life expectancy is about 10 years less compared to non-Roma
  • Lack of debate regarding the subject: academic researchers and members of the mainstream press disregard any critics and study the subject in the canonical viewpoint. Critics don't have the funds necessary to perform alternative studies.

Please note that this list below consists disputed issues.

  • Natural repugnance: there are differences is the social behavior of the host nation and the Romani people leading to a disinclination towards each other. This is slowly decaying on the Hungarian side (36-38%[18]); as of 2007, there is no research made regarding the Romani side.
  • Integration problems on the host side: there's a significant prejudice towards Roma people in Hungary affecting the motivation for integration. Exact numbers are unknown as the research material available mixes prejudice with "post-judice".
  • Integration problems on the Romani side: some Romani people have apparent trouble adjusting to the European standards of social behavior regarding loud-mouthing, littering and being non-violent, law-abiding and working citizens. As of 2007, there is no research available on this issue.
  • Problems with motivation for work: as of 2007, what can be earned with work can be obtained having many children[19], which does not move Romani people towards work as they usually have more children anyway, an it can be also stated that for some families it worths to have more children than trying to get a job.
  • Crime: "gypsy crime" ("cigánybűnözés" in Hungarian) is a phenomenon well disputed and often misunderstood.
  • School segregation: likely due to repugnance, non-Romani people tend to choose schools with less problematic Romani children. It's also believed that there were cases where healthy Romani children were assigned to classes for pupils with learning disabilities (although this might have been a financial issue).

Political parties

Hungarian Roma are represented by a number of conventional political parties and organizations, including the Roma Social Coalition (an organization, consisting of 19 Romani organizations), the Independent Interest Association of Roma in Hungary (a new coalition, including the Lungo Drom, the Phralipe Independent Roma organization, and the Democratic Federation of Roma in Hungary) and others. The most recent addition is the Democratic Roma Coalition, established in December 2002 by three Romani organizations in time for 2003 local elections.

Romani political representation

In Hungary, two Roma were elected to parliament as candidates of mainstream parties in 1990, but only one in 1994 and none in 1998. In any case, it has been questioned whether a minority MP who gets into the parliament as a member of a mainstream party can properly represent the interests of his or her minority. During the conference discussions, a Rom from the Czech Republic recounted that his party, the Romani Civic Initiative, instead of participating in the 1998 parliamentary elections on its own, accepted an offer from a majority party, the Union of Freedom, which promised to assist the Roma in the resolution of their problems. One Romani candidate of the Union of Freedom was elected, yet the Romani Civic Union found that it was unable to influence the Union of Freedom’s political program. Following the European elections, 2009, Livia Jaroka is the sole Romani representative of the 22 members of the European parliament from Hungary.

Political/education discrimination

Jobbik party from Hungary is openly against Romani presence in Hungary.

In Hungary, 'only 0.3 per cent of Roma hold post-secondary school diplomas and only one in four complete primary school', says Professor Miklos Haraszti of the University of California's Study Centre in Budapest. They comprise an estimated 5-7 per cent of the loin national population but make up two-thirds of the prison population. Their jobless rate is over 60 per cent, more than six times the Hungarian average. And their life expectancy -- a vital measure describing health, economic and social conditions -- trails the national average by as much as ten years.

The gates of secondary schooling are at last wide open to Romani students, observes educational sociologist Istvan Kemeny, the author of pioneering fieldwork, in the January issue of the authoritative journal Hungarian Quarterly. But the educational gap between the Roma and the Hungarian ethnic majority 'has not narrowed over the past 40 years... And even today, only one in five Romani families could afford to send their children to secondary schools'.

Demographics

Romani minority in Hungary (census 2001)
Romani minority in Hungary (census 2001)

Demographic change in Hungary is characterised by an ageing, falling population while the number of people of Romani origin is rising and the age composition of the Romani population is much younger than that of the overall population. Counties with the highest concentration of Romani minority are Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén and Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg (officially 45'525 and 25'612 people in 2001)[20], but there are other regions with a traditionally high Romani population like parts of Baranya and the middle reaches of the Tisza valley. Although they were traditionally living in the countryside, under general urbanization trends from the second half of the 20th century many of them moved into the cities. There is a sizable Romani minority living in Budapest (12'273 people in 2001, officially). The real number of Roma in Hungary is a disputed question. In the 2001 census only 190,000 people called themselves Roma, but experts and Romani organisations estimate that there are between 450,000 and 1,000,000 Roma living in Hungary [21][22][23]. During World War II, 28,000 Roma were killed in Hungary.[24] Since then, the size of the Romani population has increased rapidly. Today every fifth or sixth newborn Hungarian child belongs to the Romani minority. Based on current demographic trends, a 2006 estimate by Central European Management Intelligence claims that the proportion of the romani population will double by 2050.[25]

Romani autonomy in Hungary

The separation of Romani children into segregated schools and classes is also a problem, and has been on the rise over the past 15 years. Segregated schools are partly the result of "white flight", with non-Romani parents sending their children to schools in neighbouring villages or towns when there are many Romani students in the local school. But Romani children are also frequently placed in segregated classes even within "mixed" schools. [26] Many other Romani children are sent to classes for pupils with learning disabilities. The percentage of Romani children in special schools rose from about 25% in 1975 to 42% in 1992, with a 1997 survey showing little change - whereas a National Institute for Public Education report says that "most experts agree that a good number of Roma children attending special schools are not even slightly mentally disabled".[27]

Fewer than 1% of Roma hold higher educational certificates. Their low status on the job market and higher unemployment rates cause poverty, widespread social problems and crime.

National Gypsy Minority Self-Government (NGMS)

In Budapest, the district minority self-governing bodies established the Budapest Gypsy Minority Self-Government by means of indirect elections, and founded the National Gypsy Minority Self-Government (NGMS) with 53 representatives.

Act LXXIX of 1993

An important legal regulation directly affecting the position of the Romani population in Hungary is Act LXXIX of 1993 on Public Education, which was amended in 1996 and 2003 to provide the national and local minority self-governing bodies with the opportunity of founding and maintaining educational institutions, and which defined the fight against segregation in schools as an objective.

Romani exodus

Many Roma are seeking their own, desperate solutions. Cases brought by groups of Roma claiming racial discrimination are constantly pending before the European Court of Human Rights in Strasbourg. Thousands of families have sold all their possessions and fled to Western Europe and North America in search of refugee status and a decent life. Most of them are being turned back, but some have found a haven in generous countries like Canada.

See also

References

  1. ^ Hungarian census 2001
  2. ^ Roma in Hungary
  3. ^ Estimates of their numbers range from 500,000 to almost a million in the country of 10 million people. RomNews Network Community, Budapest, Hungary
  4. ^ http://www.romaweb.hu/doc/konyvtar/hablicsek_magyarorszagi_ciganysag_demografiaja.pdf
  5. ^ Population Census 2001 – National and county data – Summary Data
  6. ^ Hungary acknowledges the need for progress regarding its population of 500,000 to 1 million Roma (Gypsies)
  7. ^ Hungary would put the number of Roma in the country at 800,000-1,000,000, or up to 10% of the total population of Hungary. European Rights Roma Center
  8. ^ The New York City Times: Roma make up an estimated 8 to 10 percent of Hungary’s population
  9. ^ The christian science monitor: "[...] the Roma, who account for between 8 and 10 percent of Hungary's 10 million people."
  10. ^ Generality of Hungarian Roma speak only Hungarian
  11. ^ Like local Hungarians
  12. ^ Romani World
  13. ^ "As Economic Turmoil Mounts, So Do Attacks on Hungary’s Gypsies". http://www.nytimes.com/2009/04/27/world/europe/27hungary.html. Retrieved 2009-04-27.  
  14. ^ Equal access to quality education for Roma, Hungary, pp. 208-209
  15. ^ "Monitoring Education for Roma. A Statistical Baseline for Central, Eastern, and South Eastern Europe.". Open Society Institute, Education Support Program (ESP). 2006. http://www.soros.org/initiatives/esp/articles_publications/publications/monitoring_20061218/monitoring_20061218.pdf. Retrieved 2007-04-20.  
  16. ^ "Equal access to quality education for Roma, Hungary". Open Society Institute, EU Monitoring and Advocacy Program (EUMAP). 2007. pp. 206–207. http://www.eumap.org/topics/minority/reports/roma_education/report/national/hungary.pdf. Retrieved 2007-04-20.  
  17. ^ Hungary: Yet Another Parody on Roma - www.romea.cz
  18. ^ [1] 'Az 1993-1995 közötti három évet jellemző 40-42 százalékos szintről a 2001-2003 közötti három éves időszakban 36-38 százalékra csökkent azok aránya, kik magikra nézve igaznak tartották azt a kijelentést, hogy "idegenkedem a cigányoktól"' (sic).
  19. ^ Minimal monthly wage: 65,500 HUF [2] ("2007.01.01-jétől 65.500,-Ft"), monthly family allowance for a family of 5: 74,500 HUF [3] ("3 és több gyermekes család 14.900/hó/gyermek").
  20. ^ Népszámlálás 2001 – 4. Nemzetiségi kötődés – Központi Statisztikai Hivatal
  21. ^ Roma - Hungary - Art - New York Times
  22. ^ Hungary's anti-Roma militia grows | csmonitor.com
  23. ^ Stratégiai Audit 2005 - DEMOS Magyarország
  24. ^ Society for Threatened Peoples
  25. ^ [4] "A CEMI kalkulációja szerint a romák száma a mai 700 ezerről 2050-re 1,2 millióra nőhet. Ezen idő alatt a nem roma népesség száma 9,5 millióról 7,6 millióra csökken. Így a romák mai mintegy 7 százalékos aránya megduplázódhat és elérheti a 14-15 százalékot."
  26. ^ Equal access to quality education for Roma, Hungary, pp. 187, 212-213
  27. ^ "Legislative review for the Hungarian roma education policy note". National Institute for Public Education. 2004. http://www.oki.hu/oldal.php?tipus=cikk&kod=eselyaz-kadar-legislative. Retrieved 2007-04-20.  

Roma people of Hungary
Magyar cigányok
Magyarországi romák
Total population
205,720 (census 2001)[1]
Estimates: 450,000 to 1,000,000[2][3][4]
[5][6][7][8][9]
Regions with significant populations
Northern Hungary, Northern Great Plain, Southern Transdanubia
Languages

Hungarian (91-92% in 2001)[10]
Others (mainly Romany)

Religion

Roman Catholicism (almost exclusively), other Christian[11]

The Roma people (Hungarian: cigányok or romák) in Hungary represents 2% (official census) or 4-10% (unofficial estimation) of the total population. Since World War II, the number of Roma has increased rapidly, multiplying sevenfold in the last century. Today every fifth or sixth newborn is Roma. Estimates based on current demographic trends project that in 2050, 20.9% of the population (2 million people) will be Roma.[12] The Roma continue to be among the poorest in the country. Their birth rates are much higher and their average expected life span is significantly lower than the national average.

Contents

History and language


Roma (Gypsies) first appeared in Hungary in the 14th and 15th centuries, fleeing the conquering Turks in the Balkans. A significant number migrated further to West European countries. Since they were thought to be Egyptian pilgrims in some places, they are still known by the term gypsy in these areas today. These people, with an alien culture and unfamiliar with agricultural production, were soon expelled and deported from Western Europe, sometimes brutally. Some tribes managed to hold onto homes in the Mediterranean region but the majority retreated to Central and Eastern Europe.

In the mid-18th century Maria Theresa (1740-1780) and Joseph II (1780-1790) dealt with the Gypsy question by the contradictory methods of enlightened absolutism. Maria Theresa enacted a decree prohibiting the use of the name 'Gypsy' and requiring the terms 'new peasant' and 'new Hungarian' to be used instead. She later placed restrictions on Gypsy marriages, and ordered children to be taken away from Gypsy parents, so that they could be raised in 'bourgeois or peasant' families. Finally Joseph II even prohibited use of the Gypsy language in 1783. The forced assimilation essentially proved successful - in the 19th and 20th centuries the vast majority of the Gypsy population, who had settled hundreds of years earlier and held onto their customs and culture for a long time, gave up, even forgetting their native language and assimilating in Hungarian society.

Hungarian discrimination against Roma people

Endemic discrimination against Roma appears to be growing, even as Hungary is transforming itself. Attacks on Roma, open discrimination and abuse by government officials exist, and appear to be part of a broad social pattern of discrimination and marginalization which seems likely to continue in Hungary well into the foreseeable future. There is evidence that this discrimination increases at times of economic hardship.[13]

Whereas almost half the Hungarian secondary school students enroll in vocational secondary schools or comprehensive grammar schools, which provide better chances, only one in five Roma children does so. Moreover, the drop-out rate in secondary schools is significant.[14] The Roma (called cigányok or romák in Hungarian) struggle to succeed in Hungary's educational system. Only 61% of Hungarian Roma aged 15 and above have completed primary education, and just 13% have completed secondary education.

This may be caused in part by the original culture of Roma people, which they carried with them from India, and which was reinforced during their centuries of nomadic existence; they could ignore or get around many of the laws of the nations through which they traveled. Even today, having been largely settled for much of the twentieth century, they have not managed to fully integrate. Much of the Roma population are pretty poor. They get almost every social welfare benefit from the governmentTemplate:Fact, but they are not educating themselves successfully, resulting in high unemployment, and the circle of poverty pulls them down.[15] Currently, around 90% of Roma children complete primary education. A research of sample schools however suggests that the drop-out rate among Roma is still almost twice as high as among non-Roma.[16]

The share of Roma students entering secondary education has increased greatly, with the percentage of Roma children not pursuing any secondary education dropping from 49% to 15% between 1994 and 1999. But that increase is almost exclusively due to increased enrollment in the lowest levels of education, which provide only limited chances for employment.

Parody of Roma

Sándor Fábry's RTL Klub TV program "Esti Showder", a popular talk show on Hungarian commercial TV, broadcast a "Roma show" on November 6. The project was potentially very risky as it was only last spring that TV2 ran their highly controversial and damaging program "Big Roma Wedding", in which it had presented Roma men as criminals and thieves and the women as prostitutes. However, the ratings for the "Big Roma Wedding" were high, and the RTL Klub "Esti Showder" approached the Roma community directly. He invited some Roma entrepreneurs, musicians, and artists to the studio for the production and, thus, made the parody of quite a different color. After the show had been aired, the RTL Klub issued a statement that "prominent Roma politicians had given their approval and appreciated that the show rectified the reputation of Roma community defamed by TV2" in March. "Showder" is a pun merging the words `show` and 'sóder' - which means "gravel" in Hungarian but also means "talk" in obsolete Hungarian slang. The word "esti" could be translated as "tonight" or "night time".[17]

Other examples

Cooperation between Roma and non-Roma is also taking place around the Opre Roma ("Rise Up, Roma") community in eastern Hungary. Roma residents in the area were to be evicted from their homes, but they have found unlikely support from local citizens and church members.

There are problems related to the Roma minority in Hungary, and the very subject is a heated and disputed topic.

Objective problems:

  • Education/poor chances for work: slightly more than 80% of Roma children complete primary education, but only one third continue studies into the intermediate (secondary) level. This is far lower than the more than 90% proportion of children of non-Roma families who continue studies at an intermediate level. Less than 1% of Roma hold higher educational certificates.Template:Fact
  • Poverty: most of the Roma people live in significantly worse conditions than others.Template:Fact
  • Bad health conditions: life expectancy is about 10 years less compared to non-Romas
  • Lack of debate regarding the subject: academic researchers and members of the mainstream press disregard any critics and study the subject in the canonical viewpoint. Critics don't have the funds necessary to perform alternative studies.

Please note that this list below consists disputed issues.

  • Natural repugnance: there are differences is the social behavior of the host nation and the Roma people leading to a disinclination towards each other. This is slowly decaying on the Hungarian side (36-38%[18]); as of 2007, there is no research made regarding the Roma side.
  • Integration problems on the host side: there's a significant prejudice towards Roma people in Hungary affecting the motivation for integration. Exact numbers are unknown as the research material available mixes prejudice with "post-judice".
  • Integration problems on the Roma side: some Roma people have apparent trouble adjusting to the European standards of social behavior regarding loud-mouthing, littering and being non-violent, law-abiding and working citizens. As of 2007, there is no research available on this issue.
  • Problems with motivation for work: as of 2007, what can be earned with work can be obtained having many children[19], which does not move Roma people towards work as they usually have more children anyway.
  • Crime: "gypsy crime" ("cigánybűnözés" in Hungarian) is a phenomenon well disputed and often misunderstood. Although originally it refers to some crimes (eg. stealing of items made of copper, lynch, some robbery types, scuffle between families) often committed by Roma offenders, critics say it stigmatizes all Roma people. As a result (as of 2007), Hungarian authorities don't collect any data that could be used to study the issue, therefore no research is available regarding this topic. It's believed that there is a pattern in the crimes committed by Roma criminals and that the ratio of Roma inmates are much higher compared to non-Romas (around 70-80%), this is not an individual phenomenon since its common in other countries too[20].
  • School segregation: likely due to repugnance, non-Roma people tend to choose schools with less problematic Roma children. It's also believed that there were cases where healthy Roma children were assigned to classes for pupils with learning disabilities (although this might have been a financial issue).

Political parties

Hungarian Roma are represented by a number of conventional political parties and organizations, including the Roma Social Coalition (an organization, consisting of 19 Roma organizations), the Independent Interest Association of Gypsies in Hungary (a new coalition, including the Lungo Drom, the Phralipe Independent Gypsy organization, and the Democratic Federation of Gypsies in Hungary) and others. The most recent addition is the Democratic Roma Coalition, established in December 2002 by three Roma organizations in time for 2003 local elections.

Roma representation in Hungarian Parliament

In Hungary, two Roma were elected to parliament as candidates of mainstream parties in 1990, but only one in 1994 and none in 1998Template:Fact. In any case, it has been questioned whether a minority MP who gets into the parliament as a member of a mainstream party can properly represent the interests of his or her minority. During the conference discussions, a Rom from the Czech Republic recounted that his party, the Romani Civic Initiative, instead of participating in the 1998 parliamentary elections on its own, accepted an offer from a majority party, the Union of Freedom, which promised to assist the Roma in the resolution of their problemsTemplate:Fact. One Romani candidate of the Union of Freedom was elected, yet the Romani Civic Union found that it was unable to influence the Union of Freedom’s political program. As of 2009, 2 out of the 24 members of the European parliament from Hungary are Roma.Template:Fact

Demographics

Demographic change in Hungary is characterised by an ageing, falling population while the number of people of Gypsy origin is rising and the age composition of the Gypsy population is much younger than that of the overall population. Counties with the highest concentration of Roma minority are Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén and Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg (officially 45'525 and 25'612 people in 2001)[21], but there are other regions with a traditionally high Roma population like parts of Baranya and the middle reaches of the Tisza valley. Although they were traditionally living in the countryside, under general urbanization trends from the second half of the 20th century many of them moved into the cities. There is a sizable Roma minority living in Budapest (12'273 people in 2001, officially). The real number of Roma in Hungary is a disputed question. In the 2001 census only 190,000 people called themselves Roma, but experts and Roma organisations estimate that there are between 450,000 and 1,000,000 Roma living in Hungary [22][23][24]. During World War II, 50,000 Roma were killed in Hungary.[7] Since then, the size of the Roma population has increased rapidly. Today every fifth or sixth newborn Hungarian child belongs to the Roma minority. Based on current demographic trends, a 2006 estimate by Central European Management Intelligence claims that the proportion of the roma population will double by 2050.[25]

Roma autonomy in Hungary

The separation of Roma children into segregated schools and classes is also a problem, and has been on the rise over the past 15 years. Segregated schools are partly the result of "white flight", with non-Roma parents sending their children to schools in neighbouring villages or towns when there are many Roma students in the local school. But Roma children are also frequently placed in segregated classes even within "mixed" schools. [26] Many other Roma children are sent to classes for pupils with learning disabilities. The percentage of Roma children in special schools rose from about 25% in 1975 to 42% in 1992, with a 1997 survey showing little change - whereas a National Institute for Public Education report says that "most experts agree that a good number of Roma children attending special schools are not even slightly mentally disabled".[27]

Fewer than 1% of Roma hold higher educational certificates. Their low status on the job market and higher unemployment rates cause poverty, widespread social problems and crime.

National Gypsy Minority Self-Government (NGMS)

In Budapest, the district minority self-governing bodies established the Budapest Gypsy Minority Self-Government by means of indirect elections, and founded the National Gypsy Minority Self-Government (NGMS) with 53 representatives.

Act LXXIX of 1993

An important legal regulation directly affecting the position of the Gypsy population in Hungary is Act LXXIX of 1993 on Public Education, which was amended in 1996 and 2003 to provide the national and local minority self-governing bodies with the opportunity of founding and maintaining educational institutions, and which defined the fight against segregation in schools as an objective.

See also

References

  1. Hungarian census 2001
  2. Roma minority in Hungary
  3. Estimates of their numbers range from 500,000 to almost a million in the country of 10 million people. RomNews Network Community, Budapest, Hungary
  4. http://www.romaweb.hu/doc/konyvtar/hablicsek_magyarorszagi_ciganysag_demografiaja.pdf
  5. Population Census 2001 – National and county data – Summary Data
  6. Hungary acknowledges the need for progress regarding its population of 500,000 to 1 million Roma, or Gypsies
  7. Hungary would put the number of Roma in the country at 800,000-1,000,000, or up to 10% of the total population of Hungary. European Rights Roma Center
  8. The New York City Times: Roma make up an estimated 8 to 10 percent of Hungary’s population
  9. The christian science monitor: "[...] the Roma, who account for between 8 and 10 percent of Hungary's 10 million people."
  10. Minority research (Hungarian Roma people)
  11. Like local Hungarians
  12. Romani World
  13. "As Economic Turmoil Mounts, So Do Attacks on Hungary’s Gypsies". http://www.nytimes.com/2009/04/27/world/europe/27hungary.html. Retrieved on 2009-04-27. 
  14. Equal access to quality education for Roma, Hungary, pp. 208-209
  15. "Monitoring Education for Roma. A Statistical Baseline for Central, Eastern, and South Eastern Europe." (in English). Open Society Institute, Education Support Program (ESP). 2006. http://www.soros.org/initiatives/esp/articles_publications/publications/monitoring_20061218/monitoring_20061218.pdf. Retrieved on 2007-04-20. 
  16. "Equal access to quality education for Roma, Hungary" (in English). Open Society Institute, EU Monitoring and Advocacy Program (EUMAP). 2007. 206-207. http://www.eumap.org/topics/minority/reports/roma_education/report/national/hungary.pdf. Retrieved on 2007-04-20. 
  17. Hungary: Yet Another Parody on Roma - www.romea.cz
  18. [1] 'Az 1993-1995 közötti három évet jellemző 40-42 százalékos szintről a 2001-2003 közötti három éves időszakban 36-38 százalékra csökkent azok aránya, kik magikra nézve igaznak tartották azt a kijelentést, hogy "idegenkedem a cigányoktól"' (sic).
  19. Minimal monthly wage: 65,500 HUF [2] ("2007.01.01-jétől 65.500,-Ft"), monthly family allowance for a family of 5: 74,500 HUF [3] ("3 és több gyermekes család 14.900/hó/gyermek").
  20. [4], [5] (Finnish only)
  21. Népszámlálás 2001 – 4. Nemzetiségi kötődés – Központi Statisztikai Hivatal
  22. Roma - Hungary - Art - New York Times
  23. Hungary's anti-Roma militia grows | csmonitor.com
  24. Stratégiai Audit 2005 - DEMOS Magyarország
  25. [6] "A CEMI kalkulációja szerint a romák száma a mai 700 ezerről 2050-re 1,2 millióra nőhet. Ezen idő alatt a nem roma népesség száma 9,5 millióról 7,6 millióra csökken. Így a romák mai mintegy 7 százalékos aránya megduplázódhat és elérheti a 14-15 százalékot."
  26. Equal access to quality education for Roma, Hungary, pp. 187, 212-213
  27. "Legislative review for the Hungarian roma education policy note" (in English). National Institute for Public Education. 2004. http://www.oki.hu/oldal.php?tipus=cikk&kod=eselyaz-kadar-legislative. Retrieved on 2007-04-20. 

Template:Romani diaspora


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