Romani people: Wikis

  
  
  
  

Did you know ...


More interesting facts on Romani people

Include this on your site/blog:

Encyclopedia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Romani people
Rromane dźene
Roma flag.svg
Romani flag proposed by the 1971 World Romani Congress
Roma personalities.JPG
(left to right):
Grigoraş Dinicu, Drafi Deutscher, Charles Chaplin, Isabel Pantoja,
Ricardo Quaresma, Ceija Stojka, Džej Ramadanovski, Irini Merkouri
Total population
Up to 5 million in the world.[1]
or
6-11 million in the world[2]
See Romani people by country for the entire list of countries and other estimations.^ This Indic language is spoken by between five and ten million people world-wide.
  • John Benjamins: Book details for Bibliography of Modern Romani Linguistics [LISL 28] 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC www.benjamins.com [Source type: Academic]

^ There are now roughly 12 million Gypsies worldwide.  In 1971 the First World Romani Congress was held in London, and the word Roma (meaning people in Romani) was adopted as the official name of the Gypsies.
  • Romani Cymru: British Gypsies, Welsh Gypsies, Kale, Teulu Abram Wood 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC www.valleystream.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ RTC works with Romany people, non-Romanies and other ethnic minorities.

.The following list uses official data, the unofficial estmation might differ substantially.^ The following list was compiled based on data available at the time the section was published (February 1998).
  • O VURD�N (English Version) 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC www.vurdon.it [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Regions with significant populations
Spain 650,000
(1.62%)
[3]
Romania 535,140
(2.46%)
[4]
Turkey 500,000
(0.72%)
[5]
France 500,000
(0.79%)
[6]
Bulgaria 370,908
(4.67%)
[7]
Hungary 205,720
(2.02%)
[8]
Greece 200,000
(1.82%)
[9]
Russia 182,766
(0.13%)
[10]
Italy 130,000
(0.22%)
[11]
Serbia 108,193
(1.44%)
[12]
Slovakia 89,920
(1.71%)
[13]
Germany 70,000
(0.09%)
[14]
R. Macedonia 53,879
(2.85%)
[15]
Languages
Romani, languages of native region
Religion
Related ethnic groups
.The Romani (also Romany, Romanies, Romanis, Roma or Roms; exonym: Gypsies; Romani: Romane or Rromane, depending on the dialect) are an ethnic group living mostly in Europe, who trace their origins to medieval India.^ Roma are one of the largest ethnic minority groups in Europe.
  • Document - Europe: Discrimination against Roma | Amnesty International 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC www.amnesty.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Roma originated in India and migrated to Europe by the 15th century.

^ The Roma are an ethnic minority group originally from the Indian subcontinent.
  • 1999 Holocaust Remembrance Project 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC holocaust.hklaw.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Romani are widely dispersed with their largest concentrated populations in Europe, especially the Roma of Central and Eastern Europe and Anatolia, followed by the Iberian Kale in Southwestern Europe and Southern France, with more recent diaspora populations in the Americas and, to a lesser extent, in other parts of the world.^ By far the largest concentrations are found in the Balkans (especially Romania) and Central Europe, but there are also sizeable Roma populations in Russia, Spain, and France.
  • Roma (Gypsies) - ninemsn Encarta 20 September 2009 19:43 UTC au.encarta.msn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Travellers from other parts of Britain or from Europe.

^ Currently the majority of the worlds Roma live primarily in Central and Eastern Europe [5] .
  • People on the Move, N� 101 (suppl.) 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC www.vatican.va [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Their Romani language is divided into several dialects, which add up to an estimated number of speakers larger than two million.^ Matras (2002: 6--13) divides Romani dialects into four main groups: Northern, Balkan, Vlax and Central.
  • Research Institute for the Languages of Finland :: Romani Language 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC www.kotus.fi [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The estimated population of Roma is at least 15 million in the whole world, but Roma and the official number of Romani people is disputed in many countries ...

^ Historically, the Romani (at least those of Eastern Europe) have either been forced to integrate..ie forced into shitty settlements or ghetto like communities, denied the use of their native dialects of Romani language, and/or deported, denied asylum, or systematically exterminated.
  • No such thing as Turkish Romani Skirt... - !Turkish Style! - tribe.net 20 September 2009 19:43 UTC tribes.tribe.net [Source type: Original source]

[17] .The total number of Romani people is at least twice as large (several times as large according to high estimates), and many Romani are native speakers of the language current in their country of residence, or of mixed languages combining the two.^ And there are many websites about the Romani people & their language.
  • Desicritics.org: Historical Amnesia: The Romani Holocaust 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC desicritics.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Romani , languages of native region .
  • Roma people at AllExperts 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The estimated population of Roma is at least 15 million in the whole world, but Roma and the official number of Romani people is disputed in many countries ...

Contents

Terminology

Distribution of the Romanies in Europe based on self-designation.

Rom, Romani

Romani usage

.In the Romani language, rom is a masculine noun, meaning "man, husband", with the plural roma.^ Rom means nothing in your language and in any language.
  • Desicritics.org: Names of the Romani People 20 September 2009 19:43 UTC desicritics.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The singular is Rom, the plural Roma or Rom.
  • O VURD�N (English Version) 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC www.vurdon.it [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But in our language, it is a plural masculine noun.
  • Pop Omnivore - March 2009 - National Geographic magazine - NGM.com 20 September 2009 19:43 UTC blogs.ngm.com [Source type: General]
  • Pop Omnivore - The Amazing Race Has an Amazing Lapse: It's Romani, not Gypsy! - National Geographic Magazine - NGM.com 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC blogs.ngm.com [Source type: General]

.Romani is the feminine adjective, while romano is the masculine adjective.^ Romani gypsies (masculine – gitan, feminine gitane).

^ The approximately 2:1 ratio of masculine to feminine Indian-derived nouns in Romani also accords with the reassignation of OIA neuters mainly to the masculine set.
  • RADOC 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC www.radoc.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ NIA descendants of OIA agni - ‘fire,’ which is masculine, are mostly feminine”), as is Romani jag , as well (Masica, 1991:221).
  • RADOC 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC www.radoc.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Some Romanies use Rom / Roma as an ethnic name, while others (such as the Sinti, or the Romanichal) do not use this term as a self-ascription for the entire ethnic group.^ In the following we exclusively use the term Romani.
  • FACTSHEETS ON ROMA LANGUAGE: ROMANI – AN INDO-ARYAN LANGUAGE OF EUROPE 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC romafacts.uni-graz.at [Source type: Reference]

^ No other ethnic group is in the IDP camps, only Roma.
  • Sani Rifati: Humanitarian Ethnic Cleansing in Kosovo 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC www.counterpunch.org [Source type: General]

^ Some Romani groups stopped using Romané some time ago.
  • ERIO / Publications / Articles / Romani Linguistic Minority in Italy 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC www.erionet.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[18]
.Sometimes, rom and romani are spelled with a double r, i.e., rrom and rromani.^ The ad was even run a third time, with the wording changed to "except Rroma," using the double-r spelling favored by some for Standard Romani.
  • The Media and the Roma in Contemporary Europe: Facts and Fictions 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC www.per-usa.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In some groups the sound "r" from Rom is pronounced stressed and it is sometimes written Rrom .
  • Desicritics.org: Names of the Romani People 20 September 2009 19:43 UTC desicritics.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Sometimes used as synonomous with Romanes or occasionally as a plural form of Rom -- Romanies.

.In this case rr is used to represent the phoneme /ʀ/ (also written as ř and rh), which in some Romani dialects has remained different from the one written with a single r.^ Teachers, for example, rarely acknowledge the differences between a society based on oral communication and one based on written communication.
  • Recognising Difference: The Romani "GYPSY" Child Socialisation and Education Process 20 September 2009 19:43 UTC www.osi.hu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The most broadly-used family of dialects (Vlax Romani) is related to the languages of northern India, notably Punjabi.

^ The rediscovery of important values, among them the use of the mother tongue, has stimulated some among the most sensitive Rom and Sinti to make the leap from the oral to the written form in the Romani narrative tradition.
  • O VURD�N (English Version) 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC www.vurdon.it [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The rr spelling is common particularly in Romania, in order to distinguish from the endonym for Romanians (sg.^ This spelling tends to be employed more in Romania, with the scope of not being confused with the prevailing Latin population, the Romanians.
  • Desicritics.org: Names of the Romani People 20 September 2009 19:43 UTC desicritics.org [Source type: Original source]

român, pl. români
).[19]

English usage

.In the English language (according to OED), Rom is a noun (with the plural Roma or Roms) and an adjective, while Romani (Romany) is also a noun (with the plural Romanies or Romanis) and an adjective.^ The singular is Rom, the plural Roma or Rom.
  • O VURD�N (English Version) 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC www.vurdon.it [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Romani is derived from an adjective: Romani čhib ‘Roma-tongue, Roma-language’.
  • FACTSHEETS ON ROMA LANGUAGE: ROMANI – AN INDO-ARYAN LANGUAGE OF EUROPE 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC romafacts.uni-graz.at [Source type: Reference]

^ Romani is the language of the Roma.
  • O VURD�N (English Version) 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC www.vurdon.it [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Both Rom and Romani have been in use in English since the 19th century as an alternative for Gypsy.^ English Gypsy Songs in Romany, 1875.
  • Gypsy Lore - Gypsies History, Rom History, Fortune Telling, Holocaust 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC www.gypsyadvice.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hancock estimates that well over half of the entire Romani population of Europe was enslaved from the 14th century until the 19th century.
  • The Literary Guide to the World - Salon.com 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC www.salon.com [Source type: General]
  • The Literary Guide to the World - Salon.com 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC www.salon.com [Source type: General]

^ Ian Hancock PER Romani Advisory Council A NOTE ON TERMINOLOGY Gypsy is an English term used to denote ethnic groups formed by the dispersal of commercial, nomadic, and other groups from within India beginning in the tenth century, and their mixing with European and other groups during their diaspora.
  • The Media and the Roma in Contemporary Europe: Facts and Fictions 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC www.per-usa.org [Source type: Original source]

.Romani was initially spelled Rommany, then Romany, while today the Romani spelling is the most popular spelling.^ Today, the term Romani is used by most organizations—including the United Nations , the Council of Europe , and the US Library of Congress.
  • Criminal Minds Community Message Board - CBS.com 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC www.cbs.com [Source type: General]

^ Being extremely jeopardised, Romani people today, are socially the most vulnerable group of people; without housing, employment or possibility to express their culture and way of living.
  • Roma of Bosnia and Herzegovina 20 September 2009 19:43 UTC www.gfbv-sa.com.ba [Source type: Original source]

^ Today Ivan is respected as one of the most remarkable Romani advocates and spokesmen for the Romani community in the Czech Republic and in Central and Eastern Europe.
  • Ivan Veselý | Ashoka.org 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC www.ashoka.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Occasionally, the double r spelling (e.g., Rroma, Rromani) mentioned above is also encountered in English texts.^ The ad was even run a third time, with the wording changed to "except Rroma," using the double-r spelling favored by some for Standard Romani.
  • The Media and the Roma in Contemporary Europe: Facts and Fictions 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC www.per-usa.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Romani – often spelled Romany in English texts– is used internationally.
  • FACTSHEETS ON ROMA LANGUAGE: ROMANI – AN INDO-ARYAN LANGUAGE OF EUROPE 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC romafacts.uni-graz.at [Source type: Reference]

^ The use of Rom, Roma, Romani, or the double "r" spelling (Rrom, Rroma, Rromani), is preferred in all official communications and legal documents.
  • Open Directory - Society:Ethnicity:Romani 20 September 2009 19:43 UTC www.dmoz.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Open Directory - Society:Ethnicity 20 September 2009 19:43 UTC dmoz.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Although Roma is used as a designation for the branch of the Romani people with historic concentrations in Eastern Europe and the Balkans, it is increasingly encountered during recent decades[20][21] as a generic term for the Romani people as a whole.^ These were a useful and well-received people in the Middle East and Eastern Europe during this time on the whole.
  • Gypsies of the Middle East - Sayyida Rakli Zada Orlenda 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC www.latchodrom.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Gypsies-art 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC www.florilegium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Back to the Romani (Roma) people.
  • IDEA: International Debate Education Association - Debate Resources & Debate Tools 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC www.idebate.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ According to historical sources, the Romani people of Europe have their origins in Persia.
  • IDEA: International Debate Education Association - Debate Resources & Debate Tools 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC www.idebate.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[22]
.Because all Romanies use the word Romani as an adjective, the term began to be used as a noun for the entire ethnic group.^ The word should be used as a noun, singular: Romani, plural: Romanies.
  • Names of the Romani people 20 September 2009 19:43 UTC web4desi.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Desicritics.org: Names of the Romani People 20 September 2009 19:43 UTC desicritics.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Names of the Romani people 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC www.web4desi.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Because all Romanies use the word Romani as an adjective, the term began to be used as a noun for the entire ethnic group.
  • Criminal Minds Community Message Board - CBS.com 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC www.cbs.com [Source type: General]

^ The word Romani is the correct term for this cultural group.
  • Arrests made in gypsy scam against the elderly - Mean Streets 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC blogs.dailynews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[23]
.Today, the term Romani is used by most organizations—including the United Nations, the Council of Europe, and the US Library of Congress.^ United Nations and humanitarian organizations .
  • Not A Refugee 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC www.leftcurve.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Today, the term Romani is used by most organizations—including the United Nations , the Council of Europe , and the US Library of Congress.
  • Criminal Minds Community Message Board - CBS.com 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC www.cbs.com [Source type: General]

^ During a seminar organized by the Council of Europe.

[19]
.The standard assumption is that the demonyms of the Romani people, Lom and Dom share the same origin.^ Their ethnic backgrounds are traced back to India, maybe to the Domba people, maybe to the Romani people, or they share a background similar to, or close to the Romani.
  • Doms - LookLex Encyclopaedia 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC looklex.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We can assume that among the professionals in the criminal justice system the same negative prejudices and stereotypes against Romani people exist as in society at large.
  • THE BARA�� PROJECT. Roma women and the Spanish Criminal 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC personales.jet.es [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Valery_Novoselsky wrote: The absence of a written history has meant that the origin and early history of the Romani people was long an enigma.
  • IDEA: International Debate Education Association - Debate Resources & Debate Tools 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC www.idebate.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[24][25]

Gypsy

.The English term Gypsy (or Gipsy) originates from the Greek word Αιγύπτοι (Aigyptoi, whence modern Greek γύφτοι gifti), in the erroneous belief that the Romanies originated in Egypt, and were exiled as punishment for allegedly harboring the infant Jesus.^ English Gypsy Songs in Romany, 1875.
  • Gypsy Lore - Gypsies History, Rom History, Fortune Telling, Holocaust 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC www.gypsyadvice.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The English term gypsies , derived from the Spanish term gitano (in French, gitan ), originates in the erroneous belief that the Roma originated in Egypt , and were exiled as punishment for allegedly harboring the infant Jesus.
  • People on the Move, N� 101 (suppl.) 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC www.vatican.va [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The English term Gypsy (or Gipsy), originates from the Greek word Aigyptoi, modern Greek gyphtoi, in the erroneous belief that the Roma originated in Egypt, This ethnonym is not used by the Roma to describe themselves, and is often considered pejorative.
  • Desicritics.org: Historical Amnesia: The Romani Holocaust 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC desicritics.org [Source type: Original source]

[26] .This exonym is sometimes written with capital letter, to show that it designates an ethnic group.^ First of all this is not something isolate, it is a contemporary phenomenon that some ethnic groups reject the foreign ethnic names (exonyms) and promote the ethnic name used by themselves (the endonym).
  • Desicritics.org: Names of the Romani People 20 September 2009 19:43 UTC desicritics.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Romani people - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia The Romani (also Romany, Romanies, Romanis, Roma or Roms; exonym: Gypsies; Romani: Rromane) are an ethnic group of Europe tracing their origins to medieval India.
  • Roma (people) - MSN Encarta 20 September 2009 19:43 UTC ca.encarta.msn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It should be said this is not something isolate, it is a contemporary phenomenon that some ethnic groups reject the foreign ethnic names (exonyms) and promote the ethnic name used by themselves (the endonym).
  • Names of the Romani people 20 September 2009 19:43 UTC web4desi.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Names of the Romani people 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC www.web4desi.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[27]
.As described in Victor Hugo's novel The Hunchback of Notre Dame, the medieval French referred to the Romanies as egyptiens.^ Literary representations include: * Victor Hugo 's novels The Hunchback of Notre-Dame and Les Miserables * Miguel de Cervantes ' novel La Gitanilla * Georges Bizet 's opera Carmen Dracula by Bram Stoker features a group of Gypsies working for the Count, as they were often retainers (or serf / slave s) of noble families.
  • Roma people at AllExperts 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The term has come to bear pejorative connotations. .The word "Gypsy" in English has become so pervasive that many Romani organizations use it in their own organizational names.^ The word gypsy is derogatory and I will not use it.
  • Desicritics.org: Names of the Romani People 20 September 2009 19:43 UTC desicritics.org [Source type: Original source]

^ English Gypsy Songs in Romany, 1875.
  • Gypsy Lore - Gypsies History, Rom History, Fortune Telling, Holocaust 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC www.gypsyadvice.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They use the word Romani as an adjective.
  • Names of the Romani people 20 September 2009 19:43 UTC web4desi.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Names of the Romani people 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC www.web4desi.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In North America, the word "Gypsy" is commonly used as a reference to lifestyle[citation needed] or fashion, and not to the Romani ethnicity.^ The word gypsy is derogatory and I will not use it.
  • Desicritics.org: Names of the Romani People 20 September 2009 19:43 UTC desicritics.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In North America , the word "Gypsy" is often misunderstood as a reference to lifestyle or fashion, and not to the Roma ethnicity.
  • Roma people at AllExperts 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The word is commonly used as an insult.
  • Dom Research Center - News Clips - Israel - '2001 International Romani Union Report:' 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC www.domresearchcenter.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Spanish term gitano and the French term gitan may have the same origin.^ The English term gypsies , derived from the Spanish term gitano (in French, gitan ), originates in the erroneous belief that the Roma originated in Egypt , and were exiled as punishment for allegedly harboring the infant Jesus.
  • People on the Move, N� 101 (suppl.) 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC www.vatican.va [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In many languages the word naming them is a corruption of Egyptian , like the English Gypsy , Spanish Gitano , Greek Yieftos or French Gitan .
  • Names of the Romani people 20 September 2009 19:43 UTC web4desi.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Desicritics.org: Names of the Romani People 20 September 2009 19:43 UTC desicritics.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Names of the Romani people 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC www.web4desi.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If the ancestors of the Romanies were not a military force, how may we account for the significant number of military terms of Indian origin in Romani, and the corresponding paucity of e.g.
  • RADOC 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC www.radoc.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[28]

Population and subgroups

Distribution of the Romani people in Europe (2007 Council of Europe "average estimates", totalling 9.8 million)[29]
* The size of the wheel symbols reflects absolute population size
* The gradient reflects the percent in the country's population: 0%                              10%.
.Many Romanies for a variety of reasons choose not to register their ethnic identity in official censuses.^ As a result of this perception Romani became the primary marker of ethnic identity.
  • TRANS Nr. 15: Dieter W. Halwachs (University of Graz, Austria): ROMANI between the Scylla of Language Death and the Charybdis of Folklorisation 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC www.inst.at [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many groups choose also this word for self-identification among the non-Romani populations.
  • Desicritics.org: Names of the Romani People 20 September 2009 19:43 UTC desicritics.org [Source type: Original source]

^ It is true that Romani resembles Romanian, but there are many cases in which different ethnic groups have similar names and nobody confuses them.
  • Desicritics.org: Names of the Romani People 20 September 2009 19:43 UTC desicritics.org [Source type: Original source]

.There are an estimated four million Romani people in Europe and Asia Minor (as of 2002),[30] although some high estimates by Romani organizations give numbers as high as 14 million.^ There is a sizable minority of Roma people in Romania , 1.8 million to 2 million.
  • Roma people at AllExperts 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Whereas some 8 - 10 millions Roma people are living in Europe.
  • http://www.coe.int/t/dg3/romatravellers/documentation/Education/RepConferenceonHarmonisationofTeaching%20Materials_en.asp 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC www.coe.int [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The name given to the mass murder of between 200,000 and 1 million Romani people by the Nazis during World War II is Porajmos, which translates as The Devouring.
  • Socialist Workers Party - A History of Suffering � The Romani People 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC www.swp.ie [Source type: News]

[31] .Significant Romani populations are found in the Balkan peninsula, in some Central European states, in Spain, France, Russia, and Ukraine.^ In the 14 th and 15 th Century Romani travellers has reached the Balkans, Bohemia and then Germany, France, Italy and Spain.
  • Socialist Workers Party - A History of Suffering � The Romani People 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC www.swp.ie [Source type: News]

^ Aromanian is a dialect of Romanian spoken by some 150,000 people throughout the Balkan Peninsula in Albania, Bulgaria, Greece, FYR Macedonia and Romania.
  • Open Directory - Society:Ethnicity 20 September 2009 19:43 UTC dmoz.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Women and girls from the former Soviet Union (in particular, Russia, Belarus, Ukraine, and Moldova), Eastern Europe, the Balkans, and Asia were trafficked into the country and onward to Western Europe and the United States for prostitution.

.Several more million Romanies may live out of Europe, in particular in the Middle East and in the Americas.^ In May 2001, The Economist stated that Romanies in Europe were at the bottom of every socioeconomic indicator: the least educated, the poorest, the most unemployed, the shortest-lived, the most imprisoned, the most welfare-dependent and the most segregated.
  • UT Feature Story -- What's in a Name?: Professor takes on roles of Romani activist and spokesperson to improve plight of his ethnic group 20 September 2009 19:43 UTC www.utexas.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • UT Feature Story -- What's in a Name?: Professor takes on roles of Romani activist and spokesperson to improve plight of his ethnic group 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC www.cc.utexas.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Romani people , an ethnic group with origins in South Asia who are widely dispersed with their largest concentrated populations in Europe, especially Central and Eastern Europe, with more recent diaspora populations in the Americas and, to a lesser extent, in North Africa and the Middle East.
  • Roma People and Romani (Romani People, Languages, Arts) @ Gpzy.com 20 September 2009 19:43 UTC gpzy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the 1920s the Romanies were singled out as Lebensunwertes Leben or "lives unworthy of life".
  • Desicritics.org: Historical Amnesia: The Romani Holocaust 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC desicritics.org [Source type: Original source]

.The Romani people recognize divisions among themselves based in part on territorial, cultural and dialectal differences and self-designation.^ The Roma recognize divisions among themselves based in part on territorial, cultural and dialectal differences.
  • Roma people at AllExperts 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Gypsy Culture Around 1360, an independent Romani fiefdom (called the Feudum Acinganorum ) was established in Corfu and became "a settled community and an important and established part of the economy."
  • Roma people at AllExperts 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Romani people I’ve met everywhere are really part of at least two identities, like the family in American Gypsy .
  • Jasmine Dellal - Interview - Stylus Magazine 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC stylusmagazine.com [Source type: General]

The main branches are:[32][33][34][35]
  1. Roma, crystallized in Eastern Europe and Central Italy, emigrated also (mostly from the 19th century onwards), in the rest of Europe, but also on the other continents;
  2. Iberian Kale, mostly in Spain (see Romani people in Spain), but also in Portugal, Southern France and Latin America;
  3. Finnish Kale, in Finland, emigrated also in Sweden;
  4. Welsh Kale, in Wales;
  5. Romanichal, in the United Kingdom, emigrated also to the United States and Australia;
  6. Sinti, in German-speaking areas of Central Europe and some neighboring countries;
  7. Manush, in French-speaking areas of Central Europe;
  8. Romanisæl, in Sweden and Norway.
.Among Romanies there are further internal differentiations, like Bashaldé; Churari; Luri; Ungaritza; Lovari (Lovara) from Hungary; Machvaya (Machavaya, Machwaya, or Macwaia) from Serbia; Romungro (Modyar or Modgar) from Hungary and neighbouring carpathian countries; Erlides (also Yerlii or Arli); Xoraxai (Horahane) from Greece/Turkey; Boyash (Lingurari, Ludar, Ludari, Rudari, or Zlătari) from Romanian words for various crafts: (Lingurari - spoon makers, Rudari - wood crafters; Zlătari - goldsmiths); Ursari from Romanian/Moldovan bear-trainers; Argintari from silversmiths; Aurari from goldsmiths; Florari from florists; and Lăutari from musicians.^ Some of these group names are: Machvaya ( Machwaya ), Lovari , Churari , Sinti , Rudari , Boyash , Ludar , Luri , Xoraxai , Ungaritza , Bashaldé , Ursari and Romungro .
  • Roma people at AllExperts 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Is there something like Romani art?
  • Gallery of Katarzyna Pollok's Art / paintings and objects About my work 20 September 2009 19:43 UTC katarzynapollok.de [Source type: Original source]
  • Gallery of Katarzyna Pollok's Art / paintings and objects About my work 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC www.katarzynapollok.de [Source type: Original source]

^ There are numerous subgroups and clans with their own self-designations, such as the Kalderash , Machvaya , Boyash , Lovari , Modyar , Xoraxai , L?utari , etc.
  • Community Profile Home on CBS.com 20 September 2009 19:43 UTC www.cbs.com [Source type: General]
  • Community Activities for 1177030 on CBS.com 20 September 2009 19:43 UTC www.cbs.com [Source type: General]
  • Criminal Minds Community Message Board - CBS.com 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC www.cbs.com [Source type: General]

History

Origins

.Linguistic and genetic evidence indicates the Romanies originated from the Indian subcontinent, emigrating from India towards the northwest no earlier than the 11th century.^ Genetic data strongly supports linguistic evidence that the Roma originated on the Indian subcontinent .
  • IDEA: International Debate Education Association - Debate Resources & Debate Tools 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC www.idebate.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Linguistic and genetic evidence indicates the Roma originated on the Indian Subcontinent .
  • Roma people at AllExperts 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Genetic data strongly supports linguistic evidence that the Roma originated on the Indian subcontinent.
  • Roma people at AllExperts 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Romani are generally believed to have originated in central India, possibly in the modern Indian state of Rajasthan, migrating to northwest India (the Punjab region) around 250 B.C. In the centuries spent here, there may have been close interaction with such established groups as the Rajputs and the Jats.^ The Roma are believed to have originated in the Punjab and Rajasthan regions of the Indian subcontinent .
  • IDEA: International Debate Education Association - Debate Resources & Debate Tools 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC www.idebate.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Gypsies originated in the Punjab region of northwestern India.
  • RADOC 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC www.radoc.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Romani people are such an ethnic group.
  • Arrests made in gypsy scam against the elderly - Mean Streets 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC blogs.dailynews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Their subsequent westward migration, possibly in waves, is believed to have occurred between 500 A.D. and 1000 A.D. Contemporary populations sometimes suggested as sharing a close relationship to the Romani are the Dom people of Central Asia and the Banjara of India.^ I'd love to see her in Justice League of America, but if Mr. McDuffie used her, I believe he said he'd have to change her name due to Gypsy being offensive to Romani people.
  • DC Comics Message Boards: Gypsy ... 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC dcboards.warnerbros.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The question is, did the Romani people actually spread, from Persia, both to the east (India) as well as to the west (Europe)?
  • IDEA: International Debate Education Association - Debate Resources & Debate Tools 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC www.idebate.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Romani people strongly believe that they have the right to determine the course and direction of their children's education, and that educational decisions should not be imposed upon them by an outside authority.
  • Recognising Difference: The Romani "GYPSY" Child Socialisation and Education Process 20 September 2009 19:43 UTC www.osi.hu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[36]
.The emigration from India likely took place in the context of the raids by Mahmud of Ghazni[37] As these soldiers were defeated, they were moved west with their families into the Byzantine Empire.^ Or perhaps the Muslim conquerors of northern India took the Roma as slave s and brought them home, where they became a distinct community; Mahmud of Ghazni reportedly took 500,000 prisoners during a Turkish / Persian invasion of Sindh and Punjab .
  • Roma people at AllExperts 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By the end of the year some families had moved into the completed houses and apartments, but community leaders expressed concerns that guarantees for their safety and access to education had not been provided.
  • Document - Europe: Discrimination against Roma | Amnesty International 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC www.amnesty.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It contains a background history of the Roma, where they traveled to when they first started emigrating from India , and how they were and are currently being persecuted.
  • Untitled Document 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC www.u.arizona.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The 11th century terminus post quem is due to the Romani language showing unambiguous features of the Modern Indo-Aryan languages,[38] precluding an emigration during the Middle Indic period.^ Middle Indo-Aryan cluster.
  • RADOC 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC www.radoc.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Romani is the only language in Europe that is from aryan /indo-aryan/ origin.
  • IDEA: International Debate Education Association - Debate Resources & Debate Tools 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC www.idebate.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Traditionally most Roma spoke Romani (Romany), an Indo-Aryan language.
  • Roma people at AllExperts 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Genetic evidence supports the medieval migration from India.^ The additional claim I make that the Domari language and its speakers left India earlier than did Romani and its speakers, might also be supported by the evidence of gender.
  • RADOC 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC www.radoc.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Genetic data strongly supports linguistic evidence that the Roma originated on the Indian subcontinent.
  • Roma people at AllExperts 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Genetic data strongly supports linguistic evidence that the Roma originated on the Indian subcontinent .
  • IDEA: International Debate Education Association - Debate Resources & Debate Tools 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC www.idebate.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Romanies have been described as "a conglomerate of genetically isolated founder populations",[39] while a number of common Mendelian disorders among Romanies from all over Europe indicates "a common origin and founder effect".[39][40] A study from 2001 by Gresham et al.^ In May 2001, The Economist stated that Romanies in Europe were at the bottom of every socioeconomic indicator: the least educated, the poorest, the most unemployed, the shortest-lived, the most imprisoned, the most welfare-dependent and the most segregated.
  • UT Feature Story -- What's in a Name?: Professor takes on roles of Romani activist and spokesperson to improve plight of his ethnic group 20 September 2009 19:43 UTC www.utexas.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • UT Feature Story -- What's in a Name?: Professor takes on roles of Romani activist and spokesperson to improve plight of his ethnic group 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC www.cc.utexas.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ His book begins with a historical account of the origins of the Romanies, their flight from India around a thousand years ago, and gradual migration westward into Europe.
  • Review: We Are the Romani People by Ian Hancock | Books | The Guardian 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ Yet further evidence supporting the dates of movement out of India and into Europe argued for in this study is provided by a recent examination of a number of “private” genetic mutations that are exclusively responsible for the specific disorders in the Romani people (Morar et al ., 2004).
  • RADOC 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC www.radoc.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

suggests ."a limited number of related founders, compatible with a small group of migrants splitting from a distinct caste or tribal group".[41] The same study found that "a single lineage ...^ Khowar and Kalasha are always classified as closely related members of the same language group, the Chitral sub-group.
  • Dardic languages in Chitral 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC www.anusha.com [Source type: Original source]

^ A 1997 study found that 41 per cent of Romani women over 18 had never attended school.
  • Macedonia: "Little by little we women have learned our rights." The Macedonian government's failure to uphold the rights of Romani women and girls 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC www.amnestyusa.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The difficulty to integrate a large number of people in studies has also been observed by ethnologists and anthropologists at the same time.
  • [Romani] Projekt / ROMA AND ROMANI IN AUSTRIA 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC romani.kfunigraz.ac.at [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

found across .Romani populations, accounts for almost one-third of Romani males."^ One counter-argument has been that the lexicon would naturally be drawn from the local language since the Romanies’ commercial interaction was with the host population.
  • RADOC 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC www.radoc.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In Yugoslavia, three thousand issues of a Romani paper are printed for a Romani population of one hundred and twenty thousand; in Berlin, one thousand copies are printed for a population of sixteen thousand.
  • The Media and the Roma in Contemporary Europe: Facts and Fictions 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC www.per-usa.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Their attendance rates at elementary school are considerably lower than for non-Romani children, and one third are officially estimated never to have gone to school.
  • Amnesty International Canada || Resource Centre 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC www.amnesty.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[41] .A 2004 study by Morar et al.^ Lapinska et al, Needs Assessment , 2004.
  • Macedonia: "Little by little we women have learned our rights." The Macedonian government's failure to uphold the rights of Romani women and girls 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC www.amnestyusa.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Girls, particularly, are unlikely to complete elementary school studies (Forray et al.
  • Recognising Difference: The Romani "GYPSY" Child Socialisation and Education Process 20 September 2009 19:43 UTC www.osi.hu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

concluded that the Romani population "was founded approximately 32–40 generations ago, with secondary and tertiary founder events occurring approximately 16–25 generations ago".[42]

Possible connection with the Jat people

.While the South Asian origin of the Romani people has been long considered a certitude, the exact South Asian group from whom the Romanies have descended has been a matter of debate.^ The Romani people are such an ethnic group.
  • Arrests made in gypsy scam against the elderly - Mean Streets 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC blogs.dailynews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Amnesty International considers that successive governments in Macedonia have consistently failed to take measures to respect, protect and fulfil the human rights of Romani people.
  • Macedonia: "Little by little we women have learned our rights." The Macedonian government's failure to uphold the rights of Romani women and girls 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC www.amnestyusa.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Valery_Novoselsky wrote: The absence of a written history has meant that the origin and early history of the Romani people was long an enigma.
  • IDEA: International Debate Education Association - Debate Resources & Debate Tools 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC www.idebate.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The recent discovery of the "Jat mutation" that causes a type of glaucoma in Romani populations suggests that the Romani people are the descendants of the Jat people found in Northern India and Pakistan.^ The Roma are descendants of the ancient warrior classes of Northern India, particularly the Punjub, and they are identifiable by their language, religion, and customs, which can be directly linked to those of the Punjabi in Northern India.
  • MySpace - Romani Community of Las Vegas / Gypsy / Rom - 38 - Male - NORTH LAS VEGAS, Nevada - myspace.com/romanilv 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Committee’s first goal will be to unify the associations and representatives of Roma and Sinti communities which have been operating on behalf of the Romani population in Italy in recent years .
  • ERIO / Publications / Articles / Romani Linguistic Minority in Italy 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC www.erionet.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The question is, did the Romani people actually spread, from Persia, both to the east (India) as well as to the west (Europe)?
  • IDEA: International Debate Education Association - Debate Resources & Debate Tools 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC www.idebate.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[43]
.This contradicted an earlier study that compared the most common haplotypes found in Romani groups with those found in Jatt Sikhs and Jats from Haryana and found no matches.^ In 2005, UNDP found that 31 per cent of Roma in Macedonia, compared to 8 per cent of non-Roma, had received no education or an inadequate education.
  • Macedonia: "Little by little we women have learned our rights." The Macedonian government's failure to uphold the rights of Romani women and girls 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC www.amnestyusa.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A focus will be placed on comparing the goals of the Romani NGOs with those of the media and with the expectations that non-affiliated people have for Romani media.
  • Rrommedia Network English 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC www.rrommedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Adolescents and children once spent most of their day with Romani adults and children from a range of age-groups, often up to three generations.
  • Recognising Difference: The Romani "GYPSY" Child Socialisation and Education Process 20 September 2009 19:43 UTC www.osi.hu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[44] .The haplogroup H, which is the most common haplogroup in Romanis is far more prevalent in central India and south India than it is in northern India, where haplogroup R1a lineages makes up at least half of male ancestries, and haplogroup H is rare.^ Without an elementary education, more than half of Romani women are excluded from employment in state institutions which require this basic qualification.
  • Macedonia: "Little by little we women have learned our rights." The Macedonian government's failure to uphold the rights of Romani women and girls 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC www.amnestyusa.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ His statements were far more likely an attack on the provincial government, rather than a serious proposal, however, and after winning the election did nothing to advance this idea.
  • Software Development :: Romanian Canadian Community,Comunitatea Romaneasca in Canada,Romani in Canada,Romani in Toronto,Romani canadieni,comunitate romaneasca,comunitate romani,romani Canada,romani Toronto,romani Ontario 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC www.theromanians.ca [Source type: General]

^ Because of the central government’s historic neglect of the south, separatist sentiments flare up there from time to time, noted Banatte.?
  • Shattering Haiti: An Unnatural Disaster « Kasama 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC mikeely.wordpress.com [Source type: News]

Appearance in Europe

The migration of the Romanies through the Middle East and Northern Africa to Europe
.
First arrival of the Romanies outside Berne in the 15th century, described by the chronicler as getoufte heiden ("baptized heathens") and drawn with dark skin and wearing Saracen-style clothing and weapons (Spiezer Schilling, p.
^ First arrival of the Roma outside Berne in the 15th century, described by the chronicler as getoufte heiden "baptized heathens" and drawn with dark skin and wearing Saracen style clothes and weapons ( Spiezer Schilling , p.
  • Roma people at AllExperts 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The first major migrations to Europe date primarily from the 14 th and 15 th century [4] , and successive waves of migration brought Romani communities to a range of countries over time.
  • People on the Move, N� 101 (suppl.) 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC www.vatican.va [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The first of these Ordines Romani, describing the ceremonies of a solemn Mass celebrated by the pope himself or his deputy, is the most valuable, as it is also one of the most ancient.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Ordines Romani 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

749).
An 1852 Wallachian poster advertising an auction of Romani slaves in Bucharest.
.In 1322 CE a Franciscan monk named Symon Semeonis described people resembling these "atsinganoi" living in Crete and in 1350 CE Ludolphus of Sudheim mentioned a similar people with a unique language whom he called Mandapolos, a word which some theorize was possibly derived from the Greek word mantes (meaning prophet or fortune teller).^ In 1322 a Franciscan monk named Simon Simeonis described people in likeness to the "atsingani" living in Crete and in 1350 Ludolphus of Sudheim mentioned a similar people with a unique language who he called Mandapolos , a word which some theorize was possibly derived from the greek word mantes (meaning prophet or fortune teller ).
  • Roma people at AllExperts 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The modern Balkan languages, including Albanian, Greek, and several Slavic and Romance languages, evolved over centuries among people who spoke each others’ languages and interacted daily, sharing words and speaking manners, so that eventually their languages began to resemble one another.
  • The University of Chicago Magazine: August 2003 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC magazine.uchicago.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ WARNING: This site contains: names, information and images of deceased people; and, language which may be considered inappropriate today.

[45]
Around 1360, an independent Romani fiefdom (called the Feudum Acinganorum) was established in Corfu and became "a settled community and an important and established part of the economy."[46]
.By the 14th century, the Romanies had reached the Balkans; by 1424 CE, Germany; and by the 16th century, Scotland and Sweden.^ We suffered five and a half centuries of slavery and oppression in the Balkans, so a lot of Romanies don’t see that the mainstream has ever done a whole lot for us.
  • UT Feature Story -- What's in a Name?: Professor takes on roles of Romani activist and spokesperson to improve plight of his ethnic group 20 September 2009 19:43 UTC www.utexas.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ References: (1) Matras, Yaron, 1999, Johann Rüdiger and the study of Romani in 18th century Germany .
  • Desicritics.org: Names of the Romani People 20 September 2009 19:43 UTC desicritics.org [Source type: Original source]

.Some Romanies migrated from Persia through North Africa, reaching the Iberian Peninsula in the 15th century.^ Some Roma migrated from Persia through North Africa , reaching Europe via Spain in the 15th century.
  • Roma people at AllExperts 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ According to the linguist Vania de Gila Kochanowski, in the IX century Islam invaded India and the Indians that were living in the north-western territories of the Hindustani peninsula started a great migration westward.

^ It is probable that the Romani migration passed through Persia, but at a more recent date, somewhere around the Ninth or Tenth century.
  • O VURD�N (English Version) 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC www.vurdon.it [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The two currents met in France.^ The two currents met in France.
  • Roma people at AllExperts 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Romanies began immigrating to the United States in colonial times, with small groups in Virginia and French Louisiana.^ Roma began immigrating to the United States in colonial times, with small groups in Virginia and French Louisiana .
  • Roma people at AllExperts 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Because all Romanies use the word Romani as an adjective, the term began to be used as a noun for the entire ethnic group.
  • Criminal Minds Community Message Board - CBS.com 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC www.cbs.com [Source type: General]

^ A small number of men were trafficked to the United States for coerced labor.

.Larger-scale immigration began in the 1860s, with groups of Romnaichal from Britain.^ Larger-scale immigration began in the 1860s, with groups of Romnichal from Britain .
  • Roma people at AllExperts 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Roma began immigrating to the United States in colonial times, with small groups in Virginia and French Louisiana .
  • Roma people at AllExperts 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The largest number immigrated in the early 1900s, mainly from the Vlax group of Kalderash.^ The largest number immigrated in the early 1900s, mainly from the Vlax group of Kalderash .
  • Roma people at AllExperts 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sinti groups are mainly living in cities, their number decreases when going from the eastern to the western side of Austria.
  • [Romani] Projekt / ROMA AND ROMANI IN AUSTRIA 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC romani.kfunigraz.ac.at [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This group is also referred to in the literature as Nomads, Coppersmiths, Nomad Coppersmiths, Vlach (or Vlax) Gypsies, or by reference to a country from which they immigrated to North America, as Brazilian Gypsies, Bulgarian Gypsies, and so forth.
  • Gypsy Lore - Gypsies History, Rom History, Fortune Telling, Holocaust 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC www.gypsyadvice.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Many Romanies also settled in South America.^ Many Roma also settled in Latin America .
  • Roma people at AllExperts 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Today, Gypsy people prefer to be identified as Romany in Europe and in America; but in the Middle East & North Africa many still refer to themselves as Dom.
  • Dom Research Center - News Clips - Israel - '2001 International Romani Union Report:' 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC www.domresearchcenter.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.When the Romani people arrived in Europe, curiosity was soon followed by hostility and xenophobia.^ Wherever they arrived in Europe, curiosity was soon followed by hostility and xenophobia .
  • Roma people at AllExperts 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The ancestors of Romanies originated in India 1,000 years ago, then moved west in response to the spread of Islam, arriving in Europe around 1300.
  • UT Feature Story -- What's in a Name?: Professor takes on roles of Romani activist and spokesperson to improve plight of his ethnic group 20 September 2009 19:43 UTC www.utexas.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • UT Feature Story -- What's in a Name?: Professor takes on roles of Romani activist and spokesperson to improve plight of his ethnic group 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC www.cc.utexas.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The question is, did the Romani people actually spread, from Persia, both to the east (India) as well as to the west (Europe)?
  • IDEA: International Debate Education Association - Debate Resources & Debate Tools 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC www.idebate.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Romanies were enslaved for five centuries in Wallachia and Moldavia until abolition in 1856.[47] Elsewhere in Europe, they were subject to ethnic cleansing, abduction of their children, and forced labor.^ Elsewhere in Europe, they were subject to expulsion , abduction of their children, and forced labor .
  • Roma people at AllExperts 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Roma were enslaved for five centuries in Romania until abolition in 1864.
  • Roma people at AllExperts 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We suffered five and a half centuries of slavery and oppression in the Balkans, so a lot of Romanies don’t see that the mainstream has ever done a whole lot for us.
  • UT Feature Story -- What's in a Name?: Professor takes on roles of Romani activist and spokesperson to improve plight of his ethnic group 20 September 2009 19:43 UTC www.utexas.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • UT Feature Story -- What's in a Name?: Professor takes on roles of Romani activist and spokesperson to improve plight of his ethnic group 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC www.cc.utexas.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In England, there were hangings and expulsions of the Romani; in France, branding and the shaving of heads; in Moravia and Bohemia severing of ears of women.^ ESE and several other NGOs, including ethnic Albanian and one Romani NGO, provide women with legal and other advice.
  • Macedonia: "Little by little we women have learned our rights." The Macedonian government's failure to uphold the rights of Romani women and girls 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC www.amnestyusa.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There was some evidence of a small amount of internal trafficking of primarily Romani women and children for prostitution from areas of low employment to border areas with Germany and Austria.

^ There are 10 Romani police officers known to be working in the South Moravia Region, of whom 6 are in Brno (CR-Brno Police 25 Mar.
  • Issue Papers, Extended Responses and Country Fact Sheets 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC www2.irb-cisr.gc.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.As a result, large groups of the Romani travelled back East, towards Poland, which was more tolerant, and Russia, where the Romani were also treated less heavy-handedly, as long as they paid the annual taxes.^ Romani Identity "True freedom for a group will only be achieved when they are in control of their own image."
  • The Media and the Roma in Contemporary Europe: Facts and Fictions 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC www.per-usa.org [Source type: Original source]

^ This experience has made clear just how important it is to take a large group for the acquisition of information in order to obtain results that are practicable.
  • [Romani] Projekt / ROMA AND ROMANI IN AUSTRIA 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC romani.kfunigraz.ac.at [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A look at Romani-English dictionary is enough to understand that they were Indians 1000 year back."
  • Desicritics.org: Historical Amnesia: The Romani Holocaust 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC desicritics.org [Source type: Original source]

[48]
Sinti and Roma about to be deported in Germany, May 22, 1940

World War II

.During World War II, the Nazis embarked on systematic attempt at genocide of the Romanies, known as the Porajmos.^ During World War II , the Nazis murdered 200,000 to 800,000 Roma in an attempted genocide known as the Porajmos .
  • Roma people at AllExperts 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Persecution of Roma reached a peak during World War II in the Porajmos .
  • Roma people at AllExperts 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A subsequent policy sought to integrate Roma through their dispersal and transfer from settlements in Slovakia to the Czech lands (whose pre-war Romani population was almost entirely exterminated during World War II).
  • People on the Move, N� 101 (suppl.) 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC www.vatican.va [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[49] .They were marked for extermination and sentenced to forced labor and imprisonment in concentration camps.^ Like the Jew s, they were sentenced to forced labour and imprisonment in concentration camp s.
  • Roma people at AllExperts 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Elsewhere in Europe, they were subject to expulsion , abduction of their children, and forced labor .
  • Roma people at AllExperts 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Half of the prisoners became property of the state and were sent to forced labor camps to raise food crops or build roads and other public works.
  • "Welcome to America and the real world of Virginia" - Sepia Mutiny 20 September 2009 19:43 UTC www.sepiamutiny.com [Source type: Original source]

.They were often killed on sight, especially by the Einsatzgruppen (essentially mobile killing units) on the Eastern Front.^ They were often killed on sight, especially by the Einsatzgruppen on the Eastern Front.
  • Roma people at AllExperts 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the Baltic states and German-occupied USSR, Romanies were killed along with Jews and communist leaders by the Einsatzgruppen (mobile killing units).
  • Desicritics.org: Historical Amnesia: The Romani Holocaust 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC desicritics.org [Source type: Original source]

.The total number of victims has been variously estimated at between 220,000 to 1,500,000; even the lowest number would count as one of the largest mass murders in history.^ Total number of Roma in this area is over 5,000.
  • Roma of Bosnia and Herzegovina 20 September 2009 19:43 UTC www.gfbv-sa.com.ba [Source type: Original source]

^ By the end of his rule, Idi Amin killed between 100,000 and 500,000 people and is now known as the Butcher of Uganda.

^ The Fund for Endangered Children estimated that the total number of children suffering from physical, psychological, or sexual abuse was between 20,000 and 40,000.

Post-1945

.In Communist Eastern Europe, Romanies experienced assimilation schemes and restrictions of cultural freedom.^ Although Roma had received State support for the development of their cultural identity in some communist countries, later on they were often subjected to policies of forced assimilation.
  • People on the Move, N� 101 (suppl.) 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC www.vatican.va [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Romani culture and language has confronted a critical situation which has existed for seven to eight hundred years in Europe.
  • http://www.coe.int/t/dg3/romatravellers/documentation/Education/RepConferenceonHarmonisationofTeaching%20Materials_en.asp 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC www.coe.int [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After the war, a majority of Europes Romani communities lived under communist regimes.
  • People on the Move, N� 101 (suppl.) 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC www.vatican.va [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.October 2008" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] The Romani language and Romani music were banned from public performance in Bulgaria.^ The Romani language and Roma music were banned from public performance in Bulgaria .
  • Roma people at AllExperts 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During 2007 and 2008, members of Romani communities as well as Romani settlements have been at the receiving end of several measures taken by the authorities in the name of 'security', as well as vigilante style attacks by members of the public.
  • Italy: The witch-hunt against Roma people must end 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC www.amnestyusa.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Veritas, Bucarest, 2002, Romania AJKUK, Farid At Siameur, publication in the context of the programmes Comenius, four languages : Romanian, Romani, bulgarian and hungarian, Ed.
  • http://www.coe.int/t/dg3/romatravellers/documentation/Education/RepConferenceonHarmonisationofTeaching%20Materials_en.asp 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC www.coe.int [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In Czechoslovakia, they were labeled a "socially degraded stratum,"[citation needed] and Romani women were sterilized as part of a state policy to reduce their population.^ In Czechoslovakia , they were labeled a "socially degraded stratum," and Roma women were sterilized as part of a state policy to reduce their population.
  • Roma people at AllExperts 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Romani women and girls are often perceived by the majority community and international organizations as having been trafficked when they enter an arranged marriage.
  • Macedonia: "Little by little we women have learned our rights." The Macedonian government's failure to uphold the rights of Romani women and girls 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC www.amnestyusa.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Romani women with secondary and higher education, within the state sector, ensuring that appointments are commensurate with their skills and experience; .
  • Macedonia: "Little by little we women have learned our rights." The Macedonian government's failure to uphold the rights of Romani women and girls 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC www.amnestyusa.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This policy was implemented with large financial incentives, threats of denying future welfare payments, with misinformation, or after administering drugs (Silverman 1995; Helsinki Watch 1991).^ This policy was implemented with large financial incentives, threats of denying future social welfare payments, misinformation, and involuntary sterilization (Silverman 1995; Helsinki Watch 1991).
  • Roma people at AllExperts 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Helsinki Watch, 1991, pp.
  • Recognising Difference: The Romani "GYPSY" Child Socialisation and Education Process 20 September 2009 19:43 UTC www.osi.hu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A national SOS hotline run by ESE is linked to six shelters administered by the Department of Labour and Social Welfare, and funded largely by international donors.
  • Macedonia: "Little by little we women have learned our rights." The Macedonian government's failure to uphold the rights of Romani women and girls 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC www.amnestyusa.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.An official inquiry from the Czech Republic, resulting in a report (December 2005), concluded that the Communist authorities had practiced an assimilation policy towards Romanies, which "included efforts by social services to control the birth rate in the Romani community" and that "the problem of sexual sterilization carried out in the Czech Republic, either with improper motivation or illegally, exists"[50] with new revealed cases up until 2004, in both the Czech Republic and Slovakia.^ The center also contains reports from international human rights groups, including Helsinki Watch, a division of Human Rights Watch, that document rising violence against Romanies and the continuing problem of discrimination in employment and social services.
  • UT Feature Story -- What's in a Name?: Professor takes on roles of Romani activist and spokesperson to improve plight of his ethnic group 20 September 2009 19:43 UTC www.utexas.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • UT Feature Story -- What's in a Name?: Professor takes on roles of Romani activist and spokesperson to improve plight of his ethnic group 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC www.cc.utexas.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A subsequent policy sought to integrate Roma through their dispersal and transfer from settlements in Slovakia to the Czech lands (whose pre-war Romani population was almost entirely exterminated during World War II).
  • People on the Move, N� 101 (suppl.) 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC www.vatican.va [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ DROM DROM is a Brno-based NGO that was founded in 1989 and carries out a wide range of activities in Romani communities, including social and legal services, child care, education, and recreational activities.
  • Issue Papers, Extended Responses and Country Fact Sheets 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC www2.irb-cisr.gc.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[51]

Society and culture

A Gipsy Family - Facsimile of a woodcut in the "Cosmographie Universelle" of Munster: in folio, Basle, 1552.
.The traditional Romanies place a high value on the extended family.^ The traditional Roma place a high value on the extended family .
  • Roma people at AllExperts 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Romani economic activities in the United Kingdom, that children by the age of 5 or 6 can differentiate between ferrous metals of high value and non-ferrous metals of a cheaper value.
  • Recognising Difference: The Romani "GYPSY" Child Socialisation and Education Process 20 September 2009 19:43 UTC www.osi.hu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Written Romani literature includes ample poetic production that expresses both feelings born of everyday life and the desire to rediscover fundamental traditional values.
  • O VURD�N (English Version) 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC www.vurdon.it [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Virginity is essential in unmarried women.^ Virginity is essential in unmarried women.
  • Roma people at AllExperts 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Both men and women often marry young; there has been controversy in several countries over the Romani practice of child marriage.^ Both men and women often marry young; there has been controversy in several countries over the Roma practice of child marriage .
  • Roma people at AllExperts 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Amnesty International is concerned that customary practices, combined with economic pressure, may result in some young women being forced into marriage against their will.
  • Macedonia: "Little by little we women have learned our rights." The Macedonian government's failure to uphold the rights of Romani women and girls 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC www.amnestyusa.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Romani women and girls are often perceived by the majority community and international organizations as having been trafficked when they enter an arranged marriage.
  • Macedonia: "Little by little we women have learned our rights." The Macedonian government's failure to uphold the rights of Romani women and girls 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC www.amnestyusa.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Romani law establishes that the man's family must pay a bride price to the bride's parents, but only traditional families still follow this rule.^ Roma law establishes that the man's family must pay a dowry to the bride's parents.
  • Roma people at AllExperts 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In families where ties still exist and where ways of living together that have been handed down are still valid, Romani is still being used as an intimate variety.
  • [Romani] Projekt / ROMA AND ROMANI IN AUSTRIA 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC romani.kfunigraz.ac.at [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Even if a Dom man had money and a house he would still spend it freely thinking only about living for the day.
  • Dom Research Center - News Clips - Israel - '2001 International Romani Union Report:' 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC www.domresearchcenter.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Once married, the woman joins the husband's family, where her main job is to tend to her husband's and her children's needs, as well as to take care of her in-laws.^ In addition, families are often unable to afford clothes to wear to school: a woman from Shtip told Amnesty International, "We have problems in sending the children to school; we have problems to find them clothes."
  • Macedonia: "Little by little we women have learned our rights." The Macedonian government's failure to uphold the rights of Romani women and girls 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC www.amnestyusa.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Another Roma family from Prizren was expelled on 15 May 1999 - husband, wife and four children.
  • Roma of Bosnia and Herzegovina 20 September 2009 19:43 UTC www.gfbv-sa.com.ba [Source type: Original source]

^ Some Romani children may temporarily be absent from school when their families take part in the seasonal harvest.
  • Macedonia: "Little by little we women have learned our rights." The Macedonian government's failure to uphold the rights of Romani women and girls 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC www.amnestyusa.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The power structure in the traditional Romani household has at its top the oldest man or grandfather, and men in general have more authority than women.^ Romani nominal paradigms: their structure, diversity and development Viktor Elsk The paper intends to discover general principles in the structure of Romani nominal paradigms, with particular regard to inflectional subclassification.

^ Members of Esma, the oldest Romani women's NGO, with several members in their 60s, 70s and 80s, told Amnesty International that they had grown up in a "hard traditional society", where domestic violence was never discussed.
  • Macedonia: "Little by little we women have learned our rights." The Macedonian government's failure to uphold the rights of Romani women and girls 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC www.amnestyusa.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The loyalty of these men shifted more and more to their generals, preparing the ground for many bloody civil wars of the 1st century BC. .

.Women gain respect and authority as they get older.^ For older women, like Nona, aged 75, education was impossible: " Romani girls and boys are divided from when they are very little.
  • Macedonia: "Little by little we women have learned our rights." The Macedonian government's failure to uphold the rights of Romani women and girls 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC www.amnestyusa.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Reports by Romani NGOs and individuals suggest that when Romani women do gain employment, they are subjected to further discrimination, including verbal abuse and harassment from their employers.
  • Macedonia: "Little by little we women have learned our rights." The Macedonian government's failure to uphold the rights of Romani women and girls 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC www.amnestyusa.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They are getting good jobs and gaining the respect of others.
  • Dom Research Center - News Clips - Israel - '2001 International Romani Union Report:' 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC www.domresearchcenter.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Young wives begin gaining authority once they have children.^ Romani people strongly believe that they have the right to determine the course and direction of their children's education, and that educational decisions should not be imposed upon them by an outside authority.
  • Recognising Difference: The Romani "GYPSY" Child Socialisation and Education Process 20 September 2009 19:43 UTC www.osi.hu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Romani children, they suggested, were initially "fascinated" by school, and worked hard to gain the acceptance of the teacher.
  • Recognising Difference: The Romani "GYPSY" Child Socialisation and Education Process 20 September 2009 19:43 UTC www.osi.hu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Once all 10 of them are behind following Link, they will immediately begin to transform into full-grown Cuccos.
  • Romani Ranch - Zelda Wiki.org 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC www.zeldawiki.org [Source type: General]

.Romani social behavior is strictly regulated by Hindu purity laws ("marime" or "marhime"), still respected by most Roma (and by most older generations of Sinti).^ Roma social behaviour is strictly regulated by purity laws ("marime" or "marhime"), still respected by most Roma and among Sinti groups by the older generations.
  • Roma people at AllExperts 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Centuries of persecution and especially its culmination, represented by the Nazi genocide leading to the death of 600.000 Roma, Sinti and Kale, have physically destroyed entire generations of Romani speakers and tens of Romani dialects.
  • http://www.coe.int/t/dg3/romatravellers/documentation/Education/RepConferenceonHarmonisationofTeaching%20Materials_en.asp 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC www.coe.int [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most of the time, Romani just functions as internal means of communication of the older generation and partly also when in contact with other Roma from or in the country of origin.
  • [Romani] Projekt / ROMA AND ROMANI IN AUSTRIA 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC romani.kfunigraz.ac.at [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This regulation affects many aspects of life, and is applied to actions, people and things: parts of the human body are considered impure: the genital organs (because they produce emissions), as well as the rest of the lower body.^ This regulation affects many aspects of life, and is applied to actions, people and things: parts of the human body are considered impure: the genital organs, because they produce impure emissions, and the lower body.
  • Roma people at AllExperts 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They are not affected by the inherent stereotypes to a level that would trigger the promotion of the self-denominations, because they don’t live in the same “household” with the rest of the World, they don’t share their daily life with the others.
  • Desicritics.org: Names of the Romani People 20 September 2009 19:43 UTC desicritics.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Amnesty International considers that successive governments in Macedonia have consistently failed to take measures to respect, protect and fulfil the human rights of Romani people.
  • Macedonia: "Little by little we women have learned our rights." The Macedonian government's failure to uphold the rights of Romani women and girls 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC www.amnestyusa.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Fingernails and toenails must be filed with an emery board, as cutting them with a clipper is a taboo.^ Fingernails and toenails must be filed with an emery board, as cutting them with a clipper is taboo.
  • Roma people at AllExperts 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Clothes for the lower body, as well as the clothes of menstruating women, are washed separately.^ Clothes for the lower body, as well as the clothes of menstruating women are washed separately.
  • Roma people at AllExperts 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Items used for eating are also washed in a different place.^ Items used for eating are also washed in a different place.
  • Roma people at AllExperts 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Childbirth is considered impure, and must occur outside the dwelling place.^ Childbirth is considered impure, and must occur outside the dwelling place.
  • Roma people at AllExperts 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The mother is considered impure for forty days after giving birth.^ The mother is considered impure for forty days.
  • Roma people at AllExperts 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ My eldest daughter Katherine is due to give birth..infact she was due to give birth 5 days ago !!..and so my days are filled waiting for the telephone to ring.

.Death is considered impure, and affects the whole family of the dead, who remain impure for a period of time.^ Death is considered impure, and affects the whole family of the dead, who remain impure for a period of time.
  • Roma people at AllExperts 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Formerly the period of pregnancy and the time just after the birth of a child were much respected; there was the concept of impurity linked to birth, with various prohibitions for the woman who has just given birth.
  • O VURD�N (English Version) 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC www.vurdon.it [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In contrast to the practice of cremating the dead, Romani dead must be buried.^ However, in contrast to the Hindu practice of cremating the dead, Roma dead must be buried.
  • Roma people at AllExperts 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[52] .Cremation and burial are both known from the time of the Rigveda, and both are widely practiced in Hinduism today (although the tendency for higher caste groups is to burn, while lower caste groups in South India tend to bury their dead).^ However, in contrast to the Hindu practice of cremating the dead, Roma dead must be buried.
  • Roma people at AllExperts 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although they all belong to one ethnic group, it is hypothesized that their migration out of India was spread out over time, and that even in India they were already divided into groups and subgroups speaking different, though related, dialects.
  • O VURD�N (English Version) 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC www.vurdon.it [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[53] .Some animals are also considered impure, for instance cats because they lick themselves[54].^ This regulation affects many aspects of life, and is applied to actions, people and things: parts of the human body are considered impure: the genital organs, because they produce impure emissions, and the lower body.
  • Roma people at AllExperts 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They are found in historical documentation as far back as 1300 A.C.E. Because they were considered “different” from a majority of the population, they were persecuted for a very long time.
  • Untitled Document 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC www.u.arizona.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ She said that the journalists present had to bear some responsibility for the situation, because in six years they had not been able to produce a single professional Romani journalist.
  • The Media and the Roma in Contemporary Europe: Facts and Fictions 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC www.per-usa.org [Source type: Original source]

Religion

Muslim Romanies in Bosnia and Herzegovina (around 1900)
.Migrant Romani populations have adopted the dominant religion of their country of residence, while often preserving aspects of older belief systems and forms of worship.^ Although there are no obvious (morphological) means for rendering aspect in Romani, dialects in contact with Slavonic languages show tendencies to copy the aspectual system of their contact languages.

^ In countries with numerically small and/or linguistically heterogenous Roma populations, Romani programmes are mostly bilingual in Romani and the respective majority language.
  • TRANS Nr. 15: Dieter W. Halwachs (University of Graz, Austria): ROMANI between the Scylla of Language Death and the Charybdis of Folklorisation 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC www.inst.at [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Romani culture, represented by a complex of traditions and beliefs, is in a phase of constant change, and in some cases it is disintegrating irreversibly in the face of the cultural hegemony of the sedentary population.
  • O VURD�N (English Version) 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC www.vurdon.it [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Most Eastern European Romanies are Roman Catholic or Orthodox Christian or Muslim.^ Example 10 shows an intercession used in a Roman Catholic Mass which was celebrated for Roma especially.example 10 1996 / Burgenland-Romani .
  • TRANS Nr. 15: Dieter W. Halwachs (University of Graz, Austria): ROMANI between the Scylla of Language Death and the Charybdis of Folklorisation 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC www.inst.at [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are Muslims, Orthodox, Catholics, Jehovah’s, and so on, so you can’t base your objections on religious and moral principles.
  • IDEA: International Debate Education Association - Debate Resources & Debate Tools 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC www.idebate.org [Source type: General]

^ Most Eastern European Roma are Catholic , Orthodox Christian or Muslim .
  • Roma people at AllExperts 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Those in western Europe and the United States are mostly Roman Catholic or Protestant.^ Women and girls from the former Soviet Union (in particular, Russia, Belarus, Ukraine, and Moldova), Eastern Europe, the Balkans, and Asia were trafficked into the country and onward to Western Europe and the United States for prostitution.

^ These units are mostly equipped and fight in the manner as normal Roman cavalry.

^ "Unlike the situation in Europe, where Gypsies are much in evidence, Roma in the United States have been called the "hidden Americans" because they remain by choice largely invisible.
  • "Welcome to America and the real world of Virginia" - Sepia Mutiny 20 September 2009 19:43 UTC www.sepiamutiny.com [Source type: Original source]

.In Turkey, Egypt, and the Balkans, the Romanies are split into Christian and Muslim populations.^ In Turkey , Egypt , and the southern Balkans , the Roma are split into Christian and Muslim populations.
  • Roma people at AllExperts 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Romani language has evolved into various dialects such as: Calderas which is the most widely spoken Romani-dialect, Sinti, Kale and the Balkan dialects such as Arlia etc.
  • http://www.coe.int/t/dg3/romatravellers/documentation/Education/RepConferenceonHarmonisationofTeaching%20Materials_en.asp 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC www.coe.int [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Music

Young Hungarian Roma performing a traditional dance
.Romani music plays an important role in Eastern European countries such as Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia, Montenegro, Bulgaria, the Republic of Macedonia, Albania, Hungary, and Romania, and the style and performance practices of Romani musicians have influenced European classical composers such as Franz Liszt and Johannes Brahms.^ Roma music is very important in Eastern European cultures such as Bosnia-Herzegovina, Serbia, Montenegro, Macedonia, Albania, Hungary, Russia and Romania, and the style and performance practices of Roma musicians have influenced European classical composers such as Franz Liszt and Johannes Brahms .
  • Roma people at AllExperts 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Influences from other languages play an important role in the internal classification of Romani dialects.

^ The Romani language and Roma music were banned from public performance in Bulgaria .
  • Roma people at AllExperts 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The lăutari who perform at traditional Romanian weddings are virtually all Romani.^ The lăutari who perform at traditional Romanian weddings are virtually all Roma, although their music draws from a vast variety of ethnic traditions—for example Romanian, Turkish, Jewish, and Slavic—as well as Roma traditions.
  • Roma people at AllExperts 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I, as a Romanian, never met any foreigner who would take us for Romanies.
  • Desicritics.org: Names of the Romani People 20 September 2009 19:43 UTC desicritics.org [Source type: Original source]

^ They did not say the people were Romanian, they said they were Romani which is the name of the nomadic people who are sometimes referred to disparagingly as gypsies.
  • Criminal Minds Community Message Board - CBS.com 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC www.cbs.com [Source type: General]

.Probably the most internationally prominent contemporary performers in the lăutari tradition are Taraful Haiducilor.^ Probably the most internationally prominent contemporary performer in the lăutar tradition is Taraful Haiducilor .
  • Roma people at AllExperts 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Bulgaria's popular "wedding music", too, is almost exclusively performed by Romani musicians such as Ivo Papasov, a virtuoso clarinetist closely associated with this genre and Bulgarian pop-folk singer Azis.^ The Romani language and Roma music were banned from public performance in Bulgaria .
  • Roma people at AllExperts 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The function of Romani in these context is almost exclusively emblematic.
  • TRANS Nr. 15: Dieter W. Halwachs (University of Graz, Austria): ROMANI between the Scylla of Language Death and the Charybdis of Folklorisation 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC www.inst.at [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many famous classical musicians, such as the Hungarian pianist Georges Cziffra , are Roma, as are many prominent performers of manele .
  • Roma people at AllExperts 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Many famous classical musicians, such as the Hungarian pianist Georges Cziffra, are Romani, as are many prominent performers of manele.^ Many famous classical musicians, such as the Hungarian pianist Georges Cziffra , are Roma, as are many prominent performers of manele .
  • Roma people at AllExperts 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Zdob şi Zdub, one of the most prominent rock bands in Moldova, although not Romanies themselves, draw heavily on Romani music, as do Spitalul de Urgenţă in Romania, Goran Bregović in Serbia, Darko Rundek in Croatia, Beirut and Gogol Bordello in the United States.^ Zdob şi Zdub , one of the most prominent rock bands in Moldova , although not Roma themselves, draw heavily on Roma music, as do Spitalul de Urgenţă in Romania.
  • Roma people at AllExperts 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Macedonia was among eight states -- also including Bulgaria, Croatia, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Romania, Serbia and Montenegro, and Slovakia -- which in January 2005 agreed to participate in the "Decade of Roma Inclusion, 2005-2010" (Decade).
  • Macedonia: "Little by little we women have learned our rights." The Macedonian government's failure to uphold the rights of Romani women and girls 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC www.amnestyusa.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In battle the equites singulares often proved to be one of the most powerful units.

.Another tradition of Romani music is the genre of the Romani brass band, with such notable practitioners as Boban Marković of Serbia, and the brass lăutari groups Fanfare Ciocărlia and Fanfare din Cozmesti of Romania.^ The Romani people are such an ethnic group.
  • Arrests made in gypsy scam against the elderly - Mean Streets 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC blogs.dailynews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On the contrary, the linguistic awareness arisen by the project causes that not only the variety spoken within the group is attributed the level of a "pure Romani" but also the idiolect is considered such.
  • [Romani] Projekt / ROMA AND ROMANI IN AUSTRIA 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC romani.kfunigraz.ac.at [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Music is another one of the cultural fields contributing to the folklorisation of Romani.
  • TRANS Nr. 15: Dieter W. Halwachs (University of Graz, Austria): ROMANI between the Scylla of Language Death and the Charybdis of Folklorisation 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC www.inst.at [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The distinctive sound of Romani music has also strongly influenced bolero, jazz, and flamenco (especially cante jondo) in Europe.^ The distinctive sound of Roma music has also strongly influenced bolero , jazz , flamenco and Cante Jondo in Europe.
  • Roma people at AllExperts 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ All over Europe, Roma, Sinti and Kale have brought a significant contribution to arts, especially music and dance, but also painting, literature, crafts of all kinds etc.
  • http://www.coe.int/t/dg3/romatravellers/documentation/Education/RepConferenceonHarmonisationofTeaching%20Materials_en.asp 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC www.coe.int [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Among many Romani communities especially in Western Europe the functions of Romani are only marginal.
  • TRANS Nr. 15: Dieter W. Halwachs (University of Graz, Austria): ROMANI between the Scylla of Language Death and the Charybdis of Folklorisation 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC www.inst.at [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.European-style Gypsy jazz ("jazz Manouche" or "Sinti jazz") is still widely practiced among the original creators (the Romanie People); one who acknowledged this artistic debt was guitarist Django Reinhardt.^ European-style Gypsy jazz is still widely practised among the original creators (the Roma People); one who acknowledged this artistic debt was Django Reinhardt .
  • Roma people at AllExperts 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ That there may be Gypsies who prefer that term and some who prefer Romani or Roma.
  • Criminal Minds Community Message Board - CBS.com 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC www.cbs.com [Source type: General]

^ Ask the Lord to raise up people who are willing share Christ with the Gypsies.
  • Joshua Project - Romani, Balkan of Macedonia Ethnic People Profile 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC www.joshuaproject.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Contemporary artists in this tradition known internationally include Stochelo Rosenberg, Biréli Lagrène, Jimmy Rosenberg, and Tchavolo Schmitt.^ Probably the most internationally prominent contemporary performer in the lăutar tradition is Taraful Haiducilor .
  • Roma people at AllExperts 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Romanies of Turkey have achieved musical acclaim from national and local audiences.^ Although Romani NGOs invite local and national media to 60-70% of their events, Romani media is only invited 40% of the time.
  • Rrommedia Network English 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC www.rrommedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Romani NGO: locale, audience, funding (most notably sustainability) , and internal means of quality control.
  • Rrommedia Network English 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC www.rrommedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the associational context Romani is used on local level, as intra-group variety, as well as on national and international levels, as inter-group variety.
  • TRANS Nr. 15: Dieter W. Halwachs (University of Graz, Austria): ROMANI between the Scylla of Language Death and the Charybdis of Folklorisation 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC www.inst.at [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Local performers usually perform for special holidays. Their music is usually performed on instruments such as the darbuka and gırnata. A number of nationwide best seller performers are said to be of Romani origin.[citation needed]

Language

.Most Romanies speak one of several dialects of Romani,[55] an Indo-Aryan language.^ Traditionally most Roma spoke Romani (Romany), an Indo-Aryan language.
  • Roma people at AllExperts 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most Roma speak Romani , an Indo-Aryan language likely derived from Sanskrit .
  • Roma people at AllExperts 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Romani, the common language of the Roma, the Sinti, and other European population groups, summarised by the pejorative denomination "Gypsies", belongs to the Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-European language family and is the only New-Indo-Aryan language spoken exclusively outside of the Indian subcontinent.
  • TRANS Nr. 15: Dieter W. Halwachs (University of Graz, Austria): ROMANI between the Scylla of Language Death and the Charybdis of Folklorisation 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC www.inst.at [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.They also will often speak the languages of the countries they live in.^ Usually, people living in countries of their own, with their own public life, even if they are named with other words by the foreigners, tend not to be bothered by them.
  • Desicritics.org: Names of the Romani People 20 September 2009 19:43 UTC desicritics.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In these countries, they usually remain on the margins of society, living in isolated ghetto -like settlements (see Chánov ).
  • Roma people at AllExperts 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Among themselves the Roma speak their own language; otherwise they speak the language of the country they currently occupy.
  • Gypsy Lore - Gypsies History, Rom History, Fortune Telling, Holocaust 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC www.gypsyadvice.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Typically, they also incorporate loanwords and calques into Romani from the languages of those countries, especially words for terms that the Romani language does not have.^ Because all Romanies use the word Romani as an adjective, the term began to be used as a noun for the entire ethnic group.
  • Criminal Minds Community Message Board - CBS.com 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC www.cbs.com [Source type: General]

^ Historically, the Romani (at least those of Eastern Europe) have either been forced to integrate..ie forced into shitty settlements or ghetto like communities, denied the use of their native dialects of Romani language, and/or deported, denied asylum, or systematically exterminated.
  • No such thing as Turkish Romani Skirt... - !Turkish Style! - tribe.net 20 September 2009 19:43 UTC tribes.tribe.net [Source type: Original source]

^ He said that when he writes to the Vatican, he does so in Romani, and they find translators quite easily.
  • The Media and the Roma in Contemporary Europe: Facts and Fictions 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC www.per-usa.org [Source type: Original source]

.Most of the Ciganos of Portugal, the Gitanos of Spain, the Romanichal of the UK, and Scandinavian Travellers have lost their knowledge of pure Romani, and respectively speak the mixed languages Caló,[56] Angloromany, and Scandoromani.^ In countries with numerically small and/or linguistically heterogenous Roma populations, Romani programmes are mostly bilingual in Romani and the respective majority language.
  • TRANS Nr. 15: Dieter W. Halwachs (University of Graz, Austria): ROMANI between the Scylla of Language Death and the Charybdis of Folklorisation 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC www.inst.at [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Nearly all Romani speakers are bilingual and use the language of the respective majority population(s) for inter-group-communication in public and most often also in informal domains.
  • TRANS Nr. 15: Dieter W. Halwachs (University of Graz, Austria): ROMANI between the Scylla of Language Death and the Charybdis of Folklorisation 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC www.inst.at [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Romani people living in Macedonia include several different groups who speak different variants of the Romani language, practice various religions and enjoy differing social and economic status.
  • Macedonia: "Little by little we women have learned our rights." The Macedonian government's failure to uphold the rights of Romani women and girls 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC www.amnestyusa.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.There are independent groups currently working toward standardizing the language, including groups in Romania, Serbia, Montenegro, the USA, and Sweden.^ Macedonia was among eight states -- also including Bulgaria, Croatia, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Romania, Serbia and Montenegro, and Slovakia -- which in January 2005 agreed to participate in the "Decade of Roma Inclusion, 2005-2010" (Decade).
  • Macedonia: "Little by little we women have learned our rights." The Macedonian government's failure to uphold the rights of Romani women and girls 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC www.amnestyusa.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A current list of active Romani NGOs, including the experts working in such NGOs, needs to be updated and distributed to all media, especially Romani media .
  • Rrommedia Network English 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC www.rrommedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ That said, are you familiar with (autonomous, independent) organizations currently doing work in Haiti that are in need of our support now in this moment of crisis?
  • Shattering Haiti: An Unnatural Disaster « Kasama 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC mikeely.wordpress.com [Source type: News]

.Romani is not currently spoken in India.^ Romani is not currently spoken in India.
  • Roma people at AllExperts 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[citation needed]

Persecutions

Historical persecution

.The first and one of the most enduring persecutions against the Romani people was the enslaving of the Romanies who arrived on the territory of the historical Romanian states of Wallachia and Moldavia, which lasted from the 14th century until the second half of the 19th century.^ European-style Gypsy jazz is still widely practised among the original creators (the Roma People); one who acknowledged this artistic debt was Django Reinhardt .
  • Roma people at AllExperts 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In Srebrenica, the massacre against 70 Romani people was committed before the town fell.
  • Roma of Bosnia and Herzegovina 20 September 2009 19:43 UTC www.gfbv-sa.com.ba [Source type: Original source]

^ Pristina (settlement Velanija) In Pristina's settlement Velanija, Arkan forces committed massacre against Albanian and Romani people.
  • Roma of Bosnia and Herzegovina 20 September 2009 19:43 UTC www.gfbv-sa.com.ba [Source type: Original source]

.Legislation decreed that all the Romanies living in these states, as well as any others who would immigrate there, were slaves.^ I can't remember who all was there.
  • No such thing as Turkish Romani Skirt... - !Turkish Style! - tribe.net 20 September 2009 19:43 UTC tribes.tribe.net [Source type: Original source]

^ As Spomenka Lazarevska stated, "The stereotype is not true any more, but [we have found that] primary teachers retain these stereotypes, even though there is no evidence.
  • Macedonia: "Little by little we women have learned our rights." The Macedonian government's failure to uphold the rights of Romani women and girls 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC www.amnestyusa.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ That there may be Gypsies who prefer that term and some who prefer Romani or Roma.
  • Criminal Minds Community Message Board - CBS.com 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC www.cbs.com [Source type: General]

[57]
.The arrival of some branches of the Romani people in Western Europe in the 15th century was precipitated by the Ottoman conquest of the Balkans.^ Roma girls coming from the Balkan, Eastern and Western Europe and worldwide have unique chance to travel and visit other country, meet new people, have great time and gain a lot of pleasant memories.
  • IDEA: International Debate Education Association - Debate Resources & Debate Tools 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC www.idebate.org [Source type: General]

^ Although Roma is used as a designation for the branch of the Romani people with historic concentrations in Eastern Europe and the Balkans, it is increasingly encountered during recent decades [ 3 ] [ 4 ] as a generic term for the Romani people as a whole.
  • Criminal Minds Community Message Board - CBS.com 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC www.cbs.com [Source type: General]

^ Some Roma migrated from Persia through North Africa , reaching Europe via Spain in the 15th century.
  • Roma people at AllExperts 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Although the Romanies themselves were refugees from the conflicts in southeastern Europe, they were mistaken by the local population in the West, because of their foreign appearance, as part of the Ottoman invasion (the German Reichstags at Landau and Freiburg in 1496-1498 declared the Romanies as spies of the Turks).^ It seems that they were mistaken for Egyptians because they arrived in Europe through an area named “Little Egypt” (in Southern Balkans) or maybe because they fit the local imagery of Egyptians as exotic dark-skinned people performing witchcraft (since the times of the Roman Empire, Egypt was in Europe the symbol of exoticism par excellence).
  • Desicritics.org: Names of the Romani People 20 September 2009 19:43 UTC desicritics.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Although Romani NGOs invite local and national media to 60-70% of their events, Romani media is only invited 40% of the time.
  • Rrommedia Network English 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC www.rrommedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If they saw themselves as part of the whole, the non-Romani population would begin to take more interest.
  • The Media and the Roma in Contemporary Europe: Facts and Fictions 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC www.per-usa.org [Source type: Original source]

In Western Europe, this resulted in a violent history of persecution and attempts of ethnic cleansing until the modern era. .As time passed, other accusations were added against local Romanies (accusations specific to this area, against non-assimilated minorities), like that of bringing the plague, usually sharing their burden together with the local Jews.^ Most of the time, Romani just functions as internal means of communication of the older generation and partly also when in contact with other Roma from or in the country of origin.
  • [Romani] Projekt / ROMA AND ROMANI IN AUSTRIA 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC romani.kfunigraz.ac.at [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although Romani NGOs invite local and national media to 60-70% of their events, Romani media is only invited 40% of the time.
  • Rrommedia Network English 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC www.rrommedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This differentiation between Austrian and non-Austrian corresponds to the ethnic scale of values established and passed on from the time when Austria was a monarchy.
  • [Romani] Projekt / ROMA AND ROMANI IN AUSTRIA 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC romani.kfunigraz.ac.at [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[58]
.One example of official persecution of the Romani is exemplified by the The Great Roundup of Spanish Romanies (Gitanos) in 1749. The Spanish monarchy ordered a nationwide raid that led to separation of families and placement of all able-bodied men into forced labor camps.^ The wars peaked with twenty-one border raids led by Mahmud of Ghazni (beginning of 11th century).
  • RADOC 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC www.radoc.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This separation of children from families is an important concern for Romani families, who have learnt to be wary of any form of social control involving their children.
  • Recognising Difference: The Romani "GYPSY" Child Socialisation and Education Process 20 September 2009 19:43 UTC www.osi.hu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Poems like the one shown in example 11 are first of all created to demonstrate that Roma and Romani are capable of poetic language use.
  • TRANS Nr. 15: Dieter W. Halwachs (University of Graz, Austria): ROMANI between the Scylla of Language Death and the Charybdis of Folklorisation 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC www.inst.at [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Later in the 19th century, Romani immigration was forbidden on a racial basis in areas outside Europe, mostly in the English speaking world (in 1885 the United States outlawed the entry of the Roma) and also in some South American countries (in 1880 Argentina adopted a similar policy).^ Women and girls from the former Soviet Union (in particular, Russia, Belarus, Ukraine, and Moldova), Eastern Europe, the Balkans, and Asia were trafficked into the country and onward to Western Europe and the United States for prostitution.

^ And apparently some Romani living on the Balkan do it too, according to one video that was posted here (which did not look Romani to me at all, but I may be wrong, as it claims to be so in the description) Anyway, there are Roma in Turkey, in Balkan countries, in the Maghreb area and in Spain, and their dances are related but they all dance in their own way.
  • No such thing as Turkish Romani Skirt... - !Turkish Style! - tribe.net 20 September 2009 19:43 UTC tribes.tribe.net [Source type: Original source]

^ That there may be Gypsies who prefer that term and some who prefer Romani or Roma.
  • Criminal Minds Community Message Board - CBS.com 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC www.cbs.com [Source type: General]

[58]

Holocaust

Romani arrivals at the Belzec death camp await instructions.
.The persecution of the Romanies reached a peak during World War II in the Porajmos, the genocide perpetrated by the Nazis during the Holocaust.^ During World War II , the Nazis murdered 200,000 to 800,000 Roma in an attempted genocide known as the Porajmos .
  • Roma people at AllExperts 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Persecution of Roma reached a peak during World War II in the Porajmos .
  • Roma people at AllExperts 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Centuries of persecution and especially its culmination, represented by the Nazi genocide leading to the death of 600.000 Roma, Sinti and Kale, have physically destroyed entire generations of Romani speakers and tens of Romani dialects.
  • http://www.coe.int/t/dg3/romatravellers/documentation/Education/RepConferenceonHarmonisationofTeaching%20Materials_en.asp 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC www.coe.int [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In 1935, the Nuremberg laws stripped the Romani people living in Nazi Germany of their citizenship, after which they were subjected to violence, imprisonment in concentration camps and later genocide in extermination camps.^ Since the Romani people left Punjab and Rajasthan a thousand years ago, they've been mixing and blending their culture with that of the lands in which they've settled.
  • SoundRoots World Music & Global Culture: Monday's mp3: A Romani Wind from Paris 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC soundroots.org [Source type: General]

^ Under the Nazis, Roma were treated in a similar way to the Jews: many Roma were sent to the concentration camps, where they were used as human guinea pigs, subjected to sterilization experiements and every sort of unbelievable torture.
  • O VURD�N (English Version) 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC www.vurdon.it [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On September 15, 1935, "Gypsies" became subject to the Nuremberg laws for the protection of blood and honour, which forbade intermarriage or sexual intercourse between Aryan and non-Aryan peoples.
  • Desicritics.org: Historical Amnesia: The Romani Holocaust 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC desicritics.org [Source type: Original source]

.The policy was extended in areas occupied by the Nazis during the war, and it was also applied by their allies, notably the Independent State of Croatia, Romania and Hungary.^ Spain has the largest population of Gypsies in the world, maybe due to the fact that it was about the only country in mainland Europe that was not occupied by Nazi Germany or its allies which killed up to a million and half Gypsies during the Holocaust.
  • Arrests made in gypsy scam against the elderly - Mean Streets 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC blogs.dailynews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Macedonia was among eight states -- also including Bulgaria, Croatia, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Romania, Serbia and Montenegro, and Slovakia -- which in January 2005 agreed to participate in the "Decade of Roma Inclusion, 2005-2010" (Decade).
  • Macedonia: "Little by little we women have learned our rights." The Macedonian government's failure to uphold the rights of Romani women and girls 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC www.amnestyusa.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During World War II , the Nazis murdered 200,000 to 800,000 Roma in an attempted genocide known as the Porajmos .
  • Roma people at AllExperts 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Because no accurate pre-war census figures exist for the Romanis, it is impossible to accurately assess the actual number of victims.^ No, because still the undead came, in pursuit of the Romani's blood.
  • Alliance LARP • View topic - Undead and the Romani 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC nerohq.com [Source type: Original source]

^ A significant number of Romani children are denied the right to education because they have no documentation.
  • Macedonia: "Little by little we women have learned our rights." The Macedonian government's failure to uphold the rights of Romani women and girls 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC www.amnestyusa.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Because this number represents only those requests filed by the "head of the household" (one application per family), the actual number of Romani asylum seekers for the year is estimated to be between 6,000 and 7,000.
  • Czech Republic 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Ian Hancock, director of the Program of Romani Studies at The University of Texas at Austin, proposes a figure of up to a million and a half, while an estimate of between 220,000 and 500,000 was made by the late Sybil Milton, formerly senior historian of the U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum.^ I was once at the Holocaust memorial museum at Auschwitz.
  • Desicritics.org: Historical Amnesia: The Romani Holocaust 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC desicritics.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Romani Studies term paper, The University of Texas, Fall semester.
  • RADOC 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC www.radoc.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Spain has the largest population of Gypsies in the world, maybe due to the fact that it was about the only country in mainland Europe that was not occupied by Nazi Germany or its allies which killed up to a million and half Gypsies during the Holocaust.
  • Arrests made in gypsy scam against the elderly - Mean Streets 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC blogs.dailynews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[59] .In Central Europe, the extermination in the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia was so thorough that the Bohemian Romani language became extinct.^ Historically, the Romani (at least those of Eastern Europe) have either been forced to integrate..ie forced into shitty settlements or ghetto like communities, denied the use of their native dialects of Romani language, and/or deported, denied asylum, or systematically exterminated.
  • No such thing as Turkish Romani Skirt... - !Turkish Style! - tribe.net 20 September 2009 19:43 UTC tribes.tribe.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Indic diaspora languages [are] spoken by what appear to be descendants of itinerant castes of artisans and entertainers who are spread throughout Central Asia, the Near East and Europe.
  • RADOC 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC www.radoc.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Romani culture and language has confronted a critical situation which has existed for seven to eight hundred years in Europe.
  • http://www.coe.int/t/dg3/romatravellers/documentation/Education/RepConferenceonHarmonisationofTeaching%20Materials_en.asp 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC www.coe.int [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[citation needed]

Forced assimilation

.In the Habsburg Monarchy under Maria Theresia (1740–1780), a series of decrees tried to force the Romanies to sedentarize, removed rights to horse and wagon ownership (1754), renamed them as "New Citizens" and forced Romani boys into military service if they had no trade (1761), forced them to register with the local authorities (1767), and prohibited marriage between Romanies (1773).^ Amnesty International is concerned that customary practices, combined with economic pressure, may result in some young women being forced into marriage against their will.
  • Macedonia: "Little by little we women have learned our rights." The Macedonian government's failure to uphold the rights of Romani women and girls 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC www.amnestyusa.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Romani women and girls are often perceived by the majority community and international organizations as having been trafficked when they enter an arranged marriage.
  • Macedonia: "Little by little we women have learned our rights." The Macedonian government's failure to uphold the rights of Romani women and girls 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC www.amnestyusa.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For older women, like Nona, aged 75, education was impossible: " Romani girls and boys are divided from when they are very little.
  • Macedonia: "Little by little we women have learned our rights." The Macedonian government's failure to uphold the rights of Romani women and girls 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC www.amnestyusa.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Her successor Josef II prohibited the wearing of traditional Romani clothing and the use of the Romani language, punishable by flogging.^ This led to loss of use of Romani language.
  • http://www.coe.int/t/dg3/romatravellers/documentation/Education/RepConferenceonHarmonisationofTeaching%20Materials_en.asp 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC www.coe.int [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The romani language has been for a very long time an oral language used only by Roma themselves.
  • http://www.coe.int/t/dg3/romatravellers/documentation/Education/RepConferenceonHarmonisationofTeaching%20Materials_en.asp 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC www.coe.int [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Nearly all Romani speakers are bilingual and use the language of the respective majority population(s) for inter-group-communication in public and most often also in informal domains.
  • TRANS Nr. 15: Dieter W. Halwachs (University of Graz, Austria): ROMANI between the Scylla of Language Death and the Charybdis of Folklorisation 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC www.inst.at [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[60]
.In Spain, attempts to assimilate the Gitanos were under way as early as 1619, when Gitanos were forcibly sedentarized, the use of the Romani language was prohibited, Gitano men and women were sent to separate workhouses and their children sent to orphanages.^ This led to loss of use of Romani language.
  • http://www.coe.int/t/dg3/romatravellers/documentation/Education/RepConferenceonHarmonisationofTeaching%20Materials_en.asp 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC www.coe.int [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Under the Nazis, Roma were treated in a similar way to the Jews: many Roma were sent to the concentration camps, where they were used as human guinea pigs, subjected to sterilization experiements and every sort of unbelievable torture.
  • O VURD�N (English Version) 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC www.vurdon.it [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This according to romani language teachers experience motivates the parents to send their children to schools for the simple reason that then the school is not only the gadg /majority school but gives a signal to belonging also to Roma; when in the past school was used as a tool to forcibly assimilate the Roma and destroy the romani culture and language; the last but not least reason for this co-operation is that it will save money and diminish the national financial expenses.
  • http://www.coe.int/t/dg3/romatravellers/documentation/Education/RepConferenceonHarmonisationofTeaching%20Materials_en.asp 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC www.coe.int [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Similar prohibitions took place in 1783 under King Charles III, who prohibited the nomadic lifestyle, the use of the Calo language, Romani clothing, their trade in horses and other itinerant trades.^ This led to loss of use of Romani language.
  • http://www.coe.int/t/dg3/romatravellers/documentation/Education/RepConferenceonHarmonisationofTeaching%20Materials_en.asp 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC www.coe.int [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These proto-Romanies remained in Anatolia for two to three hundred years and during that time they abandoned their military way of life and took up a nomadic lifestyle based on artisan work, trading, animal dealing and entertainment.
  • IDEA: International Debate Education Association - Debate Resources & Debate Tools 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC www.idebate.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The romani language has been for a very long time an oral language used only by Roma themselves.
  • http://www.coe.int/t/dg3/romatravellers/documentation/Education/RepConferenceonHarmonisationofTeaching%20Materials_en.asp 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC www.coe.int [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The use of the word gitano was also forbidden to further assimilation. Ultimately these measures failed, as the rest of the population rejected the integration of the Gitanos.[60][61]
.Other examples of forced assimilation include Norway, where a law was passed in 1896 permitting the state to remove children from their parents and place them in state institutions.^ In 1989 Traveler and Romani children in the segregated classroom were finally permitted to play and eat with the other children (Waterson, 1993, p.
  • Recognising Difference: The Romani "GYPSY" Child Socialisation and Education Process 20 September 2009 19:43 UTC www.osi.hu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A legal and institutional framework is in place for the processing of refugees and asylees, although the current law is under revision to close a few gaps.
  • Czech Republic 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He stated that his father, three elder brothers, uncles and all other male relatives were taken away by Arkan forces.
  • Roma of Bosnia and Herzegovina 20 September 2009 19:43 UTC www.gfbv-sa.com.ba [Source type: Original source]

[62] .This resulted in some 1,500 Romani children being taken from their parents in the 20th century.^ Amnesty International is concerned that customary practices, combined with economic pressure, may result in some young women being forced into marriage against their will.
  • Macedonia: "Little by little we women have learned our rights." The Macedonian government's failure to uphold the rights of Romani women and girls 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC www.amnestyusa.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There was some evidence of a small amount of internal trafficking of primarily Romani women and children for prostitution from areas of low employment to border areas with Germany and Austria.

^ Children newly born into this community must have been exposed to a variety of languages, including the Rajputic of their own parents and the Greek being spoken all around them.
  • RADOC 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC www.radoc.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[63]

Contemporary issues

.Amnesty International reports continued instances of Antizigan discrimination during the 2000s, particularly in Bulgaria, Romania, Slovakia,[64] Hungary,[65] Slovenia,[66] and Kosovo.^ Macedonia was among eight states -- also including Bulgaria, Croatia, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Romania, Serbia and Montenegro, and Slovakia -- which in January 2005 agreed to participate in the "Decade of Roma Inclusion, 2005-2010" (Decade).
  • Macedonia: "Little by little we women have learned our rights." The Macedonian government's failure to uphold the rights of Romani women and girls 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC www.amnestyusa.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This is one of a series of Amnesty International reports on discrimination against Roma throughout Europe.
  • Macedonia: "Little by little we women have learned our rights." The Macedonian government's failure to uphold the rights of Romani women and girls 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC www.amnestyusa.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The report includes recommendations which -- if implemented -- Amnesty International considers would enhance the respect and protection of the rights of Romani women and girls in Macedonia.
  • Macedonia: "Little by little we women have learned our rights." The Macedonian government's failure to uphold the rights of Romani women and girls 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC www.amnestyusa.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[67] .Romani are often confined to low-class ghettos because of their incapability to pay rent, are refused in jobs due to the lack of education and bad working moral, and Romani children are in highly disproportional numbers placed into special schools for mentally backward children.^ The number of Romani children placed in schools for the mentally handicapped or socially disadvantaged is unknown.
  • Recognising Difference: The Romani "GYPSY" Child Socialisation and Education Process 20 September 2009 19:43 UTC www.osi.hu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Romani children often are relegated to "special schools" for the mentally disabled and socially maladjusted.
  • Czech Republic 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For many Romani children mainstream education lacks relevance and value.
  • Recognising Difference: The Romani "GYPSY" Child Socialisation and Education Process 20 September 2009 19:43 UTC www.osi.hu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A 2006 study published in Intelligence by controversial researcher J. Philippe Rushton and colleagues was conducted to "examine whether the Roma (Gypsy) population of Serbia, like other South Asian population groups, average lower than Europeans on g, the general factor of intelligence". In the study 363 individuals 16 to 66 years of age from 3 different communities were tested.^ Romani, the common language of the Roma, the Sinti, and other European population groups, summarised by the pejorative denomination "Gypsies", belongs to the Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-European language family and is the only New-Indo-Aryan language spoken exclusively outside of the Indian subcontinent.
  • TRANS Nr. 15: Dieter W. Halwachs (University of Graz, Austria): ROMANI between the Scylla of Language Death and the Charybdis of Folklorisation 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC www.inst.at [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ European-style Gypsy jazz is still widely practised among the original creators (the Roma People); one who acknowledged this artistic debt was Django Reinhardt .
  • Roma people at AllExperts 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The difference in status of the individual groups established by the authorities correspond with those embedded in the understanding of the majority population, as well as to the internal differentiating criteria between the Austrian Roma.
  • [Romani] Projekt / ROMA AND ROMANI IN AUSTRIA 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC romani.kfunigraz.ac.at [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The authors found results that placed participants in the IQ range of 70 (borderline mental retardation) and on the executive function tests at the level of a Serbian 10 year old.^ A thousand years of co-existence in Europe has resulted in some integration and today Roma may be found in all sizes, and with all shades of skin and hair" .
  • "Welcome to America and the real world of Virginia" - Sepia Mutiny 20 September 2009 19:43 UTC www.sepiamutiny.com [Source type: Original source]

^ January 13, 2010 at 3:10 pm Fidel Castro explains Cuba’s aid program to HAITI, now ten years old.
  • Shattering Haiti: An Unnatural Disaster « Kasama 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC mikeely.wordpress.com [Source type: News]

^ A poignant poem written by a 10-year-old Traveller describing the persecution of Gypsies throughout history – and today – was read out at the House of Lords this week.

[68]
.The crime rate of Romani communities is highly disproportionate as well.^ Romani children continued to be sent to special schools for children with mental or social disorders at a disproportionate rate.

^ The Government and some local municipalities began implementing programs designed to deal with drug addiction and crime prevention in the Romani community during the year.
  • Czech Republic 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ministry of the Interior stated that MLO activities had improved communication between police and Roma, contributing to a reduction of crime within Romani communities (CR-Interior 27 Mar.
  • Issue Papers, Extended Responses and Country Fact Sheets 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC www2.irb-cisr.gc.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Low education, frequent job-switching, low working morale and low personal responsibility are listed as the main reasons of the high unemployment rate.^ Their low status on the job market and higher unemployment rates cause poverty, widespread social problems and crime.
  • Roma people at AllExperts 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The unemployment rate among Roma in the Czech Republic is over 30 percent, and in some places it is as high as 90 percent, when the national figure is only 8 or 9 percent.
  • The Media and the Roma in Contemporary Europe: Facts and Fictions 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC www.per-usa.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In the same year the CERD also expressed concern about the low attendance and high drop-out rate of Romani children.
  • Macedonia: "Little by little we women have learned our rights." The Macedonian government's failure to uphold the rights of Romani women and girls 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC www.amnestyusa.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Unemployed Romanis often work illegally or gain livehood from crime and other forms of illegal activity.^ Romani children also suffer discrimination at school in the form of racist abuse, ostracism, bullying or physical attacks by other children.
  • Macedonia: "Little by little we women have learned our rights." The Macedonian government's failure to uphold the rights of Romani women and girls 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC www.amnestyusa.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The organization finds that not only do Romani women face double discrimination in accessing these rights, but also that these rights are often dependent on each other.
  • Macedonia: "Little by little we women have learned our rights." The Macedonian government's failure to uphold the rights of Romani women and girls 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC www.amnestyusa.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is also apparent that Romani media awards more credence to personal and governmental sources/activities than to the work of NGOs.
  • Rrommedia Network English 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC www.rrommedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Their leisure time is not used rationally, with many Romanis spending large amounts of money on drugs and gambling.^ However in the continuous wars in last decades of the republic many served that long aside the legions and fought for their generals that they were largely Romanized in the mean time .

^ However in the continuous wars in last decades of the republic many served that long aside the legions and fought for their generals that they were largely Romanized in the mean time.

^ After asking how many of the Roma present spoke and used Romani, a participant expressed his surprise that not more were using it at the conference.
  • The Media and the Roma in Contemporary Europe: Facts and Fictions 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC www.per-usa.org [Source type: Original source]

[69]
.Czechoslovakia carried out a policy of sterilization of Romani women, starting in 1973.[70] The dissidents of the Charter 77 denounced it in 1977-78 as a "genocide", but the practice continued through the Velvet Revolution of 1989.[71] A 2005 report by the Czech government's independent ombudsman, Otakar Motejl, identified dozens of cases of coercive sterilization between 1979 and 2001, and called for criminal investigations and possible prosecution against several health care workers and administrators.^ The number of such cases continues to run at several dozens a year.
  • Arrests made in gypsy scam against the elderly - Mean Streets 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC blogs.dailynews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Violence against women 70 .
  • Macedonia: "Little by little we women have learned our rights." The Macedonian government's failure to uphold the rights of Romani women and girls 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC www.amnestyusa.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Violence against Romani women 73 .
  • Macedonia: "Little by little we women have learned our rights." The Macedonian government's failure to uphold the rights of Romani women and girls 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC www.amnestyusa.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[72]
.In 2008, the Italian government declared that Italy's Romani population represented a national security risk and that swift action was required to address the emergenza nomadi (gypsy emergency)[73] Specifically officials in the Italian government accused the Romanies of being responsible for rising crime rates in urban areas.^ Government officials were cooperative and responsive to their views.

^ Throughout May, June and July 2008, several legislative changes aimed at addressing the perceived "security crisis" caused by crimes allegedly committed by irregular migrants and Romani persons in Italy were either discussed or adopted by the Italian parliament.
  • Italy: The witch-hunt against Roma people must end 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC www.amnestyusa.org [Source type: Original source]

^ As its trainees improved their skills, the Romani media would rise in national esteem, and non-Roma would then be less reluctant to place advertisements in the Romani press.
  • The Media and the Roma in Contemporary Europe: Facts and Fictions 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC www.per-usa.org [Source type: Original source]

.Mario Marazziti, spokesperson of the Community of Sant'Egidio human rights organization said "There is no national emergency ...^ There are no emergency systems.
  • Shattering Haiti: An Unnatural Disaster « Kasama 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC mikeely.wordpress.com [Source type: News]

^ In 2007 there were some serious discrepancies in Belarusian human rights policy.

^ The preface is said which is proper to each Mass; if there is no proper one, the preface of the season is said, or the common one.
  • Rubricae Generales Missalis Romani 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC members.cox.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.What is an emergency is that in the 21st century the life expectancy of a gypsy living in Italy is under 60 years of age."^ Finally, this site sometimes refers to the Gypsies of Italy as "Rom and Sinti", since these are the two main groups living in Italy.
  • O VURD�N (English Version) 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC www.vurdon.it [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ According to law 91/1992, European Union (EU) citizens need to be able to prove that they have lived in Italy for four years before they can be considered for citizenship.
  • Italy: The witch-hunt against Roma people must end 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC www.amnestyusa.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Oh Gypsy's life, sorrow mine, Out of spite I want to live That my eyes are full of tears The faith of Gypsy I blame.
  • Roma of Bosnia and Herzegovina 20 September 2009 19:43 UTC www.gfbv-sa.com.ba [Source type: Original source]

[74]

Fictional representations

Vincent van Gogh: The Caravans - Gypsy Camp near Arles (1888, Oil on canvas)
.Many fictional depictions of the Romani in literature and art present Romanticized narratives of their supposed mystical powers of fortune telling, and their supposed irascible or passionate temper paired with an indomitable love of freedom and a habit of criminality.^ Many fictional depictions of the Rom emphasize their supposed mystical powers or criminal nature.
  • Roma people at AllExperts 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After asking how many of the Roma present spoke and used Romani, a participant expressed his surprise that not more were using it at the conference.
  • The Media and the Roma in Contemporary Europe: Facts and Fictions 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC www.per-usa.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Many Romani families are unable to afford the textbooks, reference literature, school materials and other equipment for which charges are levied, as well as the costs of transportation to school.
  • Macedonia: "Little by little we women have learned our rights." The Macedonian government's failure to uphold the rights of Romani women and girls 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC www.amnestyusa.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Particularly notable are classics like Carmen by Prosper Mérimée and adapted by Georges Bizet, Victor Hugo's The Hunchback of Notre Dame and Miguel de Cervantes' La Gitanilla.^ Literary representations include: * Victor Hugo 's novels The Hunchback of Notre-Dame and Les Miserables * Miguel de Cervantes ' novel La Gitanilla * Georges Bizet 's opera Carmen Dracula by Bram Stoker features a group of Gypsies working for the Count, as they were often retainers (or serf / slave s) of noble families.
  • Roma people at AllExperts 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Romani were also heavily romanticized in the Soviet Union, a classic example being the 1975 Tabor ukhodit v Nebo.^ Treatments of Roma in other media include: * Tabor ukhodit v nebo (1975, USA name: Queen of the Gypsies), film by Soviet (Moldovan) director Emil Loteanu.
  • Roma people at AllExperts 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A more realistic depiction of contemporary Romani in the Balkans, featuring Romani lay actors speaking in their native dialects, although still playing with established clichés of a Romani penchant for both magic and crime, was presented by Emir Kusturica in his Time of the Gypsies (1988) and Black Cat, White Cat (1998).^ Gypsy Culture Around 1360, an independent Romani fiefdom (called the Feudum Acinganorum ) was established in Corfu and became "a settled community and an important and established part of the economy."
  • Roma people at AllExperts 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The president of the International Romani Union lamented that there are only a few intellectuals among the Roma, commenting that "our children play in garbage dumps while white children play with computers."
  • The Media and the Roma in Contemporary Europe: Facts and Fictions 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC www.per-usa.org [Source type: Original source]

^ After asking how many of the Roma present spoke and used Romani, a participant expressed his surprise that not more were using it at the conference.
  • The Media and the Roma in Contemporary Europe: Facts and Fictions 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC www.per-usa.org [Source type: Original source]

In contemporary literature

.The Romani ethnicity is often used for characters in contemporary fantasy literature.^ The educational needs of traveling Romani children are often met using stopgap measures, rather that with well-constructed educational support and programmes.
  • Recognising Difference: The Romani "GYPSY" Child Socialisation and Education Process 20 September 2009 19:43 UTC www.osi.hu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ December 24, 2007 Alin Dosoftei The ethnic names used by the contemporary branches of the Romani people are Rom/Chhavo, Kalo, Manush, Sinto.
  • Desicritics.org: Names of the Romani People 20 September 2009 19:43 UTC desicritics.org [Source type: Original source]

.In such literature, the Romani are often portrayed as possessing archaic occult knowledge passed down through the ages.^ Knowledge in traditional Romani society is passed on orally.
  • Recognising Difference: The Romani "GYPSY" Child Socialisation and Education Process 20 September 2009 19:43 UTC www.osi.hu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is probable that the Romani migration passed through Persia, but at a more recent date, somewhere around the Ninth or Tenth century.
  • O VURD�N (English Version) 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC www.vurdon.it [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Adolescents and children once spent most of their day with Romani adults and children from a range of age-groups, often up to three generations.
  • Recognising Difference: The Romani "GYPSY" Child Socialisation and Education Process 20 September 2009 19:43 UTC www.osi.hu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This frequent use of the ethnicity has given rise to Gypsy archetypes in popular contemporary literature.^ Several participants felt that "Gypsy crime" was a frequently used catch phrase which suggested that criminality is somehow genetic.
  • The Media and the Roma in Contemporary Europe: Facts and Fictions 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC www.per-usa.org [Source type: Original source]

.One example of such a use is the character Jilly Coppercorn in the seminal urban fantasy novel Dreams Under Foot by Charles de Lint.^ Canadian contemporary fantasy author Charles de Lint 's novel Mulengro presents a portrayal of the Rom and their cultural myths.
  • Roma people at AllExperts 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ How can one claim to be ground-breaking by using such a trendy object to enhance, or digitize your voice?
  • Amanda Diva » Phonte Ain’t Happy about Kanye’s 808’s 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC blogs.okayplayer.com [Source type: General]

^ Based on these considerations teaching Romani in schools could be quite interesting if modern means of communication such as computers, for example, are used.
  • [Romani] Projekt / ROMA AND ROMANI IN AUSTRIA 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC romani.kfunigraz.ac.at [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

See also

References

Notes

  1. ^ According to Encyclopaedia Britannica, estimates of the total world Romani population range from two million to five million.[1]
  2. ^ Ian Hancock's 1987 estimate for "all Gypsies in the world" was 6 to 11 million [2].
  3. ^ [3] The Spanish government estimates the number of Gitanos at a maximum of 650,000
  4. ^ [4] Census 2001 in Romania: 535,140 Roma
  5. ^ [5] There are officially about 500,000 Roma in Turkey.
  6. ^ [6] The Romani population in France is officially estimated at around 500,000
  7. ^ [7] Census 2001 in Bulgaria: 370,908 Roma
  8. ^ [8] Census 2001 in Hungary: 205,720 Roma/Bea
  9. ^ [9] The Romani population in Greece is officially estimated at 200,000
  10. ^ [10] Census 2002 in Russia: 182,766 Roma
  11. ^ [11] Estimated by Ministero degli Interni del Governo Italiano.
  12. ^ [12] Census 2002 in Serbia: 108,193 Romanies
  13. ^ [13] Census 2001 in Slovakia: 89,920 Roma
  14. ^ [14] 70,000 Roma/Sinti estimated by the German Ministry of Internal Affairs
  15. ^ [15] The 2002-census reported 53,879 Roma and 3,843 "Egyptians"
  16. ^ Gall, Timothy L. (ed). Worldmark Encyclopedia of Culture & Daily Life: Vol. 4 - Europe. Cleveland, OH: Eastword Publications Development (1998); pg. 316, 318 : "Religion: An underlay of Hinduism with an overlay of either Christianity or Islam (host country religion) "; "Roma religious beliefs are rooted in Hinduism. Roma believe in a universal balance, called kuntari... Despite a 1,000-year separation from India, Roma still practice shaktism, the worship of a god through his female consort... ""
  17. ^ Matras, Yaron (2002). Romani: a linguistic introduction. Cambridge University Press. pp. 239. ISBN 9780521631655. http://books.google.com/books?id=D4IIi0Ha3V4C&pg=PA238&dq=number+speakers+of+Romani. Retrieved 2009-07-16. 
  18. ^ We Are the Romani People, Pg XIX, http://books.google.ro/books?id=MG0ahVw-kdwC&pg=PP1&ots=PiPKTLplWa&sig=Ly3TAfbjs6FqhS7h0e1Yz44qaIk&hl=ro&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=1&ct=result#PPR19,M1, retrieved 2008-07-31 
  19. ^ a b We Are the Romani People, Pg XXI, http://books.google.ro/books?id=MG0ahVw-kdwC&pg=PP1&ots=PiPKTLplWa&sig=Ly3TAfbjs6FqhS7h0e1Yz44qaIk&hl=ro&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=1&ct=result#PPR21,M1, retrieved 2008-07-31 
  20. ^ p. 52 in Elena Marushiakova and Vesselin Popov's "Historical and ethnographic background; Gypsies, Roma, Sinti" in Will Guy [ed.] Between Past and Future: The Roma of Central and Eastern Europe [with a Foreword by Dr. Ian Hancock], 2001, UK: University of Hertfordshire Press
  21. ^ p. 13 in Illona Klimova-Alexander's The Romani Voice in World Politics: The United Nations and Non-State Actors (2005, Burlington, VT.: Ashgate
  22. ^ Rothéa, Xavier. "Les Roms, une nation sans territoire?" (in French). http://www.theyliewedie.org/ressources/biblio/fr/Rothea_Xavier_-_Les_roms.html. Retrieved 2008-07-31. 
  23. ^ We Are the Romani People, Pg XX, http://books.google.ro/books?id=MG0ahVw-kdwC&pg=PP1&ots=PiPKTLplWa&sig=Ly3TAfbjs6FqhS7h0e1Yz44qaIk&hl=ro&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=1&ct=result#PPR20,M1, retrieved 2008-07-31 
  24. ^ The Institute for Middle East Understanding
  25. ^ Online Etymology Dictionary - Douglas Harper
  26. ^ Fraser 1992.
  27. ^ Hancock, Ian (1995). A Handbook of Vlax Romani. Slavica Publishers. p. 17. 
  28. ^ "gitan" (in French). Dictionnaire de l'Académie française. http://www.academie-francaise.fr/dictionnaire/. Retrieved 2007-08-26. "Nom donné aux bohémiens d'Espagne ; par ext., synonyme de Bohémien, Tzigane. Adjt. Une robe gitane." 
  29. ^ Council of Europe website, European Roma and Travellers Forum (ERTF)
  30. ^ 3.8 million according to Pan and Pfeil, National Minotiries in Europe (2004), ISBN 978-3700314431, p. 27f.
  31. ^ Council of Europe compilation of population estimates
  32. ^ Hancock, Ian, 2001, Ame sam e rromane džene / We are the Romani People, The Open Society Institute, New York, page 2
  33. ^ Matras, Yaron, Romani: A linguistic introduction, Cambridge University Press, 2002, page 5
  34. ^ "Names of the Romani People", http://desicritics.org/2007/12/24/012125.php, retrieved 2009-01-30 
  35. ^ N.Bessonov, N.Demeter "Ethnic groups of Gypsies"
  36. ^ Hancock, Ian. Ame Sam e Rromane Džene/We are the Romani people. p. 13. ISBN 1902806190. 
  37. ^ Hancock, Ian F.; Dowd, Siobhan; Djurić, Rajko (2004). The roads of the Roma: a PEN anthology of gypsy writers.. Hatfield, United Kingdom: University of Hertforshire Press. pp. 14–15. ISBN 0900458909. 
  38. ^ ""Romani"". Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics. Oxford: Elsevier. http://romani.humanities.manchester.ac.uk/downloads/2/Matras_Rmni_ELL.pdf. Retrieved 30 August 2009. 
  39. ^ a b Kalaydjieva, Luba (2001). "Genetic studies of the Roma (Gypsies): A review". BMC Medical Genetics 2: 5. doi:10.1186/1471-2350-2-5. http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2350/2/5. Retrieved 2008-06-16. 
  40. ^ "Figure 4". Biomedcentral.com. doi:10.1186/1471-2350-2-5. http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2350/2/5/figure/F4. Retrieved 2009-05-06. 
  41. ^ a b Origins and Divergence of the Roma (Gypsies), PMID 11704928, http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=1235543, retrieved 2008-06-16 
  42. ^ Mutation history of the Roma-Gypsies, http://lib.bioinfo.pl/pmid:15322984, retrieved 2008-06-16 
  43. ^ Jatt mutation found in Romani populations
  44. ^ Searching for the origin of Romanies http://cat.inist.fr/?aModele=afficheN&cpsidt=18768723
  45. ^ Linda Anfuso (1994-02-24). "[at tinhat.stonemarche.org gypsies]". rec.org.sca. (Web link). Retrieved on 2007-08-26.
  46. ^ "A Chronology of significant dates in Romani history". Archived from the original on 2004-12-04. http://web.archive.org/web/20041204203106/radoc.net/chronology.html. 
  47. ^ Hancock, Ian, 2001, Ame sam e rromane džene / We are the Romani People, The Open Society Institute, New York, page 25
  48. ^ On the road: Centuries of Roma history, Delia Radu, BBC World Service, 8 July 2009
  49. ^ ROMANIES AND THE HOLOCAUST: A REEVALUATION AND AN OVERVIEW
  50. ^ Denysenko, Marina (2007-03-12). "Sterilised Roma accuse Czechs". BBC News. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/6409699.stm. 
  51. ^ Thomas, Jeffrey (2006-08-16). "Coercive Sterilization of Romani Women Examined at Hearing: New report focuses on Czech Republic and Slovakia". Washington File. Bureau of International Information Programs, U.S. Department of State. http://usinfo.state.gov/xarchives/display.html?p=washfile-english&y=2006&m=August&x=200608171045451CJsamohT0.678158. 
  52. ^ "Romani Customs and Traditions: Death Rituals and Customs". Patrin Web Journal. http://www.geocities.com/Paris/5121/death.htm. Retrieved 2007-08-26. 
  53. ^ David M. Knipe. "The Journey of a Lifebody". http://www.hindugateway.com/library/rituals/. Retrieved 2008-05-26. 
  54. ^ Hancock, Ian, 2001, Ame sam e rromane džene / We are the Romani People, The Open Society Institute, New York, page 81
  55. ^ Dieter W. Halwachs. "Speakers and Numbers (distribution of Romani-speaking Romani population by country)" (PDF). Rombase. http://romani.uni-graz.at/rombase/cd/data/lang/gen/data/numbers.en.pdf. 
  56. ^ Raymond G. Gordon Jr., ed (2005). "Caló: A language of Spain". Ethnologue: Languages of the World (15th ed.). Dallas, Texas: SIL International. ISBN 9781556711596. http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=rmr. 
  57. ^ Delia Grigore, Petre Petcuţ and Mariana Sandu (2005) (in Romanian). Istoria şi tradiţiile minorităţii rromani. Bucharest: Sigma. p. 36. 
  58. ^ a b "Timeline of Romani History". Patrin Web Journal. http://www.geocities.com/Paris/5121/timeline.htm. Retrieved 2007-08-26. 
  59. ^ Most estimates for numbers of Romani victims of the Holocaust fall between 200,000 and 500,000, although figures ranging between 90,000 and 4 million have been proposed. Lower estimates do not include those killed in all Axis-controlled countries. A detailed study by the late Sybil Milton, formerly senior historian at the US Holocaust Memorial Museum gave a figure of at least a minimum of 220,000, probably higher, possibly closer to 500,000 (cited in Re. Holocaust Victim Assets Litigation (Swiss Banks) Special Master's Proposals, September 11, 2000). Ian Hancock, Director of the Program of Romani Studies and the Romani Archives and Documentation Center at the University of Texas at Austin, argues in favour of a higher figure of between 500,000 and 1,500,000 in his 2004 article, Romanies and the Holocaust: A Reevaluation and an Overview as published in Stone, D. (ed.) (2004) The Historiography of the Holocaust. Palgrave, Basingstoke and New York.
  60. ^ a b Samer, Helmut (December 2001). "Maria Theresia and Joseph II: Policies of Assimilation in the Age of Enlightened Absolutism.". Rombase. Karl-Franzens-Universitaet Graz. http://romani.uni-graz.at/rombase/cgi-bin/art.cgi?src=data/hist/modern/maria.en.xml. 
  61. ^ "Gitanos. History and Cultural Relations.". World Culture Encyclopedia. http://www.everyculture.com/Europe/Gitanos-History-and-Cultural-Relations.html. Retrieved 2007-08-26. 
  62. ^ "Roma (Gypsies) in Norway". http://www.geocities.com/~Patrin/norway.htm. Retrieved 2007-08-26. 
  63. ^ "The Church of Norway and the Roma of Norway". World Council of Churches. 2002-09-03. http://www2.wcc-coe.org/ccdocuments.nsf/index/plen-4.4-en.html. 
  64. ^ "Amnesty International". Web.amnesty.org. 2009-04-20. http://web.amnesty.org/wire/February2002/Europe_Roma. Retrieved 2009-05-06. 
  65. ^ Woodard, Colin (2008-02-13). "Hungary's anti-Roma militia grows | csmonitor.com". csmonitor.com<!. http://www.csmonitor.com/2008/0213/p07s02-woeu.html. Retrieved 2009-05-06. 
  66. ^ "roma | Human Rights Press Point". Humanrightspoint.si. http://www.humanrightspoint.si/node/12. Retrieved 2009-05-06. 
  67. ^ Gesellschaft fuer bedrohte Voelker - Society for Threatened Peoples. "Roma and Ashkali in Kosovo: Persecuted, driven out, poisoned". Gfbv.de. http://www.gfbv.de/inhaltsDok.php?id=612. Retrieved 2009-05-06. 
  68. ^ "J. P. Rushton, J. Čvorović, T. A. Bons: General mental ability in South Asians: Data from three Roma (Gypsy) communities in Serbia. Intelligence 35 (2007) 1–12". http://psychology.uwo.ca/faculty/rushtonpdfs/2007%20Intell%20%28Roma%29.pdf. 
  69. ^ "Obecné problémy romské populace v okrese Louny". http://www.blisty.cz/files/isarc/0108/20010829f.html#05. 
  70. ^ Sterilised Roma accuse Czechs, BBC, 12 March 2007 (English)
  71. ^ For Gypsies, Eugenics is a Modern Problem - Czech Practice Dates to Soviet Era, Newsdesk, June 12, 2006 (English)
  72. ^ http://www.ochrance.cz/en/dokumenty/dokument.php?doc=400
  73. ^ "Italy's new ghetto?". The Guardian. March 30, 2009. http://www.guardian.co.uk/commentisfree/2009/mar/30/roma-italy. 
  74. ^ Italy assailed over plan to fingerprint Gypsies | International Herald Tribune

Bibliography

.
  • Viorel Achim (2004).^ Achim, Viorel (2004).
    • Roma people at AllExperts 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    "The Roma in Romanian History." Budapest: Central European University Press. ISBN 963-9241-84-9.
  • Auzias, Claire. .Les funambules de l'histoire.^ Les funambules de l'histoire .
    • Roma people at AllExperts 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Baye: Éditions la Digitale, 2002.
  • De Soto, Hermine.^ Baye: Éditions la Digitale, 2002.
    • Roma people at AllExperts 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ De Soto, Hermine.
    • Roma people at AllExperts 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Roma and Egyptians in Albania: From Social Exclusion to Social Inclusion.^ Roma and Egyptians in Albania : From Social Exclusion to Social Inclusion .
    • Roma people at AllExperts 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ MLOs also participate in projects intended to combat the social exclusion of Roma (ibid.
    • Issue Papers, Extended Responses and Country Fact Sheets 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC www2.irb-cisr.gc.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Washington, DC, USA: World Bank Publications, 2005.
  • Fonseca, Isabel.^ Washington, DC, USA: World Bank Publications, 2005.
    • Roma people at AllExperts 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Washington, DC, USA: World Bank, 2000.
    • Roma people at AllExperts 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Bury me standing: the Gypsies and their journey.^ Bury Me Standing: The Gypsies and their Journey New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1995.
    • Gypsy Lore - Gypsies History, Rom History, Fortune Telling, Holocaust 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC www.gypsyadvice.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Bury Me Standing: The Gypsies and their Journey .
    • RADOC 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC www.radoc.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .New York: A.A. Knopf, 1995.
  • Fraser, Angus The Gypsies : Blackwell Publishers, Oxford UK, 1992 ISBN 0-631-15967-3.
  • Genner, Michael.^ YOORS, J. (1967) The Gypsies (New York, Simon and Schuster).
    • Recognising Difference: The Romani "GYPSY" Child Socialisation and Education Process 20 September 2009 19:43 UTC www.osi.hu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The Gypsies 1992 Blackwell Publications Oxford, England.
    • Gypsy Lore - Gypsies History, Rom History, Fortune Telling, Holocaust 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC www.gypsyadvice.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Fraser, Angus The Gypsies : Blackwell Publishers, Oxford UK, 1992 ISBN 0631159673.
    • Roma people at AllExperts 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Spartakus, 2 vols. .Munich: Trikont, 1979-80.
  • “Germany Reaches Deal to Deport Thousands of Gypsies to Romania,” Migration World Magazine, Nov-December 1992.
  • Gray, RD; Atkinson, QD (2003).^ Munich: Trikont, 1979-80 * "Germany Reaches Deal to Deport Thousands of Gypsies to Romania," Migration World Magazine , Nov-Dec 1992.
    • Roma people at AllExperts 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Adrian December 24, 2007 06:05 AM there are thousands of name they can take if they don't want gypsy or tsigans...
    • Desicritics.org: Names of the Romani People 20 September 2009 19:43 UTC desicritics.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ While the origins remain scratchy, what most can agree on is that there were great migrations through Roma/Gypsy history that had dispersed them throughout the world, beginning with the first wave when it was assumed they left India over a thousand years ago.
    • Gypsy Lore - Gypsies History, Rom History, Fortune Telling, Holocaust 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC www.gypsyadvice.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    "Language-tree divergence times support the Anatolian theory of Indo-European origin." Nature.
  • Gresham, D; et al. (2001). ."Origins and divergence of the Roma (Gypsies)."^ Origins Of The Gypsy/Roma/Rom History .
    • Gypsy Lore - Gypsies History, Rom History, Fortune Telling, Holocaust 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC www.gypsyadvice.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Another version of the Indian origins doesnt make any mention of the Roma/Gypsies until the war with King Mahmud (who was called Muhamad Ghazni in this version) in 1001.
    • Gypsy Lore - Gypsies History, Rom History, Fortune Telling, Holocaust 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC www.gypsyadvice.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The Roma/Gypsy has lived a nomadic existence for thousands of years and has lived in harmony with nature longer than most because, this author feels, of their Eastern origins.
    • Gypsy Lore - Gypsies History, Rom History, Fortune Telling, Holocaust 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC www.gypsyadvice.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .American Journal of Human Genetics. 69(6), 1314-1331. [16]
  • Hackl, Erich.^ European Journal of Human Genetics.
    • Roma people at AllExperts 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ American Journal of Human Genetics.
    • Roma people at AllExperts 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    (1991). .Farewell Sidonia, New York: Fromm International Pub.^ Amnesty International USA 5 Penn Plaza, New York, NY 10001 .
    • Italy: The witch-hunt against Roma people must end 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC www.amnestyusa.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Macedonia: "Little by little we women have learned our rights." The Macedonian government's failure to uphold the rights of Romani women and girls 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC www.amnestyusa.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .ISBN 0-88064-124-X. (Translated from the German, Abschied von Sidonie 1989)
  • Helsinki Watch.^ ISBN 088064124X. (Translated from the German, Abschied von Sidonie ( 1989 ) .
    • Roma people at AllExperts 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Struggling for Ethnic Identity: Czechoslovakia’s Endangered Gypsies. New York, 1991.
  • Leland, Charles G. The English Gipsies and Their Language.^ YOORS, J. (1967) The Gypsies (New York, Simon and Schuster).
    • Recognising Difference: The Romani "GYPSY" Child Socialisation and Education Process 20 September 2009 19:43 UTC www.osi.hu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The persecution of Gypsies in Romania (New York, Helsinki Watch).
    • Recognising Difference: The Romani "GYPSY" Child Socialisation and Education Process 20 September 2009 19:43 UTC www.osi.hu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ REGER, Z. & GLEASON, J.B. (1991) Romani child-directed speech and children's language among Gypsies in Hungary Language in Society, 20, pp.
    • Recognising Difference: The Romani "GYPSY" Child Socialisation and Education Process 20 September 2009 19:43 UTC www.osi.hu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .London: Trübner & Co., 1873.
  • Lemon, Alaina (2000).^ Lemon, Alaina (2000).
    • Roma people at AllExperts 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Between Two Fires: Gypsy Performance and Romani Memory from Pushkin to Post-Socialism. Durham: Duke University Press.^ The conflict which exists between mainstream education and traditional Romani Gypsy education is located in the opposing structures, values and interests which are used to support and maintain social cohesion in two very different societies.
    • Recognising Difference: The Romani "GYPSY" Child Socialisation and Education Process 20 September 2009 19:43 UTC www.osi.hu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Posted November 19, 2009 at 8:13 am Permalink notes chaudharyec romani shekhar rachel rating pubs socialism driven nellai coalitions .
    • Amanda Diva » Phonte Ain’t Happy about Kanye’s 808’s 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC blogs.okayplayer.com [Source type: General]

    ^ I wished I’d laid hands on them a couple of years ago when I posted a two-part piece on Gypsies.

    .ISBN 0-8223-2456-3
  • Luba Kalaydjieva; et al. (2001).^ (Kalaydjieva et al ., 2005:1085-6).
    • RADOC 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC www.radoc.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ ISBN 0-8223-2456-3 * Luba Kalaydjieva; et al.
    • Roma people at AllExperts 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    "Patterns of inter- and intra-group genetic diversity in the Vlax Roma as revealed by Y chromosome and mitochondrial DNA lineages." European Journal of Human Genetics. 9, 97-104. [17]
  • Marushiakova, Elena; Popov, Vesselin. (2001) "Gypsies in the Ottoman Empire." Hatfield: University of Hertfordshire Press.
  • Matras, Yaron (2002). .Romani: A Linguistic Introduction, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.^ Cambridge: The University Press.
    • RADOC 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC www.radoc.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Romani: A Linguistic Introduction .
    • RADOC 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC www.radoc.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .ISBN 0-512-02330-0.
  • McDowell, Bart (1970).^ McDowell, Bart (1970).
    • Roma people at AllExperts 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ."Gypsies, Wanderers of the World". National Geographic Society.^ Such people known in the Gaje, or white mans world, are usually called witches, warlocks or wizards but within the Roma/Gypsy society they are known as chovihanis.
    • Gypsy Lore - Gypsies History, Rom History, Fortune Telling, Holocaust 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC www.gypsyadvice.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ "Gypsies, Wanderers of the World".
    • Roma people at AllExperts 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Gypsies: Wanderers of the World National Geographic Society, 1970.
    • Gypsy Lore - Gypsies History, Rom History, Fortune Telling, Holocaust 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC www.gypsyadvice.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .ISBN 0-87044-088-8.
  • "Gypsies, The World's Outsiders."^ "Gypsies, The World's Outsiders."
    • Roma people at AllExperts 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .National Geographic, April 2001, 72-101.
  • Ringold, Dena.^ National Geographic , April 2001, 72-101.
    • Roma people at AllExperts 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Roma & the Transition in Central & Eastern Europe: Trends & Challenges.^ Those Roma who have immigrated to Austria from the Balkans and from the former communist countries of central and eastern Europe since the end of the eighties are not considered in the afore mentioned listing.
    • [Romani] Projekt / ROMA AND ROMANI IN AUSTRIA 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC romani.kfunigraz.ac.at [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ A journalist pointed out that in Central and Eastern Europe, newspapers had historically been used by minorities to produce and develop their intelligentsia.
    • The Media and the Roma in Contemporary Europe: Facts and Fictions 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC www.per-usa.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Roma: The Panjabi Emigrants in Europe, Central and Middle Asia, the USSR and the Americas .
    • RADOC 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC www.radoc.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Washington, DC, USA: World Bank, 2000. pg.^ Romani women and 19 per cent of men were identified as illiterate in 2000, UNICEF/World Bank , 2000.
    • Macedonia: "Little by little we women have learned our rights." The Macedonian government's failure to uphold the rights of Romani women and girls 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC www.amnestyusa.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    3,5, & 7.
  • Roberts, Samuel. .The Gypsies: Their Origin, Continuance, and Destination.^ The Gypsies: Their Origin, Continuance, and Destination .
    • Roma people at AllExperts 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .London: Longman, 4th edition, 1842.
  • Silverman, Carol.^ London: Longman, 4th edition, 1842.
    • Roma people at AllExperts 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    “Persecution and .Politicization: Roma (Gypsies) of Eastern Europe.” Cultural Survival Quarterly, Summer 1995.
  • Simson, Walter.^ The Roma/Gypsy has lived a nomadic existence for thousands of years and has lived in harmony with nature longer than most because, this author feels, of their Eastern origins.
    • Gypsy Lore - Gypsies History, Rom History, Fortune Telling, Holocaust 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC www.gypsyadvice.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Since the Roma came from an ancient Eastern culture, can they claim a European identity?
    • The Media and the Roma in Contemporary Europe: Facts and Fictions 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC www.per-usa.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ As a people (or, more accurately, a collection of disparate groups) originating in India's Gujarat, gypsies were the camp followers of Mongol invaders of Eastern Europe in the 13th century.
    • Desicritics.org: Names of the Romani People 20 September 2009 19:43 UTC desicritics.org [Source type: Original source]

    History of the Gipsies. .London: S. Low, 1865.
  • Tebbutt, Susan (Ed., 1998) Sinti and Roma in German-speaking Society and Literature.^ Tebbutt, Susan (Ed., 1998) Sinti and Roma in German-speaking Society and Literature .
    • Roma people at AllExperts 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ In German-speaking Europe , the self-designation is Sinti , in France Manush , while the groups of Spain , Wales and Finland use Kale (from kalo "black" .
    • Criminal Minds Community Message Board - CBS.com 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC www.cbs.com [Source type: General]

    .Oxford: Berghahn.
  • Turner, Ralph L. (1926) The Position of Romani in Indo-Aryan.^ Turner, Ralph L. (1926) The Position of Romani in Indo-Aryan.
    • Roma people at AllExperts 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ There is also the spelling Romany but the first one is preferred since it is the way the other Indo-Aryan languages are spelled: Hindi, Marathi, Bengali, Kashmiri etc.
    • Desicritics.org: Names of the Romani People 20 September 2009 19:43 UTC desicritics.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Traditionally most Roma spoke Romani (Romany), an Indo-Aryan language.
    • Roma people at AllExperts 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .In: Journal of the Gypsy Lore Society 3rd Ser.^ Journal of the Gypsy Lore Society, fifth series 9, 89-116 ( here in PDF ) (2) http://www.geocities.com/genesiscommentary/hebrews.html (3) They use the word Romani as an adjective.
    • Desicritics.org: Names of the Romani People 20 September 2009 19:43 UTC desicritics.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Papers From the Sixth and Seventh Annual Meetings, Gypsy Lore Society, North American Chapter.
    • Gypsy Lore - Gypsies History, Rom History, Fortune Telling, Holocaust 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC www.gypsyadvice.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The Gypsy Lore Society) http://www.gypsyloresociety.org/cultureintro.html .
    • Gypsy Lore - Gypsies History, Rom History, Fortune Telling, Holocaust 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC www.gypsyadvice.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    5/4, pp. 145–188.
  • Danish Broadcasting Corporation A page in Danish about Romani treatment in Denmark

External links

Non-governmental organisations

Museums and libraries

.
  • Museum of Romani Culture in Brno, Czech Republic (in Czech)[18]
  • Specialized Library with Archive "Studii Romani" in Sofia, Bulgaria (Bulgarian, English)
  • Documentation and Cultural Centre of German Sinti and Roma in Heidelberg, Germany (German, English)
  • Ethnographic Museum in Tarnów, Poland.^ There is a fair body of academic work on the Romani, by historians, ethnographers, and cultural anthropologists.
    • No such thing as Turkish Romani Skirt... - !Turkish Style! - tribe.net 20 September 2009 19:43 UTC tribes.tribe.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ However, interlocutors from the Museum of Romani Culture stated that while NGOs provide useful social and legal counseling to Roma, they are hampered by under-funding and a lack of visibility within Romani communities (26 Mar.
    • Issue Papers, Extended Responses and Country Fact Sheets 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC www2.irb-cisr.gc.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Roma from the Czech Republic also filed record numbers of asylum applications in Finland and Belgium.
    • Czech Republic 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Click "ROMA (CYGANIE)" on the menu at left.^ Click "ROMA (CYGANIE) " on the menu at left.
    • Roma people at AllExperts 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .(Polish, English, Romani)
  • Who we Were, Who we Are: Kosovo Roma Oral History Collection.^ That there may be Gypsies who prefer that term and some who prefer Romani or Roma.
    • Criminal Minds Community Message Board - CBS.com 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC www.cbs.com [Source type: General]

    ^ A message to Roma (in English , Vlax-Romani and Sinti-Romani ) about the purpose of this site.
    • O VURD�N (English Version) 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC www.vurdon.it [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ In August residents of the Horni Kosovo district in Jihlava also were collecting signatures for an anti-Roma petition, and there were reports of a similar petition drive in Znojmo in the spring.
    • Czech Republic 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .The most comprehensive collection of information on Kosovo's Roma in existence.^ In August residents of the Horni Kosovo district in Jihlava also were collecting signatures for an anti-Roma petition, and there were reports of a similar petition drive in Znojmo in the spring.
    • Czech Republic 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ By far the most common source of information for Roma NGOs (80%) is personal contacts and "walk - ins."
    • Rrommedia Network English 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC www.rrommedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The Roma/Gypsy has lived a nomadic existence for thousands of years and has lived in harmony with nature longer than most because, this author feels, of their Eastern origins.
    • Gypsy Lore - Gypsies History, Rom History, Fortune Telling, Holocaust 14 January 2010 9:22 UTC www.gypsyadvice.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    (English)

Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 14, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Romani people, which are similar to those in the above article.








Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address
Message