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Name:
Senatus Populusque Romanus (SPQR)
("The Senate and People of Rome")
[nb 1]
Roman Empire

27 BC–AD 476/1453
 

Vexillum with aquila and Roman state acronym
The maximum extent of Roman Empire under Trajan in AD 117
Capital .Rome was the sole political capital until AD 286
There were several political centres during the Tetrarchy while Rome continued to be the nominal, cultural, and ideological capital.
^ Rome and Romania is continued in The Ottoman Sultans, 1290-1924 AD , Successors of Rome: Germania, 395-774 , Successors of Rome: Francia, 447-present , Successors of Rome: The Periphery of Francia , and Successors of Rome: Russia, 862-present .
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Meanwhile, Romania, with institutional continuity, commercial culture, and education, began to recover its strength, despite some severe blows continuing to fall.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But political enemies of the brothers Scipio back in Rome sought to discredit their opponents, by insisting the terms upon Syria must be more severe.


.Constantine re-founded and established the city of Constantinople as the new capital of the empire in 330[1].^ The conquest of Constantinople by the Fourth Crusade did not result in the establishment of the authority of the Latin Emperors over the whole of the previous Empire.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Aftermath to the Fall of Carthage The immediately evident effect of Rome’s victory was that the city Utica was now made capital of the new Roman province of Africa.

^ Remarkably, this may have been the bronze statute of Athena Promachus which had stood in the open on the Acropolis at Athens, reportedly visible from out to sea, and was moved to the new city by Constantine.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]


Mediolanum (Milan) was its western counterpart during the increasingly frequent East/West divisions. The western imperial court was later relocated to Ravenna.
Language(s) Latin, Greek
Religion Polytheism and Roman imperial cult
(to 380)

Christianity
(from 380)
Government Autocracy
Emperor
 - 27 BC–AD 14 Augustus
 - 378–395 Theodosius I
 - 475–476 / 1449–1453 Romulus Augustus / Constantine XI
Legislature Roman Senate
Historical era Classical antiquity
 - Battle of Actium 2 September 31 BC
 - Octavian proclaimed Augustus 27 BC
 - Diocletian splits imperial administration between East and West 285
 - Constantine the Great establishes Constantinople as a new imperial capital 330
 - Death of Theodosius the Great, followed by permanent division of the Empire into eastern and western halves 395
 - Deposition of western emperor Romulus Augustus/Fall of Constantinople * AD 476/1453
Area
 - 25 BC[2][3] 2,750,000 km2 (1,061,781 sq mi)
 - 50[2] 4,200,000 km2 (1,621,629 sq mi)
 - 117[2] 5,000,000 km2 (1,930,511 sq mi)
 - 390 [2] 4,400,000 km2 (1,698,849 sq mi)
Population
 - 25 BC[2][3] est. 56,800,000 
     Density 20.7 /km2  (53.5 /sq mi)
 - 117[2] est. 88,000,000 
     Density 17.6 /km2  (45.6 /sq mi)
Currency (a) 27 BC - AD 212: 1 gold aureus (1/40 lb. of gold, devalued to 1/50 lb. by 212) = 25 silver denarii = 100 bronze sesterces = 400 copper asses.
(b) 294 - 312: 1 gold aureus solidus (1/60 lb. of gold) = 10 silver argentei = 40 bronze folles = 1,000 debased metal denarii
(c) 312 onwards: 1 gold solidus (1/72 lb.) = 24 silver siliquae = 180 bronze folles
* These events marked the end of the Western Roman Empire (286–476)[4] and of the Eastern Roman Empire (330–1453), respectively.
.The Roman Empire was the post-Republican phase of the ancient Roman civilization, characterised by an autocratic form of government and large territorial holdings in Europe and around the Mediterranean.^ The great Carthaginian controlled much of southern Italy, but dotted throughout this territory were Roman fortresses, prepared to hold out and hindering his ability to manoeuvre.

^ This no longer seems so admirable, and the Empire founded by Julius Caesar and Augustus, as a form of government, does not look like an advance in the course of human progress.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ They were never subject to the Roman Emperors in Constantinople, and they occupied territories that had been abandoned by the Roman Empire in the Third Century , or never occupied by it in the first place.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

[5] .The term is used to describe the Roman state during and after the time of the first emperor, Augustus.^ They were the first Roman dynasty with a surname, which shows some of the social changes that took place during the long period of the Macedonians.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ So, while we think of "Augustus" as the name of the first Emperor, it was simply a title, whose import was well remembered by subsequent Emperors.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ During the time in which the decemviri were in office the Roman constitution was no longer in place, for they ruled in place of the consuls.

The Roman Republic, which preceded it, had been weakened and subverted through several civil wars.[nb .2] Several events are commonly proposed to mark the transition from Republic to Empire, including Julius Caesar's appointment as perpetual dictator (44 BC), the Battle of Actium (2 September 31 BC), and the Roman Senate's granting to Octavian the honorific Augustus (4 January 27 BC).^ This no longer seems so admirable, and the Empire founded by Julius Caesar and Augustus, as a form of government, does not look like an advance in the course of human progress.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He did not even hold the Republican office of Dictator, as Julius Caesar had.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The office of the Roman Consuls, the chief executive officers of the Roman Republic , and dating by them, continued under the Empire until Justinian, who now replaces them with dating by Regal years.
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[nb .3] Roman expansion began in the days of the Republic, but reached its zenith under Emperor Trajan.^ In the early days of the Roman republic all power would reside in the hands of the Roman aristocracy, the so-called patricians ( patricii ).

^ The office of the Roman Consuls, the chief executive officers of the Roman Republic , and dating by them, continued under the Empire until Justinian, who now replaces them with dating by Regal years.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ That was dangerous, indeed fatal, for the Republic; but in those terms Julius Caesar began the creation of the Roman Empire already as an "emperor."
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

.At this territorial peak, the Roman Empire controlled approximately 6.5 million km²[6] of land surface.^ Indeed, perhaps Rome did "fall" in the Third Century, if by the "Roman Empire" we mean a state ruled, controlled, and centered in the City of Rome.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The great Carthaginian controlled much of southern Italy, but dotted throughout this territory were Roman fortresses, prepared to hold out and hindering his ability to manoeuvre.

^ They were never subject to the Roman Emperors in Constantinople, and they occupied territories that had been abandoned by the Roman Empire in the Third Century , or never occupied by it in the first place.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

.Because of the Empire's vast extent and long endurance, Roman influence upon the language, religion, architecture, philosophy, law, and government of nations around the world lasts to this day.^ The Vandals interrupted Roman rule, but not long enough to make any lasting difference, if Islam had not soon arrived.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ These concealed troops then sprung upon the marching Roman army as passed the next day.

^ The Pope thus became, as Popes had long desired, the ruler of all the Roman Empire.
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.In the late 3rd century AD, Diocletian established the practice of dividing authority between four co-emperors, in order to better secure the vast territory.^ IV. FOURTH EMPIRE, LATE "ROMANIA/BYZANTIUM," 1059 AD-1453 AD, Era of Diocletian 776-1170, 394 years .
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But the greatest of the 3rd century Emperors, like Aurelian, don't get popular books, movies, and BBC television epics made about them.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Since the Schism of 1054 between the Latin and the Greek Churches had not occurred yet, Bede would have seen the contemporary Emperor (a late Heraclian , mostly) invested with all the aura and authority of Constantine the Great.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

During the following decades the empire was often divided along an East/West axis. After the death of Theodosius I in 395 it was divided for the last time.[7]
.The Western Roman Empire collapsed in 476 as Romulus Augustus was forced to abdicate by Odoacer.^ With the Persians in Egypt, Syria, and Anatolia, the Roman Empire seemed doomed to complete collapse.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ More than the coup of Odoacer in 476, this signaled a real institutional change in the Western Empire.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ B. CRISIS OF THE FIFTH CENTURY, 379-476, 97 Years The map shows the key incursions that would fatally undermine the Western Empire.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

[8] .The Eastern Roman or Byzantine Empire endured until 1453 with the death of Constantine XI and the capture of Constantinople by the Ottoman Turks led by Mehmed II.^ Decius and Herennius were killed in battle by the Goths in 251 -- the only Roman Emperors to die in battle (against external enemies) besides Julian (against the Persians, 363), Valens (against the Goths again, 378), Nicephorus I (against the Bulgars, 811), and Constantine XI (with the fall of Constantinople to the Turks, 1453).
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Once the Ottomans broke the Roman army in Bithynia (1302), they, and other Turks, quickly reduced Roman possessions in Asia to fragments, never to be recovered.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Google describes this file as, "A thorough investigation into the Eastern Roman Empire."
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

[9]

Contents

Government

Emperor

The powers of an emperor, (his imperium) existed, in theory at least, by virtue of his "tribunician powers" (potestas tribunicia) and his "proconsular powers" (imperium proconsulare).[10] .In theory, the tribunician powers (which were similar to those of the Plebeian Tribunes under the old republic) made the emperor's person and office sacrosanct, and gave the emperor authority over Rome's civil government, including the power to preside over and to control the Senate.^ The senate under the guidance of Fabius largely took control of matters.

^ If inspiration came from Greek traders within Rome's walls, then the power the plebeians possessed stemmed from Rome's need for soldiers.

^ Ptolemy of Egypt was a 4 year old child, which had recently been made a ward of Rome (no doubt with an eye on the grain supply).

[11]
.The proconsular powers (similar to those of military governors, or Proconsuls, under the old republic) gave him authority over the Roman army.^ The talented Coriolanus soon defeated the Roman army, driving them before him, until he and his Volscian army besieged Rome itself.

^ In 137 BC again a Roman army found itself trapped by those it was supposed to be besieging.

^ Lucius Scipio had no great experience of military matters and hence his older brother Scipio Africanus accompanied him to oversee the army.

.He was also given powers that, under the republic, had been reserved for the Senate and the assemblies, including the right to declare war, to ratify treaties, and to negotiate with foreign leaders.^ But when this was put to the popular assembly of the comitia centuriata for a formal declaration of war, it was overwhelmingly defeated.

^ Rather than accept the treaty, the senate claimed Mancinus had had no right to negotiate it and decided to hand over the hapless commander to the Numantines.

^ (Technically, power over declarations of war and peace lay with the comitia centuriata and foreign policy with the senate.

[12]
The emperor also had the authority to carry out a range of duties that had been performed by the censors, including the power to control senate membership.[13] In addition, the emperor controlled the religious institutions, since, as emperor, he was always Pontifex Maximus and a member of each of the four major priesthoods.[12] .While these distinctions were clearly defined during the early empire, eventually they were lost, and the emperor's powers became less constitutional and more monarchical.^ Serious as all these revolts sound, they could only have helped tip the balance if the Samnites still were equal to Roman power.

^ These "Sons of the Count," Cometopuli , eventually got an Emperor back after Boris and his brother Romanus escaped captivity.
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^ The success of this coup was a chilling precursor to the eventual Fall of the Western Empire, whose final Emperors became the futile play things of Germanic commanders.
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[14]
.Realistically, the main support of an emperor's power and authority was the military.^ The Second Samnite War The period between the Great Latin War and the Second Samnite War saw the two main military powers jostling for position on the Italian mainland.

Being paid by the imperial treasury, the legionaries also swore an annual military oath of loyalty towards him, called the Sacramentum.[15]
The death of an emperor led to a crucial period of uncertainty and crisis. .In theory the senate was entitled to choose the new emperor, but most emperors chose their own successors, usually a close family member.^ After Gundobad, a nephew of Ricimer and shortly to be King of Burgundy (where he would outlive most of his contemporaries), briefly had his own figurehead on the throne, a new nominee of the Eastern Emperor, Julius Nepos, was installed.
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^ Many Emperors, of course, wanted to associate their sons with them to arrange for their succession; but in the violent ends of most Emperors, the sons usually died with them.
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The new emperor had to seek a swift acknowledgement of his new status and authority in order to stabilize the political landscape. No emperor could hope to survive, much less to reign, without the allegiance and loyalty of the Praetorian Guard and of the legions. To secure their loyalty, several emperors paid the donativum, a monetary reward.

Senate

The Curia Julia in the Roman Forum, the seat of the Senate.
.While the Roman assemblies continued to meet after the founding of the empire, their powers were all transferred to the Roman Senate, and so senatorial decrees (senatus consulta) acquired the full force of law.^ The Roman force was all but annihilated.

^ They would soon become a loose cannon within the Empire, shattering essential supports of Roman power as the tribe rolled around.
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^ The office of the Roman Consuls, and dating by them, continues under the Empire until Justinian .
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

[16]
.In theory, the emperor and the senate were two equal branches of government, but the actual authority of the senate was negligible and it was largely a vehicle through which the emperor disguised his autocratic powers under a cloak of republicanism.^ The senate under the guidance of Fabius largely took control of matters.

^ It argued that the two consuls had not possessed the authority to accept such conditions without prior sanction by the senate of Rome.

^ But Augustus otherwise assembled offices and authority sufficient to explain the power that he had actually obtained by force.
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.Still prestigious and respected, the Senate was largely a glorified rubber stamp institution which had been stripped of most of its powers, and was largely at the emperor's mercy.^ The senate also still remembered the arrogant lecture it had received by the Rhodians, when Roman power in Greece had seemed to be on the wane.

Many emperors showed a certain degree of respect towards this ancient institution, while others were notorious for ridiculing it. During senate meetings, the emperor sat between the two consuls,[17] and usually acted as the presiding officer. .Higher ranking senators spoke before lower ranking senators, although the emperor could speak at any time.^ It would be some time before the Bulgars could be seriously defeated, much less subdued.
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[17] By the third century, the senate had been reduced to a glorified municipal body.

Senators and equestrians

No emperor could rule the empire without the Senatorial order and the Equestrian order. .Most of the more important posts and offices of the government were reserved for the members of these two aristocratic orders.^ The brief tenures of Cato the Elder and Gracchus were merely short interludes in which governance was said to be fair due to the upstanding nature of these two individuals.

^ More so, with Rome’s acquisition of the mountain forests, she soon began the irresponsible logging of these important woodlands.

^ More than an affectation, this practice accompanies the circumstance that the earliest and most interesting and important literature in these languages, especially for new scholars, is in the Attic and Ciceronian dialects -- from Thucydides and Plato to Caesar and Cicero himself.
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It was from among their ranks that the provincial governors, legion commanders, and similar officials were chosen.
These two classes were hereditary and mostly closed to outsiders. Very successful and favoured individuals could enter, but this was a rare occurrence. The careers of the young aristocrats was influenced by their family connections and the favour of patrons. As important as ability, knowledge, skill, or competence; patronage was considered vital for a successful career and the highest posts and offices required the emperor's favour and trust.

Senatorial order

The son of a senator was expected to follow the Cursus honorum, a career ladder, and the more prestigious positions were restricted to senators only. .A senator also had to be wealthy; one of the basic requirements was the wealth of 12,000 gold aurei [18] (about 100 kg of gold), a figure which would later be raised with the passing of centuries.^ The Carthaginian army consisted of 12,000 infantry, 4,000 cavalry and 100 elephants.

Equestrian order

Below the Senatorial order was the Equestrian order. The requirements and posts reserved for this class, while perhaps not so prestigious, were still very important. .Some of the more vital posts, like the governorship of Aegyptus, were even forbidden to the members of the Senatorial order and available only to equestrians.^ Whether anything quite like this happened or not, however, Bulgaria only lasted four more years before being annexed.
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Military

The Roman empire under Hadrian (ruled 117-138) showing the location of the Roman legions deployed in AD 125

Legions

.During and after the civil war, Octavian reduced the huge number of the legions (over 60)[19] to a much more manageable and affordable size (28)[19].^ One major effect the wars had had on Roman society was to reduce the number of patricians significantly.

^ A later Empire that is Christian, more somberly moralistic, and more beset with war, sounds like a different civilization, which it is, and isn't.
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^ More so, Rome’s destruction of Capua, Italy’s foremost city of trade, during the war with Hannibal undoubtedly had only furthered Punic dominance.

Several legions, particularly those with doubtful loyalties, were simply disbanded. Other legions were amalgamated, a fact suggested by the title Gemina (Twin)[19].
.In AD 9, Germanic tribes wiped out three full legions in the Battle of the Teutoburg Forest.^ She had three legions which were sent out, commanded by the consuls, to shadow Hannibal’s army, making any assault impossible.

^ In his attempt to extend Roman power to the Elbe, Augustus lost three Legions at the battle of the Teutoburger Wald in 9 AD. The numbers of the lost Legions were never used again (likewise with the Legions later disbanded for rebellion).
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^ Varus by Arminius, destruction of three legions, abandonment of Germany, 9 AD; Alexandrian Year , 23 BC .
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This disastrous event reduced the number of the legions to 25. The total of the legions would later be increased again and for the next 300 years always be a little above or below 30.[20]
.Augustus also created the Praetorian Guard: nine cohorts ostensibly to maintain the public peace which were garrisoned in Italy.^ The Roman Army under Augustus contained 28 Legions ( Legio , Legiones ), not counting the Praetorian Guard.
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.Better paid than the legionaries, the Praetorians also served less time; instead of serving the standard 25 years of the legionaries, they retired after 16 years of service.^ They would continue to do so for more than three centuries -- the first reference to Englishmen in the service of Romania was in 1088, the last in 1404 -- 316 years.
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^ Models now, however, can look much, much better -- the models for Lord of the Rings (2001) even came to be called "big-atures" instead of "miniatures" they were so large; and even better than that, shots can be done digitally.
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[21]

Auxillia

While the Auxillia (Latin: auxilia = supports) are not as famous as the legionaries, they were of major importance. Unlike the legionaries, the auxilia were recruited from among the non-citizens. .Organized in smaller units of roughly cohort strength, they were paid less than the legionaries, and after 25 years of service were rewarded with Roman citizenship, also extended to their sons.^ Possibly, the Romans ceded them control of cities they had conquered from them, yet this is little more than guesswork.

^ However, this does not count the Auxilia , units like cavalry and others that consisted of those who are not Roman citizens (though they gained citizenship from service).
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^ The raid by the Roman legions was horrific and no less than 150,000 Epirots were carried away into slavery and sold.

According to Tacitus [22] there were roughly as many auxiliaries as there were legionaries. .Since at this time there were 25 legions of around 5,000 men each, the auxilia thus amounted to around 125,000 men, implying approximately 250 auxiliary regiments.^ Since there are references to Englishmen but not to Scandinavians in the Varangian Guard of the Palaeologi , this may be last the time when Norse warriors actively traveled to Constantinople [cf.
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^ As befitting his reputation, Pyrrhus arrived with an army of 25,000 men, drawn from various quarters of the ‘successor states’ to Alexander’s empire.

^ Treadgold estimates the total Army, legions plus auxiliaries, at around 385,000 men.
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[23]

Navy

The Roman Navy (Latin: Classis, lit. ."fleet") not only aided in the supply and transport of the legions, but also helped in the protection of the frontiers in the rivers Rhine and Danube.^ Meanwhile, Augustus had secured the Rhine-Danube frontier, and Claudius conquered most of Britain.
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^ Augustus originally wanted an Elbe-Danube frontier, but one of his armies (of three legions) was caught in a catastrophic ambush and destroyed.
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Another of its duties was the protection of the very important maritime trade routes against the threat of pirates. .Therefore it patrolled the whole of the Mediterranean, parts of the North Atlantic (coasts of Hispania, Gaul, and Britannia), and had also a naval presence in the Black Sea.^ Antiochus III of Syria, who had lost control of the sea in the naval war, meanwhile withdrew his troops from the coasts in Asia Minor, awaiting the Roman attack.

Nevertheless the army was considered the senior and more prestigious branch.[24]

Provinces

In the old days of the Republic the governorships of the provinces were traditionally [25] awarded to members of the Senatorial Order. Augustus' reforms changed this policy.

Imperial provinces

.Augustus created [25] the Imperial provinces.^ In 129 BC consul M. Aquilius created the province of ‘ Asia ’, thereby officially incorporating this wealthy territory into the imperial framework of the republic.

.Most, but not all, of the Imperial provinces were relatively recent conquests and located at the borders.^ This, as it happened, involved all the most organized states on the borders of Rome, excepting only Kush .
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.Thereby the overwhelming majority of legions, which were stationed at the frontiers, were under direct Imperial control.^ While the Palaeologi, building on the success of Nicaea, reestablished Greek rule, only Epirus of the other successor states came back under Imperial control.
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.Very important was the Imperial province of Aegyptus (modern Egypt), the major breadbasket of the empire, whose grain supply was vital to feed the masses in Rome.^ Ptolemy of Egypt was a 4 year old child, which had recently been made a ward of Rome (no doubt with an eye on the grain supply).

^ These modern systems, although voted in by popular majorities who like "free lunch" welfare politics, are run by bureaucrats whose behavior, of course, is "very rarely civil" either to contributors or beneficiaries.
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^ Masinissa in turn now became King of Numidia, which meant the vitally important Numidian horsemen now would serve Rome in greater numbers than Carthage.

It was considered the personal fiefdom of the emperor, and Senators were forbidden to even visit this province. The governor of Aegyptus and the commanders of any legion stationed there were not from the Senatorial Order, but were chosen by the emperor from among the members of the lower Equestrian Order.

Senatorial provinces

The old traditional policy continued largely unchanged in the Senatorial provinces. .Due to their location, away from the borders, and to the fact that they were under longer Roman sovereignty and control, these provinces were largely peaceful and stable.^ Roman losses are not known but the sheer scale of the contests suggests they will have lost a large number of men.

^ Tripolitania apparently also came under Roman rule, but was kept separate from the African province.

^ The senate under the guidance of Fabius largely took control of matters.

.Only a single legion was based in a Senatorial province: Legio III Augusta, stationed in the Senatorial province of Africa (modern northern Algeria).^ One Legion from the campaign, Legio X Fretensis , remains in Judaea, while the other two that were given to Vespasian at the beginning of the campaign, Legio V Macedonica and Legio XV Apollinaris , have returned to the stations on the Danube.
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^ Legio III Gallica , Legio III Cyrenaica , Legio III Augusta pia fidelis , Legio III Italica concors , and Legio III Parthica .
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^ Thus, Septimius Severus raised legions for his attack on the Parthians (195 AD), which quite logically are numbered Legio I Parthica, Legio II Parthica, & Legio III Parthica .
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The status of a province was subject to change; it could change from Senatorial towards Imperial, or vice-versa. This happened several times [25] during Augustus' reign. .Another trend was to create new provinces, mostly by dividing older ones, or by expanding the empire.^ Trajan was the first Emperor born in the provinces (Spain) and briefly, with his Mesopotamian campaign, expanded the Empire to its greatest extent.
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^ His son Gallienus then endured one invasion and disaster after another, with the Empire actually beginning to break up.
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^ A new province of Macedonia was created mainly from the territories of Macedon, Thessaly and Epirus.

Religion

.As the empire expanded, and came to include people from a variety of cultures, the worship of an ever increasing number of deities was tolerated and accepted.^ A last chance to recoup things for the whole Empire came in 468, after Leo had gotten Ricimer to accept the Theodosian relative Anthemius as Western Emperor.
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.The imperial government, and the Romans in general, tended to be very tolerant towards most religions and cults, so long as they did not cause trouble.^ Although St. Patrick's solicitude for the Irish anywhere is understandable, Christians in general did not worry about enslaving pagans -- which is why the word "slave" is derived from "Slav," who were enslaved long before they converted to Christianity.
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^ The news caused panic in the Roman camp and most present fled towards the ships.

^ They were the first Roman dynasty with a surname, which shows some of the social changes that took place during the long period of the Macedonians.
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.This could easily be accepted by other faiths as Roman liturgy and ceremonies were frequently tailored to fit local culture and identity.^ She could do little but accept defeat and cede control of Sardinia and Corsica to the Romans.

^ In fact so free from direct Roman domination were the allies that they could accept citizens exiled from Rome.

An individual could attend to both the Roman Gods representing his Roman identity and his own personal faith, which was considered part of his personal identity. There were periodic persecutions of various religions at various points in time, most notably that of Christians. As the historian Edward Gibbon noted, however, most of the recorded histories of Christian persecutions come to us through the Christian church, which had an incentive to exaggerate the degree to which the persecutions occurred. The non-Christian contemporary sources only mention the persecutions passingly and without assigning great importance to them.

Imperial cult

.In an effort to enhance loyalty, the inhabitants of the empire were called to participate in the Imperial cult to revere (usually deceased) emperors as demigods.^ Emperors of the Roman and the so-called Byzantine Empires; Princes, Kings, and Tsars of Numidia, Judaea, Bulgaria, Serbia, Wallachia, & Moldavia; and the Sultâns of Rûm .
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.Few emperors claimed to be Gods while living, with the few exceptions being emperors who were widely regarded at the time to be insane (such as Caligula).^ In time, the Emperor came to be regarded as superior to any mere king, as the reach and authority of many Emperors was indeed great beyond precedent or (local) comparison.
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^ Al-Harith II himself, with the epithet "ibn Maria" and living in the time of Constantine, is likely to be the tribal chief who converted to Christianity.
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.Doing so in the early empire would have risked revealing the shallowness of what the emperor Augustus called the "restored republic" and would have had a decidedly eastern quality to it.^ In the early days of the Roman republic all power would reside in the hands of the Roman aristocracy, the so-called patricians ( patricii ).

^ His colleague Aurelian then substantially restores the Empire, only to suffer assassination, initiating a new round of revolving Emperors.
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^ Indeed, Christian Emperors, beginning with Constantine, would always be portrayed with halos , like saints, and were called the "Equal of the Apostles."
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.It was, for example, his attempt to make himself a god (in the mold of the kings of the Achaemenid Persian Empire, which he had conquered) that helped to turn Alexander the Great's troops against him.^ The Roman Court now begins to adopt the structures and ritual of the Persian Court , where the Great King has always been semi-divine.
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^ Alexander was killed after the overdue reality check of battle, against the newly aggressive Persians .
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^ Recognising that the tide had turned against him, Pyrrhus returned home to Epirus.

.Since the tool was mostly one the emperor used to control his subjects, its usefulness was greatest in the chaotic later empire, when the emperors were often Christians and unwilling to participate in the practice.^ Trajan was the first Emperor born in the provinces (Spain) and briefly, with his Mesopotamian campaign, expanded the Empire to its greatest extent.
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^ As the first Emperor with a very clearly Greek name ( Dioclês , before being Latinized to Diocletianus ), Diocletian foreshadows the later Greek character of the Empire.
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^ Since Odoacer, de jure , was a faithful officer of the Emperor in Constantinople, one could say that the last institutional existence of the Western Empire surived until Odoacer was overthrown by the Ostrogoths in 493.
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Usually, an emperor was deified after his death by his successor in an attempt by that successor to enhance his own prestige. This practice can be misunderstood, however, since "deification" was to the ancient world what canonization is to the Christian world. Likewise, the term "God" had a different context in the ancient world. .This could be seen during the years of the Roman Republic with religio-political practices such as the disbanding of a senate session if it was believed the Gods disapproved of the session or wished a particular vote.^ Had she seen her dominance of the Mediterranean acknowledged as far as Syria and Egypt, a defeat by Macedon would rendered such Roman authority nil and void.

^ The office of the Roman Consuls, the chief executive officers of the Roman Republic , and dating by them, continued under the Empire until Justinian, who now replaces them with dating by Regal years.
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^ The shadow of the Republic persisted during this period, and someone like Claudius could still dream of restoring full Republican government.
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.Deification was one of the many honors a dead emperor was entitled to, as the Romans (more than modern societies) placed great prestige on honors and national recognitions.^ Indeed, the Romans were rather more successful than is usually thought.
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^ No Confucian venerated ancestors in a household shrine more devoutly than the pious Roman.
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^ But that is a key point: the Diaspora population is mostly going to be urban; but the urban population of the Roman Empire is unlikely to have been more than 20% of the whole.
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.The importance of the Imperial cult slowly grew, reaching its peak during the Crisis of the Third Century.^ If the decadence of pagan religion and despotic emperors was going to be the cause of the "fall" of Rome, then it certainly should have fallen in the Crisis of the Third Century .
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^ B. CRISIS OF THE THIRD CENTURY, 235-284, 49 Years This map looks like it should be from the Fifth Century .
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^ The complexity of the following period can only be appreciated, or even understood, by reviewing the " Crisis of the Third Century " chart.
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.Especially in the eastern half of the empire imperial cults grew very popular.^ Mithraism, although popular in the Army (only men were initiated), was not an Imperial or prestige cult, until this dedication, Deo Soli Invicto Mithrae , "to the god Mithras the Unconquered Sun."
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.As such it was one of the major agents of romanization.^ One major effect the wars had had on Roman society was to reduce the number of patricians significantly.

The central elements of the cult complex were next to a temple; a theatre or amphitheatre for gladiator displays and other games and a public bath complex. Sometimes the imperial cult was added to the cults of an existing temple or celebrated in a special hall in the bath complex.
The seriousness of this belief is unclear. .Some Romans ridiculed the notion that a Roman emperor was to be considered a living god, or would even make fun of the deification of an emperor after his death.^ It was a sign of the magnanimity and humanity of Scipio’s that in victory he was able to show leniency, where some of his fellow Romans would have sought to utterly crush their helpless adversary.

^ Even the notoriously unreliable Roman cavalry gained some success.

^ Soon, Varangians would have little fear of traversing Russia and would begin raiding Roman territory and even attacking Constantinople.
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Seneca the Younger parodied the notion of apotheosis in his only known satire The Pumpkinification of Claudius, in which the clumsy and ill-spoken Claudius is not transformed into a god, but into a pumpkin. In fact, bitter sarcasm was already effected at Claudius' funeral in 54.[26]

Absorption of foreign cults

.Since Roman religion did not have a core belief that excluded other religions several foreign gods and cults became popular.^ Mithraism, although popular in the Army (only men were initiated), was not an Imperial or prestige cult, until this dedication, Deo Soli Invicto Mithrae , "to the god Mithras the Unconquered Sun."
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^ Once the new religion became the State Religion of Rome, the rigor with which Judaism had rejected the old gods now became public policy, to their own disability.
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^ Mithraism considered Mithras to be a sun god, associated and assimilated with Sol Invictus , the "Unconquered Sun," whose cult existed independently of Mithras and had been promoted since Aurelian.
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The worship of Cybele was the earliest, introduced from around 200 BC. Isis and Osiris were introduced from Egypt a century later. .Bacchus and Sol Invictus were quite important and Mithras became very popular with the military.^ That the earlier civilization didn't "fall" but merely became transformed is a truth that both academic and popular opinion still hasn't quite come to terms with.
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^ When Hannibal stormed the town of Cannae ( Canne ) to gain possession of its important military stores, the Roman army closed in, trapping Hannibal in a very disadvantageous position.

^ Mithraism considered Mithras to be a sun god, associated and assimilated with Sol Invictus , the "Unconquered Sun," whose cult existed independently of Mithras and had been promoted since Aurelian.
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Several of these were Mystery cults. .In the first century BC Julius Caesar granted Jews the freedom to worship in Rome as a reward for their help in Alexandria.^ Rome at first resisted any appeals for help by the mercenary renegades, staying true to her obligations under the peace treaty.

^ In 312 BC by order of censor Appius Claudius Caecus, Rome began construction of the Via Appia, the first of her famous military highways.

^ In 298 BC the Lucanians in the south of Italy approached Rome for help against the Samnites who were invading their territory.

Controversial religions

Druids

Druids were seen as essentially non-Roman: a prescript of Augustus forbade Roman citizens to practice "druidical" rites. Pliny reports [27] that under Tiberius the druids were suppressed—along with diviners and physicians—by a decree of the Senate, and Claudius forbade their rites completely in AD 54.[28]

Judaism

While Judaism was largely accepted, it was on occasion subject to (mostly) local persecution.
Until the rebellion in Judea in AD 66, Jews were generally protected. .To get around Roman laws banning secret societies and to allow their freedom of worship, Julius Caesar declared Synagogues were colleges.^ While it seems natural and obvious to take Augustus as the successor to Julius Caesar and his new Imperial government as the successor to the Roman Republic, there was another way of looking at this.
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^ That was dangerous, indeed fatal, for the Republic; but in those terms Julius Caesar began the creation of the Roman Empire already as an "emperor."
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.Tiberius [29] forbade Judaism in Rome but they quickly returned to their former protected status.^ The status of these communities was that they remained fairly independent of Rome.

^ Having expelled the Lucanian and Bruttian invaders he returned to Rome with his main force, leaving behind a protective garrison and some of the patrol vessels.

^ In essence Rome created a moral compact between herself and these towns, whereby she acted as a protective patron and they acted as her clients.

.Claudius expelled Jews from the city however the passage of Suetonius is ambiguous: "Because the Jews at Rome caused continuous disturbances at the instigation of Chrestus he [Claudius] expelled them from the city" [28].^ There were, moreover, Latin cities which even allied with the Gauls against her, thereby forcing the rest of the Latins, however reluctantly, to throw themselves under the protection of Rome.

.Chrestus has been identified as another form of Christus; the disturbances may have been related to the arrival of the first Christians, and that the Roman authorities, failing to distinguish between the Jews and the early Christians, simply decided to expel them all.^ If this is what the movie is referring to, it fails to distinguish between Britons, Picts, and Irish; and Ceretic is certainly in no need of being rescued by Romans for cruelty to those he ruled.
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^ Related earlier history may be found at "Historical Background to Greek Philosophy" and "Hellenistic Monarchs" , and the "Consuls of the Roman Republic" .
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^ Was the first act of the war the siege of Messana, by the joint forces of Carthage and Syracuse, the arrival of the Roman consular army under Appius Claudius made an end of it.

Christianity

The Christian Martyrs' Last Prayer, by Jean-Léon Gérôme (1883). Roman Colosseum.
.Christianity, originally a Jewish religious sect, emerged in Roman Judea in the first century AD. The religion gradually spread out of Judea, initially establishing major bases in first Antioch, then Alexandria, and over time throughout the Empire.^ Gradually, the Limitanei fade from historical view and hardly seem to exist at all by the time German tribes cross the borders en masse in the Fifth Century.
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^ Even in the time of the Ptolemies , Alexandria already had a very large Jewish population.
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^ Knowing their case futile, the Carthaginians took on the might of the Roman empire one last time.

.For the first two centuries, the imperial authorities largely viewed Christianity simply as a Jewish sect rather than a distinct religion.^ This confirmed that Italy rather than Romania would be the center of trade and naval power in the Christian Mediterranean.
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^ They would continue to do so for more than three centuries -- the first reference to Englishmen in the service of Romania was in 1088, the last in 1404 -- 316 years.
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^ Pope Innocent III wasn't too happy about it either, and the Crusaders earned excommunication for fighting Christians, for Venice, rather than Moslems, for Christendom.
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Suetonius mentions passingly that: "[during Nero's reign] Punishments were also inflicted on the Christians, a sect professing a new and mischievous religious belief" [30] but he does not explain for what they were punished.
.Tacitus reports that after the Great Fire of Rome in AD 64 some in the population held Nero responsible [31] and that to diffuse blame, he targeted and blamed the Christians.^ The effect of the 'Great Latin War' was to tighten Rome's grip upon Latium and to provide her with more lands upon which to settle her ever-increasing agricultural population.

[31] .The war against the Jews during Nero's reign, which so destabilized the empire that it led to the first civil war since the days of Julius Caesar and Mark Antony, as well as Nero's suicide, plausibly provided an additional rationale for persecutions against this 'Jewish' sect.^ Right from the start Rome distrusted Perseus as he had plotted against his younger brother Demetrius, assuring his execution for treason, during his father’s reign.

^ This no longer seems so admirable, and the Empire founded by Julius Caesar and Augustus, as a form of government, does not look like an advance in the course of human progress.
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^ He had served as a tribune under Marcellus during the war against Carthage.

.Persecution of Christians would be a recurring theme in the Empire for the next two centuries.^ The Empire, however, would never be able to remain strong without the themes, and their collapse at the end of the 11th century would be the end of Romania as a hegemonic power.
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^ B. CRISIS OF THE FIFTH CENTURY, 379-476, 97 Years The map shows the key incursions that would fatally undermine the Western Empire.
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^ In the second century of the Christian era, the Empire of Rome comprehended the fairest part of the earth, and the most civilised portion of mankind.
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.Eusebius and Lactantius document the last great persecution of the Christians under Diocletian at the beginning of the 4th century at the urging of Galerius.^ Despite the rich literature of the 4th century, Diocletian never got a Tacitus or Suetonius, and what Ammianus Marcellinus may have said about him is now lost.
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.This was the most vicious persecution of Christians in the Empire's history.^ In the second century of the Christian era, the Empire of Rome comprehended the fairest part of the earth, and the most civilised portion of mankind.
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As the 4th century progressed, Christianity had become so widespread that it became officially tolerated, then promoted (Constantine I), and in 380 established as the Empire's official religion (Theodosius I). .By the 5th century Christianity had become the Empire's predominant religion rapidly changing the Empire's identity even as the Western provinces collapsed.^ These are the commanders-in-chief of the Western Army (distiguished by purple color), with the Master of Soldiers becoming the effective "Generalissimo" of the Western Empire.
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^ More than the coup of Odoacer in 476, this signaled a real institutional change in the Western Empire.
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^ In the Middle Ages, this was regarded as a triumphant period, when the Roman Empire was redeemed and ennobled with its conversion to and transformation by Christianity -- becoming a "Romania" whose name is now not even familiar as the name of the Roman Empire.
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[32] This would lead to the persecution of the traditional polytheistic religions that had previously characterized most of the Empire.

Languages

.The language of Rome before its expansion was Latin, and this became the empire's official language.^ As the first Emperor with a very clearly Greek name ( Dioclês , before being Latinized to Diocletianus ), Diocletian foreshadows the later Greek character of the Empire.
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^ Justinian spoke Latin, but in time Greek became the Court language at Constantinople.
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^ Since the Latin alphabet is used here, and since the Roman Empire originally used Latin as its universal language, never forgotten in Greek Romania, that is the practice here.
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.By the time of the imperial period Latin began evolving into two languages: the 'high' written Classical Latin and the 'low' spoken Vulgar Latin.^ Justinian spoke Latin, but in time Greek became the Court language at Constantinople.
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^ The Second Samnite War The period between the Great Latin War and the Second Samnite War saw the two main military powers jostling for position on the Italian mainland.

^ Over time their powers were increasingly limited, as Venice evolved into an oligarchic Republic.
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.While Classical Latin remained relatively stable, even through the Middle Ages, Vulgar Latin as with any spoken language was fluid and evolving.^ There were shameful exceptions to this toleration, but through the Middle Ages the overwhelming majority of Church authorities staunchly condemned attacks on the Jews.
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^ Although sacked by the Goths, the Huns, and the Lombards, Venetia remained the most important city of the region for most of the middle ages.
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^ The Vlach language of the Principalities, not a written language in the Middle Ages, came to be written in the Cyrillic alphabet .
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.Vulgar Latin became the lingua franca in the western provinces, later evolving into the modern Romance languages: Italian, French, Portuguese, Spanish, Romanian, etc.^ The unified country itself became first "Roumania" or "Rumania," later further Latinized into "România," and soon the Cyrillic alphabet was traded in for the Latin alphabet, as the Roman roots of the people were increasingly emphasized.
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^ The Italians are now gone (there being the Schism and all), but there are also (modern) Romanians present, though they do not have their own monastery.
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^ In Switzerland we do have Italian speakers, but there is also a separate Romance language, Romansh, part of the Rhaeto-Romance group ( Rätoromanische Sprache -- named after the Roman province of Raetia).
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.Greek and Classical Latin were considered the languages of literature, scholarship, and education.^ In the early days of the dynasty we get a benchmark on the survival of Classical and later Greek literature.
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^ These are the languages, our Classical languages of Western civilization, and their literature, that we do not want forgotten -- while they are in greater danger in our time than ever before: a Shakespeare with "little Latin and less Greek" is a scholar of Classics compared to most graduates of modern universities.
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^ Justinian spoke Latin, but in time Greek became the Court language at Constantinople.
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.Although Latin remained the official and most widely spoken language through to the fall of Rome and for some centuries after in the East, the Greek language was the literary language and sometimes the lingua franca in the Eastern Provinces.^ Keeping up appearances, Rome remained officially at war with Syracuse.

^ Indeed, perhaps Rome did "fall" in the Third Century, if by the "Roman Empire" we mean a state ruled, controlled, and centered in the City of Rome.
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^ If the decadence of pagan religion and despotic emperors was going to be the cause of the "fall" of Rome, then it certainly should have fallen in the Crisis of the Third Century .
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[33] .With the exception of Carthage, the Romans generally did not attempt to supplant local cultures and languages.^ Afterwards, Carthage itself, although not deliberately destroyed as the Romans once did, simply fades from history.
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^ In 152 BC a Roman delegation under P.Scipio Nasica did find in favour of Carthage and did order Masinissa to return some of the territory.

.They generally left established customs in place and only gradually supplemented with the typical Roman-style improvements.^ In the movie, the Iazyges are called "Sarmatians," which they were, but the more general name obscures the unique experience of the Iazyges in being settled and assimilated as Roman soldiers.
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^ But the changes that take place are mostly, as they had been for some time, gradual.
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^ The Romans gradually increased their influence in Campania, founding colonies in strategic places, helping to secure Capua against any threat from the Samnites.

[34]. .Along with Greek, many other languages of different tribes were used but almost without expression in writing.^ The units, though most likely of superb quality, spoke different languages and had no experience of fighting alongside each other as an army.

^ Since the Latin alphabet is used here, and since the Roman Empire originally used Latin as its universal language, never forgotten in Greek Romania, that is the practice here.
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.Greek was already widely spoken in many cities in the east, and as such, the Romans were quite content to retain it as an administrative language there rather than impede bureaucratic efficiency.^ Indeed, the Romans were rather more successful than is usually thought.
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^ In Switzerland we do have Italian speakers, but there is also a separate Romance language, Romansh, part of the Rhaeto-Romance group ( Rätoromanische Sprache -- named after the Roman province of Raetia).
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^ Faced with that choice it was little wonder Hiero chose the Romans rather than Greece’s ancient Phoenician enemy.

.Hence, two official secretaries served in the Roman Imperial court, one charged with correspondence in Latin and the other with correspondence in Greek for the East.^ Justinian spoke Latin, but in time Greek became the Court language at Constantinople.
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^ Septimius Severus himself was one of the two Roman Emperors ( Constantius Chlorus was the other) to die (a natural death) at York (Eboracum) in Britain.
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^ While the Palaeologi, building on the success of Nicaea, reestablished Greek rule, only Epirus of the other successor states came back under Imperial control.
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[35] Thus in the Eastern Province, as with all provinces, original languages were retained.[36][37]
.Moreover, the process of hellenisation continued more extensively during the Roman period, for the Romans perpetuated "Hellenistic" culture,[38][39][nb 4] but with all the trappings of Roman improvements.^ They were the first Roman dynasty with a surname, which shows some of the social changes that took place during the long period of the Macedonians.
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^ Yet for all his ability, Hamilcar never had enough troops under his command to do anything more than to harass and stifle Roman efforts.

^ Regulus however successfully harangued the Roman senators to continue the fight against her enemy at all cost.

[40][41] .This further spreading of "Hellenistic" culture (and therefore language) was largely due to the extensive infrastructure (in the form of entertainment, health, and education amenities, and extensive transportation networks, etc.^ Rome was to be one of the great civilizing forces of history, destined to spread Hellenistic culture into the far flung reaches of the ancient world.

) put in place by the .Romans and their tolerance of, and inclusion of, other cultures, a characteristic which set them apart from the xenophobic nature of the Greeks preceding them.^ Nothing is really known about the nature of this first Roman victory at sea other than that the corvus played a part.

^ Greek influence ended up predominating, but the Bulgars continued jealous of their autonomy -- the precedent of an autocephalous Church set the pattern for other Orthodox Churches, as in Russia , created under Roman auspices.
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^ Septimius Severus himself was one of the two Roman Emperors ( Constantius Chlorus was the other) to die (a natural death) at York (Eboracum) in Britain.
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[34]
.Since the Roman annexation of Greece in 146 BC, the Greek language gradually obtained a unique place in the Roman world, owing initially to the large number of Greek slaves in Roman households.^ Savage atrocities were committed against Greek and Roman slave owners alike.

^ Nonetheless, it stands to reason that 146 BC was one of the darkest years of Roman history.

^ Roman losses are not known but the sheer scale of the contests suggests they will have lost a large number of men.

[34] .In Rome itself Greek became the second language of the educated elite.^ Justinian spoke Latin, but in time Greek became the Court language at Constantinople.
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^ Rome found itself invariably drawn into the machinations of Greek politics and wars.

[34][42] .It became the common language in the early Church (as its major centers in the early Christian period were in the East), and the language of scholarship and the arts.^ It took a few more centuries before surnames became common among European Christians of all classes.
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^ Christian churches of the period often look like piles of bowls or dark fruitcakes.
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.However, due to the presence of other widely spoken languages in the densely populated east, such as Coptic, Syriac, Armenian, Aramaic and Phoenician (which was also extensively spoken in North Africa), Greek never took as strong a hold beyond Asia Minor (some urban enclaves notwithstanding) as Latin eventually did in the west.^ Had it not been for his genius the Second Punic War would never have lasted as long as it did or been of the scale and scope it took.

^ If at first this was rejected, Rome did eventually agree to such an alliance, recognising that whatever Pyrrhus’ plans, he was their joint enemy.

This is partly evident in the extent to which the derivative languages are spoken today. .Like Latin, the language gained a dual nature with the literary language, an Attic Greek variant, existing alongside spoken language, Koine Greek, which evolved into Medieval or Byzantine Greek (Romaic).^ The units, though most likely of superb quality, spoke different languages and had no experience of fighting alongside each other as an army.

^ With the Latins, the Empire fragmented into multiple Greek and non-Greek contenders: Nicaea, Epirus, Trebizond, Bulgaria, and Serbia, not to mention the Turks .
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^ And indeed, where Greek and Latin are taught today, the student, as it happens, begins with Attic Greek and Ciceronian Latin.
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[43]
.By the 4th century AD, Greek no longer held such dominance over Latin in the Church, arts and sciences as it had previously, resulting to a great extent from the growth of the western provinces (reflected, for example, in the publication in the early 5th century AD of the Vulgate Bible, the first officially accepted Latin Bible; before this only Greek translations were accepted).^ Rome no longer dominated a Latin alliance.

^ Trajan was the first Emperor born in the provinces (Spain) and briefly, with his Mesopotamian campaign, expanded the Empire to its greatest extent.
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^ The conquest of Constantinople by the Fourth Crusade did not result in the establishment of the authority of the Latin Emperors over the whole of the previous Empire.
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.As the Western Empire declined, the number of people who spoke both Greek and Latin declined as well, contributing greatly to the future EastWest / OrthodoxCatholic cultural divide in Europe.^ While the conquest and sack of Constantinople have rightly been regarded as one of the worst cases of vandalism and betrayal in world history, a stab in the back against the state and the civilization that had been the repository and guardian of Classical, Western, and Christian culture during most of the Middle Ages, and an insult by Latin, Frankish, Western Europe against the Greek and Orthodox East, one thing must be admitted: This was not what the Crusaders had in mind.
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^ Despite the loss of most of Europe and continuing Arab raids into Anatolia, the population and the economy of the empire were actually growing, and Nicephorus was able to start transplanting colonies of people from the east back into Greece.
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^ As the first Emperor with a very clearly Greek name ( Dioclês , before being Latinized to Diocletianus ), Diocletian foreshadows the later Greek character of the Empire.
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.Important as both languages were, today the descendants of Latin are widely spoken in many parts of the world, while the Greek dialects are limited mostly to Greece, Cyprus, and small enclaves in Turkey and Southern Italy (where the Eastern Empire retained control for several more centuries).^ Indeed, perhaps Rome did "fall" in the Third Century, if by the "Roman Empire" we mean a state ruled, controlled, and centered in the City of Rome.
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^ With Rome’s conquest of southern Italy, or Magna Graecia as it was known, she now invariably entered the contest of commercial interests on the side of the Greeks.

^ The great Carthaginian controlled much of southern Italy, but dotted throughout this territory were Roman fortresses, prepared to hold out and hindering his ability to manoeuvre.

.To some degree this can be attributed to the fact that the western provinces fell mainly to "Latinised" Christian tribes whereas the eastern provinces fell to Muslim Arabs and Turks for whom Greek held less cultural significance.^ With less to show for its life in this period, the city fell to the Arabs in 698.
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^ That the gold coinage of the solidus still exists at all, however, is testimony to the fact that the prosperity and material culture of Romania never fell as far as it did in Francia .
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Culture

Roman clad in a toga
.Life in the Roman Empire revolved around the city of Rome, and its famed seven hills.^ The treaty seems to have made a significant distinction between areas under direct Roman protection and cities who were mere allies of Rome.

^ Aftermath to the Fall of Carthage The immediately evident effect of Rome’s victory was that the city Utica was now made capital of the new Roman province of Africa.

^ The wall spanned five miles in circumference with nineteen gates, embracing all seven hills of Rome.

The city also had several theatres.[44] gymnasiums, and many taverns, baths and brothels. .Throughout the territory under Rome's control, residential architecture ranged from very modest houses to country villas, and in the capital city of Rome, to the residences on the elegant Palatine Hill, from which the word "palace" is derived.^ If Rome now controlled the Italian peninsula, essentially there was three different categories of territory within her realm.

^ The competition for the throne in 193 was not very edifying, and absolutely none of the players appear in Gladiator , not even Pertinax, the prefect of the city of Rome.
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^ Indeed, perhaps Rome did "fall" in the Third Century, if by the "Roman Empire" we mean a state ruled, controlled, and centered in the City of Rome.
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The vast majority of the population lived in the city centre, packed into apartment blocks.
.Most Roman towns and cities had a forum and temples, as did the city of Rome itself.^ Roman domes could do what most Roman temples did not try to do.
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^ The city of Rome itself still remained safe.

^ The talented Coriolanus soon defeated the Roman army, driving them before him, until he and his Volscian army besieged Rome itself.

Aqueducts were built to bring water to urban centres[45] and wine and oil were imported from abroad. Landlords generally resided in cities and their estates were left in the care of farm managers. .To stimulate a higher labour productivity, many landlords freed a large numbers of slaves.^ Roughly 14,000 Greek ramshackle infantry, consisting to a large part of freed slaves, and 600 cavalry faced 23,000 Roman infantry and 3,500 cavalry.

^ From the few and questionable foreign marriages of the Macedonians , with the Comneni we find a large number of well attested ones, many with Crusaders but one making connections as distant as Spain.
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.By the time of Augustus, cultured Greek household slaves taught the Roman young (sometimes even the girls).^ Savage atrocities were committed against Greek and Roman slave owners alike.

^ Roughly 14,000 Greek ramshackle infantry, consisting to a large part of freed slaves, and 600 cavalry faced 23,000 Roman infantry and 3,500 cavalry.

Greek sculptures adorned Hellenistic landscape gardening on the Palatine or in the villas.
Many aspects of Roman culture were taken from the Greeks.[46] In architecture and sculpture, the difference between Greek models and Roman paintings are apparent. The chief Roman contributions to architecture were the arch and the dome.
The centre of the early social structure was the family,[47] which was not only marked by blood relations but also by the legally constructed relation of patria potestas.[48] The Pater familias was the absolute head of the family; he was the master over his wife, his children, the wives of his sons, the nephews, the slaves and the freedmen, disposing of them and of their goods at will, even putting them to death.[49] .Originally, only patrician aristocracy enjoyed the privilege of forming familial clans, or gens, as legal entities; later, in the wake of political struggles and warfare, clients were also enlisted.^ The patricians put up a brave struggle to defend their privileges.

^ The Later Conflict of the Orders The Gauls having withdrawn and Rome being the confirmed leader of Latium, the old struggle between the patricians and the plebeians renewed in intensity again.

Thus, such plebian gentes were the first formed, imitating their patrician counterparts.[50]
Slavery and slaves were part of the social order; there were slave markets where they could be bought and sold. Many slaves were freed by the masters for services rendered; some slaves could save money to buy their freedom. Generally mutilation and murder of slaves was prohibited by legislation. .It is estimated that over 25% of the Roman population was enslaved.^ I am not familiar with the basis of this estimate, but I am familiar with the difficulty of estimating Roman population at all.
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[51][52] .Professor Gerhard Rempel from the Western New England College claims that in the city of Rome alone, during the Empire, there were about 400,000 slaves.^ By about the time of Manzikert, there were interesting new recruits to the Varangian Guard.
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^ Hannibal is at the gates !’) (211 BC) No doubt there was a fair share of panic at the news that Rome’s most terrible enemy was before the very walls of the city.

^ Indeed, perhaps Rome did "fall" in the Third Century, if by the "Roman Empire" we mean a state ruled, controlled, and centered in the City of Rome.
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[53]
.The city of Rome had a place called the Campus Martius ("Field of Mars"), which was a sort of drill ground for Roman soldiers.^ In the movie, the Iazyges are called "Sarmatians," which they were, but the more general name obscures the unique experience of the Iazyges in being settled and assimilated as Roman soldiers.
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^ Indeed, perhaps Rome did "fall" in the Third Century, if by the "Roman Empire" we mean a state ruled, controlled, and centered in the City of Rome.
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^ By order of the senate the city was razed to the ground, the place was ritually cursed and the soil was strewn with salt.

Later, the Campus became Rome's track and field playground. In the campus, the youth assembled to play and exercise, which included jumping, wrestling, boxing and racing. Riding, throwing, and swimming were also preferred physical activities.[54]
In the countryside, pastimes also included fishing and hunting. Board games played in Rome included Dice (Tesserae or Tali), Roman Chess (Latrunculi), Roman Checkers (Calculi), Tic-tac-toe (Terni Lapilli), and Ludus duodecim scriptorum and Tabula, predecessors of backgammon.[54] There were several other activities to keep people engaged like chariot races, musical and theatrical performances,

Clothing, dining, and the arts

.Roman clothing fashions changed little from the late Republic to the end of the Western empire 600 years later [55].^ More than the coup of Odoacer in 476, this signaled a real institutional change in the Western Empire.
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^ The office of the Roman Consuls, the chief executive officers of the Roman Republic , and dating by them, continued under the Empire until Justinian, who now replaces them with dating by Regal years.
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^ Sulpicius had started his campaign too late in the year, had largely inexperienced troops under his command and was showing little initiative of his own.

The cloth and the dress distinguished one class of people from the other class. .The tunic worn by plebeians (common people) like shepherds and slaves was made from coarse and dark material, whereas the tunic worn by patricians was of linen or white wool.^ Against such a background of hardship and helplessness at the hands of the nobles, the commoners (called the 'plebeians ' ( plebeii ) organized themselves against the patricians.

^ It was most likely after the First Secession in 494 BC that the patricians recognized the plebeians rights to hold meetings and to elect their officers, the 'tribunes of the people' ( tribuni plebis ).

[56] A magistrate would wear the tunica augusticlavi; senators wore a tunic with broad stripes, called tunica laticlavi. Military tunics were shorter than the ones worn by civilians. Boys, up until the festival of Liberalia, wore the toga praetexta, which was a toga with a crimson or purple border. .The toga virilis, (or toga pura) was worn by men over the age of 16 to signify their citizenship in Rome.^ In fact Rome possessed several times that number of men of fighting age.

[57]
The toga picta was worn by triumphant generals and had embroidery of their skill on the battlefield. The toga pulla was worn when in mourning. Even footwear indicated a person's social status. Patricians wore red and orange sandal, senators had brown footwear, consuls had white shoes, and soldiers wore heavy boots. Men typically wore a toga, and women a stola. The woman's stola looked different than a toga, and was usually brightly coloured. The Romans also invented socks for those soldiers required to fight on the northern frontiers, sometimes worn in sandals.[57]
.In the later empire after Diocletian's reforms, clothing worn by soldiers and non-military government bureaucrats became highly decorated, with woven or embroidered strips, clavi, and circular roundels, orbiculi, added to tunics and cloaks.^ As the first Emperor with a very clearly Greek name ( Dioclês , before being Latinized to Diocletianus ), Diocletian foreshadows the later Greek character of the Empire.
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^ This finally ended with Diocletian, who picked up reforming the Empire, militarily, politically, and religiously, where Aurelian had left off.
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^ III. THIRD EMPIRE, MIDDLE "ROMANIA," EARLY "BYZANTIUM," 610 AD-1059 AD, Era of Diocletian 327-776, 449 years .
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.These decorative elements usually consisted of geometrical patterns and stylised plant motifs, but could include human or animal figures.^ Since the names of the Ghassanids include the familiar Arabic patronynmic element, ibn , the genealogy of the dynasty could actually be constructed without too much difficulty.
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[58] .The use of silk also increased steadily and most courtiers of the later empire wore elaborate silk robes.^ Later versions thus increase the dramatic and miraculous elements of the event, using what later would become the most symbolic of Christianity, the Cross.
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Heavy military-style belts were worn by bureaucrats as well as soldiers, revealing the general militarization of late Roman government. .Trousers—considered barbarous garments worn by Germans and Persians—were only adopted partially near the end of the empire in a sign for conservatives of cultural decay.^ The "Fourth Empire" begins with a blow, from an Islâm reinvigorated by the Turks, which represents not only a further diminution of the Empire, but a portent of the actual collapse and end of the Empire altogether.
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^ The musical chairs of murders did not help prepare the Empire for increased activity by the Germans and Persians.
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[59] .Early medieval kings and aristocrats dressed like late Roman generals, not like the older toga-clad senatorial tradition.^ What is called the Servian Wall, as Romans attributed it to King Servius Tullius (who much more likely only built the agger earthworks on the Quirinal, Viminal and Esquiline Hills), is generally believed to have been built after the retreat by the Gauls.

^ The Early Conflict of the Orders The revolt against King Tarquin and Porsenna was led entirely by the Roman nobility, so it was essentially only the Roman aristocrats (the patricii ) who held any power.

^ As the remnants of the Late Roman Army were settled on the land (like the earlier Limitanei ), there were also standing forces that accompanied the Emperor, like the old Comitatenses .
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[60]
Romans had simple food habits. Staple food was simple, generally consumed at around 11 o’clock, and consisted of bread, salad, cheese, fruits, nuts, and cold meat left over from the dinner the night before. The Roman poet, Horace mentions another Roman favourite, the olive, in reference to his own diet, which he describes as very simple: "As for me, olives, endives, and smooth mallows provide sustenance."[61] The family ate together, sitting on stools around a table. Fingers were used to eat solid foods and spoons were used for soups.
Wine was considered a staple drink,[62] consumed at all meals and occasions by all classes and was quite cheap. Many types of drinks involving grapes and honey were consumed as well. Drinking on an empty stomach was regarded as boorish and a sure sign for alcoholism, whose debilitating physical and psychological effects were known to the Romans. An accurate accusation of being an alcoholic was an effective way to discredit political rivals.
.Roman literature was from its very inception influenced heavily by Greek authors.^ The very people, indeed, thanks to whom we possess Classical Greek and its literature.
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.Some of the earliest works we possess are of historical epics telling the early military history of Rome.^ Yet no sooner did Rome possess a commander not utterly inferior to Hannibal, then all her superiority in force of arms was made to tell.

^ Carthage had some 120 quinqueremes, whereas Rome possessed at best a few cruisers furnished by her Greek ports in southern Italy.

^ Yet the Hannibal Barca, one of the supreme military geniuses of history, was not to surrender himself to the indignity of being dragged through the streets of Rome in chains.

As the empire expanded, authors began to produce poetry, comedy, history, and tragedy. Virgil represents the pinnacle of Roman epic poetry. .His Aeneid tells the story of flight of Aeneas from Troy and his settlement of the city that would become Rome.^ A story arose that Constantine sleeps under the Golden Gate (like Barbarossa under the Kyffhäuser), or that he would reenter the City through that Gate.
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Lucretius, in his On the Nature of Things, attempted to explicate science in an epic poem. The genre of satire was common in Rome, and satires were written by, among others, Juvenal[63] and Persius. Many Roman homes were decorated with landscapes by Greek artists. .Portrait sculpture[64] during the period utilized youthful and classical proportions, evolving later into a mixture of realism and idealism.^ During the honeymoon period we get the completion of St. Mark's Cathedral -- a mature Romania seeding its culture into the maturing Venice.
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.Advancements were also made in relief sculptures, often depicting Roman victories.^ But the losses suffered by the Romans at Ticinus and Trebia made such minor victories pale to insignificance.

^ Aftermath to the Fall of Carthage The immediately evident effect of Rome’s victory was that the city Utica was now made capital of the new Roman province of Africa.

^ Had the Carthaginians the superior naval skills and greater maneouvrability in their superior vessels, it appeared the sheer number and the quality of Roman soldiers among the Roman fleet which made any Carthaginian victory impossible.

Detail of a mosaic found in Pompeii. The figure on the left is playing the double aulos, double-reed pipes; the figure in the middle, cymbalum, small, bronze cymbals; and on the right, the tympanum, a tambourine-like drum.
Music was a major part of everyday life. The word itself derives from Greek μουσική (mousike), "(art) of the Muses".[65] Many private and public events were accompanied by music, ranging from nightly dining to military parades and manoeuvres. .In a discussion of any ancient music, however, non-specialists and even many musicians have to be reminded that much of what makes our modern music familiar to us is the result of developments only within the last 1,000 years; thus, our ideas of melody, scales, harmony, and even the instruments we use would not be familiar to Romans who made and listened to music many centuries earlier.^ Eagles were used by many to imply Roman antecedents, but the double headed eagle was adopted in particular by the Holy Roman Empire , by Imperial Russia , and by the Serbs .
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^ They would be Roman allies until disappearing in the 11th century.
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^ They would soon become a loose cannon within the Empire, shattering essential supports of Roman power as the tribe rolled around.
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Over time, Roman architecture was modified as their urban requirements changed, and the civil engineering and building construction technology became developed and refined. .The Roman concrete has remained a riddle, and even after more than 2,000 years some Roman structures still stand magnificently.^ Indeed, the Romans were rather more successful than is usually thought.
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^ The raid by the Roman legions was horrific and no less than 150,000 Epirots were carried away into slavery and sold.

^ It would be more than fifteen years, until in 150 BC the remaining 300 of these captives were freed and returned to Greece.

[66] .The architectural style of the capital city was emulated by other urban centres under Roman control and influence.^ While the Palaeologi, building on the success of Nicaea, reestablished Greek rule, only Epirus of the other successor states came back under Imperial control.
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^ Indeed, perhaps Rome did "fall" in the Third Century, if by the "Roman Empire" we mean a state ruled, controlled, and centered in the City of Rome.
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^ The treaty seems to have made a significant distinction between areas under direct Roman protection and cities who were mere allies of Rome.

Education

.Following various military conquests in the Greek East, Romans adapted a number of Greek educational precepts to their own system.^ The Roman legionary system had once again triumphed over the Greek phalanx.

^ The tragic irony of Greek history is that Greece at last found a lasting peace under Roman domination; a peace she would most likely never have accomplished on her own.

^ Furthermore Carthage had contributed free gifts of grain to Roman military operations in the east.

[67] .Home was often the learning centre, where children were taught Roman law, customs, and physical training to prepare the boys for eventual recruitment into the Roman army.^ He eventually marched his newly trained rag tag army of raw levies and mercenaries out into the open plain of Bagradas (Medjerda) where he offered battle.

^ In Gaul Hasdrubal began recruiting, building up an army in preparation for a second invasion of Italy.

^ Meanwhile the Roman army on land gradually edged Carthaginian forces out of the centre of the isle of Sicily in hard, increasingly bitter fighting.

Conforming to discipline was a point of great emphasis. Girls generally received instruction[68] from their mothers in the art of spinning, weaving, and sewing.
Education nominally began at the age of six. During the next six to seven years, both boys and girls were taught the basics of reading, writing and arithmetic. .From the age of twelve, they would be learning Latin, Greek, grammar and literature, followed by training for public speaking.^ In practice this meant they would act as supreme judges and their collected judgments would be used to build the code of laws over the twelve months they were in office.

^ In the Middle Ages, the Greeks used their own word for "Greeks," Hellênes , to mean the ancient pagan Greeks, as the word is used in the New Testament -- sometimes the Latin word for Greeks would be borrowed, as Graikoi , if this was needed for contemporary reference, as for the language.
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^ Exceptions would be for Greek words that simply have Latin translations.
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Oratory was an art to be practised and learnt, and good orators commanded respect. To become an effective orator was one of the objectives of education and learning. In some cases, services of gifted slaves were utilized for imparting education.[68]

Economy

The imperial government was, as all governments, interested in the issue and control of the currency in circulation. .To mint coins was a political act: the image of the ruling emperor appeared on most issues, and coins were a means of showing his image throughout the empire.^ The conversion of the Bulgars, indeed, was a complicated political act, with sophisticated negotiations that played the Popes off the Emperors.
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.Also featured were predecessors, empresses, other family members, and heirs apparent.^ The sons, however, ended up with no heirs themselves, and the last family member on the throne, Julian, was one of the cousins who had escaped the massacre.
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By issuing coins with the image of an heir his legitimacy and future succession was proclaimed and reinforced. Political messages and imperial propaganda such as proclamations of victory and acknowledgements of loyalty also appeared in certain issues.
.Legally only the emperor and the Senate had the authority to mint coins inside the empire.^ The conquest of Constantinople by the Fourth Crusade did not result in the establishment of the authority of the Latin Emperors over the whole of the previous Empire.
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^ His colleague Aurelian then substantially restores the Empire, only to suffer assassination, initiating a new round of revolving Emperors.
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[69] However the authority of the Senate was mainly in name only. .In general, the imperial government issued gold and silver coins while the Senate issued bronze coins marked by the legend "SC", short for Senatus Consulto "by decree of the Senate". However, bronze coinage could be struck without this legend.^ That the gold coinage of the solidus still exists at all, however, is testimony to the fact that the prosperity and material culture of Romania never fell as far as it did in Francia .
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^ This was however not accomplished without the utter humiliation of the Rhodian envoys who prostrated themselves before the senators, pleading tearfully for their city not to be destroyed.

.Some Greek cities were allowed to mint [70] bronze and certain silver coins, which today are known as Greek Imperials (also Roman Colonials or Roman Provincials).^ More so, had some of these interventions seen Tarentum act in selfish disregard for the interests of other Greek cities in Magna Graecia, then these cities had come to view Tarentum with suspicion.

^ In a brief war the Umbrian city of Narnia was conquered and saw a Roman colony established in its place.

^ It appears that the colonist forfeited some of their privileges as full Roman citizens in exchange for land in these colonies.

.The imperial mints were under the control of a chief financial minister, and the provincial mints were under the control of the imperial provincial procurators.^ While the Palaeologi, building on the success of Nicaea, reestablished Greek rule, only Epirus of the other successor states came back under Imperial control.
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The Senatorial mints were governed by officials of the Senatorial treasury.

Demography

.In recent years, question relating to ancient demographics have received increasingly more scholarly attention,[71] with estimates of the population size of the Roman empire at its demographic peak now varying between 60-70 million ("low count") and over 100 million ("high count").^ But that is a key point: the Diaspora population is mostly going to be urban; but the urban population of the Roman Empire is unlikely to have been more than 20% of the whole.
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^ The idea common now that the Roman Empire fell in 476, wouldn't have made sense to Bede.
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^ If the population of the Empire was as much as 20% urban, and Jews were 10% of the population, then Jews would have to constitute nearly half of the population of every city, especially including Rome itself (with a population of a million or more people).
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[72] .Adhering to the more traditional value of 55 million inhabitants, the Roman Empire constituted the most populous Western political unity until the mid-19th century[73] and had a population comparable to contemporary Han China.^ They would be Roman allies until disappearing in the 11th century.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The office of the Roman Consuls, and dating by them, continues under the Empire until Justinian .
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^ The areas set aside for particular units became the themes , which remained the military bedrock of Romania until the end of the 11th century and soon replaced the old Roman provinces as the administrative divisions of the Empire.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

[72][74].

History

Augustus (27 BC–AD 14)

The Battle of Actium, by Lorenzo A. Castro, 1672.
The Battle of Actium resulted in the defeat and subsequent suicides of Mark Antony and Cleopatra. .Octavian, now sole ruler of Rome, began a full-scale reformation of military, fiscal and political matters.^ Octavian sole Ruler of Rome .

^ After the Battle of Actium which resulted in the defeat and subsequent suicides of Mark Antony and Cleopatra , Octavian, now sole ruler of Rome, continued or began a fullscale reformation of military, fiscal and political matters.
  • Roman Empire at AllExperts 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ After some political and military developments, Octavian took the province of Africa away from Lepidus and took possession of the Greek-colonized island of Sicilia (modern Sicily).

.The powers that he secured for himself were identical in form, if not in name, to those that his predecessor Julius Caesar had secured years earlier as Roman Dictator.^ The dictator Critolaus, who was fervently anti-Roman, had come to power in the city.

.In 36 BC, he was given the power of a Plebeian Tribune, which gave him veto power over the senate, the ability to control the principle legislative assembly (the Plebeian Council), and made his person and office sacrosanct.^ He used his consular office to block legislation put forward by the tribunes of the people in favour of the plebeians.

^ More so he was granted proconsular powers, something hitherto only given to consuls after their term in office.

^ In 356 BC Rome saw the first plebeian dictator take office.

.Up until 32 BC, his status as a Triumvir gave him the powers of an autocrat, but when he deposed Mark Antony that year, he resigned from the Triumvirate, and was then given powers identical to those that he had given up.^ It would be more than fifteen years, until in 150 BC the remaining 300 of these captives were freed and returned to Greece.

^ In 330 BC a Lucanian assassin stabbed him before he could consolidate his power in Italy.

.In 29 BC, Octavian was given the authority of a Roman Censor, and thus the power to appoint new senators.^ The Roman Empire "officially" begins by tradition in 27 BC when Octavian receives the title "Augustus" -- which then becomes the name by which we know him.
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^ BC) War against Antiochus Rome no longer had any troops in Greece, yet it was clear that the regional powers of Greece had been allotted their territories according to Roman will.

^ For his naval preparations came to a sudden when news of a powerful Roman fleet sailing into the Adriatic to repel him reached his court.

[75]
.The senate granted Octavian a unique grade of Proconsular imperium, which gave him authority over all Proconsuls (military governors).^ The senate reluctantly gave in, but did not grant Scipio the right of using the normal means of levying consular troops.

^ An imperator was someone with a military command and imperium , which meant both military and civil authority in the area of his command.
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[76] .The unruly provinces at the borders, where the vast majority of the legions were stationed, were under the control of Augustus.^ The Roman Army under Augustus contained 28 Legions ( Legio , Legiones ), not counting the Praetorian Guard.
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These provinces were classified as imperial provinces. .The peaceful senatorial provinces were under the control of the Senate.^ The senate under the guidance of Fabius largely took control of matters.

The Roman legions, which had reached an unprecedented number (around 50) because of the civil wars, were reduced to 28.
.Augustus also created nine special cohorts, ostensibly to maintain the peace in Italy, keeping at least three of them stationed at Rome.^ It was always least likely to receive reinforcements and any victories gained would scarce get a mention in Rome, as long as Hannibal was in Italy.

^ No doubt it was the hope of the Carthaginians that Rome might keep the adventurer from Epirus busy in Italy, leaving them free to conquer all of Sicily.

These cohorts became known as the Praetorian Guard. .In 27 BC, Octavian transferred control of the state back to the Senate and the People of Rome.^ The people of Rome granted him a state funeral within the city walls.

^ Instead, once back in Rome, Mancinus was removed from the list of senators.

^ His warnings went unheard until in 172 BC he traveled to Rome himself and presented to the senate his warning of the danger Perseus represented.

[75] The Senate refused the offer, which, in effect, functioned as a popular ratification of his position within the state. Octavian was also granted the title of "Augustus" by the senate,[77] and took the title of Princeps, or "first citizen".[76]
As the adopted heir of Caesar, Augustus preferred to be called by this name. Caesar was a component of his family name. .Julio-Claudian rule lasted for almost a century (from Julius Caesar in the mid-1st century BC to the emperor Nero in the mid-1st century AD).^ There is no evidence of this, Caesar himself had no descendants, and the other heirs were pretty much wiped out by 69 AD (though the movie actually says that the unrelated Tiberius was the last of the ruling Caesars!
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^ By 220 BC almost all the Gallic tribes had submitted to Roman rule.

^ This institution continues for some centuries, and there never was a subsequent question that the Emperor might become a King, as had been widely feared, expected, or desired with Julius Caesar.
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.By the time of the Flavian Dynasty, and the reign of Vespasian, and that of his two sons, Titus and Domitian, the term Caesar had evolved, almost de facto, from a family name into a formal title.^ The dynasty of Stephan Dushan is followed by two families of princes.
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^ The first Dynasty with a family name will be the Ducases in the 11th century.
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^ Unfortunately, Titus's brother Domitian was not quite of the same stamp, and then went on to reign longer than his father and brother.
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Augustus' final goal was to figure out a method to ensure an orderly succession. .In 6 BC Augustus granted tribunician powers to his stepson Tiberius,[78] and before long Augustus realized that he had no choice but to recognize Tiberius as his heir.^ Ricimer may not have really wanted it to succeed, and it wasn't long before he got rid of Anthemius.
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^ The result has the look of a nice balance of power, but there is no telling how long that might have lasted.
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^ BC) It wasn’t long before Rome posted a consul (Cato the Elder) to Spain with an army to try and quell the unrest.

In AD 13, the point was settled beyond question. .A law was passed which linked Augustus' powers over the provinces to those of Tiberius,[79] so that now Tiberius' legal powers were equivalent to, and independent from, those of Augustus.^ Even if the concilium plebis had gained the right to pass laws, the ordinary citizens had no voice in those meetings.

^ The gentle but powerful influence of laws and manners had gradually cemented the union of the provinces.
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[79] Within a year, Augustus was dead.

Tiberius to Alexander Severus (14–235)

The Roman Empire in 117 AD
Augustus was succeeded by his stepson Tiberius, the son of his wife Livia from her first marriage. .Augustus was a scion of the gens Julia (the Julian family), one of the most ancient patrician clans of Rome, while Tiberius was a scion of the gens Claudia, only slightly less ancient than the Julians.^ This ill feeling between Rome and the Aetolian League should have far reaching consequences, which at the time most likely no one could have foreseen.

^ The family of the Julio-Claudians seems like one of the most complicated in history.
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^ Rome now had become one the great powers of the ancient world.

.Their three immediate successors were all descended both from the gens Claudia, through Tiberius's brother Nero Claudius Drusus, and from gens Julia, either through Julia the Elder, Augustus's daughter from his first marriage (Caligula and Nero), or through Augustus's sister Octavia Minor (Claudius).^ Caligula and Nero are descendants of Augustus, through his daughter Julia (from his first marriage); but Claudius and Nero are also descendants of Mark Antony, who of course committed suicide, shortly before Cleopatra, rather than be captured after his defeat by Augustus.
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^ All of these marriages produced children with living modern descendants, especially among the Hapsburgs and the royal family of Spain, as can be traced at the linked genealogies.
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^ Caligula and Nero, and Robert Graves's version of Claudius, are objects of endless fascination, moralizing, guilty pleasure, and not-so-guilty pleasure.
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Historians thus refer to their dynasty as "Julio-Claudian Dynasty".
Vespasian commissioned the Colosseum in Rome.
.The early years of Tiberius's reign were peaceful and relatively benign.^ Gracchus impact on Spain was so significant that the relative peace, established prior to his departure in 177 BC was to last for some 25 years.

However, Tiberius's reign soon became characterised by paranoia and slander. .He began a series of treason trials and executions, which continued until his death in 37. The logical successor to the hated Tiberius was his grandnephew, Gaius (better known as "Caligula" or "little boots").^ The office of the Roman Consuls, the chief executive officers of the Roman Republic , and dating by them, continued under the Empire until Justinian, who now replaces them with dating by Regal years.
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^ The main line of the Palaeologi of Montferrat continued until the death of the Marchioness Margaret in 1556.
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^ The lines of Princes continued, but by 1711 the Sult.ân began to sell the seats to Greek tax farmers, a destructive practice that continued until 1821.
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Caligula started out well, but quickly became insane. .In 41 Caligula was assassinated, and for two days following his assassination, the senate debated the merits of restoring the republic.^ There followed two days of skirmishing before the armies met in battle.

[80]
.Due to the demands of the army, however, Claudius was ultimately declared emperor.^ However, Marcus Claudius Marcellus who had been on his way with an army to deal with the troubles in Sicily, was diverted as news reached him of the disaster at Cannae.

.Claudius was neither paranoid like his uncle Tiberius, nor insane like his nephew Caligula, and was therefore able to administer the empire with reasonable ability.^ The entire Army, therefore, was more like 300,000 men, less than half of what it would number in the Late Empire .
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.In his own family life he was less successful, as he married his niece, who may very well have poisoned him in 54. Nero, who succeeded Claudius, focused much of his attention on diplomacy, trade, and increasing the cultural capital of the empire.^ A very poor excuse for an "empire," Trebizond spent much of its existence in vassalage to the Mongols and Turks who ruled the plateau behind it.
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^ Old and ill, Heraclius had to watch his life's work largely melt away, while people said it was the Judgment of God because he had married his niece.
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^ The last Western Emperor really worthy of the name was probably Majorian, who was a military man in his own right and operated with success in Gaul and Spain.
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Nero, though, is remembered as a tyrant, and committed suicide in 68.
.The forced suicide of Nero was followed by a brief period of civil war, known as the "Year of the Four Emperors". Augustus had established a standing army, where individual soldiers served under the same military governors over an extended period of time.^ He had served as a tribune under Marcellus during the war against Carthage.

^ In a brief war the Umbrian city of Narnia was conquered and saw a Roman colony established in its place.

^ The First Slave War It was in the very same year of Scipio’s election to the consulship that his consular colleague, Fulvius Flacchus, was required to intervene in Sicily.

.The consequence was that the soldiers in the provinces developed a degree of loyalty to their commanders, which they did not have for the emperor.^ It took a little time for Septimius to put down all the would-be Emperors in the provinces, but he did so with determination and ferocity.
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^ The units of the Eastern Mobile Army all are commanded by their own Master of Soldiers, with two units as "Soldiers of the Emperor's Presence."
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^ The nimbus is not used for the Latin Emperors in the genealogy because, as Roman Catholics, they would have acknowledged Papal supremacy to a degree that the Orthodox Emperors in Constantinople never would.
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Thus the empire was, in a sense, a union of inchoate principalities, which could have disintegrated at any time.[81] .Between June 68 and December 69, Rome witnessed the successive rise and fall of Galba, Otho and Vitellius until the final accession of Vespasian, first ruler of the Flavian dynasty.^ The success of this coup was a chilling precursor to the eventual Fall of the Western Empire, whose final Emperors became the futile play things of Germanic commanders.
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^ For three years Pyrrhus fought in Sicily, at first with great success, yet finally reaching a stalemate at the impregnable Carthaginian fortress of Lilybaeum.

These events showed that any successful general could legitimately claim a right to the throne.[82]
Vespasian, though a successful emperor, continued the weakening of the Senate which had been going on since the reign of Tiberius. .Through his sound fiscal policy, he was able to build up a surplus in the treasury, and began construction on the Colosseum.^ In Gaul Hasdrubal began recruiting, building up an army in preparation for a second invasion of Italy.

Titus, Vespasian's successor, quickly proved his merit, although his short reign was marked by disaster, including the eruption of Mount Vesuvius in Pompeii. .He held the opening ceremonies in the still unfinished Colosseum, but died in 81. His brother Domitian succeeded him.^ None of the messengers ever succeeded in reaching Hannibal, leaving him unable to act decisively as he remained clueless as to his brother’s intentions.

^ So powerful was still the name Hannibal, that no general wanted to be measured in open battle with him.

Having exceedingly poor relations with the senate, Domitian was murdered in September of 96.
The next century came to be known as the period of the "Five Good Emperors", in which the successions were peaceful and the Empire was prosperous. Each emperor of this period was adopted by his predecessor. .The last 2 of the "Five Good Emperors" and Commodus are also called Antonines.^ The "Five Good Emperors" (in boldface) became the ideal of generations, all the way to Gibbon, for peaceful and benevolent government.
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.After his accession, Nerva, who succeeded Domitian, set a new tone: he restored much confiscated property and involved the Roman Senate in his rule.^ They demanded that the Roman constitution be amended, whereby one of the consuls and a significant proportion of seats in the Roman senate be set aside for Latins.

^ After the restoration of Greek rule in Constantinople, a claim to the Roman throne passed down through the descendants of Baldwin II. Charles of Anjou , who had his own designs on Romania, married a daughter to Baldwin's son Philip.
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^ In Aetolia the Romans granted their support to factions who set about massacring suspected friends of the Macedonian cause.

.In 112, Trajan marched on Armenia and annexed it to the Roman Empire.^ Venice was obviously not claiming 3/8 of the Empire of Trajan, but of the much reduced mediaeval Romania (this looks like part of the conspiracy of ignore the word "Romania" in Roman and "Byzantine" studies).
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^ In any case, Trajan had added upper Mesopotamia, Armenia, and Dacia to the Empire.
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.Then he turned south into Parthia, taking several cities before declaring Mesopotamia a new province of the empire, and lamenting that he was too old to follow in the steps of Alexander the Great.^ Alliances with several Umbrian cities were entered into.

^ Thomas never took the obvious step of declaring himself the new Emperor in succession to his brother, and he turned over Monembasia to the Pope in 1461.
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^ Other related peoples, the Patzinaks and Cumans, followed the Bulgars off the steppe and into the Balkans, though not permanently south of the Danube.
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.During his rule, the Roman Empire expanded to its largest extent, and would never again advance so far to the east.^ They would soon become a loose cannon within the Empire, shattering essential supports of Roman power as the tribe rolled around.
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^ Trajan was the first Emperor born in the provinces (Spain) and briefly, with his Mesopotamian campaign, expanded the Empire to its greatest extent.
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^ Indeed, perhaps Rome did "fall" in the Third Century, if by the "Roman Empire" we mean a state ruled, controlled, and centered in the City of Rome.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

.Hadrian's reign was marked by a general lack of major military conflicts, but he had to defend the vast territories that Trajan had acquired.^ The Pax Romana seems real enough in certain places, but there were not many reigns without some major military action.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

.Antoninus Pius's reign was comparatively peaceful.^ Antoninus Pius became the only Roman Emperor in 1500 years to be called "the Pious," but we really know precious little about his reign.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Of particular interest in the disposition of the Legions in the reign of Antoninus Pius is Legio VI Victrix .
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

.During the reign of Marcus Aurelius, Germanic tribes launched many raids along the northern border.^ Gradually, the Limitanei fade from historical view and hardly seem to exist at all by the time German tribes cross the borders en masse in the Fifth Century.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In the reign of Marcus Aurelius the Prefect of Legio VI Victrix will be one Lucius Artorius Castus.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

.The period of the "Five Good Emperors" also commonly described as the Pax Romana, or "Roman Peace" was brought to an end by the reign of Commodus.^ The "Five Good Emperors" (in boldface) became the ideal of generations, all the way to Gibbon, for peaceful and benevolent government.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This may simply illustrate the principle that goodness and peace (the height of the "Pax Romana") is boring.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Pax Romana seems real enough in certain places, but there were not many reigns without some major military action.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

.Commodus was the son of Marcus Aurelius, breaking the scheme of adoptive successors that had turned out so well.^ As it turned out, things went too well.

^ Nicephorus ended up killed in battle against the Bulgars , and his son Stauracius, proclaimed Emperor, turned out to be paralyzed from a spinal wound.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Marcus's only real failure was to leave the Empire to his worthless son, Commodus -- dying in a place of modern note, Vienna ( Vindobona ).
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

Commodus became paranoid and slipped into insanity before being murdered in 192.
The Severan Dynasty, which lasted from 193 until 235, included several increasingly troubled reigns. .A generally successful ruler, Septimius Severus, the first of the dynasty, cultivated the army's support and substituted equestrian officers for senators in key administrative positions.^ Caligula, "little boot," or Caracalla, "little hood" -- both names given them as children in the army camps of their fathers (Germanicus and Septimius Severus, respectively).
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

.His son, Caracalla, extended full Roman citizenship to all free inhabitants of the empire.^ Roman Citizenship to all free persons, 212 .
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The inhabitants of these old, settled areas held full Roman citizenship.

^ The Pope thus became, as Popes had long desired, the ruler of all the Roman Empire.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

Increasingly unstable and autocratic, Caracalla was assassinated by Macrinus, who succeeded him, before being assassinated and succeeded by Elagabalus. Alexander Severus, the last of the dynasty, was increasing unable to control the army, and was assassinated in 235.

Crisis of the Third Century and the later emperors (235–395)

.The Crisis of the Third Century is a commonly applied name for the crumbling and near collapse of the Roman Empire between 235 and 284. During this time, 25 emperors reigned, and the empire experienced extreme military, political, and economic crises.^ Emperors are commonly known by particular parts of their names, or by nicknames, e.g.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The areas set aside for particular units became the themes , which remained the military bedrock of Romania until the end of the 11th century and soon replaced the old Roman provinces as the administrative divisions of the Empire.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Indeed, perhaps Rome did "fall" in the Third Century, if by the "Roman Empire" we mean a state ruled, controlled, and centered in the City of Rome.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

.Additionally, in 251, the Plague of Cyprian broke out, causing large-scale mortality which may have seriously affected the ability of the Empire to defend itself.^ Whatever the cause, the climate would adversely impact the population at a time, on top of the deaths from the Plague, when the lack would gravely affect the fate of the Empire.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

[83] .This period ended with the accession of Diocletian, who reigned from 284 until 305, and who solved many of the acute problems experienced during this crisis.^ This was during the reign of Irene, who had taken the throne exclusively for herself, the only Empress ever to do so, by having her son Constantine VI blinded (he died, too).
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Valerian's relatively long reign ended with the unparalleled ignominy of being captured by Shapur I -- the only Roman Emperor captured by an enemy until Romanus IV in 1071.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This finally ended with Diocletian, who picked up reforming the Empire, militarily, politically, and religiously, where Aurelian had left off.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

.However, the core problems would remain and cause the eventual destruction of the western empire.^ However, the core problems would remain and cause the eventual destruction of the western empire.
  • Roman Empire at AllExperts 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The two remaining Augusti divided the Empire again in the pattern established by Diocletian: Constantine becoming Augustus of the Western Roman Empire and Licinius Augustus of the Eastern Roman Empire.
  • Roman Empire at AllExperts 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Gibbon wrote a truly monumental account of the story of the Empire, but he doesn't really propose us a "theory" of the causes of the fall, as most historians would do, later on.
  • The Oil Drum: Europe | "Peak Civilization": The Fall of the Roman Empire 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC europe.theoildrum.com [Source type: Original source]

.Diocletian saw the vast empire as ungovernable, and therefore split the empire in half and created two equal emperors to rule under the title of Augustus.^ The entire Army, therefore, was more like 300,000 men, less than half of what it would number in the Late Empire .
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ As the first Emperor with a very clearly Greek name ( Dioclês , before being Latinized to Diocletianus ), Diocletian foreshadows the later Greek character of the Empire.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ So, while we think of "Augustus" as the name of the first Emperor, it was simply a title, whose import was well remembered by subsequent Emperors.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

.In doing so, he effectively created what would become the Western Roman Empire and the Eastern Roman Empire.^ They would soon become a loose cannon within the Empire, shattering essential supports of Roman power as the tribe rolled around.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ These are the commanders-in-chief of the Western Army (distiguished by purple color), with the Master of Soldiers becoming the effective "Generalissimo" of the Western Empire.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ That was dangerous, indeed fatal, for the Republic; but in those terms Julius Caesar began the creation of the Roman Empire already as an "emperor."
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

.In 293 authority was further divided, as each Augustus took a junior Emperor called a Caesar to provide a line of succession.^ Thomas never took the obvious step of declaring himself the new Emperor in succession to his brother, and he turned over Monembasia to the Pope in 1461.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

This constituted what is now known as the Tetrarchy ("rule of four"). .The transitions of this period mark the beginnings of Late Antiquity.^ The cultural and intellectual sea change of the period, soon followed by Diocletian's reforms and then Constantine, usher in the distinctive world of Late Antiquity .
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

.The Tetrarchy would effectively collapse with the death of Constantius Chlorus, the first of the Constantinian dynasty, in 306. Constantius's troops immediately proclaimed his son Constantine the Great as Augustus.^ Septimius Severus himself was one of the two Roman Emperors ( Constantius Chlorus was the other) to die (a natural death) at York (Eboracum) in Britain.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ By 308, with Severus killed by Maximian's son Maxentius and Constantine proclaimed Augustus by his troops, Diocletian was called to a conference at Carnuntum on the Danube in Upper (Superior) Pannonia (just down the river from modern Vienna, Roman Vindobona).
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

.A series of civil wars broke, which ended with the entire empire being united under Constantine, who legalised Christianity definitively in 313 through the Edict of Milan.^ The Gauls were commanded by a Carthaginian called Hamilcar, who was still at large after the end of the Second Punic War.

^ A story arose that Constantine sleeps under the Golden Gate (like Barbarossa under the Kyffhäuser), or that he would reenter the City through that Gate.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Al-Harith II himself, with the epithet "ibn Maria" and living in the time of Constantine, is likely to be the tribal chief who converted to Christianity.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

.In 361, after decades of further civil war, Julian became emperor.^ Unfortunately, the Mobile Army as often was used for civil wars as for backing up the frontiers, and it was natural for Emperors to neglect the Limitanei and reinforce their own personal forces.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

.His edict of toleration in 362 ordered the reopening of pagan temples, and, more problematically for the Christian Church, the recalling of previously exiled Christian bishops.^ Since this is more or less the Christian critique of pagan society, we have the curious case of critics maintaining the perspective of Christian moralism even while rejecting Christianity as the appropriate response.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

.Julian eventually resumed the war against Shapur II of Persia, although he received a mortal wound in battle and died in 363. His officers then elected Jovian emperor.^ But King Philip V, having not received one scrap of support from Syria in his recent war against Rome, now had no intention of lending support to Antiochus.

^ Rome wars against King Antiochus II of Seleucia 191 Antiochus defeated at Thermopylae.

^ Aftermath of War against Antiochus What is astonishing is that Rome had managed achieve dominance of the Greek world in only two major battles; Cynoscephalae and Magnesia.

Jovian is remembered for ceding terrorities won from the Persians, dating back to Trajan, and for restoring the privileges of Christianity, before dying in 364.
The Tetrarchs, a porphyry sculpture sacked from a Byzantine palace in 1204, Treasury of St Mark's, Venice
.Upon Jovian's death, Valentinian I, the first of the Valentinian dynasty, was elected Augustus, and chose his brother Valens to serve as his co-emperor.^ With Valentinian, and his brother Valens with whom he divided the Empire, the Christian nature of Romania was sealed.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ When Valentinian died, Gratian had already been raised to the status of Augustus and clearly was the legitimate Emperor of the West.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

In 365, Procopius managed to bribe two legions, who then proclaimed him Augustus. .War between the two rival Eastern Roman Emperors continued until Procopius was defeated, although in 367, eight-year-old Gratian was proclaimed emperor by the other two.^ Yet nothing more ever came of it other than two skirmishes between the two sides.

^ This small town, whose military garrison never exceeded 8,000, was to go down in history for resisting continuous Roman attacks for nine years.

^ The office of the Roman Consuls, and dating by them, continues under the Empire until Justinian .
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

.In 375 Valentinian I led his army in a campaign against a Germanic tribe, but died shortly thereafter.^ There is no doubt that this was needed for the challenges of the Age -- indeed, it would prove inadequate to concentrate what would in fact be needed against the Visigoths and the other migrating German tribes.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The allied Latin forces, led by Aristhodemus, met at Aricia with an army which Porsenna had sent against them under the command of his son Arruns.

^ That he died shortly thereafter steals the thunder from this act, but it is noteworthy.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

Succession did not go as planned. .Gratian was then a 16-year-old and arguably ready to act as Emperor, but the troops proclaimed his infant half-brother emperor under the title Valentinian II, and Gratian acquiesced.^ When Valentinian died, Gratian had already been raised to the status of Augustus and clearly was the legitimate Emperor of the West.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ B. REVIVAL AND ASCENDENCY, 802-1059, 257 years 400 years after the opportunity might have originally presented itself, a German finally claimed the title of Roman Emperor.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Under the Palaeologi, starting in 1383, the Despot (sometimes more than one) was usually a son or brother of the Emperor.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

.Meanwhile, the Eastern Roman Empire faced its own problems with Germanic tribes.^ The Holy Roman Empire hands down its own traditions through the surviving families, and it has never suffered a conquest by any foreign power.

^ The mysterious invaders proved to be two Germanic tribes, the Teutons and Cimbri, the vanguard of that great German migration which was destined to change the face and history of Europe.
  • Imperial Rome 22 September 2009 21:19 UTC www.shsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Germans Sarmatians, Arabs, Armenians, Persians, Moors; all were not subjects of the empire and now stood to the Roman army in the same relation as once the auxiliaries had done.

.One tribe fled their former lands and sought refuge in the Eastern Roman Empire.^ They would soon become a loose cannon within the Empire, shattering essential supports of Roman power as the tribe rolled around.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Knowing their case futile, the Carthaginians took on the might of the Roman empire one last time.

^ One was that the Goths remained a unified and aggressive tribe within the Empire, ready to begin rampaging again at any time.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

.Valens let them settle on the southern bank of the Danube in 376, but they soon revolted against their Roman hosts.^ They would soon become a loose cannon within the Empire, shattering essential supports of Roman power as the tribe rolled around.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Romans suffered several reverses as they sought to fight in unfamiliar terrain against a truly fearsome enemy.

^ The first war against Macedon had introduced Roman interest yet further into Greece than they had been after the Illyrian wars.

.Valens personally led a campaign against them in 378. However this campaign proved disastrous for the Romans.^ Regulus however successfully harangued the Roman senators to continue the fight against her enemy at all cost.

^ Hamilcar was leading an effective defensive campaign against superior Roman forces.

^ BC proved a year of indecisive campaigns which led to no tangible advances.

.The two armies approached each other near Adrianople, but Valens was apparently overconfident of the numerical superiority of his own forces over the enemy.^ Unfortunately, the Mobile Army as often was used for civil wars as for backing up the frontiers, and it was natural for Emperors to neglect the Limitanei and reinforce their own personal forces.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ However, King Antiochus was well aware of the disparity in quality of the two armies facing each other.

^ He found himself held in check by two armies, a Punic force commanded by Hasdrubal, son of Gisco, and a Numidian force, commanded by their King Syphax.

.Valens, eager to have all of the glory for himself, rushed into battle, and on 9 August 378, the Battle of Adrianople resulted in a crushing defeat for the Romans, and the death of Valens.^ King Antiochus himself led a cavalry charge which threw the Roman left into disarray.

^ The resulting battle was close and hard fought but turned into a catastrophic rout, with Valens himself falling.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The defeat the Spaniards suffered when lured into an ambush was to have been a crushing one.

.Contemporary historian Ammianus Marcellinus estimated that two thirds of the Roman army were lost in the battle.^ At the Battle of Callinicus, which took place some 3 miles from Larissa ( Larisa ), the entire Roman consular force was put to rout by the army of Perseus.

^ Battle of the Zama The two armies commanded by the two greatest commanders of the age met at Zama.

^ In two battles Rome had lost over 30,000 men.

.The battle had far-reaching consequences, as veteran soldiers and valuable administrators were among the heavy casualties, which left the Empire with the problem of finding suitable leadership.^ This ill feeling between Rome and the Aetolian League should have far reaching consequences, which at the time most likely no one could have foreseen.

.Gratian was now effectively responsible for the whole of the Empire.^ Now in the place of Valens, his uncle, the Emperor Gratian established Theodosius the Spaniard in the Eastern Empire.
  • JORDANES DESCRIBES THE GOTHS' ENTRY AND WANDERINGS IN THE ROMAN EMPIRE 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC www.shsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

.He sought however a replacement Augustus for the Eastern Roman Empire, and in 379 choose Theodosius I.^ The office of the Roman Consuls, the chief executive officers of the Roman Republic , and dating by them, continued under the Empire until Justinian, who now replaces them with dating by Regal years.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Roman Empire "officially" begins by tradition in 27 BC when Octavian receives the title "Augustus" -- which then becomes the name by which we know him.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Yet in 610 the character and problems of the Roman Empire would not have been unfamiliar to Theodosius the Great.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

.Theodosius, the founder of the Theodosian dynasty, proclaimed his five year old son Arcadius an Augustus in 383 in an attempt to secure succession.^ Another was that Honorius and Arcadius, the two sons between whom Theodosius divided the Empire, were young and inexperienced.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The chaos that had threatened in some earlier successions (in 69 and 193) now arrived in 238, when we can say that there were five Emperors in one year.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Roman gamble of sending a twenty five year old aggrieved son, who had never ascended higher than the office of aedile in politics, to command the Spanish legions had paid off.

.Hispanic Celt general Magnus Maximus, stationed in Roman Britain, was proclaimed Augustus by his troops in 383 and rebelled against Gratian when he invaded Gaul.^ In all of 149 and 148 BC the Roman troops made little progress against a city which had only recently surrendered them all its armaments.

^ Later in 407, the usurper Constantine took his troops out of Britain, simultaneously to secure Gaul and to establish himself as Emperor.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ After Roman Britain disappeared from history, when the usurper Constantine "III" took his troops to Gaul, Bede's History of the English Church and People is just about the first that we then hear of it, three hundred years later.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

Gratian fled, but was assassinated. .Following Gratian's death, Maximus had to deal with Valentinian II, at the time only twelve years old, as the senior Augustus.^ The Eastern Emperor Valens acknowledged him with the provision that Valentinian's sixteen year old son Gratian serve in that capacity until Valentinian II was somewhat older.
  • State Church Of The Roman Empire 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC bswett.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Though by the time of Augustus, after the lengthy civil wars which had seen huge numbers of men at arms, the length of service had fallen back to between 6 and 10 years again.

^ He wrote a long work of fifteen books criticizing the Christians; but it was ordered burned by Emperors Valentinian III and Theodosius II in 448, and only fragments remain.
  • Roman Empire In Turmoil 180-285 by Sanderson Beck 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC www.san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

Maximus soon entered negotiations with Valentinian II and Theodosius, attempting to gain their official recognition, although Negotiations were unfruitful. .Theodosius campaigned west in 388 and was victorious against Maximus, who was then captured and executed.^ This was the same Marcellus who had already achieved the spolia opima when campaigning against the Gauls.

In 392 Valentinian II was murdered, and shortly thereafter Arbogast arranged for the appointment of Eugenius as emperor.
However, the eastern emperor Theodosius I refused to recognise Eugenius as emperor and invaded the West, defeating and killing Arbogast and Eugenius. .He thus reunited the entire Roman Empire under his rule.^ The office of the Roman Consuls, and dating by them, continues under the Empire until Justinian .
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Indeed, perhaps Rome did "fall" in the Third Century, if by the "Roman Empire" we mean a state ruled, controlled, and centered in the City of Rome.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Tripolitania apparently also came under Roman rule, but was kept separate from the African province.

.Theodosius was the last Emperor who ruled over the whole Empire.^ [Sozomen VII, xxix] The Catholic Encyclopedia says: "Theodosius stands out as the destroyer of heresy and paganism, as the last sovereign of the undivided empire."
  • State Church Of The Roman Empire 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC bswett.com [Source type: Original source]

^ A very poor excuse for an "empire," Trebizond spent much of its existence in vassalage to the Mongols and Turks who ruled the plateau behind it.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The conquest of Constantinople by the Fourth Crusade did not result in the establishment of the authority of the Latin Emperors over the whole of the previous Empire.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

.As emperor, he made Christianity the official religion of the Roman Empire.^ The Qaghan Boris took the Christian name Michael (though both names would be used in the future), but retained a status comparable to the Roman Emperor.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The idea common now that the Roman Empire fell in 476, wouldn't have made sense to Bede.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He knows that the Empire is now centered in Christian Constantinople, and his awareness of this is strong enough that it actually erases the existence of the last Western Emperors.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

.After his death in 395, he gave the two halves of the Empire to his two sons Arcadius and Honorius.^ Another was that Honorius and Arcadius, the two sons between whom Theodosius divided the Empire, were young and inexperienced.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

.The Roman state would continue to have two different emperors with different seats of power throughout the 5th century, though the Eastern Romans considered themselves Roman in full.^ They would be Roman allies until disappearing in the 11th century.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ They would soon become a loose cannon within the Empire, shattering essential supports of Roman power as the tribe rolled around.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Of all the blows the Roman power, the latter would prove to be one of the worst.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

.The two halves were nominally, culturally and historically, if not politically, the same state.^ Curious how the attitude stays the same despite the changes in culture, faith, politics, etc.
  • Roman Decadence, Rome and Romania, and the Emperors Who Weren't 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Well, the first two hundred years of Roman history do make a pretty compact cultural and historical unit.
  • Roman Decadence, Rome and Romania, and the Emperors Who Weren't 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

Decline of the Western Roman Empire (395–476)

Barbarian invasions of the Roman Empire (simplified), showing the Battle of Adrianople.
.After 395, the emperors in the Western Roman Empire were usually figureheads, while the actual rulers were military strongmen.^ The last Western Emperor really worthy of the name was probably Majorian, who was a military man in his own right and operated with success in Gaul and Spain.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ A last chance to recoup things for the whole Empire came in 468, after Leo had gotten Ricimer to accept the Theodosian relative Anthemius as Western Emperor.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Thus, the unity of the Eastern Army was focused more directly on the Emperor himself, which may have helped the Eastern Empire avoid the situation in the West where the Emperors became mere figureheads.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

.The year 476 is generally accepted as the formal end of the Western Roman Empire.^ A last chance to recoup things for the whole Empire came in 468, after Leo had gotten Ricimer to accept the Theodosian relative Anthemius as Western Emperor.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ B. CRISIS OF THE FIFTH CENTURY, 379-476, 97 Years The map shows the key incursions that would fatally undermine the Western Empire.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ As the final end of the Roman Empire, it was a much more revolutionary and catastrophic change than the "fall" of the Western Empire in 476, in which power remained in the same hands of the current magister militum .
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

That year, Orestes refused the request of Germanic mercenaries in his service for lands in Italy. .The dissatisfied mercenaries, led by Odoacer, revolted, and deposed the last western emperor, Romulus Augustus.^ LAST WESTERN EMPERORS [names in brackets not recognized by East] .
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The last Western Emperor really worthy of the name was probably Majorian, who was a military man in his own right and operated with success in Gaul and Spain.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ So in 476, Orestes and his son were then deposed by the German Odoacer (who originally had been in the guard of Anthemius), who decided to do without a figurehead Emperor.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

.This event has traditionally been considered the fall of the Western Roman Empire.^ Indeed, perhaps Rome did "fall" in the Third Century, if by the "Roman Empire" we mean a state ruled, controlled, and centered in the City of Rome.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The success of this coup was a chilling precursor to the eventual Fall of the Western Empire, whose final Emperors became the futile play things of Germanic commanders.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ As the final end of the Roman Empire, it was a much more revolutionary and catastrophic change than the "fall" of the Western Empire in 476, in which power remained in the same hands of the current magister militum .
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

.Odoacer quickly conquered the remaining provinces of Italy, and then sent the Imperial Regalia back to the Eastern Roman Emperor Zeno.^ For when the Samnite general was presented with the two Romans he simply rejected any idea of punishing them and sent them back to Rome as free men.

^ Only Odoacer in Italy vaguely acknowledged the Emperor's suzerainty -- we don't know what allegiance to Constantinople, if any, remained in the Roman pocket in northern Gaul.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ When the Turks had manifestly broken through and the Fall of the City imminent, the Emperor reportedly threw off the Imperial Regalia and disappeared into the thick of the fight.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

Zeno soon received two deputations. .One was from Odoacer, requesting that his control of Italy be formally recognised by the Empire, in which case he would acknowledge Zeno's supremacy.^ Knowing their case futile, the Carthaginians took on the might of the Roman empire one last time.

^ Only Odoacer in Italy vaguely acknowledged the Emperor's suzerainty -- we don't know what allegiance to Constantinople, if any, remained in the Roman pocket in northern Gaul.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The nimbus is not used for the Latin Emperors in the genealogy because, as Roman Catholics, they would have acknowledged Papal supremacy to a degree that the Orthodox Emperors in Constantinople never would.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

.The other deputation was from Nepos, the emperor before Romulus Augustus, asking for support to regain the throne.^ He didn't even recognize the Emperor who "fell," Romulus Augustulus, as a successor of Augustus (neither did the East, for that matter).
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This problem reached a head when, rather than working together to get things organized again, Nepos was chased out to Dalmatia by Orestes, who assumed command and then put his own son, a child -- Romulus the "little Augustus" -- on the throne.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

Zeno granted Odoacer's request. Upon Nepos's death in 480, Zeno claimed Dalmatia for the East. .Odoacer attacked Dalmatia, and the ensuing war ended with Theodoric the Great, King of the Ostrogoths, conquering Italy.^ King Prusias in turn had great use for a man of Hannibal’s talents, as in 186 BC he engaged in a war with Pergamum.

^ Odoacer in fact was eventually deposed (from Ravenna, of course) by Goths, the Ostrogoths under Theodoric.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ By 493 Theodoric the Ostrogoth, invited by the Emperor Anastasius, had taken out Odoacer in Italy.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

.The Empire became gradually less Romanised and increasingly Germanic in nature: although the Empire buckled under Visigothic assault, the overthrow of the last Emperor Romulus Augustus was carried out by federated Germanic troops from within the Roman army rather than by foreign troops.^ It is then natural that Classicists, to whom the Romans were the last people who proudly weren't Christians, would prefer the hostile modern neologism "Byzantine" for the continuing Empire, rather than pollute the memory of Augustus and Trajan with that of Justinian, Heraclius, or Basil II. Yet even Justinian was still speaking Latin -- and what Classicist will dare, and I dare them, to fault the others for speaking Greek?
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Indeed, the Romans were rather more successful than is usually thought.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Carthage responded to Roman successes by landing an army of no less than 50,000 men in Sicily under the command of a general called Hannibal (it was a fairly common Punic name), establishing its headquarters at the fortress of Acragas (later called Agrigentum), the second city after Syracuse on the island of Sicily.

.In this sense had Odoacer not renounced the title of Emperor and named himself "King of Italy" instead, the Empire might have continued in name.^ As the first Emperor with a very clearly Greek name ( Dioclês , before being Latinized to Diocletianus ), Diocletian foreshadows the later Greek character of the Empire.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ So, while we think of "Augustus" as the name of the first Emperor, it was simply a title, whose import was well remembered by subsequent Emperors.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Only Odoacer in Italy vaguely acknowledged the Emperor's suzerainty -- we don't know what allegiance to Constantinople, if any, remained in the Roman pocket in northern Gaul.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

Its identity, however, was no longer Roman—it was increasingly populated and governed by Germanic peoples long before 476.
.The Roman people were by the fifth century "bereft of their military ethos"[84] and the Roman army itself a mere supplement to federated troops of Goths, Huns, Franks and others fighting on their behalf.^ The fighting was not merely restricted to Liguria itself.

^ The talented Coriolanus soon defeated the Roman army, driving them before him, until he and his Volscian army besieged Rome itself.

^ Meanwhile the Roman army on land gradually edged Carthaginian forces out of the centre of the isle of Sicily in hard, increasingly bitter fighting.

Many theories have been advanced in explanation of the decline of the Roman Empire, and many dates given for its fall, from the onset of its decline in the third century[85] to the fall of Constantinople in 1453.[86]
.Militarily, however, the Empire finally fell after first being overrun by various non-Roman peoples and then having its heart in Italy seized by Germanic troops in a revolt.^ The German troops wanted to be settled on the land in Italy, which Orestes resisted.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The success of this coup was a chilling precursor to the eventual Fall of the Western Empire, whose final Emperors became the futile play things of Germanic commanders.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Romans having gained the tactical advantage the battle soon turned to butchery as the Carthaginian troops were encircled and slaughtered.

The historicity and exact dates are uncertain, and some historians do not consider that the Empire fell at this point. .Disagreement persists since the decline of the Empire had been a long and gradual process rather than a single event.^ Yet it soon crumbled, having been held together largely by Dionysius’ personal genius, rather than being a coherent empire.

Eastern Roman Empire (476–1453)

.As the Western Roman Empire declined during the 5th century, the richer Eastern Roman Empire would be relieved of much destruction, and in the mid 6th century the Eastern Roman Empire (generally today called the Byzantine Empire) under the emperor Justinian I reconquered Italy and parts of Illyria from the Ostrogoths, North Africa from the Vandals, and southern Hispania from the Visigoths.^ Still the capital of Italy under the Ostrogoths, Ravenna becomes a Roman capital again, not of a Western Empire, but just for the Exarchate.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ They would be Roman allies until disappearing in the 11th century.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ They would soon become a loose cannon within the Empire, shattering essential supports of Roman power as the tribe rolled around.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

.The reconquest of southern Hispania was somewhat ephemeral, but North Africa served the Byzantines for another century, parts of Italy for another five centuries, and parts of Illyria even longer.^ Yet could Rome another test of strength against Pyrrhus now that he enjoyed the alliance of all of southern Italy?

^ Perhaps he was just a bitter old man, who saw the rich produce from the fertile fields of North Africa as a threat to the farmers of Italy.

.Of the many accepted dates for the end of the classical Roman state, the latest is 610. This is when the Emperor Heraclius made sweeping reforms, forever changing the face of the empire.^ The office of the Roman Consuls, and dating by them, continues under the Empire until Justinian .
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It was a classic example of the motto: ‘divide and conquer.’ This left the Latins to face the Roman-Samnite war machine with only the Volscians as allies.

^ Indeed, perhaps Rome did "fall" in the Third Century, if by the "Roman Empire" we mean a state ruled, controlled, and centered in the City of Rome.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

.Greek was readopted as the language of government and Latin influence waned.^ Diocletian's Empire had Latin as its court language, but it was no longer based in Rome or governed or defended by natives of Latium.
  • Roman Decadence, Rome and Romania, and the Emperors Who Weren't 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Posted by mharrsch at 9:25 AM Labels: bilingual , Cicero , education , Greek , language , Latin , Roman Empire , slavery , Tarentum .

^ Gygax also noted that "Pictor was influenced by Greek historiographic models and may have felt that Greek was the most adequate language for writing history in prose."

.By 610, the Eastern Roman Empire had come under definite Greek influence, and could be considered to have become what many modern historians now call the Byzantine Empire.^ Eagles were used by many to imply Roman antecedents, but the double headed eagle was adopted in particular by the Holy Roman Empire , by Imperial Russia , and by the Serbs .
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ They would soon become a loose cannon within the Empire, shattering essential supports of Roman power as the tribe rolled around.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The office of the Roman Consuls, and dating by them, continues under the Empire until Justinian .
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

.However, the Empire was never called thus by its inhabitants, who used terms such as Romania, Basileia Romaion or Pragmata Romaion, meaning "Land of the Romans" or "Kingdom of the Romans", and who still saw themselves as Romans, and their state as the rightful continuation of the ancient empire of Rome.^ Eagles were used by many to imply Roman antecedents, but the double headed eagle was adopted in particular by the Holy Roman Empire , by Imperial Russia , and by the Serbs .
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Rome and Romania is continued in The Ottoman Sultans, 1290-1924 AD , Successors of Rome: Germania, 395-774 , Successors of Rome: Francia, 447-present , Successors of Rome: The Periphery of Francia , and Successors of Rome: Russia, 862-present .
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The office of the Roman Consuls, and dating by them, continues under the Empire until Justinian .
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

.The sack of Constantinople at the hands of the Fourth Crusade in 1204 is sometimes used to date the end of Eastern Roman Empire: the destruction of Constantinople and most of its ancient treasures, total discontinuity of leadership, and the division of its lands into rival states with a Catholic-controlled "Emperor" in Constantinople itself was a blow from which the Empire never fully recovered.^ The city’s lands were impounded by the Roman state.

^ Most symbolically, the breach between the Eastern and Western Churches in 1054 was the one that became permanent and henceforth separated the One Holy Roman Catholic and Apostolic Church into the Pope's Latin Church , usually called "Roman Catholic," and the Patriarch of Constantinople's Greek Church , traditionally called "Greek Orthodox" -- along with the other autocephalous "Orthodox" Churches (Russian, Bulgarian, Serbian, Romanian, etc.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The nimbus is not used for the Latin Emperors in the genealogy because, as Roman Catholics, they would have acknowledged Papal supremacy to a degree that the Orthodox Emperors in Constantinople never would.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

.Nevertheless, the Byzantines recovered Constantinople itself and reestablished the empire in 1261, and continued to call themselves Romans until their fall to Ottoman Turks in 1453. That year the eastern part of the Roman Empire was ultimately ended by the Fall of Constantinople.^ This small town, whose military garrison never exceeded 8,000, was to go down in history for resisting continuous Roman attacks for nine years.

^ The office of the Roman Consuls, and dating by them, continues under the Empire until Justinian .
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^ Decius and Herennius were killed in battle by the Goths in 251 -- the only Roman Emperors to die in battle (against external enemies) besides Julian (against the Persians, 363), Valens (against the Goths again, 378), Nicephorus I (against the Bulgars, 811), and Constantine XI (with the fall of Constantinople to the Turks, 1453).
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

.Even though Mehmed II, the conqueror of Constantinople, declared himself the Emperor of the Roman Empire (Caesar of Rome / Kayser-i Rum), and even though this capture was in some ways far less catastrophic than the sack, Constantine XI is usually considered the last Roman Emperor.^ Indeed, the Romans were rather more successful than is usually thought.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The raid by the Roman legions was horrific and no less than 150,000 Epirots were carried away into slavery and sold.

^ If it is impossible that the percentage of Jews in Rome could be lower than in the Empire as a whole, that gives us a good ground for evaluating the percentage given by Paul Johnson.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

.The Greek ethnic self-descriptive name "Rhomios" (Roman) survives to this day.^ In the early days of the dynasty we get a benchmark on the survival of Classical and later Greek literature.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I use Roman names for the planets in the sky, which also get applied to the days of the week .
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

Military history

Principate (27 BC–AD 235)

.Between the reigns of the emperors Augustus and Trajan, the Roman Empire achieved great territorial gains in both the East and the West.^ Trajan was the first Emperor born in the provinces (Spain) and briefly, with his Mesopotamian campaign, expanded the Empire to its greatest extent.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He didn't even recognize the Emperor who "fell," Romulus Augustulus, as a successor of Augustus (neither did the East, for that matter).
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ When Valentinian died, Gratian had already been raised to the status of Augustus and clearly was the legitimate Emperor of the West.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

.In the West, following several defeats in 16 BC,[87] Roman armies pushed north and east out of Gaul to subdue much of Germania.^ To the west Gnaeus and Publius Scipio were keeping the Carthaginian armies tied up in knots, making it impossible for them to follow across the Alps and reinforce the invasion.

^ In 284 BC an army of Etruscans and Gauls from the Senones tribe laid siege to Arretium.

^ Meanwhile the Roman army on land gradually edged Carthaginian forces out of the centre of the isle of Sicily in hard, increasingly bitter fighting.

Despite the loss of a large army almost to the man in Varus' famous defeat in the Battle of the Teutoburg Forest in AD 9,[88][89][90]
Rome recovered and continued its expansion up to and beyond the borders of the known world. .The Romans invaded Britain in AD 43,[91] forcing their way inland,[92] and building two military bases to protect against rebellion and incursions from the north, from which Roman troops built and manned Hadrian's Wall.^ On the other hand, the man leading the Latin league against the Romans was Octavius Mamilius, the son-in-law of King Tarquin.

^ There were, moreover, Latin cities which even allied with the Gauls against her, thereby forcing the rest of the Latins, however reluctantly, to throw themselves under the protection of Rome.

^ A. THE ADVENT OF THE TURKS, 1059-1185, 126 years 1060 AD -- Romanian territory is intact, but the military and financial foundations of Roman power have been undermined.
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[93]
.Emperor Claudius ordered the suspension of further attacks across the Rhine,[94] setting what was to become the permanent limit of the Empire's expansion in this direction.^ We might think that the Empire, Imperium , begins with Augustus becoming Emperor , Imperator , but that is not the case.
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[95] Further east, Trajan turned his attention to Dacia.[96][97][98] .Following an uncertain number of battles, Trajan marched into Dacia,[99] besieged the Dacian capital and razed it to the ground.^ He eventually marched his newly trained rag tag army of raw levies and mercenaries out into the open plain of Bagradas (Medjerda) where he offered battle.

^ The Battle of Cynoscephalae King Philip sought to achieve a decision and marched his army, 25,000 strong, into Thessaly.

[100] .With Dacia quelled, Trajan subsequently invaded the Parthian empire to the east, his conquests taking the Roman Empire to its greatest extent.^ Trajan was the first Emperor born in the provinces (Spain) and briefly, with his Mesopotamian campaign, expanded the Empire to its greatest extent.
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^ It is important to keep in mind Rome’s preeminence in the region, established after the Second Macedonian War and the War against Antiochus, when viewing the later eastern wars and subsequent conquest of the east.

^ Venice was obviously not claiming 3/8 of the Empire of Trajan, but of the much reduced mediaeval Romania (this looks like part of the conspiracy of ignore the word "Romania" in Roman and "Byzantine" studies).
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In AD 69, Marcus Salvius Otho had the Emperor Galba murdered[101][102] and claimed the throne for himself,[103][104] but Vitellius had also claimed the throne.[105][106] .Otho left Rome, and met Vitellius at the First Battle of Bedriacum,[107] after which the Othonian troops fled back to their camp,[108] and the next day surrendered to the Vitellian forces.^ The following day their armies met in battle.

^ If they would see Rome through the next five years unharmed, then Rome would offer the first born of all her flocks and herds on a date set by the senate.

^ They met him at the Battle of Cirta ( Constantine, Algeria ), where he force was driven off the field.

[109] .Meanwhile, the forces stationed in the Middle East provinces of Judaea and Syria had acclaimed Vespasian as emperor.^ One Legion from the campaign, Legio X Fretensis , remains in Judaea, while the other two that were given to Vespasian at the beginning of the campaign, Legio V Macedonica and Legio XV Apollinaris , have returned to the stations on the Danube.
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[107] .Vespasians' and Vitellius' armies met in the Second Battle of Bedriacum,[107][110] after which the Vitellian troops were driven back into their camp.^ The following day their armies met in battle.

^ He eventually marched his newly trained rag tag army of raw levies and mercenaries out into the open plain of Bagradas (Medjerda) where he offered battle.

^ The city itself has seen its army defeated and driven behind its walls, with the Samnites not camped out on Mount Tifata just outside the city.

[111] .Vespasian, having successfully ended the civil war, was declared emperor.^ Unfortunately, the Mobile Army as often was used for civil wars as for backing up the frontiers, and it was natural for Emperors to neglect the Limitanei and reinforce their own personal forces.
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.The First Jewish-Roman War, sometimes called The Great Revolt, was the first of three major rebellions by the Jews of Judaea Province against the Roman Empire.^ Trajan was the first Emperor born in the provinces (Spain) and briefly, with his Mesopotamian campaign, expanded the Empire to its greatest extent.
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^ Rising in Spain However the very year in which the Roman provinces were established, 197 BC, and denuded of troops war broke out as the tribe of the Turdenati rose in revolt.

^ One major effect the wars had had on Roman society was to reduce the number of patricians significantly.

[112] .Earlier Jewish successes against Rome only attracted greater attention from Emperor Nero, who appointed general Vespasian to crush the rebellion.^ The last Western Emperor really worthy of the name was probably Majorian, who was a military man in his own right and operated with success in Gaul and Spain.
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^ In 298 BC the Lucanians in the south of Italy approached Rome for help against the Samnites who were invading their territory.

^ But Hannibal was now descending into northern Italy, a territory only recently won by Rome in crushing and oppressive military campaigns against local Gallic tribes.

.By the year 68, Jewish resistance in the northern region, the Galilee, had been crushed [113][114] and in the year 70, Jerusalem was captured and the Second Temple destroyed.^ When Jerusalem fell to Titus in 70 AD, the Temple and most of the city were demolished.
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^ Jewish Revolt & War, 66-73: Destruction of Jerusalem, 70 AD; Fall of Masada, 73; Revolt of Bar Kokhba, 132-135 .
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^ Jewish Revolt & War, 66-73; revolt of Civilis, four legions disbanded, 69-70; Destruction of Jerusalem, 70; Fall of Masada, 73 .
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.In 115, revolt broke out again in the province, leading to the second Jewish-Roman war known as the Kitos War, and again in 132 in what is known as Bar Kokhba's revolt.^ Rising in Spain However the very year in which the Roman provinces were established, 197 BC, and denuded of troops war broke out as the tribe of the Turdenati rose in revolt.

^ Bar Kochba's Revolt in Judaea, 132-135 .
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^ BC) The Second Punic War The Romans began the war with a giant miscalculation.

Both were brutally crushed.
.Due in large part to their employment of powerful heavy cavalry and mobile horse-archers, the Parthian Empire was the most formidable enemy of the Roman Empire in the east.^ They would soon become a loose cannon within the Empire, shattering essential supports of Roman power as the tribe rolled around.
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^ To most people thinking of the "Roman Empire," we are well into terra incognita here.
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^ What upset things was not any internal development, but a most unexpected revival and return of Roman power.
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.Trajan had campaigned against the Parthians and briefly captured their capital, putting a puppet ruler on the throne, but the territories were abandoned.^ Trajan was the first Emperor born in the provinces (Spain) and briefly, with his Mesopotamian campaign, expanded the Empire to its greatest extent.
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.A revitalised Parthian Empire renewed its assault in 161, and defeated two Roman armies.^ The talented Coriolanus soon defeated the Roman army, driving them before him, until he and his Volscian army besieged Rome itself.

^ The Roman army was defeated, its consul captured and put to death.

^ Following his Sicilian adventure he no longer commanded the manpower that could match two Roman consular armies in the field.

General Gaius Avidius Cassius was sent in 162 to counter the resurgent Parthia. .The Parthian city of Seleucia on the Tigris was destroyed, and the Parthians made peace but were forced to cede western Mesopotamia to the Romans.^ By 294 BC the Etruscan cities who had joined in revolt also had made their peace with Rome.

^ Was the first act of the war the siege of Messana, by the joint forces of Carthage and Syracuse, the arrival of the Roman consular army under Appius Claudius made an end of it.

^ Possibly, the Romans ceded them control of cities they had conquered from them, yet this is little more than guesswork.

[115]
.In 197, Emperor Septimius Severus waged a brief and successful war against the Parthian Empire, during which time the Parthian capital was sacked, and the northern half of Mesopotamia was restored to Rome.^ Right from the start Rome distrusted Perseus as he had plotted against his younger brother Demetrius, assuring his execution for treason, during his father’s reign.

^ He had served as a tribune under Marcellus during the war against Carthage.

^ Hannibal was not going to fight a war against Rome in a manner of Rome’s choosing.

Emperor Caracalla marched on Parthia in 217 from Edessa to begin a war against them, but he was assassinated while on the march.[116] .In 224, the Parthian Empire was crushed not by the Romans but by the rebellious Persian vassal king Ardashir, who revolted, leading to the establishment of Sassanid Empire of Persia, which replaced Parthia as Rome's major rival in the East.^ By 294 BC the Etruscan cities who had joined in revolt also had made their peace with Rome.

^ Indeed, perhaps Rome did "fall" in the Third Century, if by the "Roman Empire" we mean a state ruled, controlled, and centered in the City of Rome.
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^ It is important to keep in mind Rome’s preeminence in the region, established after the Second Macedonian War and the War against Antiochus, when viewing the later eastern wars and subsequent conquest of the east.

Barracks and Illyrian emperors (235-284) and Dominate (284–395)

Although the exact historicity is unclear, some mix of Germanic peoples, Celts, and tribes of mixed Celto-Germanic ethnicity were settled in the lands of Germania from the first century onwards. .The essential problem of large tribal groups on the frontier remained much the same as the situation Rome faced in earlier centuries, the third century saw a marked increase in the overall threat.^ The problems of campaigns in Spain remained the same as they had been ever since Rome had unwittingly inherited the Carthaginian territories there at the end of the Second Punic War.

^ Indeed, perhaps Rome did "fall" in the Third Century, if by the "Roman Empire" we mean a state ruled, controlled, and centered in the City of Rome.
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^ If the decadence of pagan religion and despotic emperors was going to be the cause of the "fall" of Rome, then it certainly should have fallen in the Crisis of the Third Century .
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[117][118]
.The assembled warbands of the Alamanni frequently crossed the border, attacking Germania Superior such that they were almost continually engaged in conflicts with the Roman Empire.^ They would soon become a loose cannon within the Empire, shattering essential supports of Roman power as the tribe rolled around.
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^ Otherwise, the end of the dynasty demonstrates one drawback of the new themes: they represented such military force that the strategus , their commander, was continually tempted to revolt.
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^ As it happened, the Norsemen were rather less successful against the Romans than they were against the Franks, and bouts of attacks were usually followed by treaties -- where such reconciliation was rarely necessary in the West.
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.However, their first major assault deep into Roman territory did not come until 268. In that year the Romans were forced to denude much of their German frontier of troops in response to a massive invasion by another new Germanic tribal confederacy, the Goths, from the east.^ After this Gallic invasion the Romans decided it wise to set up an emergency fund (the aerarium sanctius ) that was to be used in the event of another invasion.

^ Rising in Spain However the very year in which the Roman provinces were established, 197 BC, and denuded of troops war broke out as the tribe of the Turdenati rose in revolt.

^ The lesser army moved into Campania, the major force, commanded by one Gellius Egnatius, moved north through Sabine territory and Umbria until it reached the boarder with the Gallic tribe of the Senones.

.The pressure of tribal groups pushing into the Empire was the end result of a chain of migrations with its roots far to the east.^ This not entirely coherent approach also results in the doublethink of moral satisfaction with the "fall" of the (Western) Empire in 476 while carefully ignoring the survival and resurgence of the Empire in the East.
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^ Through Campania, they pushed into Latium and reached as far as Anagnia, or possibly even Praeneste.

[119]
.The Alamanni seized the opportunity to launch a major invasion of Gaul and northern Italy.^ In Gaul Hasdrubal began recruiting, building up an army in preparation for a second invasion of Italy.

^ Only Odoacer in Italy vaguely acknowledged the Emperor's suzerainty -- we don't know what allegiance to Constantinople, if any, remained in the Roman pocket in northern Gaul.
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^ War with the Etruscans and Gauls The unrest stirred up by Egnatius and his northern campaign in the Third Samnite War reverberated from some time in the north of Italy.

.However, the Visigoths were defeated in battle that summer and then routed in the Battle of Naissus.^ Crete, 365; defeated and killed by the Visigoths , Battle of Adrianople, 378 .
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[120] .The Goths remained a major threat to the Empire but directed their attacks away from Italy itself for several years after their defeat.^ Some tribes may have broken away, but the Sabellian tribes of central Italy remained resolutely loyal.

^ One was that the Goths remained a unified and aggressive tribe within the Empire, ready to begin rampaging again at any time.
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^ So thorough were his preparations, he remained an entire year in Gaul, before, like his brother before him, he crossed the Alps and descended into northern Italy.

Area settled by the Alamanni, and sites of Roman-Alamannic battles, 3rd to 6th century
The Alamanni on the other hand resumed their drive towards Italy almost immediately. .They defeated Aurelian at the Battle of Placentia in 271 but were beaten back for a short time, only to reemerge fifty years later.^ When the historian Polybius visited the area some fifty years later, he reported it to be thoroughly italianised.

^ So heavily had the Gauls been defeated, the peace should hold for another fifty years.

^ They were unceremoniously defeated and driven back north.

.In 378 the Goths inflicted a crushing defeat on the Eastern Empire at the Battle of Adrianople.^ Crete, 365; defeated and killed by the Visigoths , Battle of Adrianople, 378 .
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[121][122]
.At the same time, Franks raided through the North Sea and the English Channel,[123] Vandals pressed across the Rhine, Iuthungi against the Danube, Iazyges, Carpi and Taifali harassed Dacia, and Gepids joined the Goths and Heruli in attacks round the Black Sea.^ But the Germans remain across the Rhine and Danube, growing in numbers and sophistication.
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^ The Franks here duplicate the later course of the Vandals , through Gaul, Spain, and North Africa, but without the same effects.
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^ When the Suevi, Alans, and Vandals crossed the frozen Rhine on New Year's Eve of 407, nothing stood in their way when they looted their way across Gaul and Spain.
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[124] .At the start of the fifth century AD, the pressure on Rome's western borders was growing intense.^ Gradually, the Limitanei fade from historical view and hardly seem to exist at all by the time German tribes cross the borders en masse in the Fifth Century.
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^ B. CRISIS OF THE FIFTH CENTURY, 379-476, 97 Years The map shows the key incursions that would fatally undermine the Western Empire.
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^ By the end of the fifth century BC Rome had in fact become all but the mistress of Latium.

.A military that was often willing to support its commander over its emperor meant that commanders could establish sole control of the army they were responsible for and usurp the imperial throne.^ Otherwise, the end of the dynasty demonstrates one drawback of the new themes: they represented such military force that the strategus , their commander, was continually tempted to revolt.
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^ Following his Sicilian adventure he no longer commanded the manpower that could match two Roman consular armies in the field.

^ Rome could afford to be generous, having established her military supremacy over all parties involved.

The so-called Crisis of the Third Century describes the turmoil of murder, usurpation and in-fighting that is traditionally seen as developing with the murder of the Emperor Alexander Severus in 235.[125]
.Emperor Septimius Severus was forced to deal with two rivals for the throne: Pescennius Niger and then Clodius Albinus.^ The "family," however, turned out to be the entirely matrilineal creation of Severus' sister-in-law, Julia Maesa, who brought her two grandsons, entirely unrelated to Severus, to the throne.
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^ Septimius Severus himself was one of the two Roman Emperors ( Constantius Chlorus was the other) to die (a natural death) at York (Eboracum) in Britain.
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.Severus' successor Caracalla passed uninterrupted for a while until he was murdered by Macrinus,[126] who proclaimed himsef emperor in his place.^ He didn't even recognize the Emperor who "fell," Romulus Augustulus, as a successor of Augustus (neither did the East, for that matter).
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^ Nevertheless, Gallienus rebuilt the army and, excluding Senators from legionary commands, put in place the generals who, although his own murderers, conducted the reconstruction of the Empire.
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^ Caracalla, although not sticking with his brother, maintained his popularity reasonably well, until he terrified enough soldiers to precipitate his inevitable murder.
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.The troops of Elagabalus declared him to be emperor instead, and the two met in battle at the Battle of Antioch in AD 218, in which Macrinus was defeated.^ There followed two days of skirmishing before the armies met in battle.

^ They met him at the Battle of Cirta ( Constantine, Algeria ), where he force was driven off the field.

^ Battle of the Zama The two armies commanded by the two greatest commanders of the age met at Zama.

[127]
.However, Elagabalus was murdered shortly afterwards[127] and Alexander Severus was proclaimed emperor, who at the end of his reign was murdered in turn.^ The "family," however, turned out to be the entirely matrilineal creation of Severus' sister-in-law, Julia Maesa, who brought her two grandsons, entirely unrelated to Severus, to the throne.
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^ Nicephorus ended up killed in battle against the Bulgars , and his son Stauracius, proclaimed Emperor, turned out to be paralyzed from a spinal wound.
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^ Valerian's relatively long reign ended with the unparalleled ignominy of being captured by Shapur I -- the only Roman Emperor captured by an enemy until Romanus IV in 1071.
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[127] His murderers raised in his place Maximinus Thrax. .However, just as he had been raised by the army, Maximinus was also brought down by them and was murdered[128] when it appeared to his forces as though he would not be able to best the senatorial candidate for the throne, Gordian III.^ He has such a small force, however ( Legio II Isaura & Legio III Isaura -- Legio I Isaura Sagittaria was with the Mobile Army of the East), the rebellions cannot have been too serious.
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^ But still Flamininus did not attack, knowing that it would mean trying to force his way passed a firmly entrenched Macedonian army, a fete impossible with the forces he had available.

^ Barriers may soon seal off the lagoon from the Adriatic, but this raises the problem of discharging the waste water brought down from inland cities.
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.Gordian III's fate is not certain, although he may have been murdered by his own successor, Philip the Arab, who ruled for only a few years before the army again raised a general to proclaimed emperor, this time Decius, who defeated Philip in the Battle of Verona to seize the throne.^ A characteristic moment came when the commander Aëtius , sometimes called "the Last Roman," who had defeated the Huns at Châlons-sur-Marne (Campus Mauriacus or the Catalaunian Plains, with substantial help from the Visigoths , whose King Theodoric I was killed), was murdered by the incompetent and jealous Emperor Valentinian III. Valentinian's own murder, as the Vandals symbolically arrived to plunder Rome, then left the throne completely at the mercy of the next person to get control of the Army, who was the German Ricimer.
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^ Although St. Patrick's solicitude for the Irish anywhere is understandable, Christians in general did not worry about enslaving pagans -- which is why the word "slave" is derived from "Slav," who were enslaved long before they converted to Christianity.
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^ The talented Coriolanus soon defeated the Roman army, driving them before him, until he and his Volscian army besieged Rome itself.

[129] Gallienus, emperor from AD 260 to 268, saw a remarkable array of usurpers. .Diocletian, a usurper himself, defeated Carinus to become emperor.^ Later in 407, the usurper Constantine took his troops out of Britain, simultaneously to secure Gaul and to establish himself as Emperor.
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^ Theodore was himself defeated and captured by the Bulgarians, which would add him to the number of Valerian and Romanus IV if we considered him a proper Emperor of Romania.
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^ Ricimer could not himself, as a German, become Emperor, so he could only retain power by keeping the Emperors as figureheads, or killing them.
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.Some small measure of stability again returned at this point, with the empire split into a Tetrarchy of two greater and two lesser emperors, a system that staved off civil wars for a short time until AD 312. In that year, relations between the tetrarchy collapsed for good.^ It would be more than fifteen years, until in 150 BC the remaining 300 of these captives were freed and returned to Greece.

^ Another was that Honorius and Arcadius, the two sons between whom Theodosius divided the Empire, were young and inexperienced.
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^ She’d lost the First Punic War and had spent the past three years fighting off rebellion.

.From AD 314 onwards, Constantine the Great defeated Licinius in a series of battles.^ The praetor’s famous words to the gathered multitude, ‘We have been defeated in a great battle’ scarcely convey the feeling of deep despair that overcame the capital.

^ The very next year Fulvius Flaccus defeated another great force at the Battle of the Manlian Pass.

^ Rome had sent forth consul P. Licinius Crassus to deal with an enemy who had already been defeated once and was no doubt not deemed as great a challenge as it had once been.

.Constantine then turned to Maxentius, beating him in the Battle of Verona and the Battle of Milvian Bridge.^ They met him at the Battle of Cirta ( Constantine, Algeria ), where he force was driven off the field.

^ The story that he saw a vision of the Cross in the sky with the inscription Hôc Vince ("By this [sign, signô ] Conquer") before (or during) the battle of the Milvian Bridge, when he defeated Maxentius in 312, comes very much later in hagiography.
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.After overthrowing the Parthian confederacy,[130][131] the Sassanid Empire that arose from its remains pursued a more aggressive expansionist policy than their predecessors[132][133] and continued to make war against Rome.^ After the peace with Rome in 205 BC, Macedon continued an aggressive policy against the Greeks.

^ Keeping up appearances, Rome remained officially at war with Syracuse.

^ The problems of campaigns in Spain remained the same as they had been ever since Rome had unwittingly inherited the Carthaginian territories there at the end of the Second Punic War.

.In 230, the first Sassanid emperor attacked Roman territory,[133] and in 243, Emperor Gordian III's army defeated the Sassanids at the Battle of Resaena.^ At the Battle of Callinicus, which took place some 3 miles from Larissa ( Larisa ), the entire Roman consular force was put to rout by the army of Perseus.

^ Antiochus III of Syria, who had lost control of the sea in the naval war, meanwhile withdrew his troops from the coasts in Asia Minor, awaiting the Roman attack.

^ The talented Coriolanus soon defeated the Roman army, driving them before him, until he and his Volscian army besieged Rome itself.

[134]
.In 253 the Sassanids under Shapur I penetrated deeply into Roman territory, defeating a Roman force at the Battle of Barbalissos[135] and conquering and plundering Antioch.^ Romans defeated by the Gauls under Brennus at the Battle of Allia.

^ At the Battle of Callinicus, which took place some 3 miles from Larissa ( Larisa ), the entire Roman consular force was put to rout by the army of Perseus.

^ BC) What saved the Roman force from total destruction was that in the headlong pursuit of the fleeing enemy, the Macedonian forces fell into disorder and hence chose to pull back.

[130][135] .In 260 at the Battle of Edessa the Sassanids defeated the Roman army[136] and captured the Roman Emperor Valerian.^ The Roman army was defeated, its consul captured and put to death.

^ At the Battle of Callinicus, which took place some 3 miles from Larissa ( Larisa ), the entire Roman consular force was put to rout by the army of Perseus.

^ The talented Coriolanus soon defeated the Roman army, driving them before him, until he and his Volscian army besieged Rome itself.

[130][133]
.There was a lasting peace between Rome and the Sassanid Empire between 297 and 337 following a treaty between Narseh and Emperor Diocletian.^ Rome at first resisted any appeals for help by the mercenary renegades, staying true to her obligations under the peace treaty.

^ The treaty provided not only for peace between the two sides, but renewed their old alliance.

^ There was no formal treaty or understanding between Rome and King Attalus.

.However, just before the death of Constantine I in 337, Shapur II broke the peace and began a twenty-six year conflict, attempting with little success to conquer Roman fortresses in the region.^ Because of its success, however, one can hope that other events in Roman history, however fictionalized, will have a chance to make it onto the screen.
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^ Whether anything quite like this happened or not, however, Bulgaria only lasted four more years before being annexed.
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^ Before things had gone that far, however, we see that the attempt of Michael V, at the death of his uncle (?
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.Emperor Julian met Shapur in 363 in the Battle of Ctesiphon outside the walls of the Persian capital.^ Decius and Herennius were killed in battle by the Goths in 251 -- the only Roman Emperors to die in battle (against external enemies) besides Julian (against the Persians, 363), Valens (against the Goths again, 378), Nicephorus I (against the Bulgars, 811), and Constantine XI (with the fall of Constantinople to the Turks, 1453).
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.The Romans were victorious but were unable to take the city and were forced to retreat.^ Even though their victory had failed to result in the destruction of the enemy’s army, Rome had triumphed, taking and sacking the city of Acragas, renaming it Agrigentum.

^ His ramshackle army didn’t possess the necessary expertise for effective siege craft and clearly lacked the organization as well as the overwhelming force to take a city by storm.

^ But once extracated by the intervention of a third Roman force commanded by Publius Decius Mus, Cornelius went on to add yet another decisive victory to the Roman campaign.

There were several later wars.

Collapse of the Western Empire (395–476)

Europe in 476, from Muir's Historical Atlas (1911).
.After the death of Theodosius I in 395, the Visigoths renounced their treaty with the Empire and invaded northern Italy under their new king Alaric, but were repeatedly repulsed by the Western commander-in-chief Stilicho.^ These are the commanders-in-chief of the Western Army (distiguished by purple color), with the Master of Soldiers becoming the effective "Generalissimo" of the Western Empire.
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^ After the death of Theodosius I, the Visigoths begin to move around in the Balkans.
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^ The success of this coup was a chilling precursor to the eventual Fall of the Western Empire, whose final Emperors became the futile play things of Germanic commanders.
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However, the limes on the Rhine had been depleted of Roman troops, and in early 407 Vandals, Alans, and Suevi invaded Gaul en masse and, meeting little resistance, proceeded to cross the Pyrenees, entering Spain in 409.
.Stilicho became a victim of court intrigues in Ravenna (where the imperial court resided since 402) and was executed for high treason in 408. After his death, the government became increasingly ineffective in dealing with the barbarians, and in 410 Rome was sacked by the Visigoths.^ Right from the start Rome distrusted Perseus as he had plotted against his younger brother Demetrius, assuring his execution for treason, during his father’s reign.

^ So badly mauled had the city been by the barbarian sacking, it was even considered to abandon Rome and to move the population to the beautiful city of Veii instead.

^ Gladiatorial combat ended in Colosseum, 404; Rome sacked by Visigoths , 410; Gaul recovered from Constantine "III," 411; Visigoths destroy Alans and Siling Vandals in Spain, 416 .
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.Under Alaric's successors, the Goths then settled in Gaul (412-418) as foederati and for a while were successfully employed against the Vandals, Alans, and Suevi in Spain.^ Suevi , Vandals , & Alans cross Rhine, 1 January 407 .
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^ The Franks here duplicate the later course of the Vandals , through Gaul, Spain, and North Africa, but without the same effects.
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^ Since the strength of the forces in Gaul was some 32,500 men, this reinforces that interpretation -- although we then wonder why such a force seems to have been so ineffective when the Alans, Vandals, and Suevi invaded in 407.
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Meanwhile, in the turmoil of the preceding years, Roman Britain had been abandoned.
.After Honorius' death in 423, the Eastern empire installed the weak Valentinian III as Western Emperor in Ravenna.^ One of the most interesting people in the diagram is the Empress Galla Placidia, the daughter of Theodosius I, the wife of Constantius III, and the mother of Valentinian III. With Honorius and Constantius she was buried in the chapel of Saints Nazarius and Celsus in Ravenna.
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^ A last chance to recoup things for the whole Empire came in 468, after Leo had gotten Ricimer to accept the Theodosian relative Anthemius as Western Emperor.
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^ Thus, the unity of the Eastern Army was focused more directly on the Emperor himself, which may have helped the Eastern Empire avoid the situation in the West where the Emperors became mere figureheads.
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After a violent struggle with several rivals, Aetius rose to the rank of magister militum. Aetius was able to stabilize the empire's military situation somewhat, relying heavily on his Hunnic allies. .With their help he defeated the Burgundians, who had occupied part of southern Gaul after 407, and settled them as Roman allies in the Savoy (433).^ Romans defeated by the Gauls under Brennus at the Battle of Allia.

^ The treaty seems to have made a significant distinction between areas under direct Roman protection and cities who were mere allies of Rome.

^ It may in fact have been the case that some previous campaigns against the Gauls had seen Samnite allies fighting alongside Roman legionaries.

.Later that century, as Roman power faded away, the Burgundians extended their rule to the Rhone valley.^ Indeed, perhaps Rome did "fall" in the Third Century, if by the "Roman Empire" we mean a state ruled, controlled, and centered in the City of Rome.
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^ The hard won independence of Judaea fell within a century to Rome, which for a time, as elsewhere, tolerated a fiction of local rule -- the Herodian dynasty owed its power entirely to Roman favor.
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^ In his attempt to extend Roman power to the Elbe, Augustus lost three Legions at the battle of the Teutoburger Wald in 9 AD. The numbers of the lost Legions were never used again (likewise with the Legions later disbanded for rebellion).
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.Meanwhile, pressure from the Visigoths and a rebellion by the governor of Africa, Bonifacius, had induced the Vandals under their king Gaiseric to cross over from Spain in 429. After capturing Carthage, they established an independent state with a powerful navy (439), which was officially recognised by the Empire in 442. The Vandal fleet from then on formed a constant danger to Roman seafare and the coasts and islands of the Western and Central Mediterranean.^ Rome meanwhile was busy in Spain and Carthage.

^ Much worse, the crafty Vandal King Gaiseric ("King Caesar") built a fleet after securing Carthage in 439.
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^ Meanwhile victory over Carthage had left no opposition to Roman occupation of the western Mediterranean other than the various tribes who lived there.

.In 444, the Huns, who had been employed as Roman allies by Aetius, were united under their king Attila, who invaded Gaul and was only stopped with great effort by a combined Roman-Germanic force led by Aetius in the Battle of Châlons (451).^ Only the Aetolian League was the only significant ally gained in 200 BC, who put effective troops into the field.

^ At the Battle of Callinicus, which took place some 3 miles from Larissa ( Larisa ), the entire Roman consular force was put to rout by the army of Perseus.

^ King Syphax was pursued by a swift moving Roman force, commanded by Scipio’s trusted friend Laelius and Scipio’s Numidian ally Masinissa (an enemy of Syphax).

The next year, Attila invaded Italy and proceeded to march upon Rome, but he halted his campaign and died a year later in 453.
.Aetius was murdered by Valentinian in 454, who was then himself murdered by the dead general's supporters a year later.^ Nevertheless, Gallienus rebuilt the army and, excluding Senators from legionary commands, put in place the generals who, although his own murderers, conducted the reconstruction of the Empire.
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^ Two years later saw a general rising of the Celtiberian tribes of central Spain.

.With the end of the Theodosian dynasty, a new period of dynastic struggle ensued.^ Otherwise, the end of the dynasty demonstrates one drawback of the new themes: they represented such military force that the strategus , their commander, was continually tempted to revolt.
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^ The Theodosian dynasty thus ends in the West with a combination of triumph, betrayal, and chaos.
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.The Vandals took advantage of the unrest, sailed up to Rome, and plundered the city in 455. As the barbarians settled in the former provinces, nominally as allies but de facto operating as independent polities, the territory of the Western Empire was effectively reduced to Italy and parts of Gaul.^ In Gaul Hasdrubal began recruiting, building up an army in preparation for a second invasion of Italy.

^ The worst part of the story may be that it has it that Odoacer was a (filthy, wild) Goth attacking Rome (a former ally rather like Alaric).
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^ These are the commanders-in-chief of the Western Army (distiguished by purple color), with the Master of Soldiers becoming the effective "Generalissimo" of the Western Empire.
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.From 455 onward, several emperors were installed in the West by the government of Constantinople, but their authority only reached as far as the barbarian commanders of the army and their troops (Ricimer (456-472), Gundobad (473-475)) allowed it to.^ It is also from this point that the status of the Emperor is elevated far beyond that of a mere official to a being with semi-divine status, altering the form of government from the "Principate" to " Dominate ," from Dominus , "Lord."
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^ The conquest of Constantinople by the Fourth Crusade did not result in the establishment of the authority of the Latin Emperors over the whole of the previous Empire.
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^ In 198 BC, with the war a dismal failure so far, consul Titus Quinctius Flamininus, only 30 years of age, was dispatched to assume command.

.In 475, Orestes, a former secretary of Attila, drove Emperor Julius Nepos out of Ravenna and proclaimed his own son Romulus Augustus as emperor.^ The first commander of Nepos, Ecdicius, was a son of the former Emperor Avitus.
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^ Nicephorus ended up killed in battle against the Bulgars , and his son Stauracius, proclaimed Emperor, turned out to be paralyzed from a spinal wound.
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^ So in 476, Orestes and his son were then deposed by the German Odoacer (who originally had been in the guard of Anthemius), who decided to do without a figurehead Emperor.
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.In 476, Orestes refused to grant Odoacer and the Heruli federated status, prompting the latter to kill him, depose his son and send the imperial insignia to Constantinople, installing himself as king over Italy.^ So in 476, Orestes and his son were then deposed by the German Odoacer (who originally had been in the guard of Anthemius), who decided to do without a figurehead Emperor.
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^ He found himself held in check by two armies, a Punic force commanded by Hasdrubal, son of Gisco, and a Numidian force, commanded by their King Syphax.

^ Orestes & Augustulus, 476; Nepos killed, 480; defeated, besieged, & killed by Theodoric , 489-493 .
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.Although isolated pockets of Roman rule continued even after 476, the city of Rome itself was under the rule of the barbarians, and the control of Rome over the West had effectively ended.^ The competition for the throne in 193 was not very edifying, and absolutely none of the players appear in Gladiator , not even Pertinax, the prefect of the city of Rome.
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^ The city of Rome itself still remained safe.

^ The office of the Roman Consuls, and dating by them, continues under the Empire until Justinian .
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The Eastern Roman or Byzantine Empire endured until 1453 with the capture of Constantinople by the Ottoman Turks led by Mehmed II.

Legacy

The American magazine National Geographic described the legacy of the Roman Empire in The World According to Rome:
.
The enduring Roman influence is reflected pervasively in contemporary language, literature, legal codes, government, architecture, engineering, medicine, sports, arts, etc.^ The issue of România and the Vlach language and people is discussed further in " The Vlach Connection and Further Reflections on Roman History ."
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Much of it is so deeply inbedded that we barely notice our debt to ancient Rome. Consider language, for example. Fewer and fewer people today claim to know Latin — and yet, go back to the first sentence in this paragraph. .If we removed all the words drawn directly from Latin, that sentence would read; "The."^ Sentences I write contain borrowed Latin words with some frequency [e.g.
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^ Exceptions would be for Greek words that simply have Latin translations.
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[137][nb 5]
.Several states claimed to be the Roman Empire's successors after the fall of the Western Roman Empire.^ Indeed, perhaps Rome did "fall" in the Third Century, if by the "Roman Empire" we mean a state ruled, controlled, and centered in the City of Rome.
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^ On the map we see the classic form of the German successor Kingdoms of the Western Empire.
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^ As befitting his reputation, Pyrrhus arrived with an army of 25,000 men, drawn from various quarters of the ‘successor states’ to Alexander’s empire.

.The Holy Roman Empire, an attempt to resurrect the Empire in the West, was established in 800 when Pope Leo III crowned Frankish King Charlemagne as Roman Emperor on Christmas Day, though the empire and the imperial office did not become formalised for some decades.^ As Frankish power waxed, the Pope took the step of crowning the Frankish King Charles as Emperor in 800.
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^ Cincinnatus becomes dictator for sixteen days and rescues remaining Roman army c.

^ Eagles were used by many to imply Roman antecedents, but the double headed eagle was adopted in particular by the Holy Roman Empire , by Imperial Russia , and by the Serbs .
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.After the fall of Constantinople, the Russian Tsardom, as inheritor of the Byzantine Empire's Orthodox Christian tradition, counted itself the third Rome (Constantinople having been the second).^ Indeed, perhaps Rome did "fall" in the Third Century, if by the "Roman Empire" we mean a state ruled, controlled, and centered in the City of Rome.
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^ He knows that the Empire is now centered in Christian Constantinople, and his awareness of this is strong enough that it actually erases the existence of the last Western Emperors.
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^ The Third Samnite War After the end of the Second Samnite War Rome was at liberty to take her time and tie up any loose ends left by the war.

.When the Ottomans, who based their state on the Byzantine model, took Constantinople in 1453, Mehmed II established his capital there and claimed to sit on the throne of the Roman Empire.^ The Canon can then obviously be continued from 1453 with the Ottomans , who make for a succession in Constantinople in an even more seamless fashion than Augustus takes over from Cleopatra.
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^ Indeed, perhaps Rome did "fall" in the Third Century, if by the "Roman Empire" we mean a state ruled, controlled, and centered in the City of Rome.
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^ After the restoration of Greek rule in Constantinople, a claim to the Roman throne passed down through the descendants of Baldwin II. Charles of Anjou , who had his own designs on Romania, married a daughter to Baldwin's son Philip.
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He even went so far as to launch an invasion of Italy with the purpose of "re-uniting the Empire", although Papal and Neapolitan armies stopped his march on Rome at Otranto in 1480. Constantinople was not officially renamed Istanbul until 28 March 1930.
.Excluding these states claiming its heritage, if the traditional date for the founding of Rome is accepted as fact, the Roman state can be said to have lasted in some form from 753 BC to the fall in 1461 of the Empire of Trebizond (a successor state and fragment of the Byzantine Empire which escaped conquest by the Ottomans in 1453), for a total of 2,214 years.^ If they would see Rome through the next five years unharmed, then Rome would offer the first born of all her flocks and herds on a date set by the senate.

^ The Emperor at Nicaea was the one to return to Constantinople, but the Emperor at Trebizond was the last to fall to the Turks.
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^ At this stage, Carthage recognized Rome as the coming great power, and agreed with her the momentous treaty of 348 BC - in the view of some authorities, the first between the two states, while others regard it as a simple renewal of a treaty supposedly made in 509 BC, the very first year of the republic.

.The Roman impact on Western and Eastern civilisations lives on.^ Meanwhile victory over Carthage had left no opposition to Roman occupation of the western Mediterranean other than the various tribes who lived there.

In time most of the Roman achievements were duplicated by later civilisations. For example, the technology for cement was rediscovered 1755–1759 by John Smeaton.
.The Empire contributed many things to the world, such as a calendar with leap years, the institutions of Christianity and aspects of modern neo-classicistic and Byzantine architecture.^ The astonishing thing is that any such statues should still have been there almost four hundred years after Constantine.
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^ In Modern thought, this construction tends to be reversed, with the superstition and dogmatism of Christianity dragging the Classical World down into the Dark Ages.
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.The extensive system of roads that was constructed by the Roman Army lasts to this day.^ Cincinnatus becomes dictator for sixteen days and rescues remaining Roman army c.

^ These are the last days of the Classic Army of the Principate.
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^ These concealed troops then sprung upon the marching Roman army as passed the next day.

.Because of this network of roads, the time necessary to travel between destinations in Europe did not decrease until the 19th century, when steam power was invented.^ This is what Mediaeval Popes wanted to do, but it has nothing to do with the 5th or 6th centuries, when the Popes had no such power and would not have imagined that they did.
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^ The "Great City" (we could say "Mickleyard" with English words) could not have been more appropriate, since Constantinople was the largest city in Europe until at least the 13th century.
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Even modern astrology comes to us directly from the Romans.
.The Roman Empire also contributed its form of government, which influences various constitutions including those of most European countries and many former European colonies.^ Eagles were used by many to imply Roman antecedents, but the double headed eagle was adopted in particular by the Holy Roman Empire , by Imperial Russia , and by the Serbs .
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^ This no longer seems so admirable, and the Empire founded by Julius Caesar and Augustus, as a form of government, does not look like an advance in the course of human progress.
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^ Paul Johnson in his A History of the Jews [HarperPerennial, 1988], Jews constituted as much as 10% of the population of the Roman Empire.
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.In the United States, for example, the framers of the Constitution remarked, in creating the Presidency, that they wanted to inaugurate an "Augustan Age". The modern world also inherited legal thinking from Roman law, fully codified in Late Antiquity.^ Actual Italian Romans are portrayed unpleasantly, which creates a distinction (and a conflict) that wouldn't have existed in Late Antiquity.
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^ Meanwhile he had built the greatest church in Christendom, Sancta Sophia [ note ], codified Roman Law, and driven the last pagans, at Plato's Academy, out of business.
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^ Most significantly though, the Hortensian Law also granted the plebeian assembly ( concilium plebis ) the right to pass laws which would be binding for all Romans, be they plebeians or patricians.

.Governing a vast territory, the Romans developed the science of public administration to an extent never before conceived or necessary, creating an extensive civil service and formalised methods of tax collection.^ And modern bureaucrats are protected from accountability by "Civil Service" status and their own politically active and powerful public employee labor unions.
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^ The twelve copper tables were a simple set of rules governing the public, private and political behaviour of every Roman.

^ They were never subject to the Roman Emperors in Constantinople, and they occupied territories that had been abandoned by the Roman Empire in the Third Century , or never occupied by it in the first place.
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.While in the West the term "Roman" acquired a new meaning in connection with the church and the Pope of Rome the Greek form Romaioi remained attached to the Greek-speaking Christian population of the Eastern Roman Empire and is still used by Greeks in addition to their common appellation.^ Eagles were used by many to imply Roman antecedents, but the double headed eagle was adopted in particular by the Holy Roman Empire , by Imperial Russia , and by the Serbs .
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^ Then the basilica and the dome would be combined, to produce in the Renaissance the new largest church in Christendom, St. Peter's in Rome.
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^ Indeed, perhaps Rome did "fall" in the Third Century, if by the "Roman Empire" we mean a state ruled, controlled, and centered in the City of Rome.
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[138]
The Roman Empire's territorial legacy of controlling the Italian peninsula would serve as an influence to Italian nationalism and the unification (Risorgimento) of Italy in 1861.

See also

Notes

footnotes
  1. ^ Since classical and modern concepts of state do not coincide, other possibilities include Res publica Romana, Imperium Romanum or Romanorum (also in Greek: Βασιλείᾱ τῶν Ῥωμαίων - Basileíā tôn Rhōmaíōn - ["Dominion (Literally 'kingdom') of the Romans"]) and Romania. Res publica, as a term denoting the Roman "commonwealth" in general, can refer to both the Republican and the Imperial era, while Imperium Romanum (or, sometimes, Romanorum) is used to refer to the territorial extent of Roman authority. Populus Romanus, "the Roman people", is often used for the Roman state dealing with other nations. The term Romania, initially a colloquial term for the empire's territory as well as the collectivity of its inhabitants, appears in Greek and Latin sources from the fourth century onward and was eventually carried over to the Byzantine Empire. (See Wolff, R.L. "Romania: The Latin Empire of Constantinople". In: Speculum, 23 (1948), pp. 1–34 (pp. 2–3).)
  2. ^ During the struggles of the Late Republic hundreds of senators were killed or died, and the Roman Senate had been refilled with supporters of the First Triumvirate and later those of the Second Triumvirate.
  3. ^ Octavian/Augustus officially proclaimed that he had saved the Roman Republic and carefully disguised his power under republican forms; consuls continued to be elected, tribunes of the plebeians continued to offer legislation, and senators still debated in the Roman Curia. However, it was Octavian, and every effective emperor thereafter, who influenced everything and controlled the final decisions, and in final analysis, had the legions to back him up, if it ever became necessary.
  4. ^ This is somewhat simplistic as the Romans did not simply adopt/copy Greek or other cultures. See, for example, Freeman, C. The Greek Achievement: The Foundation of the Western World (New York: Penguin, 1999) for a more detailed description of how the Romans interacted with Greek (and other) cultures.
  5. ^ The final statement is not entirely accurate (in terms of the linguistic etymology): many words with Latin roots, such as engineering and sports, were borrowed from French [1] [2] and were thus derived indirectly, while the main verb and the preposition in the first sentence are native English (Germanic) forms, though with close Latin parallels (est, in) due to shared Indo-European history. However, the point pertaining to the pervading influence is valid.
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  53. ^ The Romans at Work and Play. Western New England College.
  54. ^ a b Austin, Roland G. "Roman Board Games. I", Greece & Rome 4:10, October 1934. pp. 24–34.
  55. ^ The Illustrated Encyclopedia of the Roman Empire, Nigel Rodgers, Lorenz Books, ISBN 978-0-7548-1911-0 (page 490)
  56. ^ Pliny the Elder's Natural History, book 12 pp. 38
  57. ^ a b "Romans' crimes of fashion revealed". BBC. 2003-08-26. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/england/london/3181443.stm. Retrieved 2008-06-19. 
  58. ^ Sumner & D'Amato, G. & R. (2002). Roman Military clothing (2) AD 200 to 400. ISBN 18417655970, 7–9
  59. ^ Rodgers, p.491
  60. ^ The Inheritance of Rome, Chris Wickham, Penguin Books Ltd. 2009, ISBN 978-0-670-02098-0 (page 106)
  61. ^ "Me pascunt olivae, me cichorea levesque malvae." Horace, Odes 1.31.15, ca 30 BC
  62. ^ Phillips pg 46-56
  63. ^ Lucilius—the acknowledged originator of Roman Satire in the form practiced by Juvenal—experimented with other meters before settling on dactylic hexameter.
  64. ^ Toynbee, J. M. C. (December 1971). "Roman Art". The Classical Review 21 (3): 439–442. doi:10.1017/S0009840X00221331. http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0009-840X%28197112%292%3A21%3A3%3C439%3ARA%3E2.0.CO%3B2-O. Retrieved 2007-12-11. 
  65. ^ "Mousike, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, at Perseus". http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0057%3Aentry%3D%2368891. 
  66. ^ W. L. MacDonald, The Architecture of the Roman Empire, rev. ed. Yale University Press, New Haven, 1982, fig. 131B; Lechtman and Hobbs "Roman Concrete and the Roman Architectural Revolution"
  67. ^ The Legacy of Roman Education (in the Forum), Nanette R. Pacal, The Classical Journal, Vol. 79, No. 4. (Apr. – May, 1984)
  68. ^ a b Oxford Classical Dictionary, Edited by Simon Hornblower and Antony Spawforth, Third Edition. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press, 1996
  69. ^ [3]
  70. ^ [4]
  71. ^ Walter Scheidel: Population and demography, Princeton/Stanford Working Papers in Classics, Version 1.0, April 2006, p. 2
  72. ^ a b Walter Scheidel: Population and demography, Princeton/Stanford Working Papers in Classics, Version 1.0, April 2006, p. 9
  73. ^ Raymond Goldsmith (1984): "An Estimate of the Size and Structure of the National Product of the Early Roman Empire", Review of Income and Wealth, vol. 30, no. 3, September, pp. 263-288 (263)
  74. ^ Nishijima (1986), 595–596.
  75. ^ a b Abbott, 267
  76. ^ a b Abbott, 269
  77. ^ Abbott, 268
  78. ^ Abbott, 272
  79. ^ a b Abbott, 273
  80. ^ Abbott, 293
  81. ^ Abbott, 296
  82. ^ Abbott, 298
  83. ^ Christine A. Smith. Plague in the Ancient World: A Study from Thucydides to Justinian.Loyola University New Orleans.
  84. ^ Matyszak, The Enemies of Rome, p. 285
  85. ^ Goldsworthy, In the Name of Rome, p. 361
  86. ^ Matyszak, The Enemies of Rome, p. 231
  87. ^ Goldsworthy, In the Name of Rome, p. 244
  88. ^ Goldsworthy, In the Name of Rome, p. 245
  89. ^ Matyszak, The Enemies of Rome, p. 159
  90. ^ Clunn, In Quest of the Lost Legions, p. xv
  91. ^ Churchill, A History of the English Speaking Peoples, p. 4
  92. ^ Churchill, A History of the English-Speaking Peoples, p. 5
  93. ^ Churchill, A History of the English-Speaking Peoples, p. 10
  94. ^ Goldsworthy, In the Name of Rome, p. 269
  95. ^ Luttwak, The Grand Strategy of the Roman Empire, p. 38
  96. ^ Goldsworthy, In the Name of Rome, p. 322
  97. ^ Matyszak, The Enemies of Rome, p. 213
  98. ^ Matyszak, The Enemies of Rome, p. 215
  99. ^ Matyszak, The Enemies of Rome, p. 222
  100. ^ Matyszak, The Enemies of Rome, p. 223
  101. ^ Tacitus, The Histories, Book 1, ch. 41
  102. ^ Plutarch, Lives, Galba
  103. ^ Luttwak, The Grand Strategy of the Roman Empire, p. 51
  104. ^ Lane Fox, The Classical World, p. 542
  105. ^ Tacitus, The Histories, Book 1, ch. 57
  106. ^ Plutarch, Lives, Otho
  107. ^ a b c Luttwak, The Grand Strategy of the Roman Empire, p. 52
  108. ^ Tacitus, The Histories, Book 1, ch. 44
  109. ^ Tacitus, The Histories, Book 1, ch. 49
  110. ^ Tactitus, The Histories, Book 3, ch. 18
  111. ^ Tactitus, The Histories, Book 3, ch. 25
  112. ^ Goldsworthy, In the Name of Rome, p. 294
  113. ^ Santosuosso, Storming the Heavens, p. 146
  114. ^ Luttwak, The Grand Strategy of the Roman Empire, p. 3
  115. ^ Grant, The History of Rome, p. 273
  116. ^ Grant, The History of Rome, p. 279
  117. ^ Luttwak, The Grand Strategy of the Roman Empire, p. 146
  118. ^ Grant, The History of Rome, p. 282
  119. ^ Gibbon, The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, p. 624
  120. ^ Grant, The History of Rome, p. 285
  121. ^ Ammianus Marcellinus, Historiae, book 31.
  122. ^ Jordanes, The Origins and Deeds of the Goths, 138.
  123. ^ Grant, The History of Rome, p. 284
  124. ^ Luttwak, The Grand Strategy of the Roman Empire, p. 149
  125. ^ Grant, The History of Rome, p. 280
  126. ^ Gibbon, The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, p. 129
  127. ^ a b c Gibbon, The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, p. 130
  128. ^ Gibbon, The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, p. 131
  129. ^ Gibbon, The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, p. 135
  130. ^ a b c Grant, The History of Rome, p. 283
  131. ^ Luttwak, The Grand Strategy of the Roman Empire, p. 128
  132. ^ Matyszak, The Enemies of Rome, p. 234
  133. ^ a b c Luttwak, The Grand Strategy of the Roman Empire, p. 151
  134. ^ Matyszak, The Enemies of Rome, p. 235
  135. ^ a b Matyszak, The Enemies of Rome, p. 236
  136. ^ Matyszak, The Enemies of Rome, p. 237
  137. ^ Reid (1997), p. 54.
  138. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica, History of Europe, The Romans, 2008, O.Ed.

References

  • Frank Frost Abbott (1901). A History and Description of Roman Political Institutions. Elibron Classics. .ISBN 0-543-92749-0. 
  • John Bagnell Bury, A History of the Roman Empire from its Foundation to the death of Marcus Aurelius, 1913, ISBN 978-1-4367-3416-5
  • Winston Churchill, A History of the English-Speaking Peoples, Cassell, 1998, ISBN 0-304-34912-7
  • J. A. Crook, Law and Life of Rome, 90 BC–AD 212, 1967, ISBN 0-8014-9273-4
  • Donald R. Dudley, The Civilization of Rome, 2nd ed., 1985, ISBN 0-452-01016-0
  • Arther Ferrill, The Fall of the Roman Empire: The Military Explanation, Thames and Hudson, 1988, ISBN 0-500-27495-9
  • Freeman, Charles (1999).^ In 312 BC by order of censor Appius Claudius Caecus, Rome began construction of the Via Appia, the first of her famous military highways.

    ^ Rome and Romania, 27 BC-1453 AD, Note 1 .
    • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ This small town, whose military garrison never exceeded 8,000, was to go down in history for resisting continuous Roman attacks for nine years.

    The Greek Achievement: The Foundation of the Western World. New York: Penguin. .ISBN 0-670-88515-0. 
  • Edward Gibbon, The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, 1776–1789
  • Adrian Goldsworthy, The Punic Wars, Cassell & Co, 2000, ISBN 0-304-35284-5
  • Adrian Goldsworthy, In the Name of Rome: The Men Who Won the Roman Empire, Weidenfield and Nicholson, 2003, ISBN 0-297-84666-3
  • Adrian Goldsworthy, The Complete Roman Army, Thames and Hudson, 2003, ISBN 0-500-05124-0
  • Michael Grant, The History of Rome, Faber and Faber, 1993, ISBN 0-571-11461-X
  • Tom Holland, Rubicon, Little Brown, 2003, ISBN 0-316-86130-8
  • Andrew Lintott, Imperium Romanum: Politics and administration, 1993, ISBN 0-415-09375-9
  • Edward Luttwak, The Grand Strategy of the Roman Empire, Johns Hopkins University Press, ISBN 0-8018-2158-4
  • Reid, T.R. (1997).^ The Gauls were commanded by a Carthaginian called Hamilcar, who was still at large after the end of the Second Punic War.

    ^ The problems of campaigns in Spain remained the same as they had been ever since Rome had unwittingly inherited the Carthaginian territories there at the end of the Second Punic War.

    ^ Antiochus III of Syria, who had lost control of the sea in the naval war, meanwhile withdrew his troops from the coasts in Asia Minor, awaiting the Roman attack.

    "The World According to Rome". National Geographic 192 (2): 54–83. http://ngm.nationalgeographic.com/. 
  • Sadao Nishijima. (1986). ."The Economic and Social History of Former Han", in Cambridge History of China: Volume I: the Ch'in and Han Empires, 221 B.C. – A.D. 220, 545–607. Edited by Denis Twitchett and Michael Loewe.^ Bury speculates that Aegidius held both titles [J.B. Bury, History of the Later Roman Empire , Volume I, Dover Publications, 1958, p.333].
    • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Perhaps "Later Romania" ( Romania Posterior, Recentior ) would be better, like the Later Han Dynasty -- making the Empire into the "Former Romania" ( Romania Prior ), like the Former Han Dynasty .
    • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

    .Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.^ Or, Donald M. Nicol [ Byzantium and Venice, a Study in Diplomatic and Cultural Relations , Cambridge University Press, 1999, p.
    • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The Varangians of Byzantium by Sigfús Blöndal and Benedikt S. Benedikz, Cambridge University Press, 1978, 1981, 2007].
    • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

    ISBN 0521243270.
  • Antonio Santosuosso, Storming the Heavens: Soldiers, Emperors and Civilians in the Roman Empire, Westview Press, 2001, ISBN 0-8133-3523-X

External links



Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

Contents

English

Pronunciation

  • RP: IPA: /ˈɹəʊmən ˈɛmpaɪə/
  • GenAm: IPA: /'ɹoʊmən ˈɛmpaɪɚ/

Proper noun

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Wikipedia has an article on:
Singular
Roman Empire
Plural
-
  1. An empire that used to exist between 85 BC and AD 476; it encompassed territories stretching from Britain and Germany to North Africa and the Persian Gulf;

Synonyms

Translations


Genealogy

Up to date as of February 01, 2010

From Familypedia

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Template:Aut[1]
Roman Empire
27 BC – 476
Motto
Senatus Populusque Romanus (SPQR)
Location of Roman Empire
The Roman Empire at its greatest extent.
Capital Rome
(44 BC – 286 AD)

Milan
(286–402)

Trier
(295–395)

Ravenna
(402–476)

Nicomedia
(286–330)

Constantinople
(From 330)

Sirmium
(293–379)

Language(s) Latin (imperial), Greek (administrative)
Religion Roman paganism, later Christianity
Government Autocracy
Emperor
 - 27 BC – AD 14 Augustus
 - 475–476 Romulus Augustus
Consul
 - 27–23 BC Augustus
 - 476 Basiliscus
Legislature Roman Senate
Historical era Classical antiquity
 - Augustus Caesar proclaimed princeps 27 BC
 - Battle of Actium September 2 31 BC
 - Octavian proclaimed Augustus 16 January 27 BC
 - Diocletian splits imperial administration between east and west 285
 - Constantine I declares Constantinople new imperial capital 330
 - Fall of Constantinople to the Turks 476
Area
 - 25 BC[2][3] 2,750,000 km² (1,061,781 sq mi)
 - 50[2] 4,200,000 km² (1,621,629 sq mi)
 - 117[2] 5,000,000 km² (1,930,511 sq mi)
 - 390 [2] 4,400,000 km² (1,698,849 sq mi)
Population
 - 25 BC[2][3] est. 56,800,000 
     Density 20.7 /km²  (53.5 /sq mi)
 - 117[2] est. 88,000,000 
     Density 17.6 /km²  (45.6 /sq mi)
Currency Solidus, Aureus, Denarius, Sestertius, As
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Roman Republic
Byzantine Empire
Western Roman Empire
Kingdom of Italy
Visigothic Kingdom
Burgundian Kingdom
Vandalic Kingdom
Kingdom of the Sueves
Domain of Soissons
Romano-British Kingdoms
Frankish Empire
.The Roman Empire is the name given to both the imperial domain developed by the city-state of Rome and also the corresponding phase of that civilization, characterized by an autocratic form of government.^ The city’s lands were impounded by the Roman state.

^ The Empire as such, not the City, was the nature of the State.
  • Roman Decadence, Rome and Romania, and the Emperors Who Weren't 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Roman Empire was a phase of the ancient Roman civilization characterized by an autocratic form of government.
  • Roman Empire at AllExperts 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

This article however is about the latter. .The Roman Empire succeeded the 500-year-old Roman Republic (510 BC – 1st century BC), which had been weakened by the conflict between Gaius Marius and Sulla and the civil war of Julius Caesar against Pompey the Great.^ Legionary , 1st century BC   .

^ It lasted from 510 BC until 23 BC - almost 500 years.
  • Arheologija - History of Roman Empire 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC www.arheologija.fr.gd [Source type: Original source]

^ Showdown between Caesar and Pompey .

[4]
.The Latin term Imperium Romanum (Roman Empire), probably the best-known Latin expression where the word imperium denotes a territory, indicates the part of the world under Roman rule.^ "Roman Empire" can also be used as translation of the expression, Imperium Romanum , probably the best-known Latin expression where the word imperium is used in the meaning of a territory; the "Roman Empire" denotes that part of the world under Roman rule.
  • Roman Empire at AllExperts 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Write the words Roman Empire on the board.
  • http://www.cstone.net/~bcp/3/3AHistory.htm 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.cstone.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Other frontier districts are forcibly pacified in a similar manner, with the result that after ten years of rule Vespasian bequeaths to his son a Roman empire in better order than at any time since the early part of the century.
  • History of THE ROMAN EMPIRE 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.historyworld.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.From the time of Augustus to the Fall of the Western Empire, Rome's dominion covered all of the following: England and Wales; most of Europe (west of the Rhine and south of the Alps); coastal northern Africa, together with the adjacent province of Egypt; the Balkans, the Black Sea, and Asia Minor; and also much of the Levant.^ The Roman empire spanned throughout Europe and Northern Africa.
  • WikiAnswers - Roman Empire Questions including "What is a Roman stabbing sword called" 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ From the time of Augustus to the Fall of the Western Empire , Rome dominated Western Eurasia , comprising the majority of its population.
  • Roman Empire at AllExperts 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ At its peak, the empire included most of Europe, northern Africa, and the Middle East.
  • Ancient Rome 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.42explore2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Hence the Imperium Romanum subsumed, west-to-east, modern-day Portugal, Spain, England and France, Italy, Albania and Greece, the Balkans, and Turkey; southward it embraced parts of the Middle East: present day Syria, Lebanon, and more; thence southwestward it included the whole of ancient Egypt, then swept westward to contain the coastal regions of what are today Libya, Tunisia, Algeria, and Morocco, out to the longitudes just west of Gibraltar.^ Ararat is just north of the Mesopotamian Valley (the eastern part of modern-day Turkey).
  • Germany and the Holy Roman Empire — theTrumpet.com 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.thetrumpet.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Germany and the Holy Roman Empire — theTrumpet.com 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC www.thetrumpet.com [Source type: Original source]

^ We would pass on into Libya, into Tunisia, Algeria, and up into Morocco and then on up into Spain.
  • The Lessons of the Roman Empire for America Today 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.heritage.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Check out: Ancient Greece Ancient Egypt .
  • The Roman Empire 19 September 2009 17:59 UTC www.ancient-rome.biz [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Most of the people living there called themselves Romans, and lived under Roman law.^ Under Roman law, there were three kinds of marriage contracts.
  • Howstuffworks "Rome and the Roman Empire" 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC history.howstuffworks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ OTHER NOTES: I will call all countries by whichever tribe/people lived there in Roman times, so Toscana becomes the Etruscians, for example.
  • Gibbon's The Decline and Rebirth of the Roman Empire - Paradox Interactive Forums 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC forum.paradoxplaza.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They lived under their own laws, prayed at their own church and elected their own officers.

.Roman expansion began long before the state was changed into a monarchy and reached its zenith under Emperor Trajan with the conquest of Dacia (i.e., modern Romania and Moldova, as well as parts of Hungary, Bulgaria and Ukraine), in AD 106, and Mesopotamia in 116 (subsequently returned by Hadrian).^ The Roman Empire would reach its greatest extent in 116 ad under the Emperor Trajan.
  • The Roman Empire 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC webspace.ship.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Then the Emperor quickly changed his mind and returned to his former state of friendship.
  • JORDANES DESCRIBES THE GOTHS' ENTRY AND WANDERINGS IN THE ROMAN EMPIRE 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC www.shsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The empire reached its fullest extent under Trajan (98–117), with the conquest of Dacia in 106.
  • Howstuffworks "Rome and the Roman Empire" 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC history.howstuffworks.com [Source type: Original source]

.At this territorial peak, the Roman Empire controlled approximately 5,900,000 km² (2,300,000 sq mi) of land surface, and so encompassed the Mediterranean Sea that the Romans called it "mare nostrum"—Latin for "our sea". Rome's influence upon the culture, law, technology, arts, language, religion, government, military, and architecture of the civilizations that arose from this ancient ancestor continues to this day.^ The legacy of Rome on culture, law, technology, arts, language, religion, government, military, and architecture upon Western civilization remains to the present day.
  • Roman Empire at AllExperts 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Roman Law, strength of the Roman Government, military supremacy; .

^ The Roman Empire's influence on government, law, architecture, and many other aspects of life remains inescapable.
  • Roman Empire - Discussion and Encyclopedia Article. Who is Roman Empire? What is Roman Empire? Where is Roman Empire? Definition of Roman Empire. Meaning of Roman Empire. 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.knowledgerush.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The end of the Roman Empire is sometimes placed at 4 September 476 AD, when the last emperor of the Western Roman Empire, Romulus Augustus, was deposed, and not replaced.^ According to Carolingian theory, the Roman Empire had merely been suspended, not ended, by the abdication of the last Roman Emperor Romulus Augustus in 476.

^ They then deposed Romulus Augustus in August 476.
  • Roman Empire at AllExperts 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Who was the last emperor to rule a united Roman empire?
  • WikiAnswers - Roman Empire Questions including "What is a Roman stabbing sword called" 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, Diocletian, who retired in AD 305, was the last sole Emperor of an undivided Empire whose capital was the City of Rome.^ In peacetime, it was relatively easy to rule the empire from its capital city Rome.

^ In peacetime, it was relatively easy to rule the empire from its capital city, Rome.
  • Roman Empire at AllExperts 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Who was the last emperor of Rome?
  • WikiAnswers - Roman Empire Questions including "What is a Roman stabbing sword called" 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.After the division of the Empire by Diocletian into East and West, each branch continued to style itself as "The Roman Empire". The Western Roman Empire declined and fell apart (see Decline of the Roman Empire) in the course of the 5th century.^ If by the "Roman Empire" you mean the Western Empire then the answer is that it never "fell".
  • What were the key reasons for the fall of the Roman Empire? 19 September 2009 17:59 UTC www.answerbag.com [Source type: General]

^ Western roman empire..
  • The Oil Drum: Europe | "Peak Civilization": The Fall of the Roman Empire 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC europe.theoildrum.com [Source type: Original source]

^ At Callinicum the course of the Euphrates is from west to east.
  • J. B. Bury: History of the Later Roman Empire • Vol. II Chap. XVI 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC penelope.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

The Eastern Roman Empire, centered on Nova Roma (founded by Constantine I on the Greek city of Byzantion), which would later adopt Greek as its main language, known widely today as the Byzantine Empire, preserved Greco-Roman legal and cultural traditions along with Hellenic and Orthodox Christian elements for another millennium, until its eventual collapse with the conquest of Constantinople, as Constantine's city become known, at the hands of the Ottoman Empire in 1453.

Contents

Evolution of Imperial Rome

.Traditionally, historians make a distinction between the Principate, the period following Augustus until the Crisis of the Third Century, and the Dominate, the period from Diocletian until the end of the empire in the west.^ The third century was a period of crisis and transformation in the history of the empire.

^ That was what historians call "the third century crisis".
  • The Oil Drum: Europe | "Peak Civilization": The Fall of the Roman Empire 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC europe.theoildrum.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This period of the 3rd century Roman historians refer to as the Crisis of the Third Century.
  • Roman Empire | Arto Bendiken 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC ar.to [Source type: Original source]

.According to this distinction, during the Principate (from the Latin word princeps, meaning "first citizen") the realities of absolutism were formally concealed behind republican forms; while during the Dominate (from the word dominus, meaning "master" or "owner") imperial power was clearly shown, with golden crowns and ornate imperial ritual.^ Legally, he was merely the Princeps , the first citizen, and so this system is called the Principate .
  • The Roman Empire: 18 centuries in 19 maps 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC 4umi.com [Source type: Original source]
  • The Roman Empire:18 centuries in 19 maps 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC hobbit.ict.griffith.edu.au [Source type: Original source]
  • The Roman Empire:18 centuries in 19 maps 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC hobbit.ict.griffith.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

^ According to this distinction, during the Principate (from the Latin word princeps , meaning "first citizen") the realities of absolutism were formally concealed behind Republican forms; while during the Dominate (from the word dominus , meaning "lord") imperial power was clearly shown, with golden crowns and ornate imperial ritual.
  • Roman Empire at AllExperts 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Republic was finally dissolved, The imperator was proclaimed pater patriae , father of his country, princeps , first citizen, Caesar Augustus, - almost, but not as yet, divine.

.More recently, historians have established that the situation was far more nuanced: certain historical forms continued until the Byzantine period, more than one thousand years after they were created, and displays of imperial majesty were common from the earliest days of the Empire.^ He did far more than repair it.
  • J. B. Bury: History of the Later Roman Empire • Vol. II Chap. XVI 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC penelope.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ More recently historians have established that the situation was far more nuanced: certain historical forms continued until the Byzantine period, more than one thousand years after they were created, and displays of imperial majesty were common from the earliest days of the Empire.
  • Roman Empire at AllExperts 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Germany in more ways than one.
  • Literature | Literature | Germany and the Holy Roman Empire | theTrumpet.com by the Philadelphia Church of God 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC www.thetrumpet.com [Source type: Original source]

First emperor

The extent of the Roman Republic and Roman Empire in 218 BC (dark red), 133 BC (light red), 44 BC (orange), AD 14 (yellow), after AD 14 (green), and maximum extension under Trajan, AD 117 (light green).
The extent of the Roman Empire under Trajan, AD 117
.No definitive answer exists regarding the identity of the first emperor of Rome.^ It was not long before Octavian went to war against Antony in northern Africa, and after his victory at Actium (31 bc ) he was crowned Rome’s first emperor, Augustus .
  • Roman Empire (ancient state [27 BC-476 AD]) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Guinness is somber and wise as the aging Aurelius, showing no hint of the emperor's Christian-hating side as he attempts to prepare Rome for its future.
  • The Fall of the Roman Empire - Ask.com 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC www.ask.com [Source type: General]

^ The first heathen persecution of Christianity resulted from no definite policy, no apprehension of danger to the body politic, and no definite charges, but from an accidental spark which kindled the conflagration of Rome (July, 64 A.D.).
  • Bible Encyclopedia: Roman 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC bibleencyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

.Under a purely technical point of view there is no clear "first emperor", as the title itself was not an official post in the Roman constitutional system—rather, it was an amalgam of separate roles.^ Under a purely technical point of view there is no clear first emperor as the title itself was unknown to the ancient Romans.
  • Roman Empire at AllExperts 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ So there’s no definite point in which we can say this was when the Roman Empire collapsed.
  • Imperial Rome 22 September 2009 21:19 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At this point there was no turning back...
  • Why Did The Roman Empire Fall? 19 September 2009 17:59 UTC www.trap17.com [Source type: Original source]

.Julius Caesar was a Dictator Perpetuus (dictator for life), which was a highly irregular form of dictator, an official position in the Roman republic.^ Julius Caesar was a Dictator Perpetuus - a life-long dictator , which was a highly irregular form of dictator , an official position in the Roman republic.
  • Roman Empire at AllExperts 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Julius Caesar was a dictator of the Roman Republic.
  • WikiAnswers - Roman Empire Questions including "What is a Roman stabbing sword called" 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One of the striking features of Roman life, whether under the Republic or Empire, was that Rome was specifically an urban culture -- Roman civilization depended on the vitality of its cities.
  • Lecture 13: A Brief Social History of the Roman Empire 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.historyguide.org [Source type: Original source]

.By law, the rule of a dictator would normally never exceed six months.^ According to law, the rule of a dictator would normally never exceed 6 months.
  • Roman Empire at AllExperts 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In any case, after six months of good rule.

^ In this way a body of rules was amassed by interpretative adaptation which the authors of the Twelve Tables would never have recognized.
  • Bible Encyclopedia: Roman 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC bibleencyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

.The form created by Caesar was therefore quite contrary to the basic principles of the Roman Republic.^ Julius Caesar was a dictator of the Roman Republic.
  • WikiAnswers - Roman Empire Questions including "What is a Roman stabbing sword called" 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The form created by Caesar was therefore quite contrary to the basic principles of the Roman Republic.
  • Roman Empire at AllExperts 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Julius Caesar was a Dictator Perpetuus - a life-long dictator , which was a highly irregular form of dictator , an official position in the Roman republic.
  • Roman Empire at AllExperts 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

.Nevertheless, officially his authority rested upon this republican title, however irregular it might have been, and therefore he is considered a republican official.^ Nevertheless, officially his authority rested upon this republican title, however irregular it might have been, and therefore he is considered a republican official.
  • Roman Empire at AllExperts 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Although Augustus retained the forms of republican government and never took the title of emperor, he is considered Rome's first emperor because he held supreme power and passed his authority on to an heir.
  • Howstuffworks "Rome and the Roman Empire" 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC history.howstuffworks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The authority of the Senate or the Imperial Council might constitute a strong practical check upon an Emperor's acts, but if he chose to disregard their views, he could not be accused of acting unconstitutionally.
  • J. B. Bury: History of the Later Roman Empire • Vol. I Chap. I 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC penelope.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

.At the very least, he pretended to be one.^ At the very least he pretended to be one.
  • Roman Empire at AllExperts 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

.Several senators, among them many former enemies who had been "graciously" pardoned by him, grew fearful that he would crown himself and try to establish a monarchy.^ Several senators, among them many former enemies who had been "graciously" pardoned by him, grew fearful that he would crown himself and try to establish a monarchy.
  • Roman Empire at AllExperts 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It is notable that Louis first crowned himself in 814, upon his father's death, but in 816, Pope Stephen V , who had succeeded Leo III, visited Rheims and again crowned Louis.
  • Holy Roman Empire at AllExperts 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Jews of his time felt oppressed by their Roman overlords, and many believed that their God would intervene on behalf of his people by sending a messiah -- a charismatic leader who would drive out the Romans and establish a new Jewish state.
  • The Roman Empire 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC webspace.ship.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Accordingly, they conspired to assassinate him, and on the Ides of March, 44 BC, the life-long dictator perished under the blades of his assassins.^ Accordingly, they conspired to assassinate him, and on the Ides of March , on the 15th of March 44 BC , the life-long dictator perished under the blades of his assassins before he could be crowned.
  • Roman Empire at AllExperts 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ At the onset of 44 BC, the honors given upon Caesar continued and the subsequent rift between him and the aristocrats deepened.
  • Roman Empire 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC professorpage.info [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Isa 41:10 For God so loved the world, that He gave His only begotten Son, that whoever believes in Him shall not perish, but have eternal life.
  • Revival of Roman Empire: Byzantium IN AAR - Paradox Interactive Forums 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC forum.paradoxplaza.com [Source type: General]

.Octavian, his grand-nephew, adopted son and political heir, learned from the mistake of his predecessor and never claimed the widely feared title dictator, disguising his power under republican forms much more carefully.^ Octavian , his grand-nephew, adopted son and political heir, is widely accepted as the first emperor.
  • Roman Empire at AllExperts 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He had learned from the mistake of his predecessor and never claimed the widely feared title dictator , disguising his power under republican forms much more carefully.
  • Roman Empire at AllExperts 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The other was Octavian, Caesar’s grand-nephew and heir to his estate.
  • The Story of Mankind - The Roman Empire (Hendrik van Loon) 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC www.authorama.com [Source type: Original source]

.All this was intended to foster the illusion of a restoration of the Republic.^ All this was intended to foster the illusion of a restoration of the Republic.
  • Roman Empire at AllExperts 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

.He received several titles like Augustus—"the elevated one", and Princeps—translated as "first citizen of the Roman republic" or as "first leader of the Roman Senate". The latter had been a title awarded for those who had served the state well; Pompey had held that title.^ Also gives him the titles of Augustus and princeps (first citizen).
  • 6.2 - The Roman Empire 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Theoretically, Augustus was princeps, or first citizen among equals, and legally the empire was still a republic.
  • The Roman Empire 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC hubpages.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For years, Roman Emperors adorned themselves, or had the Senate adorn them, with the title Augustus.
  • The rise and fall of the Roman Empire | Red Room 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC www.redroom.com [Source type: Original source]

.In addition, Augustus (as he was named thereafter) was granted the right to wear the Civic Crown of laurel and oak.^ Also got to wear a laurel crown.
  • 6.2 - The Roman Empire 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Octavius was named Octavius Augustus, a name granted to the gods.
  • The rise and fall of the Roman Empire | Red Room 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC www.redroom.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In addition, Augustus (as he is named thereafter) was granted the right to wear the Civic Crown of laurel and oak.
  • Roman Empire at AllExperts 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

.Officially, however, none of these titles or the Civic Crown granted Augustus any additional powers or authority; he was simply a highly honored Roman citizen who held the consulship.^ However, it must be noted that officially, none of these titles or the Civic Crown, granted Augustus any additional powers or authority; officially he was simply a highly-honored Roman citizen, holding the consulship.
  • Roman Empire at AllExperts 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The first title that Charlemagne is known to have used, immediately after his coronation in 800, is “Charles, most serene Augustus, crowned by God, great and pacific emperor, governing the Roman empire.” This clumsy formula, however, was soon discarded.
  • Holy Roman Empire (historical empire, Europe) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ This title, however, was not used by Otto II’s predecessors, from Charlemagne (or Charles I) to Otto I, who simply employed the phrase imperator augustus (“august emperor”) without any territorial adjunct.
  • Holy Roman Empire (historical empire, Europe) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

.Augustus also became Pontifex Maximus after the death of Marcus Aemilius Lepidus in 13 BC. He also received several additional and extraordinary powers without claiming too many titles.^ Death of Severus - His son Carracalla assumes title of Pontifex Maximus .
  • Legion XXIV - Time Line of Imperial Rome 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.legionxxiv.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He also received several additional and extraordinary powers without claiming too many titles.
  • Roman Empire at AllExperts 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Augustus also became Pontifex Maximus after the death of Marcus Aemilius Lepidus in 13 BC .
  • Roman Empire at AllExperts 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

.In the end, he only needed the authority itself, not all the titles.^ In the end he only needed the authority itself, not necessarily all the respective titles.
  • Roman Empire at AllExperts 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Towards the end of the first century the Christians appeared to sever all their ties with the Judaism and established itself independently.

^ The fight ended with all Curiatii dead and only one of the Horatians alive.

From the Republic to the Principate: Augustus (27 BC – AD 14)

Further information: Praetorian GuardImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gifRoman triumphImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gifBattle of the Teutoburg ForestImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gifArminiusImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif, and Publius Quinctilius VarusImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif
Augustus, the first emperor of the Roman Empire
.The Battle of Actium resulted in the defeat and subsequent suicides of Mark Antony and Cleopatra.^ In the battle of Actium, Octavian defeated Antony.
  • The Story of Mankind - The Roman Empire (Hendrik van Loon) 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC www.authorama.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Mark Antony died in 30 BCE. After Octavian had defeated him and Cleopatra in the battle of Actium, they fled back to Alexandria,...
  • WikiAnswers - Roman Empire Questions including "What is a Roman stabbing sword called" 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After the Battle of Actium which resulted in the defeat and subsequent suicides of Mark Antony and Cleopatra , Octavian, now sole ruler of Rome, continued or began a fullscale reformation of military, fiscal and political matters.
  • Roman Empire at AllExperts 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

.Octavian had also executed Cleopatra's young son and co-ruler, Caesarion.^ The late king's crown was transferred by Caesar to his younger brother Ptolemy XIII. But the effective ruler of Egypt henceforth was Cleopatra whom Caesar invested a co-regent.

^ [Sozomen I, xv] This decision by Bishop Alexander in support of his young secretary, Athanasius, is the first authoritative statement that the Son is con-substantial and co-eternal with the Father.
  • State Church Of The Roman Empire 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC bswett.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Caesarion, Julius’s son, is killed at age 17 on Octavian’s orders.
  • 6.2 - The Roman Empire 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Caesarion may have been the (only) son of Julius Caesar.^ Augustus declared himself the son of a god, raising a statue to his adoptive father Julius Caesar on a podium alongside Mars and Venus.
  • Jonathan Freedland: Rome, AD ... Rome, DC? | World news | The Guardian 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ Julius Caesar, the nephew of Marius and son-in-law of Cinna, was courting popularity and steadily rising in power and influence.

^ March 17 Julius Caesar defeats Pompey's sons and Labienus at Munda .
  • Legion XXIV - Time Line of Imperial Rome 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.legionxxiv.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Therefore, by killing Caesarion, Octavian removed any possibility of a male rival emerging with closer blood ties to Julius Caesar.^ The first emperor, Julius Caesar or Octavian?
  • Roman Empire at AllExperts 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Caesarion, Julius’s son, is killed at age 17 on Octavian’s orders.
  • 6.2 - The Roman Empire 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After Sulla and Pompey, another great leader has emerged: Julius Caesar will be your strongest asset to finally defeat the dreaded Gauls north and west of the Alps.
  • Rise and Fall of the Roman Empire - Civilization Fanatics' Forums 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC forums.civfanatics.com [Source type: General]

.Octavian, now sole ruler of Rome, began a full-scale reformation of military, fiscal and political matters.^ Octavian sole Ruler of Rome .

^ After the Battle of Actium which resulted in the defeat and subsequent suicides of Mark Antony and Cleopatra , Octavian, now sole ruler of Rome, continued or began a fullscale reformation of military, fiscal and political matters.
  • Roman Empire at AllExperts 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ After some political and military developments, Octavian took the province of Africa away from Lepidus and took possession of the Greek-colonized island of Sicilia (modern Sicily).

.These were intended to stabilize and pacify the Roman world and also to cement acceptance of the new regime.^ These reforms were intended to stabilize and to pacify the Roman world and would also cement the acceptance of the new regime.
  • Roman Empire at AllExperts 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Details of new amphitheatre sites found across the Roman world will be revealed and the organisation of the spectacles, like gladiatorial combat, will also be examined.

^ To Diocletian, who rescued the Roman world at the brink of the abyss, belongs the credit of having framed a new system of administrative machinery.
  • J. B. Bury: History of the Later Roman Empire • Vol. I Chap. I 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC penelope.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Upon Octavian's accession as ruler of the Roman world, the Roman Senate gave Octavian the name Augustus.^ In 286, through the creation of the Tetrarchy, he gave the western part to Maximian as Augustus and named Constantius Chlorus as his subordinate ( Caesar).

^ Roman legend adds a gruesome note, describing how Tullia later returned from the senate, where she had seen her husband confirmed as the new ruler.

^ Establishment of the Empire In 27 B.C. the Roman Senate conferred the title Augustus (majestic) on Octavian for ending the civil strife.
  • Howstuffworks "Rome and the Roman Empire" 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC history.howstuffworks.com [Source type: Original source]

.He had already adopted the title imperator, "commander-in-chief", as his first name.^ So, while we think of "Augustus" as the name of the first Emperor, it was simply a title, whose import was well remembered by subsequent Emperors.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But he adopted the title of Imperator ,--whence the name Emperor, --a title which, although it carried with it the absolute authority of the commander of the legions, still had clinging to it no odious memories.
  • Imperial Rome 22 September 2009 21:19 UTC www.shsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Nevertheless, Heraclius is remembered as one of the great soldier-Emperors, the founder of a dynasty that lasted 100 years, the last Emperor to come to the throne from the Latin West, but the first to adopt the Greek title Basileus (rather than Imperator ).
  • The Roman Empire: 18 centuries in 19 maps 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC 4umi.com [Source type: Original source]
  • The Roman Empire:18 centuries in 19 maps 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC hobbit.ict.griffith.edu.au [Source type: Original source]
  • The Roman Empire:18 centuries in 19 maps 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC hobbit.ict.griffith.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

.It was a term that dated back to the days of the Republic and later evolved into emperor.^ At last, Octavian (later to be known as Augustus) defeated his rival Mark Antony and completed this gradual subversion by thoroughly reorganizing the Roman Republic into the Roman Empire .
  • Roman Empire at AllExperts 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The term Roman emperor is older, dating from Otto II (died 983).
  • Holy Roman Empire (historical empire, Europe) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ A generation later, in 43 BCE, he was a hunted man, proscribed by Antony and Octavian while the Republic collapsed into monarchy.
  • Algora Publishing - Perils of Empire: The Roman Republic and the American Republic 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC www.algora.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.As adopted heir of Caesar, Augustus preferred to be called by this name.^ His adopted heir, calling himself Augustus Caesar, became first emperor.
  • The Roman Empire 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC webspace.ship.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Caesar returned to Italy in September, 45 BC, and among his first tasks was to file his will, naming Octavian as his solo heir.
  • Roman Empire 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC professorpage.info [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 286, through the creation of the Tetrarchy, he gave the western part to Maximian as Augustus and named Constantius Chlorus as his subordinate ( Caesar).

Caesar was a component of his family name. .Julio-Claudian rule lasted for almost a century (from Julius Caesar in the mid-1st century BC to the emperor Nero in the mid-1st century AD).^ The first emperor, Julius Caesar or Octavian?
  • Roman Empire at AllExperts 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ By the beginning of the 2nd century AD, the economic stagnation of Italia was seen in the provincial-born Emperors, such as Trajan and Hadrian.

^ Syria and Gaul from the Rhine to the Atlantic were added by the campaigns of POMPEY and Julius CAESAR and Egypt was annexed in 31 BC after the Battle of ACTIUM .
  • Roman Empire Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Roman Empire 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.By the time of the Flavian Dynasty, and the reign of Vespasian, and that of his two sons, Titus and Domitian, the term Caesar had evolved, almost de facto, from a family name into a formal title.^ Domitian, son of Vespasian, 81–96 .
  • Rulers of the Roman Empire: Free Encyclopedia Articles at Questia.com Online Library 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.questia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Titus, son of Vespasian, 79–81 .
  • Rulers of the Roman Empire: Free Encyclopedia Articles at Questia.com Online Library 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.questia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The dynasty of Stephan Dushan is followed by two families of princes.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

Derivatives of this title (such as czar and kaiser) endure to this day.
.The Roman legions, which had reached an unprecedented number (around 50) because of the civil wars, were reduced to 28. Several legions, particularly those with members of doubtful loyalties, were simply disbanded.^ All the Legions were originally simply numbered.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Roman legions, who had reached an enormous number because of the civil wars, numbering about 60, were reduced to 28.
  • Roman Empire at AllExperts 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Several legions, particularly those of doubtful loyalties, were simply disbanded, while others were amalgamated, a fact hinted by the title Gemina - Twin .
  • Roman Empire at AllExperts 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

Other legions were amalgamated, a fact hinted by the title Gemina (Twin).[5] .Augustus also created nine special cohorts, ostensibly to maintain the peace in Italy, keeping at least three of them stationed at Rome.^ He also created 9 special cohorts , ostensibly to maintain the peace in Italy, keeping at least 3 of them stationed at Rome.
  • Roman Empire at AllExperts 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He stationed garrisons of soldiers nearer together than before throughout Italy, while at Rome he established a camp for the barracks of the praetorian cohorts , which before that time had been quartered in isolated groups in divers lodging houses.
  • Suetonius • Life of Tiberius 15 September 2009 3:55 UTC penelope.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The Vigiles A further force, the vigiles , also created by Augustus patrolled Rome itself and served as its fire brigade.

.These cohorts became known as the Praetorian Guard.^ These cohorts became known as the Praetorian Guard .
  • Roman Empire at AllExperts 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Praetorian Guard was a figurative "sword of Damocles" whose loyalty was bought and who became increasingly greedy.

^ Unlike bodies such as the Praetorian Guard, the Varangians became famed for their loyalty to the emperor, even their willingness to fight to the death to protect him.

.Octavian realized that autocracy and kingship were things that Romans had not experienced for centuries, and were wary of.^ Deep respect for the rules of law, and their systematic observance characterised the Roman autocracy down to the fall of the Empire in the fifteenth century, and was one of the conditions of its long duration.
  • J. B. Bury: History of the Later Roman Empire • Vol. I Chap. I 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC penelope.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ (By this time the educated Roman elite believed in one supreme being who created all things and was the source of all reality.

^ The Roman Empire really collapsed in mid 3rd century.
  • The Oil Drum: Europe | "Peak Civilization": The Fall of the Roman Empire 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC europe.theoildrum.com [Source type: Original source]

Octavian did not want to be viewed as a tyrant and sought to retain the illusion of the constitutional republic. .He attempted to make it seem as though the constitution of the Roman Republic was still functional.^ The early days of the Roman republic saw a bitter struggle for independence against Tarquin’s attempts to regain his throne.

^ Haggard, The sound of the rolling lines seemed to make my blood stand still .
  • Mommsen, The History of Old Rome - 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.ellopos.net [Source type: Academic]

^ The Conquest of Britain In the year of 61 BC the Roman republic had conquered Italy, most of the mediterranean and was making serious inroads towards Gaul ...
  • Geometry.Net - Basic_R: Roman Empire Emperors & Famous People 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC www.geometry.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Even Rome's past dictators, such as the brutal Lucius Cornelius Sulla, had only ruled Rome for short spans of time, never more than a year or two (with the exception of Julius Caesar).^ Rome under Julius Caesar".
  • Jonathan Freedland: Rome, AD ... Rome, DC? | World news | The Guardian 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ He did not even hold the Republican office of Dictator, as Julius Caesar had.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In the last two-thousand years, Rome has been the ruling power.
  • The Roman Empire and Its Significance in the End Time 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.biblebelievers.org.au [Source type: Original source]

.In 27 BC, Octavian officially tried to relinquish all his extraordinary powers to the Roman Senate.^ In 27 BC , Octavian officially tried to relinquish all his extraordinary powers back to the Roman Senate.
  • Roman Empire at AllExperts 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Finally, on 29 May 1453, all the titles and powers of the Roman Emperor were transferred to Sultan Mehmet the Conqueror, following his entry into Constantinople.
  • The Eastern Roman Empire by Turgut �zal 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.sullivan-county.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The civil wars of 49-30 BC ended with this absolute power in the hands of Octavian, great-nephew and heir of Caesar.

.In a carefully staged way, the senators, who by this time were mostly his partisans, refused and begged him to keep them for the sake of the republic and the people of Rome.^ In a carefully staged way the senators, who by this time were mostly his partisans, refused and begged him to continue for the sake of the republic and the people of Rome.
  • Roman Empire at AllExperts 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Stilicho for the fall as he (another German General in Command) seemed to want to let Alaric (who eventually sacked Rome) live every time that he defeated him or had him cornered (several times) .
  • Imperial Rome and the USA [Archive] - AppleInsider 22 September 2009 21:19 UTC forums.appleinsider.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Who was the Roman ruler held the title of dictator or absolute ruler at the time of his assassination by members of the Senate?
  • WikiAnswers - Roman Empire Questions including "What is a Roman stabbing sword called" 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Reportedly, the suggestion of Octavian stepping down as consul led to rioting amongst the Plebeians in Rome.^ Reportedly, the suggestion of Octavian's stepping down as consul led to rioting amongst the Plebeians in Rome.
  • Roman Empire at AllExperts 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In 450 B.C., the plebeians succeeded in having the laws of Rome codified and written down in a compilation called the Twelve Tables.
  • Howstuffworks "Rome and the Roman Empire" 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC history.howstuffworks.com [Source type: Original source]

.A compromise was reached between the Senate and Octavian, known as the First Settlement.^ A compromise was reached between the Senate and Octavian, known as the First Settlement .
  • Roman Empire at AllExperts 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The First Servile War in Sicily (134-132 B.C.).-- With the opening of this period we find a terrible struggle going on in Sicily between masters and slaves,--what is known as the First Servile War.
  • Imperial Rome 22 September 2009 21:19 UTC www.shsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ At this point, however, it was still far from certain that a compromise between Catholics and Lutherans could not be reached.

.This agreement gave Augustus legitimacy as an autocrat of the people, and ensured that he would not be considered a tyrant, starting the long period that would be known as Pax Romana.^ As far as is known, no other state has had a continuous existence for this long; the nearest would perhaps be Japan (arguably since about 400 A.D.).
  • The Roman Empire: 18 centuries in 19 maps 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC 4umi.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Augustus: September 23, 63 BC - August 19, AD 14), known as Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus (English Octavian) for the period of...
  • WikiAnswers - Roman Empire Questions including "What is a Roman stabbing sword called" 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (Augustus) Tell the students that the rule of Emperor Augustus marked the beginning of a long period of stability which became known as the Pax Romana, which means Roman peace .
  • http://www.cstone.net/~bcp/3/3AHistory.htm 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.cstone.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Octavian split with the Senate the governorships of the provinces.^ Octavian split with the Senate the governorships of the provinces.
  • Roman Empire at AllExperts 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

.The unruly provinces at the borders, where the vast majority of the legions were stationed, were administrated by imperial legates, chosen by the emperor himself.^ The "unruly" provinces at the borders, where the vast majority of the legions were stationed, were administrated by imperial legates, chosen by the emperor himself.
  • Roman Empire at AllExperts 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But by the end of the fourth century this new imperial guard mustered twenty four vexillations of cavalry (five hundred each), twenty-five legions (a thousand each) and one hundred and eight auxiliary troops (five hundred each), stationed all around the empire at the major cities.

^ The princes attempted to remove the administration of the empire from the emperor and put it in the hands of an imperial council; the council would control all external and internal affairs of the empire.
  • Holy Roman Empire Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Holy Roman Empire 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Holy Roman Empire: Free Encyclopedia Articles at Questia.com Online Library 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.questia.com [Source type: Academic]

.These provinces were classified as imperial provinces.^ These provinces were classified as Imperial province s.
  • Roman Empire at AllExperts 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

.The governors of the peaceful senatorial provinces were chosen by the Senate.^ The governors of the peaceful Senatorial province s were chosen by the Senate.
  • Roman Empire at AllExperts 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The revenue of the Senatorial provinces continued to be sent to the Aerarium , under the supervision of the Senate.
  • Roman Empire at AllExperts 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Roman Senators renamed: Cardinals Roman Governors renamed: Archbishops Roman Senator with no territory: Bishop (Code of Canon Law 376) (Large) Roman Province renamed: Archdiocese (Small) Roman Territory renamed: Diocese .
  • The Hierarchy of the Roman Empire/Catholic Church - Let's Roll Forums 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC letsrollforums.com [Source type: Original source]

.These provinces were usually peaceful and only a single legion was stationed in the senatorial province of Africa.^ These provinces were usually peaceful and only a single legion was stationed at the Senatorial province of Africa .
  • Roman Empire at AllExperts 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It was dependent on tax revenues from stable, peaceful provinces for the ongoing support of legions and frontier troops from the Euphrates to the North Sea.
  • Albion's Seedlings: Heather -- The Fall of the Roman Empire 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC anglosphere.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Chicago Boyz » Blog Archive » Heather — The Fall of the Roman Empire 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC chicagoboyz.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The "unruly" provinces at the borders, where the vast majority of the legions were stationed, were administrated by imperial legates, chosen by the emperor himself.
  • Roman Empire at AllExperts 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

The Battle of Actium, by Lorenzo A. Castro, 1672.
.Before the Senate controlled the treasury, Augustus had mandated that the taxes of the Imperial provinces be destined to the Fiscus, which was administrated by persons chosen by, and answerable only to, Augustus.^ Before the Senate controlled the treasury, Augustus had mandated that the taxes of the Imperial provinces were destined to the Fiscus , which was administrated by persons chosen and answerable only to Augustus.
  • Roman Empire at AllExperts 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Some of the Imperial laws took the form (we do not know on what principle) of "Orations to the Senate," and were read aloud before that body.
  • J. B. Bury: History of the Later Roman Empire • Vol. I Chap. I 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC penelope.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The "unruly" provinces at the borders, where the vast majority of the legions were stationed, were administrated by imperial legates, chosen by the emperor himself.
  • Roman Empire at AllExperts 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

.The revenue of the senatorial provinces continued to be sent to the Aerarium, under the supervision of the Senate.^ The revenue of the Senatorial provinces continued to be sent to the Aerarium , under the supervision of the Senate.
  • Roman Empire at AllExperts 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The governors of the peaceful Senatorial province s were chosen by the Senate.
  • Roman Empire at AllExperts 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ His associates he sent to rule the provinces were so corrupt that he soon alienated the Senate.
  • Roman Empire In Turmoil 180-285 by Sanderson Beck 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC www.san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

.This effectively made Augustus richer than the Senate, and more than able to pay the salarium (salary) of the legionaries, ensuring their continued loyalty.^ This effectively made Augustus richer than the Senate, and more than able to pay the salarium - salary of the legionaries , ensuring their continued loyalty.
  • Roman Empire at AllExperts 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It may be declared to be the first system of religious thought--for it was a religion more than a philosophy--which made a serious study of the diseases of the human soul.
  • NETBible: Roman Empire And Christianity, 1 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC net.bible.org [Source type: Original source]

^ A talk, anyway, can be longer and more effective than a post, mostly because the people listening to you are not distracted by the infinite distractions of an internet connection.
  • The Oil Drum: Europe | "Peak Civilization": The Fall of the Roman Empire 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC europe.theoildrum.com [Source type: Original source]

.This was ensured by the Imperial province of Roman Egypt, which was incredibly wealthy and also the most important grain supplier for the whole empire.^ This province was incredibly wealthy and also the most important corn supplier for the whole empire.
  • Roman Empire at AllExperts 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Map of Roman Empire   Clicable provinces .

^ Egypt was henceforth a province of the Roman state.
  • Imperial Rome 22 September 2009 21:19 UTC www.shsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Senators were forbidden to even visit this province, as it was largely considered the personal fiefdom of the emperor himself.^ Senators were forbidden to even visit this province, as it was largely considered the personal fiefdom of the emperor himself.
  • Roman Empire at AllExperts 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He restored a few territories to the Roman Empire and even recognized Emperor Manuel II Palaeologus as his suzerain (hence the large stippled area in the above map).

^ The "unruly" provinces at the borders, where the vast majority of the legions were stationed, were administrated by imperial legates, chosen by the emperor himself.
  • Roman Empire at AllExperts 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

Roman trade with India according to the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea, 1st century AD.
.Augustus renounced his consulship in 23 BC, but retained his consular imperium, leading to a second compromise between Augustus and the Senate known as the Second Settlement.^ A compromise was reached between the Senate and Octavian, known as the First Settlement .
  • Roman Empire at AllExperts 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Augustus renounced his consulship in 23 BC , but retained his consular imperium, leading to a second compromise between Augustus and the Senate known as the Second Settlement .
  • Roman Empire at AllExperts 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Augustus: September 23, 63 BC - August 19, AD 14), known as Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus (English Octavian) for the period of...
  • WikiAnswers - Roman Empire Questions including "What is a Roman stabbing sword called" 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Augustus was granted the authority of a tribune (tribunicia potestas), though not the title, which allowed him to convene the Senate and people at will and lay business before it, veto the actions of either the Assembly or the Senate, preside over elections, and gave him the right to speak first at any meeting.^ Also gives him the titles of Augustus and princeps (first citizen).
  • 6.2 - The Roman Empire 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Senate continues granting him greater powers and authority.
  • 6.2 - The Roman Empire 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Augustus was granted the authority of a tribune (tribunicia potestas), though not the title, which allowed him to convene the Senate and people at will and lay business before it, veto the actions of either the Assembly or the Senate, preside over elections, and gave him the right to speak first at any meeting.
  • Roman Empire at AllExperts 18 January 2010 11:28 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

.