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The short-lived province of Armenia in AD 117.

From the 1st century BC onwards, Armenia was, in part or whole, subject to the Roman Empire and its successor, the East Roman or Byzantine Empire.

Contents

History

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Struggle over influence with Parthia

The Roman eastern border and the independent Armenian kingdom in ca. 50 AD.

With the eastwards expansion of the Roman Republic during the Mithridatic Wars, the Kingdom of Armenia, under the Artaxiad Dynasty, was made a Roman protectorate by Pompey in 66/65 BC. For the next 100 years, Armenia remained under Roman influence. Towards the middle of the 1st century AD, the rising Parthian influence disputed Roman supremacy, which was re-established by the campaigns of Gnaeus Domitius Corbulo. In 114, Emperor Trajan incorporated Armenia into the Empire, making it a full Roman province. However shortly after, in 118, his successor Hadrian gave Armenia up, and installed Parthamaspates as its king. In 161, Armenia was lost again to Vologases IV of Parthia. Thereafter Armenia was in frequent dispute between the two Empires and their candidates for the Armenian throne, a situation which lasted until the emergence of a new power, the Sassanids.

East Roman Armenia

The Eastern Roman border after the treaty of AD 384.

In 363, a treaty was signed between the East Roman and Sassanid Persian empires, which divided Armenia between the two. The Persians retained the larger part of Armenia ("Persarmenia") while the Romans received a small part of Western Armenia. Another treaty followed in 384, which increased the area under East Roman control. This territory was organized into two provinces, Armenia Maior ("Greater Armenia") and the Satrapiae ("Satrapies"), which was constituted of six semi-autonomous districts (Ingilene, Sophene, Anzitene, Asthianene, Sophanene and Balabitene) under hereditary local Armenian princes with the title of "satrap".[1] Together with the old-established provinces of Armenia Minor, which were named Armenia I and Armenia II, they came under the Diocese of Pontus.

The situation remained unchanged for over a century, until in 536, Emperor Justinian I abolished the autonomy of the Armenian satrapies and organized the Armenian provinces anew. Armenia Maior was joined with parts of the Pontus Polemoniacus to form a new province, Armenia I Magna, the old Armenia I and Armenia II were re-divided into Armenia II and Armenia III, and the old Satrapiae formed the new Armenia IV province. In 538, the Armenian nobles rose up against heavy taxation, but were defeated and forced to find refuge in Persia.

In 591, the treaty between Khosrau II and Maurice ceded most of Persarmenia to the East Roman Empire.

Later History

After the downfall of Bagratid Armenia in 1045 and resulting subsequent losses of Byzantine Empire in the East in 1071 after the Battle of Manzikert, Armenia fell to the Seljuks.

See also

References

  1. ^ Chrysos, Evangelos K. (1978), "The Title ΒΑΣΙΛΕΥΣ in Early Byzantine International Relations", Dumbarton Oaks Papers (Dumbarton Oaks) 32: 48, http://www.jstor.org/stable/1291418 

Sources


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