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Romania
România
Flag Coat of arms
AnthemDeşteaptă-te, române!
Awaken, Romanian!

Location of  Romania  (green)

– on the European continent  (light green & grey)
– in the European Union  (light green)  —  [Legend]

Capital
(and largest city)
Bucharest (Bucureşti)
44°25′N 26°06′E / 44.417°N 26.1°E / 44.417; 26.1
Official language(s) Romanian1
Ethnic groups  89.5% Romanians, 6.6% Hungarians, 2.5% Roma, 1.4% other minority groups
Demonym Romanian
Government Unitary semi-presidential republic
 -  President Traian Băsescu (PD-L)
 -  Prime Minister Emil Boc (PD-L)
 -  Pres of Senate Mircea Geoană (PSD)
 -  House Speaker Roberta Anastase (PD-L)
 -  Chief Justice Lidia Bărbulescu
Formation
 -  Transylvania 1003 
 -  Wallachia 1290 
 -  Moldavia 1346 
 -  First Unification 1599 
 -  Reunification of Wallachia and Moldavia January 24, 1859 
 -  Officially recognised independence from the Ottoman Empire July 13, 1878 
 -  Unification with Transylvania December 1, 1918 
EU accession January 1, 2007
Area
 -  Total 238,391 km2 (82nd)
92,043 sq mi 
 -  Water (%) 3
Population
 -  July 2009 estimate &0000000022215421.00000022,215,421[1] (51nd)
 -  2002 census 21,680,974 
 -  Density 90/km2 (104th)
233/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2008 estimate
 -  Total $270.772 billion[2] (39th)
 -  Per capita $12,600[2] (65th)
GDP (nominal) 2008 estimate
 -  Total $200.074 billion[2] (43rd)
 -  Per capita $9,310[2] (61st)
Gini (2005) 31 (low) (21st)
HDI (2009) 0.837 (high) (63rd)
Currency Leu (L)2 (RON)
Time zone EET (UTC+2)
 -  Summer (DST) EEST (UTC+3)
Drives on the right
Internet TLD .ro .eu
Calling code 40
1 Other languages, such as Hungarian, German, Turkish, Crimean Tatar, Greek, Romani, Croatian, Macedonian, Ukrainian and Serbian, are official at various local levels.
2 Romanian War of Independence.
3 Treaty of Berlin.
.Romania (pronounced /roʊˈmeɪniə/ ( listen) roe-MAY-nee-ə; archaic: Rumania, Roumania; Romanian: România [romɨˈni.a]  ( listen)) is a country located in Southeastern and Central Europe, North of the Balkan Peninsula, on the Lower Danube, within and outside the Carpathian arch, bordering on the Black Sea.^ The unified country itself became first "Roumania" or "Rumania," later further Latinized into "România," and soon the Cyrillic alphabet was traded in for the Latin alphabet, as the Roman roots of the people were increasingly emphasized.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

[3] Almost all of the Danube Delta is located within its territory. Romania shares a border with Hungary and Serbia to the west, Ukraine and the Republic of Moldova to the northeast, and Bulgaria to the south.
.Romania emerged as a personal union of the principalities of Moldavia and Wallachia under prince Alexander John Cuza in 1859 and as the Kingdom of Romania under the Hohenzollern monarchy, it gained recognition of independence from the Ottoman Empire in 1878.^ The Principalities of Wallachia and Moldavia are the first Vlach/Romanian states that we see north of the Danube.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The most famous person in these lines is certainly Prince Vlad the Impaler of Wallachia.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Those meanings began with "duke" or "prince" and ultimately declined to merely "governor," which would have been appropriate to Wallachia or Moldavia under the Turks.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

.In 1918, at the end of the World War I, Transylvania, Bukovina and Bessarabia united with the Kingdom of Romania.^ Transylvania, although predominately Romanian speaking, was part of Hungary all through the Middle Ages right down to the end of World War I. Bessarabia also became part of România at that time, was subsequently annexed to the Soviet Union, and now is the independent, and painfully impoverished, nation of Moldova.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

.At the end of World War II, parts of its territories (roughly the present day Republic of Moldova) were occupied by the USSR and Romania became a socialist republic, member of the Warsaw Pact.^ Transylvania, although predominately Romanian speaking, was part of Hungary all through the Middle Ages right down to the end of World War I. Bessarabia also became part of România at that time, was subsequently annexed to the Soviet Union, and now is the independent, and painfully impoverished, nation of Moldova.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He was the only person to sign the peace treaties ending both the First and Second World Wars.
  • Eine ganz normale Familie 23 September 2009 1:44 UTC www.weissgarnix.de [Source type: Academic]

^ When Alexius Comnenus signed a pact with Venice in 1082, the Republic became a partner with the now beleaguered Constantinople.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

With the fall of the Iron Curtain in 1989, Romania started a series of political and economic reforms. .After a decade of post-revolution economic problems, Romania made economic reforms such as low flat tax rates in 2005 and joined the European Union on January 1, 2007. While Romania's income level remains one of the lowest in the European Union, reforms have increased the growth speed.^ The one point they missed is that Darling’s tax claim was for his personal tax affairs rather than his office ones, at least in part, as it included a claim for advice on property income.
  • politicalbetting.com » Blog Archive » Are the over 55 figures the best indicator? 16 September 2009 12:10 UTC politicalbetting.com [Source type: General]

^ I’d also be wary about reading too much into any one month’s (or even quarter’s) figures while volumes remain so low.
  • politicalbetting.com » Blog Archive » Are the over 55 figures the best indicator? 16 September 2009 12:10 UTC politicalbetting.com [Source type: General]

^ Ionuţ Isac, Values and non-values within the context of romania’s joining the european union., În “ Rezumatele comunicărilor la Sesiunea ştiinţifică anuală a D.C.S.-U.”, Cluj-Napoca, Edit.

Romania is now an upper-middle income country economy with high human development.[4]
.Romania has the 9th largest territory and the 7th largest population (with 21.5 million people)[5] among the European Union member states.^ Since, from records about numbers of bakeries, tenements, etc., the population of Rome can be estimated as at least a million people, this puts the Jewish population at no more than 3%.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ INTEGRATIVE RELATIONS BETWEEN THE EUROPEAN UNION INSTITUTIONS AND THE MEMBER STATES .
  • Romania Conferences, Conventions, Trade Shows and Meetings 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.allconferences.com [Source type: Reference]

Its capital and largest city is Bucharest (Romanian: Bucureşti [bukuˈreʃtʲ]  ( listen)), the 6th largest city in the EU with 1.9 million people. In 2007, Sibiu, a city in Transylvania, was chosen as a European Capital of Culture.[6] Romania also joined NATO on March 29, 2004, and is also a member of the Latin Union, of the Francophonie, of the OSCE and of the United Nations, as well as an associate member of the CPLP. Romania is a semi-presidential unitary state.

Contents

Etymology

.The name of Romania (Romanian: România) comes from Romanian: român which is a derivative of the Latin: Romanus (Roman).^ Since the Latin alphabet is used here, and since the Roman Empire originally used Latin as its universal language, never forgotten in Greek Romania, that is the practice here.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Welschen originally was a German word for Celts (perhaps from the name of the Celtic tribe, the Volcae , in Latin) and then the Romano-Celts and then just for Romans .
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The name "Venice" is derived from the name of the Roman province that embraced the whole area, Venetia .
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

[7] .The fact that Romanians call themselves a derivative of Romanus (Romanian: Român/Rumân) is first mentioned in the 16th century by many authors, including Italian humanists travelling in Transylvania, Moldavia and Wallachia.^ The Principalities of Wallachia and Moldavia are the first Vlach/Romanian states that we see north of the Danube.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But St. George has been widely popular and is the patron of many places, including Genoa and some other Italian, German, and Spanish states, and Georgia in the Caucasus.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Emperors of the Roman and the so-called Byzantine Empires; Princes, Kings, and Tsars of Numidia, Judaea, Bulgaria, Serbia, Wallachia, & Moldavia; and the Sultâns of Rûm .
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

[8][9][10][11] .The oldest surviving document written in the Romanian language is a 1521 letter known as "Neacşu's Letter from Câmpulung".[12] This document is also notable for having the first occurrence of "Rumanian" in a Romanian written text, Wallachia being here named The Rumanian Land – Ţeara Rumânească (Ţeara from the Latin: Terra land).^ The Principalities of Wallachia and Moldavia are the first Vlach/Romanian states that we see north of the Danube.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Augustine of Hippo (395-430), whose name still evokes strong reactions even in our own day, and who died as the Vandals were besieging Hippo, still stands as the most prolific author in the Latin language, with 93 surviving works to his credit, not counting numerous sermons and letters.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ As the first Emperor with a very clearly Greek name ( Dioclês , before being Latinized to Diocletianus ), Diocletian foreshadows the later Greek character of the Empire.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

In the following centuries, Romanian documents use interchangeably two spelling forms: Român and Rumân.[note 1] Socio-linguistic evolutions in the late 17th century led to a process of semantic differentiation: the form "rumân", presumably usual among lower classes, got the meaning of "bondsman", while the form român kept an ethno-linguistic meaning.[13] After the abolition of serfdom in 1746, the form "rumân" gradually disappears and the spelling definitively stabilises to the form "român", "românesc".[note 2] The name "România" as common homeland of all Romanians is documented in the early 19th century.[note 3] This name has been officially in use since December 11, 1861.[14]
English-language sources still used the terms "Rumania" or "Roumania", borrowed from the French spelling "Roumanie", as recently as World War II,[15] but since then those terms have largely been replaced with the official[16] spelling "Romania".

History

Prehistory and Antiquity

A relief of Dacian king Decebalus from Trajan's Column
The oldest modern human remains in Europe were discovered in the "Cave With Bones" in present day Romania.[17] .The remains are approximately 42,000 years old and as Europe’s oldest remains of Homo sapiens, they may represent the first such people to have entered the continent.^ That may have been the motive, but if it was such a jolly wheeze, why did they only do it for 1 year?
  • politicalbetting.com » Blog Archive » Are the over 55 figures the best indicator? 16 September 2009 12:10 UTC politicalbetting.com [Source type: General]

^ The Pechenegs (or Patzinaks), a Turkic steppe people, will remain pagans until they are swept from history by the Cumans and Mongols.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ People (and this may include me on this outing, I haven’t decided yet) will vote Green for the idea that they stand for.
  • politicalbetting.com » Blog Archive » Are the over 55 figures the best indicator? 16 September 2009 12:10 UTC politicalbetting.com [Source type: General]

[18] .But the earliest written evidence of people living in the territory of the present-day Romania comes from Herodotus in book IV of his Histories (Herodotus) written 440 BCE, where he writes about the Getae tribes.^ If MPs appears to being helping the country, and doing something for a living, people would be a lot less irate about what they claimed on expenses.
  • politicalbetting.com » Blog Archive » Are the over 55 figures the best indicator? 16 September 2009 12:10 UTC politicalbetting.com [Source type: General]

[19]
Dacians, considered a part of these Getae, were a branch of Thracians that inhabited Dacia (corresponding to modern Romania, Moldova and northern Bulgaria). .The Dacian kingdom reached its maximum expansion during King Burebista, between 82BC - 44 BC, and soon came under the scrutiny of the neighboring Roman Empire.^ The office of the Roman Consuls, and dating by them, continues under the Empire until Justinian .
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The office of the Roman Consuls, the chief executive officers of the Roman Republic , and dating by them, continued under the Empire until Justinian, who now replaces them with dating by Regal years.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ They would soon become a loose cannon within the Empire, shattering essential supports of Roman power as the tribe rolled around.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

.After the assassination of Burebista, Dacia split into 4 or 5 smaller kingdoms, the Romans conquering Moesia by 29 BC. The Dacian Wars, between 87 AD - 106 AD ended with the victory of the Romans, and the transforming of the core of the kingdom into the province of Roman Dacia.^ Sparky May 29th, 2009 at 1:07 pm 304 Second level offences should probably be split into two, between .
  • politicalbetting.com » Blog Archive » Are the over 55 figures the best indicator? 16 September 2009 12:10 UTC politicalbetting.com [Source type: General]

^ Like the native kingdoms of Anatolia, Numidia was soon converted into a Roman province, opening the way for the introduction of a Latinate culture.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

[20]
Dacia was famed for its rich ore deposits, and especially gold and silver were plentiful.[21] Rome colonized Dacia Felix with colonists from allover the empire ("ex toto orbe Romano infinitas") .[22] .This brought Vulgar Latin and started a period of intense romanization, that would give birth to proto-Romanian language.^ The nimbus is not used for the Latin Emperors in the genealogy because, as Roman Catholics, they would have acknowledged Papal supremacy to a degree that the Orthodox Emperors in Constantinople never would.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Romans would have done themselves when writing in the Latin alphabet.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

[23][24] .Nevertheless, the attacks on the province by the Goths and the free dacian tribes of Carpi between 240AD - 256AD, at which date "Dacia was lost", Rome withdrew its administration from Dacia around 271 AD, thus making it the first province to be abandoned.^ Odoacer was not a Goth, but from a lesser German tribe, the Sciri, and he was not attacking Rome, but simply a member of the (barbarized) Roman army.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The worst part of the story may be that it has it that Odoacer was a (filthy, wild) Goth attacking Rome (a former ally rather like Alaric).
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Thus, Septimius Severus raised legions for his attack on the Parthians (195 AD), which quite logically are numbered Legio I Parthica, Legio II Parthica, & Legio III Parthica .
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

[25][26]
Several competing theories have been generated to explain the origin of modern Romanians. .Linguistic and geo-historical analysis tend to indicate that Romanians have coalesced as a major ethnic group both South and North of the Danube.^ With the simultaneous advent of the Vikings, this made both Franks and Romans vulnerable in North and South.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In modern parlance, the convention for some time was that Romance speakers south of the Danube spoke "Vlach" and those north of the Danube spoke "Romanian."
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Principalities of Wallachia and Moldavia are the first Vlach/Romanian states that we see north of the Danube.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

[27] For further discussion, see Origin of Romanians.

Middle Ages

Bran Castle was built in 1212, and became commonly known as Dracula's Castle after the myths that it was the home of Vlad III the Impaler
.After the Roman army and administration left Dacia, the territory was held by the Goths,[28] then, in the 4th century by Huns.^ This Germanic word for Romans seems to have been left, perhaps by the Goths, in the Balkans.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Roman Army under Augustus contained 28 Legions ( Legio , Legiones ), not counting the Praetorian Guard.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Goths who were granted asylum on Roman territory in 376 were the Tervingi , led by Alavivus and Fritigern.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

[29] .They were followed by the Gepids,[30][31] Avars,[32] Bulgars,[30] Pechenegs,[33] and Cumans.^ The Pechenegs (or Patzinaks), a Turkic steppe people, will remain pagans until they are swept from history by the Cumans and Mongols.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

[34] The Slavs also settled this land during this period.
.In the Middle Ages, Romanians (Vlachs) lived in three principalities: Wallachia, Moldavia and Transylvania.^ The Principalities of Wallachia and Moldavia are the first Vlach/Romanian states that we see north of the Danube.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Vlach language of the Principalities, not a written language in the Middle Ages, came to be written in the Cyrillic alphabet .
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

Since the 11th century, Transylvania had been part of the Kingdom of Hungary with a largely autonomous status[35]. .orthodox Romanians living in Transylvania experienced a decline in socio-economic status as Universitas Valachorum, begun with the Decree of Turda - which allowed access to nobility only to Catholics, and condemned Romanians as malefactors - was issued by Louis I Anjou of Hungary in 1366. A few years prior, Wallachian Romanians led by Basarab I defeated Charles I Anjou of Hungary at the Battle of Posada.^ Jahrhundert , comunicarea The Penetration of the Romanians to the Transylvania’s Administrative Structures by Greek-Catholic Religion’s Way during the 18th Century .

From 1438 Transylvania was governed by the Union of Three Nations formed by the Hungarian nobility, the ethnically Hungarian Székely and Germans. .In 1526 the Ottoman Empire conquered southern and central Hungary, and Transylvania became part of the Eastern Hungarian Kingdom ruled by the Habsburgs.^ Thus, the unity of the Eastern Army was focused more directly on the Emperor himself, which may have helped the Eastern Empire avoid the situation in the West where the Emperors became mere figureheads.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

In 1571 the Eastern Hungarian Kingdom ceased to exist, and a semi-independent Principality of Transylvania came under Ottoman suzerainty [36]. .From 1661 onwards Transylvania came under the rule of the Habsburg Empire.^ While the Palaeologi, building on the success of Nicaea, reestablished Greek rule, only Epirus of the other successor states came back under Imperial control.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

[37]
.Small Voivodeships with varying degrees of independence developed from the beginning of the 13th century, but only in the 14th century did the larger principalities of Wallachia (1310) and Moldavia (around 1352) consolidate enough to oppose the neighbouring Kingdom of Hungary, Polish kingdom, and the Ottoman Empire.^ The "Fourth Empire" begins with a blow, from an Islâm reinvigorated by the Turks, which represents not only a further diminution of the Empire, but a portent of the actual collapse and end of the Empire altogether.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Indeed, perhaps Rome did "fall" in the Third Century, if by the "Roman Empire" we mean a state ruled, controlled, and centered in the City of Rome.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Empire of Michael VIII did seem to have a chance, but a new Turkish state, of the Ottomans , soon surged into dominance.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

[38][39] .Basarab I, Mircea the Elder, Vlad III the Impaler in Wallachia, Alexander the Good, Stephen the Great in Moldavia, developed the Romanian countries, and fought to maintain independence at a crossroad of empires.^ The Principalities of Wallachia and Moldavia are the first Vlach/Romanian states that we see north of the Danube.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The most famous person in these lines is certainly Prince Vlad the Impaler of Wallachia.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ However, a Romanian correspondent straightened me out, that Prince Vlad the Impaler was not Vlad Dracul but instead the subsequent Prince Vlad T,epesh (1448, 1456-1462, 1476, also "Vlad Draculea"), his son.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

By 1541, the entire Balkan peninsula and the central part of Hungary became Ottoman provinces. .In contrast, Moldavia, Wallachia and Transylvania came under Ottoman suzerainty, but conserved a great degree of internal autonomy and, until the 18th century, some external independence.^ On C4 news, he came the closest so far (for a Conservative under the spotlight) to publicly criticizing David Cameron - saying that he insisted on due process being followed.
  • politicalbetting.com » Blog Archive » Are the over 55 figures the best indicator? 16 September 2009 12:10 UTC politicalbetting.com [Source type: General]

^ The "Great City" (we could say "Mickleyard" with English words) could not have been more appropriate, since Constantinople was the largest city in Europe until at least the 13th century.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Those meanings began with "duke" or "prince" and ultimately declined to merely "governor," which would have been appropriate to Wallachia or Moldavia under the Turks.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

.During this period these countries witnessed the slow disappearance of the feudal system; the distinguishment of rulers like Vasile Lupu and Dimitrie Cantemir in Moldavia, Matei Basarab and Constantin Brâncoveanu in Wallachia, John Hunyadi(Iancu de Hunedoara) and Gabriel Bethlen in Transylvania; the Phanariot Epoch; and the appearance of the Russian Empire as a political and military influence.^ In aceasta casa s-a nascut, la 23 februarie 1440, Matei Corvin, fiul marelui voievod al Transilvaniei Iancu de Hunedoara.
  • Romania Ghid turistic Romania ghiduri turistice Romania destinatia Romania informatii Romania statiuni Romania referate Romania atractii Romania obiective turistice Romania capitala Romania clima moneda monumente aeroporturi populatia religia relief istorie capitala autostrazi 16 September 2009 12:10 UTC www.besttourism.ro [Source type: General]

^ Castelul Huniazilor-Timisoara, construit de Iancu de Hunedoara intre 1443-1447.
  • Romania Ghid turistic Romania ghiduri turistice Romania destinatia Romania informatii Romania statiuni Romania referate Romania atractii Romania obiective turistice Romania capitala Romania clima moneda monumente aeroporturi populatia religia relief istorie capitala autostrazi 16 September 2009 12:10 UTC www.besttourism.ro [Source type: General]

^ Lacasul a fost reparat de domnitorul Vasile Lupu (1641), care o si inchina la ctitoria sa de la Iasi, manastirea Trei Ierarhi.
  • Romania Ghid turistic Romania ghiduri turistice Romania destinatia Romania informatii Romania statiuni Romania referate Romania atractii Romania obiective turistice Romania capitala Romania clima moneda monumente aeroporturi populatia religia relief istorie capitala autostrazi 16 September 2009 12:10 UTC www.besttourism.ro [Source type: General]

[40]
Moldavia, Wallachia and Transylvania united under the rule of Michael the Brave.
In 1600, the principalities of Wallachia, Moldova and Transylvania were simultaneously headed by the prince of Wallachia Michael the Brave, Ban of Oltenia, but the unity dissolved after Michael was killed, only one year later, by the soldiers of Habsburg army general Giorgio Basta. .The rule of Michael the Brave is regarded in Romanian historiography as the first attempt to unite the three principalities and to lay down foundations of a single state in a territory comparable to today's Romania.^ A. THE ADVENT OF THE TURKS, 1059-1185, 126 years 1060 AD -- Romanian territory is intact, but the military and financial foundations of Roman power have been undermined.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ They would continue to do so for more than three centuries -- the first reference to Englishmen in the service of Romania was in 1088, the last in 1404 -- 316 years.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Principalities of Wallachia and Moldavia are the first Vlach/Romanian states that we see north of the Danube.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

[41]
.After his death, as vassal tributary states of the Ottoman Empire, Moldova and Wallachia had complete internal autonomy and external independence, which was finally lost in the 18th century.^ His long reign, however, was not quite long enough, and his death set off the kind of internal dissentions that had ruined many another state in Romania.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Indeed, perhaps Rome did "fall" in the Third Century, if by the "Roman Empire" we mean a state ruled, controlled, and centered in the City of Rome.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Empire of Michael VIII did seem to have a chance, but a new Turkish state, of the Ottomans , soon surged into dominance.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

In 1699, Transylvania became a territory of the Habsburg Monarchy, following the Austrian victory over the Ottomans in the Great Turkish War. The Austrians, in their turn, rapidly expanded their empire: incorporating Oltenia (western Wallachia) in 1718, to return it in 1739, and occupying Bukovina (north-western Moldavia) in 1775. The Russian Empire also occupied Bessarabia (eastern Moldavia) in 1812.

Independence and monarchy

Territories inhabited by Romanians before WWI
.During the period of Austro-Hungarian rule in Transylvania, and Ottoman suzerainty over Wallachia and Moldavia, most Romanians were in the situation of being second-class citizens (or even non-citizens)[42] in a territory where they formed the majority of the population.^ They were the first Roman dynasty with a surname, which shows some of the social changes that took place during the long period of the Macedonians.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Italians are now gone (there being the Schism and all), but there are also (modern) Romanians present, though they do not have their own monastery.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Principalities of Wallachia and Moldavia are the first Vlach/Romanian states that we see north of the Danube.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

[43][44] .In some Transylvanian cities, such as Braşov (at that time the Transylvanian Saxon citadel of Kronstadt), Romanians were not even allowed to reside within the city walls.^ The trade privileges given to Venice in 1082 eventually made Romanian trade, and even the Navy, the plaything of Italian city states.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

[45]
.After the failed 1848 Revolution, the Great Powers did not support the Romanians' expressed desire to officially unite in a single state, which forced Romania to proceed alone against the Ottomans.^ Conversions did not have to be effected by force, which was prohibited by the Qur'ân anyway, but by powerful persuasion (and, easily understood in modern terms, tax incentives).
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The map shows Romania in 1000 AD, at the Millennium, with the height of Middle Romanian power rapidly approaching.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ What seems extraordinary about Venice now is how a mere city had become a Great Power, contending on terms of equality, if not superiority, with all of Romania.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

.The electors in both Moldavia and Wallachia chose in 1859 the same person –Alexandru Ioan Cuza– as prince (Domnitor in Romanian).^ Alexandru Ioan Cuza nr.
  • Romania Ghid turistic Romania ghiduri turistice Romania destinatia Romania informatii Romania statiuni Romania referate Romania atractii Romania obiective turistice Romania capitala Romania clima moneda monumente aeroporturi populatia religia relief istorie capitala autostrazi 16 September 2009 12:10 UTC www.besttourism.ro [Source type: General]

^ The Principalities of Wallachia and Moldavia are the first Vlach/Romanian states that we see north of the Danube.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Those meanings began with "duke" or "prince" and ultimately declined to merely "governor," which would have been appropriate to Wallachia or Moldavia under the Turks.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

[46] Thus, Romania was created as a personal union, albeit a Romania that did not include Transylvania. .There, the upper class and the aristocracy remained mainly Hungarian, and Romanian nationalism inevitably ran up against Hungarian in the late 19th century.^ It took more than a century for the Ottomans to scoop up all the spoils, but, like a slow motion car crash, the outcome has a horrible inevitability.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

As in the previous 900 years, Austria-Hungary, especially under the Dual Monarchy of 1867, kept the Hungarians firmly in control even in the parts of Transylvania where Romanians constituted a local majority.
In a 1866 coup d'état, Cuza was exiled and replaced by Prince Karl of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen, who became known as Prince Carol of Romania. .During the Russo-Turkish War Romania fought on the Russian side,[47] in and in the 1878 Treaty of Berlin, Romania was recognized as an independent state by the Great Powers.^ Over time, the Turks clearly regarded Bulgaria as strategically more important than Serbia or the Romanian principalities, and no local autonomy was allowed at all until the Russo-Turkish War of 1876-1878 and the Congress of Berlin (1878) forced it.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ What seems extraordinary about Venice now is how a mere city had become a Great Power, contending on terms of equality, if not superiority, with all of Romania.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

[48][49] In return, Romania ceded three southern districts of Bessarabia to Russia and acquired Dobruja. In 1881, the principality was raised to a kingdom and Prince Carol became King Carol I.
The 1878–1914 period was one of stability and progress for Romania. .During the Second Balkan War, Romania joined Greece, Serbia, Montenegro and Turkey against Bulgaria, and in the peace Treaty of Bucharest (1913) Romania gained Southern Dobrudja.^ During the First World War, he led the armies of South Africa against Germany, capturing German South-West Africa and commanding the British Army in East Africa.
  • Eine ganz normale Familie 23 September 2009 1:44 UTC www.weissgarnix.de [Source type: Academic]

^ He was the only person to sign the peace treaties ending both the First and Second World Wars.
  • Eine ganz normale Familie 23 September 2009 1:44 UTC www.weissgarnix.de [Source type: Academic]

[50]

World Wars and Greater Romania

(1916–1945)
Territorial changes of Romania since 1859 until present
The Alba Iulia National Assembly, December 1, 1918
.The first two years of the World War I saw a neutral Romania, as its nominal alliance with the Central Powers stated Romania was to oblige only in the event Austro-Hungarian Empire was attacked; while Romania's demands of recognition of its right to annex territories of Austria-Hungary with a Romanian populace were accepted by the Entente only in 1916 in the Treaty of Bucharest.^ During the First World War, he led the armies of South Africa against Germany, capturing German South-West Africa and commanding the British Army in East Africa.
  • Eine ganz normale Familie 23 September 2009 1:44 UTC www.weissgarnix.de [Source type: Academic]

^ Contributions to the story of the cultural relations romanian-Italians between the two wars: Alexandru Marcu and the School Romanian of Rome .

^ Transylvania, although predominately Romanian speaking, was part of Hungary all through the Middle Ages right down to the end of World War I. Bessarabia also became part of România at that time, was subsequently annexed to the Soviet Union, and now is the independent, and painfully impoverished, nation of Moldova.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

.The Romanian military campaign launched in August 1916 was largely unsuccesful, with Central Powers troops capturing Bucharest and occupying Wallachia and Dobrudja, the Romanian Army and the Russian Imperial Army defending Moldova until December 1917. The collapse of the Russian Empire during 1917 and the disbandment of its army left Romania isolated and surrounded on the Eastern Front, and an armistice with the Central Powers was signed in December 1917. The National Council of the Moldavian Democratic Republic proclaimed union with Romania on April 1918. Between May and July 1918, The Treaty of Bucharest was underway between German Empire and Romania with harsh conditions for Romania, and King Ferdinand of Romania refused to ratify it.^ During the First World War, he led the armies of South Africa against Germany, capturing German South-West Africa and commanding the British Army in East Africa.
  • Eine ganz normale Familie 23 September 2009 1:44 UTC www.weissgarnix.de [Source type: Academic]

^ A. THE ADVENT OF THE TURKS, 1059-1185, 126 years 1060 AD -- Romanian territory is intact, but the military and financial foundations of Roman power have been undermined.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Gheorghe Iancu, La Romania e gli armistizi del 1917 e del 1918 (Focşani, Belgrado) , în vol.

The Hundred Days Offensive during the summer of 1918, meant the defeat of Germany and Austria-Hungary on the Western and Italian fronts, allowing Romania to renounce the treaty in October 1918. Romania re-entered the war on November 10, 1918. The next day, the Treaty of Bucharest was nullified by the terms of the Armistice of Compiègne. On November 15, 1918 Bukovina proclaimed union with Romania. The National Assembly of the Romanians of Transylvania proclaimed union with Romania on December 1, 1918.
The ensuing Hungarian–Romanian War of 1919 led to the destruction of the Hungarian Soviet Republic.
The Treaty of Trianon ratified in 1920, established Transylvania under sovereignty of Kingdom of Romania. The union of Bukovina with Romania was ratified in 1919 in the Treaty of Saint Germain [51], and the union of Bessarabia with Romania in 1920 by the Treaty of Paris.[52]
Total Romanian World War I casualties from 1914 to 1918, military and civilian, within contemporary borders, were estimated at 748,000.[53]
.The Romanian expression România Mare (literal translation "Great Romania", but more commonly rendered "Greater Romania") generally refers to the Romanian state in the interwar period, and by extension, to the territory Romania covered at the time (see map).^ They would continue to do so for more than three centuries -- the first reference to Englishmen in the service of Romania was in 1088, the last in 1404 -- 316 years.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Principalities of Wallachia and Moldavia are the first Vlach/Romanian states that we see north of the Danube.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The map shows Romania in 1000 AD, at the Millennium, with the height of Middle Romanian power rapidly approaching.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

Romania achieved at that time its greatest territorial extent (almost 300,000 km2/120,000 sq mi),[54][54].
Romanian Army tanks entering Chişinău in 1941
.Romania remained neutral after the start of the World War II in September 1939. The Battle of France rendered its allies France and Britain unable to help, and on June 28, 1940, following the Soviet ultimatum which implied invasion in the event of non-compliance[55] the Romanian administration and the Army withdrew from Bessarabia as well from Northern Bukovina and Hertza[56].^ During the First World War, he led the armies of South Africa against Germany, capturing German South-West Africa and commanding the British Army in East Africa.
  • Eine ganz normale Familie 23 September 2009 1:44 UTC www.weissgarnix.de [Source type: Academic]

^ Transylvania, although predominately Romanian speaking, was part of Hungary all through the Middle Ages right down to the end of World War I. Bessarabia also became part of România at that time, was subsequently annexed to the Soviet Union, and now is the independent, and painfully impoverished, nation of Moldova.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This was of great material help to Romania, but the Turks remained based at Iconium (Konya).
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

.Further Axis pressure lead to more territorial losses for Romania: southern Dobrogea was ceded to Bulgaria and Northern Transylvania to Hungary through the Second Vienna Award[57].^ Bulgaria will lead the way, but it will soon be following by Hungary, Poland, Russia, and Scandinavia.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

.The socio-political turmoil resulted in the abdication of Carol II of Romania, and the installment the National Legionary State, in which power was shared by General Ion Antonescu and the Iron Guard.^ By that time a city state was going to be no match for the colonial and maritime powers that were rapidly becoming modern nation states.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

.Tensions between the two led to a Legionary Rebellion which was promptly crushed by the Army, and Antonescu established his own dictatorship, allying Romania with Nazi Germany.^ Nevertheless, Gallienus rebuilt the army and, excluding Senators from legionary commands, put in place the generals who, although his own murderers, conducted the reconstruction of the Empire.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The units of the Eastern Mobile Army all are commanded by their own Master of Soldiers, with two units as "Soldiers of the Emperor's Presence."
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

In 1941 Romania entered the war against the Soviet Union on the side of the Axis powers. .During the war, Romania was the most important source of oil for Germany,[58] which attracted multiple bombing raids by the Allies.^ During the First World War, he led the armies of South Africa against Germany, capturing German South-West Africa and commanding the British Army in East Africa.
  • Eine ganz normale Familie 23 September 2009 1:44 UTC www.weissgarnix.de [Source type: Academic]

^ Intrinsically one of the most interesting and important periods in Roman history, the Tetrarchy unfortunately suffers from the relative poverty of the sources we have for it.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

The Romanian Army made a major contribution to the Axis effort on the Eastern Front, retaking Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina and participating in major battles at Odessa, Sevastopol and Stalingrad. The Antonescu regime played a major role in the Holocaust,[59] following to a lesser extent the Nazi policy of oppression and massacre of the Jews, and Romanies, primarily in the Eastern territories Romania recovered or occupied from the Soviet Union (Transnistria) and in Moldavia.[60]
In August 1944, Antonescu was toppled and arrested by King Michael I of Romania. .Romania joined the Allies, but its role in the defeat of Nazi Germany was not recognized by the Paris Peace Conference of 1947.[61] By the end of the war, the Romanian Army had suffered about 519,000 casualties.^ During the First World War, he led the armies of South Africa against Germany, capturing German South-West Africa and commanding the British Army in East Africa.
  • Eine ganz normale Familie 23 September 2009 1:44 UTC www.weissgarnix.de [Source type: Academic]

^ In 899, the Tagmata together numbered about 28,000 men, while the entire Army, Themes and Tagmata combined, added up to about 128,000 men [Treadgold, op.cit.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The background offered in the movie about Sarmatian service in the Roman army leaves out that this involved the war fought by Marcus Aurelius featured in the movie Gladiator .
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

[62] The Paris Peace Treaties, 1947 rendered the Vienna Diktat void, and re-established Romania's western borders. Northern Bukovina and Bessarabia remained occupied by the USSR.
Jewish Holocaust victims totaled 469,000 within the 1939 borders, including 325,000 in Bessarabia and Bukovina.[63]

Communism

(1945–1989)
The coat of arms of the Romanian Communist Party
Anti-communist protesters during the 1989 revolution. Romania was the only Eastern European country to violently overthrow its Communist regime
.During the Soviet occupation of Romania, the Communist-dominated government called new elections, which were won with 80% of the vote through intimidation and likely electoral fraud.^ TC May 29th, 2009 at 9:25 am 98: He won’t be able to during a general election.
  • politicalbetting.com » Blog Archive » Are the over 55 figures the best indicator? 16 September 2009 12:10 UTC politicalbetting.com [Source type: General]

^ Where there are local elections, not only will there be more party activity, but also electors have much more immediate reason to vote.
  • politicalbetting.com » Blog Archive » Are the over 55 figures the best indicator? 16 September 2009 12:10 UTC politicalbetting.com [Source type: General]

^ So my current thinking is to focus on that section of the electorate that we know is much more likely to vote in elections of all kinds than any other group - the over 55s.
  • politicalbetting.com » Blog Archive » Are the over 55 figures the best indicator? 16 September 2009 12:10 UTC politicalbetting.com [Source type: General]

[64] They thus rapidly established themselves as the dominant political force.
In 1947, the Communists forced King Michael I to abdicate and leave the country, and proclaimed Romania a people's republic.[65][66] .Romania remained under the direct military occupation and economic control of the USSR until the late 1950s.^ The areas set aside for particular units became the themes , which remained the military bedrock of Romania until the end of the 11th century and soon replaced the old Roman provinces as the administrative divisions of the Empire.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ A Roman pocket under local commanders remained in the north of Gaul until the Frankish King Clovis subjugated it in 486.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

During this period, Romania's vast natural resources were continuously drained [67] by mixed Soviet-Romanian companies (SovRoms) set up for exploitative purposes.[68][69] In 1948, the state began to nationalize private firms (see nationalization in Romania), and to collectivize agriculture the following year (see collectivization in Romania).[70]
From the late 1940s to the early 1960s, the Communist government established a reign of terror, carried out mainly through the Securitate (the new secret police). .During this time they launched several campaigns to eliminate "enemies of the state", in which numerous individuals were killed or imprisoned for arbitrary political or economic reasons.^ A few weeks ago, I would have guessed that the Eng Dems would come 7th, but during the campaign they have been very quiet and have been overshadowed a lot by the CP/CPA. .
  • politicalbetting.com » Blog Archive » Are the over 55 figures the best indicator? 16 September 2009 12:10 UTC politicalbetting.com [Source type: General]

[71] Punishment included deportation, internal exile, and internment in forced labour camps and prisons; dissent was vigorously suppressed. .A notorious experiment in this period took place in the Piteşti prison, where a group of political opponents were put into a program of reeducation through torture.^ They were the first Roman dynasty with a surname, which shows some of the social changes that took place during the long period of the Macedonians.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

Historical records show hundreds of thousands of abuses, deaths and incidents of torture against a wide range of people, from political opponents to ordinary citizens.[72]
.In 1965, Nicolae Ceauşescu came to power and started to pursue independent policies such as being the only Warsaw Pact country to condemn the Soviet-led 1968 invasion of Czechoslovakia, and to continue diplomatic relations with Israel after the Six-Day War of 1967; establishing economic (1963) and diplomatic (1967) relations with the Federal Republic of Germany.^ With the decline of Romania, Venice largely pursued its affairs at the expense of Constantinople and only came to be pushed out of the area altogether by the Ottomans .
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This continued until the Safavids came to power in 1508.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The alternation of war and trade that had characterized Roman relations with the Varangians, and which led to sharp defeats of Russia by John Tzimisces, took a greater turn toward friendship in Basil's day with the conversion of St. Vladimir to Christianity (989).
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

[73] Also, close ties with the Arab countries (and the PLO) allowed Romania to play a key role in the IsraelEgypt and Israel–PLO peace processes.[74] But as Romania's foreign debt sharply increased between 1977 and 1981 (from 3 to 10 billion US dollars),[75] the influence of international financial organisations such as the IMF or the World Bank grew, conflicting with Nicolae Ceauşescu's autarchic policies. .He eventually initiated a project of total reimbursement of the foreign debt by imposing policies that impoverished Romanians and exhausted the Romanian economy, while also greatly extending the authority of the police state, and imposing a cult of personality.^ The trade privileges given to Venice in 1082 eventually made Romanian trade, and even the Navy, the plaything of Italian city states.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

These led to a dramatic decrease in Ceauşescu's popularity and culminated in his overthrow and execution in the bloody Romanian Revolution of 1989.
.In 2006, the Presidential Commission for the Study of the Communist Dictatorship in Romania estimated the number of direct victims of communist repression at two million people.^ Since, from records about numbers of bakeries, tenements, etc., the population of Rome can be estimated as at least a million people, this puts the Jewish population at no more than 3%.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

[76][77] .This number does not include people who died in liberty as a result of their treatment in communist prisons, nor does it include people who died because of the dire economic circumstances in which the country found itself.^ Availability of, and changes in, credit - Perceptions of people’s likely economic circumstances in the years ahead - Expectations of changes to house prices and credit in the future.
  • politicalbetting.com » Blog Archive » Are the over 55 figures the best indicator? 16 September 2009 12:10 UTC politicalbetting.com [Source type: General]

^ The percentages of people who died in the Empire may compare with those of the Black Death in the 14th century, though by then the population of Europe had grown much larger.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

Present-day democracy

After the revolution, the National Salvation Front, led by Ion Iliescu, took partial multi-party democratic and free market measures.[78][79] Several major political parties of the pre-war era, such as the Christian-Democratic National Peasants' Party, the National Liberal Party and the Romanian Social Democrat Party were resurrected. .After several major political rallies, in April 1990, a sit-in protest contesting the results of the recently held parliamentary elections began in University Square, Bucharest accusing the Front of being made up of former Communists and members of the Securitate.^ Could he go into the Euro elections on Thursday with half a dozen Cabinet members resigning in dribs and drabs over the 48 hours running up to it?
  • politicalbetting.com » Blog Archive » Are the over 55 figures the best indicator? 16 September 2009 12:10 UTC politicalbetting.com [Source type: General]

The protesters did not recognize the results of the election, deeming them undemocratic, and asked for the exclusion from the political life of the former high-ranking Communist Party members. The protest rapidly grew to become an ongoing mass demonstration (known as the Golaniad). The peaceful demonstrations degenerated into violence, and the violent intervention of coal miners from the Jiu Valley led to what is remembered as the June 1990 Mineriad.[80]
The subsequent disintegration of the Front produced several political parties including the Romanian Democrat Social Party (later Social Democratic Party), the Democratic Party and the (Alliance for Romania). The first governed Romania from 1990 until 1996 through several coalitions and governments and with Ion Iliescu as head of state. .Since then there have been four democratic changes of government: in 1996, the democratic-liberal opposition and its leader Emil Constantinescu acceded to power; in 2000 the Social Democrats returned to power, with Iliescu once again president; and in 2004 Traian Băsescu was elected president, with an electoral coalition called Justice and Truth Alliance.^ With the return of Roman power to the West, new arrangements of government emerge.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The broadcaster Esther Rantzen, the Shadow Justice Secretary Dominic Grieve, the Secretary of State for Universities, Innovation and Skills, John Denham, and the Liberal Democrat Julia Goldsworthy .
  • politicalbetting.com » Blog Archive » Are the over 55 figures the best indicator? 16 September 2009 12:10 UTC politicalbetting.com [Source type: General]

Băsescu was narrowly re-elected in 2009.[81]
Post-Cold War Romania developed closer ties with Western Europe, eventually joining NATO in 2004, and hosting the 2008 summit in Bucharest.[82] The country applied in June 1993 for membership in the European Union and became an Associated State of the EU in 1995, an Acceding Country in 2004, and a member on January 1, 2007.[83]
.Following the free travel agreement and politics of the post-Cold War period, as well as hardship of the life in the 1990s economic depression, Romania has an increasingly large diaspora, estimated at over 2 million people.^ Since, from records about numbers of bakeries, tenements, etc., the population of Rome can be estimated as at least a million people, this puts the Jewish population at no more than 3%.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Of course, a large part of the estimate is based on the Diaspora population.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

The main emigration targets are Spain, Italy, Germany, Austria, UK, Canada and the USA.[84]
During the 2000s, Romania enjoyed one of the highest economic growth rates in Europe and has been referred to as "the Tiger of Eastern Europe."[85] This has been accompanied by a significant improvement in human development[86]. The country has been successful in reducing internal poverty and fighting AIDS and other diseases.[87]. .However, Romania still faces issues related to infrastructure[88], medical services[89], education[90], and particularly corruption, which is regarded as a legacy of the Communist era[91].^ That the gold coinage of the solidus still exists at all, however, is testimony to the fact that the prosperity and material culture of Romania never fell as far as it did in Francia .
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

Geography

Topographic map of Romania
With a surface area of 238,391 square kilometres (92,043 sq mi), Romania is the largest country in southeastern Europe and the twelfth-largest in Europe.[92] A large part of Romania's border with Serbia and Bulgaria is formed by the Danube. The Danube is joined by the Prut River, which forms the border with the Republic of Moldova.[92] The Danube flows into the Black Sea within Romania's territory forming the Danube Delta, the second largest and the best preserved delta in Europe, and a biosphere reserve and a biodiversity World Heritage Site.[93] .Other important rivers are the Siret, running north-south through Moldavia, the Olt, running from the oriental Carpathian Mountains to Oltenia, and the Mureş, running through Transylvania from East to West.^ During the First World War, he led the armies of South Africa against Germany, capturing German South-West Africa and commanding the British Army in East Africa.
  • Eine ganz normale Familie 23 September 2009 1:44 UTC www.weissgarnix.de [Source type: Academic]

^ In legend and horror, one might almost say romance, this cruel man has grown into the paradigmatic vampire, Count Dracula , though his home has been slightly relocated, from Wallachia to Transylvania and the Carpathian Mountains (between Transylvania and Moldavia).
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

[92]
Romania's terrain is distributed roughly equally between mountainous, hilly and lowland territories. The Carpathian Mountains dominate the center of Romania, with fourteen of its mountain ranges reaching above the altitude of 2,000 meters.[92] The highest mountain in Romania is Moldoveanu Peak (2,544 m/8,346 ft). In south-central Romania, the Carpathians sweeten into hills, towards the Bărăgan Plains. Romania's geographical diversity has led to an accompanying diversity of flora and fauna.[92]

Environment

Glacial lakes within Retezat National Park
A high percentage (47% of the land area) of the country is covered with natural and semi-natural ecosystems.[94] .Since almost half of all forests in Romania (13% of the country) have been managed for watershed conservation rather than production, Romania has one of the largest areas of undisturbed forest in Europe.^ In the last days of Romania, as all else was being lost, one domain expanded.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The betrayal it represents, then, was of a more intimate character, since Venice was in origin, culture, and tradition one of Romania's own.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The one point they missed is that Darling’s tax claim was for his personal tax affairs rather than his office ones, at least in part, as it included a claim for advice on property income.
  • politicalbetting.com » Blog Archive » Are the over 55 figures the best indicator? 16 September 2009 12:10 UTC politicalbetting.com [Source type: General]

[94] .The integrity of Romanian forest ecosystems is indicated by the presence of the full range of European forest fauna, including 60% and 40% of all European brown bears and wolves, respectively.^ Yellow Submarine May 29th, 2009 at 6:40 am If it’s a poll for the European election, Why is Respect listed as an option, when Respect is not standing?
  • politicalbetting.com » Blog Archive » Are the over 55 figures the best indicator? 16 September 2009 12:10 UTC politicalbetting.com [Source type: General]

[95] There are also almost 400 unique species of mammals (of which Carpathian chamois are best known), birds, reptiles and amphibians in Romania.[96]
There are almost 10,000 km2 (3,900 sq mi) (almost 5% of the total area) of protected areas in Romania.[97] .Of these, Danube Delta Reserve Biosphere is the largest and least damaged wetland complex in Europe, covering a total area of 5,800 km2 (2,200 sq mi).^ The "Great City" (we could say "Mickleyard" with English words) could not have been more appropriate, since Constantinople was the largest city in Europe until at least the 13th century.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

[98] The significance of the biodiversity of the Danube Delta has been internationally recognised. .It was declared a Biosphere Reserve in September 1990, a Ramsar site in May 1991, and over 50% of its area was placed on the World Heritage List in December 1991.[99] Within its boundaries is one of the most extensive reed bed systems in the world.^ The Fall of Constantinople, on May 29, 1453, is one of the most formative, epochal, colorful, and dramatic episodes in world history.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In Switzerland, the Walen place names commemorate the presence of Romance speakers at the boundary or within the area taken over by German speakers -- though the area around the Walensee is now overwhelmingly German speaking.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Within that system Cash is a chiseler, but a minor one.
  • politicalbetting.com » Blog Archive » Are the over 55 figures the best indicator? 16 September 2009 12:10 UTC politicalbetting.com [Source type: General]

[100] There are two other biosphera reserves: Retezat National Park and Rodna National Park.

Flora and fauna

In Romania there have been identified 3,700 plant species from which to date 23 have been declared natural monuments, 74 missing, 39 are endangered, 171 vulnerable and 1,253 are considered rare.[101] The three major vegetation areas in Romania are the alpine zone, the forest zone and the steppe zone. The vegetation is distributed in an storied manner in accordance with the characteristics of soil and climate, but according to altitude as: oak, flasks, linden, ash (in the steppe zone and low hills), beech, oak (between 500 and 1200 meters), spruce, fir, pine (between 1200 and 1800 m), juniper, Mountain Pine and dwarf trees (in 1800 and 2000 meters), alpine meadows consisting of small herbs (over 2000 meters).[102] Off the high valleys, due to persistent moisture, there is a specific vegetation of meadow, reed, rush, sedge, and often with patches of willows, poplars and Arini. In the Danube Delta swamp vegetation is dominant.[102]
The fauna of Romania consists of 33,792 species of animals, 33,085 invertebrate and 707 vertebrate.[101] The vertebrate species consist of 191 fish, 20 amphibian, 30 reptile, 364 bird and 102 mammal species.[101] Fauna is especially broken down by vegetation. Thus, specific floor steppe and forest steppe have the following species: rabbit, hamster, ground squirrel, pheasant, drop, quail, carp, perch, pike, catfish, the forest floor of hardwood (oak and beech): boar, wolf, fox, barbel, woodpecker, and for coniferous forest floor: trout, lynx, deer, goats and specific alpine fauna like black and bald eagles.[102] In particular the Danube Delta is the place where hundreds of species of birds exist, including pelicans, swans, wild geese and flamingos, birds that are protected by law. The delta is also a seasonal stopover for migratory birds. Some rare species of birds in the Dobrogea area are the pelican, cormorant, little deer, Red-breasted Goose, White-fronted Goose and the Mute Swan.[103]

Climate

Satellite image of Romania in December 2001, showing most of its territory under snow
Owing to its distance from the open sea and position on the southeastern portion of the European continent, Romania has a climate that is transitional between temperate and continental with four distinct seasons. The average annual temperature is 11 °C (52 °F) in the south and 8 °C (46 °F) in the north.[104] The extreme recorded temperatures are 44.5 °C (112.1 °F) in Ion Sion 1951 and −38.5 °C (−37 °F) in Bod 1942.[105]
Spring is pleasant with cool mornings and nights and warm days. Summers are generally very warm to hot, with summer (June to August) average maximum temperatures in Bucharest being around 28 °C (82 °F), with temperatures over 35 °C (95 °F) fairly common in the lower-lying areas of the country. Minima in Bucharest and other lower-lying areas are around 16 °C (61 °F), but at higher altitudes both maxima and minima decline considerably. Autumn is dry and cool, with fields and trees producing colorful foliage. .Winters can be cold, with average maxima even in lower-lying areas being no more than 2 °C (36 °F) and below −15 °C (5.0 °F) in the highest mountains, where some areas of permafrost occur on the highest peaks.^ Even more interesting is that I am more closely aligned to labour than Lib Dem.
  • politicalbetting.com » Blog Archive » Are the over 55 figures the best indicator? 16 September 2009 12:10 UTC politicalbetting.com [Source type: General]

^ If the rules are wrong they should be changed, pillorying people for following the rules is no more nor less than a witch hunt.
  • politicalbetting.com » Blog Archive » Are the over 55 figures the best indicator? 16 September 2009 12:10 UTC politicalbetting.com [Source type: General]

^ Milliband came across as supporting an unpopular unaccountable European establishment for no better reason than that the unpopular, unaccountable European establishment would like us more if we carried on supporting it.
  • politicalbetting.com » Blog Archive » Are the over 55 figures the best indicator? 16 September 2009 12:10 UTC politicalbetting.com [Source type: General]

[106]
Precipitation is average with over 750 mm (30 in) per year only on the highest western mountains — much of it falling as snow which allows for an extensive skiing industry. .In the south-centern parts of the country (around Bucharest) the level of precipitation drops to around 600 mm (24 in),[107] while in the Danube Delta, rainfall levels are very low, and average only around 370 mm.^ A big part of the problem is that with housing transactions falling in number each index is more and more dependent on a very small number of transactions in each segment that is used to calculate the average.
  • politicalbetting.com » Blog Archive » Are the over 55 figures the best indicator? 16 September 2009 12:10 UTC politicalbetting.com [Source type: General]

^ What worries me is the turnout level which, if it is very low, will play havoc with all the polling projections.
  • politicalbetting.com » Blog Archive » Are the over 55 figures the best indicator? 16 September 2009 12:10 UTC politicalbetting.com [Source type: General]

Demographics

Population of Romania between 1961-2010
Ethnic map of Romania in 2002
.According to the 2002 census, Romania has a population of 21,698,181 and, similarly to other countries in the region, is expected to gently decline in the coming years as a result of sub-replacement fertility rates.^ James Burdett May 29th, 2009 at 9:45 am By the way, when do we expecte results to start coming in?
  • politicalbetting.com » Blog Archive » Are the over 55 figures the best indicator? 16 September 2009 12:10 UTC politicalbetting.com [Source type: General]

Romanians make up 89.5% of the population. .The largest ethnic minorities are the Szekelys and Hungarians, who make up 6.6% of the population and Romanies (Gypsies), who make up 2.46% of the population.^ This happened to be the Pisan writer Rustichello (or Rusticiano), who thought that Polo's tales might make a good book and wrote it up, in French.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

[note 4][108] Hungarians constitute a majority in the counties of Harghita and Covasna. .Ukrainians, Germans, Lipovans, Turks, Tatars, Serbs, Slovaks, Bulgarians, Croats, Greeks, Russians, Jews, Czechs, Poles, Italians, Armenians, as well as other ethnic groups, account for the remaining 1.4% of the population.^ But St. George has been widely popular and is the patron of many places, including Genoa and some other Italian, German, and Spanish states, and Georgia in the Caucasus.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Although today the Bulgarians are thought of as simply a Slavic people, like the Russians or Serbs, they were originally a nomadic Turkic steppe people, more like the Huns or Mongols.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Over the years, monasteries were founded, not just by Greeks, but by Georgians , Serbs, Bulgarians, Russians, and even Italians.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

[109] Of the 745,421 Germans in Romania in 1930,[110] only about 60,000 remained.[111] In 1924, there were 796,056 Jews in the Kingdom of Romania.[112] .The number of Romanians and individuals with ancestors born in Romania living abroad is estimated at around 12 million.^ Since, from records about numbers of bakeries, tenements, etc., the population of Rome can be estimated as at least a million people, this puts the Jewish population at no more than 3%.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

[84] As of 2009, there were also approximately 133,000 immigrants living in Romania[113], primarily from Moldova, Turkey and China.

Languages

.The official language of Romania is Romanian, an Eastern Romance language related to Italian, French, Spanish, Portuguese and Catalan.^ If no other events had intervened, North Africa today would probably boast its own Romance language, like Spanish or French.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In Switzerland we do have Italian speakers, but there is also a separate Romance language, Romansh, part of the Rhaeto-Romance group ( Rätoromanische Sprache -- named after the Roman province of Raetia).
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ French, Spanish, or Italian.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

Romanian is spoken as a first language by 91% of the population, with Hungarian and Romani, being the most important minority languages, spoken by 6.7% and 1.1% of the population, respectively.[109] .Until the 1990s, there was also a substantial number of German-speaking Transylvanian Saxons, even though many have since emigrated to Germany, leaving only 45,000 native German speakers in Romania.^ In Switzerland, the Walen place names commemorate the presence of Romance speakers at the boundary or within the area taken over by German speakers -- though the area around the Walensee is now overwhelmingly German speaking.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Indeed, one could even say that the Renaissance began there, since many of its scholars, with their books, fled the Turkish Conquest to Italy, which was ready for them.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Not only now are there whole countries where the dependent classes exceed the numbers of the productive classes (e.g.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

.In localities where a given ethnic minority makes up more than 20% of the population, that minority's language can be used in the public administration and justice system, while native-language education and signage is also provided.^ It took more than a century for the Ottomans to scoop up all the spoils, but, like a slow motion car crash, the outcome has a horrible inevitability.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Since Orthodox Churches use the Julian Calendar, this day can be more than a month after the first Sunday of Lent on the Gregorian calendar.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Canon can then obviously be continued from 1453 with the Ottomans , who make for a succession in Constantinople in an even more seamless fashion than Augustus takes over from Cleopatra.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

English and French are the main foreign languages taught in schools. .English is spoken by 5 million Romanians, French is spoken by 4–5 million, and German, Italian and Spanish are each spoken by 1–2 million people.^ But St. George has been widely popular and is the patron of many places, including Genoa and some other Italian, German, and Spanish states, and Georgia in the Caucasus.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In Swiss German, it tends to mean the French language in Switzerland (which, in French, is Romand spoken in Romandie -- a dialect of Franco-Provençal or Arpitan).
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ French, Spanish, or Italian.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

[114] .Historically, French was the predominant foreign language spoken in Romania, even though English has since superseded it.^ Since the Latin alphabet is used here, and since the Roman Empire originally used Latin as its universal language, never forgotten in Greek Romania, that is the practice here.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In Swiss German, it tends to mean the French language in Switzerland (which, in French, is Romand spoken in Romandie -- a dialect of Franco-Provençal or Arpitan).
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

Consequently, Romanian English-speakers tend to be younger than Romanian French-speakers. Romania is, however, a full member of La Francophonie, and hosted the Francophonie Summit in 2006.[115] German has been taught predominantly in Transylvania, due to traditions tracing back to the Austro-Hungarian rule in this province.

Religion

.Romania is a secular state, thus having no national religion.^ It is certainly the right place for such a building, and so one is a little surprised to learn that no secular building, as far as we know, was put there all the years of Romania.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ By that time a city state was going to be no match for the colonial and maritime powers that were rapidly becoming modern nation states.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

.The dominant religious body is the Romanian Orthodox Church, an autocephalous church within the Eastern Orthodox communion; its members make up 86.7% of the population according to the 2002 census.^ Although most Greek churches operate under the authority of the autocephalous Greek Orthodox Church, Mt.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Greek influence ended up predominating, but the Bulgars continued jealous of their autonomy -- the precedent of an autocephalous Church set the pattern for other Orthodox Churches, as in Russia , created under Roman auspices.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ After the Schism of the Eastern and Western Churches (1054), there came to be growing religious hostility between Venice and her metropolis.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

.Other important Christian denominations include Roman Catholicism (4.7%), Protestantism (3.7%), Pentecostalism (1.5%) and the Romanian Greek-Catholic Church (0.9%).^ Most symbolically, the breach between the Eastern and Western Churches in 1054 was the one that became permanent and henceforth separated the One Holy Roman Catholic and Apostolic Church into the Pope's Latin Church , usually called "Roman Catholic," and the Patriarch of Constantinople's Greek Church , traditionally called "Greek Orthodox" -- along with the other autocephalous "Orthodox" Churches (Russian, Bulgarian, Serbian, Romanian, etc.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Greek influence ended up predominating, but the Bulgars continued jealous of their autonomy -- the precedent of an autocephalous Church set the pattern for other Orthodox Churches, as in Russia , created under Roman auspices.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

[109] Romania also has a Muslim minority concentrated in Dobrogea, mostly of Turkish ethnicity and numbering 67,500 people.[116] .Based on the 2002 census data, there are also 6,179 Jews, 23,105 people who are of no religion and/or atheist, and 11,734 who refused to answer.^ We will need some further Land Registry data to see if sellers are having to take a hit on the asking prices, but there are still enough people wanting to live here, and who have the means to pay for what they want.
  • politicalbetting.com » Blog Archive » Are the over 55 figures the best indicator? 16 September 2009 12:10 UTC politicalbetting.com [Source type: General]

^ I can tell you where there are no locals people are confused,hacked off and that small minority that will vote want to send a message.
  • politicalbetting.com » Blog Archive » Are the over 55 figures the best indicator? 16 September 2009 12:10 UTC politicalbetting.com [Source type: General]

.On December 27, 2006, a new Law on Religion was approved under which religious denominations can only receive official registration if they have at least 20,000 members, or about 0.1 percent of Romania's total population.^ Stuart Dickson May 29th, 2009 at 7:20 am 27 If you met English Democrats, you’d understand why they don’t do well.
  • politicalbetting.com » Blog Archive » Are the over 55 figures the best indicator? 16 September 2009 12:10 UTC politicalbetting.com [Source type: General]

^ May 29th, 2009 at 9:27 am 99 That’s a pity, they could have directly asked him the question about Blears is “totally unacceptable” but she is still in her job.
  • politicalbetting.com » Blog Archive » Are the over 55 figures the best indicator? 16 September 2009 12:10 UTC politicalbetting.com [Source type: General]

^ I think that says a lot about Labour and the fine upstanding members of the community they draw much of their vote from.
  • politicalbetting.com » Blog Archive » Are the over 55 figures the best indicator? 16 September 2009 12:10 UTC politicalbetting.com [Source type: General]

[117]

Largest cities

Cluj-Napoca, one of the largest cities in Romania
Bucharest is the capital and the largest city in Romania. At the census in 2002, its population was over 1.9 million.[118] .The metropolitan area of Bucharest has a population of about 2.2 million.^ Since, from records about numbers of bakeries, tenements, etc., the population of Rome can be estimated as at least a million people, this puts the Jewish population at no more than 3%.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

.There are several plans to increase further its metropolitan area to about 20 times the area of the city proper.^ By about the time of Manzikert, there were interesting new recruits to the Varangian Guard.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

[119][120]
.There are 5 more cities in Romania, with a population of around 300,000, that are also present in the EU's top 100 most populous cities.^ The entire Army, therefore, was more like 300,000 men, less than half of what it would number in the Late Empire .
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

These are: Iaşi, Cluj-Napoca, Timişoara, Constanţa, and Craiova. .The other cities with populations over 200,000 are Galaţi, Braşov, Ploieşti, Brăila and Oradea.^ The arrival of the Plague in Egypt in October 541 was the beginning of an epidemic that cost the City of Constantinople alone perhaps 200,000 citizens.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

Another 13 cities have populations over 100,000.[5]
.At present, several of the largest cities have a metropolitan area: Constanţa (450,000 people), Braşov, Iaşi (both with around 400,000) and Oradea (260,000) and several others are planned: Timişoara (365,000), Cluj-Napoca (380,000), Brăila-Galaţi (600,000), Craiova (335,000), Bacău and Ploieşti.^ Fundaţiei Internaţionale pentru Ştiinţă şi Cultură „Ştefan Lupaşcu“ ( Iaşi) şi secretar al filialei Cluj-Napoca (din 1997); .

^ Orasul este strabatut de soseaua E81, care face legatura intre Deva si Cluj Napoca la o distanta de 380 km.
  • Romania Ghid turistic Romania ghiduri turistice Romania destinatia Romania informatii Romania statiuni Romania referate Romania atractii Romania obiective turistice Romania capitala Romania clima moneda monumente aeroporturi populatia religia relief istorie capitala autostrazi 16 September 2009 12:10 UTC www.besttourism.ro [Source type: General]

[121]

Education

Since the Romanian Revolution of 1989, the Romanian educational system has been in a continuous process of reform that has been both praised and criticized.[122] According to the Law on Education adopted in 1995, the educational system is regulated by the Ministry of Education and Research. Each level has its own form of organization and is subject to different legislation. Kindergarten is optional for children between 3 and 6 years old. .Schooling starts at age 7 (sometimes 6), and is compulsory until the 10th grade (which usually corresponds to the age of 17 or 16).^ Under the Palaeologi, starting in 1383, the Despot (sometimes more than one) was usually a son or brother of the Emperor.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

[123] Primary and secondary education are divided into 12 or 13 grades. .Higher education is aligned with the European higher education area.^ European Benchmarking Initiative in Higher Education - Workshop I - Procedures and Benchmarks in Research Project Assessment .
  • Romania Conferences, Conventions, Trade Shows and Meetings 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.allconferences.com [Source type: Reference]

Aside from the official schooling system, and the recently added private equivalents, there exists a semi-legal, informal, fully private tutoring system. Tutoring is mostly used during secondary as a preparation for the various examinations, which are notoriously difficult. Tutoring is widespread, and it can be considered a part of the Education System. It has subsisted and even prospered during the Communist regime.[124]
In 2004, some 4.4 million of the population were enrolled in school. Out of these, 650,000 in kindergarten, 3.11 million (14% of population) in primary and secondary level, and 650,000 (3% of population) in tertiary level (universities).[125] In the same year, the adult literacy rate was 97.3% (45th worldwide), while the combined gross enrollment ratio for primary, secondary and tertiary schools was 75% (52nd worldwide).[126] .The results of the PISA assessment study in schools for the year 2000 placed Romania on the 34th rank out of 42 participant countries with a general weighted score of 432 representing 85% of the mean OECD score.^ It is certainly the right place for such a building, and so one is a little surprised to learn that no secular building, as far as we know, was put there all the years of Romania.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

[127] According to the Academic Ranking of World Universities, in 2006 no Romanian university was included in the first 500 top universities world wide.[128] Using similar methodology to these rankings, it was reported that the best placed Romanian university, Bucharest University, attained the half score of the last university in the world top 500.[129]
Romanian high school curricula have recently been censored and restructured, owing to a growing trend of religious conservatism. In 2006, the theory of evolution, which had been taught since the country's Communist era, was dropped from the compulsory curriculum nationwide. Philosophical writers critical of religion, such as Voltaire and Camus have also been removed from the philosophy curriculum. Instead, students are taught 7-day Creationism in Orthodox religion classes, which under new proposals could become compulsory.[130]

Government

Politics

The Constitution of Romania is based on the Constitution of France's Fifth Republic[131] and was approved in a national referendum on December 8, 1991.[131] A plebiscite held in October 2003 approved 79 amendments to the Constitution, bringing it into conformity with European Union legislation.[131] Romania is governed on the basis of multi-party democratic system and of the segregation of the legislative, executive and judicial powers.[131] Romania is a semi-presidential democratic republic where executive functions are shared between the president and the prime minister. The President is elected by popular vote for maximum two terms, and since the amendments in 2003, the terms are five years.[131] The President appoints the Prime Minister, who in turn appoints the Council of Ministers.[131] While the president resides at Cotroceni Palace, the Prime Minister with the Romanian Government is based at Victoria Palace.
The legislative branch of the government, collectively known as the Parliament (Parlamentul României), consists of two chambers – the Senate (Senat), which has 140 members, and the Chamber of Deputies (Camera Deputaţilor), which has 346 members.[131] The members of both chambers are elected every four years under a system of party-list proportional representation.[131]
The justice system is independent of the other branches of government, and is made up of a hierarchical system of courts culminating in the High Court of Cassation and Justice, which is the supreme court of Romania.[132] There are also courts of appeal, county courts and local courts. The Romanian judicial system is strongly influenced by the French model,[131][133] considering that it is based on civil law and is inquisitorial in nature. The Constitutional Court (Curtea Constituţională) is responsible for judging the compliance of laws and other state regulations to the Romanian Constitution, which is the fundamental law of the country. .The constitution, which was introduced in 1991, can only be amended by a public referendum, the last one being in 2003. Since this amendment, the court's decisions cannot be overruled by any majority of the parliament.^ In the last days of Romania, as all else was being lost, one domain expanded.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Whether anything quite like this happened or not, however, Bulgaria only lasted four more years before being annexed.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

The country's entry into the European Union in 2007 [134] has been a significant influence on its domestic policy. .As part of the process, Romania has instituted reforms including judicial reform, increased judicial cooperation with other member states, and measures to combat corruption.^ But St. George has been widely popular and is the patron of many places, including Genoa and some other Italian, German, and Spanish states, and Georgia in the Caucasus.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ INTEGRATIVE RELATIONS BETWEEN THE EUROPEAN UNION INSTITUTIONS AND THE MEMBER STATES .
  • Romania Conferences, Conventions, Trade Shows and Meetings 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.allconferences.com [Source type: Reference]

.Nevertheless, in 2006 Brussels report, Romania and Bulgaria were described as the two most corrupt countries in the EU,[135] and it was ranked as the most corrupt EU country by Transparency International in 2009, alongside Bulgaria and Greece.^ Independence from Romania and then the passing of the most vigorous days of Bulgaria meant an opportunity for a Serbian bid for the Imperium.
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[136]

Administrative divisions

Map of the 8 development regions. The 41 local administrative units are also highlighted, but Bucharest and Ilfov county are lumped together. The two form a development region of their own, surrounded by the Sud region.
.Romania is divided into forty-one counties (sing.^ This problem was soon addressed simply by dividing the themes into smaller ones.
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judeţ, pl. judeţe), plus the municipality of Bucharest (Bucureşti) – which has equal rank. Each county is administered by a county council (consiliu judeţean), responsible for local affairs, as well as a prefect, who is appointed by the central government but cannot be a member of any political party, responsible for the administration of national (central) affairs at the county level. Since 2008, the president of the county council (preşedintele consiliului judeţean) is directly elected by the people, and not by the county council as before that.[137]
Each county is further subdivided into cities (sing. oraş, pl. oraşe) and communes (sing. comună, pl. comune), the former being urban, and the latter being rural localities. There are a total of 319 cities and 2686 communes in Romania.[138] Each city and commune has its own mayor (primar) and local council (consiliu local). .103 of the larger and more urbanised cities have the status of municipality, which gives them greater administrative power over local affairs.^ For a while, Francia looked larger and much more powerful than Romania, but institutionally it was nowhere as sound or durable.
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Bucharest is also reckoned as a city with municipality status, but it is unique among the other localities in that it is not part of a county. It does not have a county concil, but has a prefect. Bucharest elects a general mayor (primar general) and a general city council (Consiliul General Bucureşti). Each of Bucharest's six sectors also elects a mayor and a local council.[138]
The NUTS-3 level divisions reflect Romania's administrative-territorial structure, and correspond to the 41 counties, and the Bucharest municipality.[139] Cities and communes are NUTS-5 level divisions. The country currently does not have NUTS-4 level divisions, but there are plans to make such associating neighboring localities for better coordination of local development and assimilation of national and European funds.[139]
The 41 counties and Bucharest are grouped into eight development regions corresponding to NUTS-2 divisions in the European Union.[139] .Prior to Romania's accession into the European Union, these were called statistical regions, and were used exclusively for statistical purposes.^ Perhaps "Later Romania" ( Romania Posterior, Recentior ) would be better, like the Later Han Dynasty -- making the Empire into the "Former Romania" ( Romania Prior ), like the Former Han Dynasty .
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.Thus, albeit they formally existed for over 40 years, the regions are publicly a news.^ When the Suevi, Alans, and Vandals crossed the frozen Rhine on New Year's Eve of 407, nothing stood in their way when they looted their way across Gaul and Spain.
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There are proposals in the future to cancel county councils (but leave the prefects) and create regional councils instead. This would not change the nomenclature of the country's territorial subdivision, but would presumably allow better coordination of policy at the local level, more autonomy, and a smaller bureaucracy.[139]
.There are also proposals to use four NUTS-1 level divisions; they would be called macroregions (Romanian:Macroregiune).^ The nimbus is not used for the Latin Emperors in the genealogy because, as Roman Catholics, they would have acknowledged Papal supremacy to a degree that the Orthodox Emperors in Constantinople never would.
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^ There is no reason not to think that they would have been safely kept, but the city was then captured, looted, and destroyed by the Persians in 614.
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^ When the times called for a strong soldier Emperor, there wasn't one -- and there would not be one for some time, perhaps not until Heraclius.
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NUTS-1 and -2 divisions have no administrative capacity and are instead used for co-ordinating regional development projects and statistical purposes.[139]

Foreign relations

The 2008 NATO Summit in Bucharest
.Since December 1989, Romania has pursued a policy of strengthening relations with the West in general, more specifically with the United States and the European Union.^ The betrayal it represents, then, was of a more intimate character, since Venice was in origin, culture, and tradition one of Romania's own.
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It joined the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO) on March 29, 2004, the European Union (EU) on January 1, 2007, and the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank in 1972, and is a member of the World Trade Organization.
.The current government has stated its goal of strengthening ties with and helping other Eastern European countries (in particular Moldova, Ukraine and Georgia) with the process of integration with the West.^ Thus, the unity of the Eastern Army was focused more directly on the Emperor himself, which may have helped the Eastern Empire avoid the situation in the West where the Emperors became mere figureheads.
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[140] Romania has also made clear since the late 1990s that it supports NATO and EU membership for the democratic former Soviet republics in Eastern Europe and the Caucasus.[140] Romania also declared its public support for Turkey, Croatia and Moldova joining the European Union.[140] With Turkey, Romania shares a privileged economic relation.[141] Because it has a large Hungarian minority, Romania has also developed strong relations with Hungary – the latter supported Romania's bid to join the EU.[142]
In December 2005, President Traian Băsescu and United States Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice signed an agreement that would allow a U.S. military presence at several Romanian facilities primarily in the eastern part of the country.[143] .In May 2009, the American state secretary Hillary Clinton declared that "Romania is one of the most trustworthy and respectable partners of the USA" during a visit of the Romanian foreign minister.^ The Fall of Constantinople, on May 29, 1453, is one of the most formative, epochal, colorful, and dramatic episodes in world history.
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^ Boniface himself was killed in 1207 and the Kingdom of Thessalonica turned out to be the most short-lived of the Crusader states in Romania, falling to Epirus.
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[144]
.Relations with The Republic of Moldova are special,[140] considering that the two countries practically share the same language, and a fairly common historical background.^ Related earlier history may be found at "Historical Background to Greek Philosophy" and "Hellenistic Monarchs" , and the "Consuls of the Roman Republic" .
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.A movement for unification of Romania and Moldova appeared in the early 1990s after both countries achieved emancipation from communist rule,[145] but quickly faded away with the new Moldovan government that had an agenda to preserve a Moldovan republic independent of Romania.^ While it seems natural and obvious to take Augustus as the successor to Julius Caesar and his new Imperial government as the successor to the Roman Republic, there was another way of looking at this.
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[146] Romania remains interested in Moldovan affairs and has officially rejected the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact,[145] but the two countries have been unable even to reach agreement on a basic bilateral treaty.[147]

Armed Forces

The Romanian Armed Forces consist of Land, Air, and Naval Forces, and are led by a Commander-in-chief who is managed by the Ministry of Defense. The president is the Supreme Commander of the Armed Forces during wartime. .Of the 90,000 men and women which the Armed Forces comprise, 15,000 are civilians and 75,000 are military personnel—45,800 for land, 13,250 for air, 6,800 for naval forces, and 8,800 in other fields.^ Where the Army of the East in the Late Empire numbered about 20,000 men, the forces of the Anatolic Theme varied from about 18,000 in 773 to 15,000 in 899 [Warren Treadgold, Byzantium and Its Army , 284-1081, Stanford, 1995, p.67].
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[148]
The total defence spending currently accounts for 2.05% of total national GDP, which represents approximately 2.9 billion dollars (ranked 39th). However, the Romanian Armed Forces will spend about 11 billion dollars between 2006 and 2011, for modernization and acquisition of new equipment.[149] .The Land Forces have overhauled their equipment in the past few years, and today are an army with multiple NATO capabilities, participating in a NATO peacekeeping mission in Afghanistan.^ As the remnants of the Late Roman Army were settled on the land (like the earlier Limitanei ), there were also standing forces that accompanied the Emperor, like the old Comitatenses .
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The Air Force currently operates modernized Soviet MiG-21LanceR fighters which are due to be replaced by new advanced 4.5 generation Western jet fighters, such as the F-16 Fighting Falcon, Eurofighter Typhoon or JAS 39 Gripen.[150] Also, in order to replace the bulk of the old transport force, the Air Force ordered seven new C-27J Spartan tactical airlift aircraft which are to be delivered starting with late 2008.[151] Two modernized ex-Royal Navy Type 22 frigates were acquired by the Naval Forces in 2004, and a further four modern missile corvettes will be commissioned until 2010.

Economy

Headquarters of the National Bank of Romania
ArcelorMittal steel mill in Galaţi
The Dacia Logan is one of the top-selling cars in Central and Eastern Europe[152], as well as Russia[153]
With a GDP of around $264 billion and a GDP per capita (PPP) of $12,285[154] estimated for 2008, Romania is an upper-middle income country economy[155] and has been part of the European Union since January 1, 2007.
After the Communist regime was overthrown in late 1989, the country experienced a decade of economic instability and decline, led in part by an obsolete industrial base and a lack of structural reform. From 2000 onwards, however, the Romanian economy was transformed into one of relative macroeconomic stability, characterised by high growth, low unemployment and declining inflation. In 2006, according to the Romanian Statistics Office, GDP growth in real terms was recorded at 7.7%, one of the highest rates in Europe.[156] Growth dampened to 6.1% in 2007,[157] but was expected to exceed 8% in 2008 because of a high production forecast in agriculture (30–50% higher than in 2007). The GDP grew by 8.9% in the first nine months of 2008, but growth fell to 2.9% in the fourth quarter and stood at 7.1% for the whole 2008 because of the financial crisis.[158]
According to Eurostat data, the Romanian PPS GDP per capita stood at 46% of the EU average in 2008.[159] Unemployment in Romania was at 3.9% in September 2007,[160] which is very low compared to other middle-sized or large European countries such as Poland, France, Germany and Spain. .Foreign debt is also comparatively low, at 20.3% of GDP.[161] Exports have increased substantially in the past few years, with a 25% year-on-year rise in exports in the first quarter of 2006. Romania's main exports are clothing and textiles, industrial machinery, electrical and electronic equipment, metallurgic products, raw materials, cars, military equipment, software, pharmaceuticals, fine chemicals, and agricultural products (fruits, vegetables, and flowers).^ They would continue to do so for more than three centuries -- the first reference to Englishmen in the service of Romania was in 1088, the last in 1404 -- 316 years.
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^ Veronica Turcuş, Roma, 25 martie 2006, Accademia di Romania, conferinţa Architettura cistercense europea ed i suoi echi transilvani .

Trade is mostly centred on the member states of the European Union, with Germany and Italy being the country's single largest trading partners. The country, however, maintains a large trade deficit, which increased sharply during 2007 by 50%, to €15 billon.[162]
After a series of privatisations and reforms in the late 1990s and early 2000s, government intervention in the Romanian economy is somewhat lower than in other European economies.[163] In 2005, the government replaced Romania's progressive tax system with a flat tax of 16% for both personal income and corporate profit, resulting in the country having the lowest fiscal burden in the European Union,[164] a factor which has contributed to the growth of the private sector. The economy is predominantly based on services, which account for 55% of GDP, even though industry and agriculture also have significant contributions, making up 35% and 10% of GDP, respectively. Additionally, 32% of the Romanian population is employed in agriculture and primary production, one of the highest rates in Europe.[161]
Since 2000, Romania has attracted increasing amounts of foreign investment, becoming the single largest investment destination in Southeastern and Central Europe. Foreign direct investment was valued at €8.3 billion in 2006.[165] According to a 2006 World Bank report, Romania currently ranks 49th out of 175 economies in the ease of doing business, scoring higher than other countries in the region such as Hungary and the Czech Republic.[166] Additionally, the same study judged it to be the world's second-fastest economic reformer (after Georgia) in 2006.[167] The average gross wage per month in Romania was 1855 lei in May 2009,[168] equating to €442.48 (US$627.70) based on international exchange rates, and $1110.31 based on purchasing power parity.[169] In 2009 the Romanian economy contracted as a result of the global economic downturn. Gross domestic product contracted 7.2% in the fourth quarter of 2009 from the same period a year earlier,[170] and the budget deficit for 2009 reached 7.2% of GDP.[171] Industrial output growth however reached 6.9% year-on-year in December 2009, the highest in the EU-27.[172]

Transportation

Due to its location, Romania is a major crossroad for International economic exchange in Europe. However, because of insufficient investment, maintenance and repair, the transport infrastructure does not meet the current needs of a market economy and lags behind Western Europe.[173] Nevertheless, these conditions are rapidly improving and catching up with the standards of Trans-European transport networks. .Several projects have been started with funding from grants from ISPA and several loans from International Financial Institutions (World Bank, IMF, etc.^ Adrian Sârbu , Grant international HESP în colaborare cu Open Society Institute - 1 oct .

) guaranteed by the state, to upgrade the main road corridors. Also, the Government is actively pursuing new external financing or public-private partnerships to further upgrade the main roads, and especially the country's motorway network.[173]
.The World Bank estimates that the railway network in Romania comprised 22,298 kilometres (13,855 mi) of track in 2004, which would make it the fourth largest railroad network in Europe.^ Perhaps "Later Romania" ( Romania Posterior, Recentior ) would be better, like the Later Han Dynasty -- making the Empire into the "Former Romania" ( Romania Prior ), like the Former Han Dynasty .
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[174] .The railway transport experienced a dramatic fall in freight and passenger volumes from the peak volumes recorded in 1989 mainly due to the decline in GDP and competition from road transport.^ Edward Gibbon (1737-1794), The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire , Volume I, Modern Library, p.1 .
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^ The Decline & Fall of the Roman Empire , Volume I, Modern Library, p.899].
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In 2004, the railways carried 8.64 billion passenger-km in 99 million passenger journeys, and 73 million metric tonnes, or 17 billion ton-km of freight.[131] The combined total transportation by rail constituted around 45% of all passenger and freight movement in the country.[131]
Bucharest is the only city in Romania which has an underground railway system. The Bucharest Metro was only opened in 1979 and is now one of the most accessed systems of the Bucharest public transport network with an average ridership of 600,000 passengers during the workweek.[175]

Tourism

Mamaia Resort at the Black Sea shore
Tourism focuses on the country's natural landscapes and its rich history and is a significant contributor to the Romania's economy. In 2006, the domestic and international tourism generated about 4.8% of gross domestic product and 5.8% of the total jobs (about half a million jobs).[176] Following commerce, tourism is the second largest component of the services sector. Tourism is one of the most dynamic and fastest developing sectors of the economy of Romania and characterized by a huge potential for development. .According to the World Travel and Tourism Council Romania is the fourth fastest growing country in the world in terms of travel and tourism total demand with a yearly potential growth of 8% from 2007-2016.[177] Number of tourists grew from 4.8 million in 2002 to 6.6 million in 2004.[131] Similarly, the revenues grew from 400 million in 2002 to 607 in 2004.[131] In 2006, Romania registered 20 million overnight stays by international tourists, an all-time record,[178] but the number for 2007 is expected to increase even more.^ Consuls of the Roman Empire Roman Coinage Philosophy of History Home Page Copyright (c) 1996, 1998, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009 Kelley L. Ross, Ph.D. All Rights Reserved .
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^ This Divisament dou Monde , "Description of the World," soon to be called Il milione , "The Millions," was more a catalogue of places than a narrative of travels.
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^ Since, from records about numbers of bakeries, tenements, etc., the population of Rome can be estimated as at least a million people, this puts the Jewish population at no more than 3%.
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[179] Tourism in Romania attracted €400 million in investments in 2005.[180]
A view from the Carpathian Mountains near Prahova Valley
.Over the last years, Romania has emerged as a popular tourist destination for many Europeans (more than 60% of the foreign visitors were from EU countries),[179] thus attempting to compete with Bulgaria, Greece, Italy and Spain.^ They would continue to do so for more than three centuries -- the first reference to Englishmen in the service of Romania was in 1088, the last in 1404 -- 316 years.
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^ What's more, Amsterdam became the center of European banking, with that preeminence passing from, as it happened, the cities of Northern Italy (remembered in "Lombard Street" in the City of London).
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^ For a while, Francia looked larger and much more powerful than Romania, but institutionally it was nowhere as sound or durable.
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.Romania destinations such as Mangalia, Saturn, Venus, Neptun, Olimp, Constanta and Mamaia (sometimes called the Romanian Riviera) are among the most popular attraction during summer.^ De-a lungul coastei, se gasesc statiuni care raspund cerintelor tuturor varstelor si gusturilor: Navodari, Mamaia, Constanta, Eforie Nord, Eforie Sud, Costinesti, Techirghiol, Olimp, Neptun, Jupiter, Cap Aurora, Venus, Saturn, Mangalia, 2 Mai.
  • Romania Ghid turistic Romania ghiduri turistice Romania destinatia Romania informatii Romania statiuni Romania referate Romania atractii Romania obiective turistice Romania capitala Romania clima moneda monumente aeroporturi populatia religia relief istorie capitala autostrazi 16 September 2009 12:10 UTC www.besttourism.ro [Source type: General]

[181] During winter, the skiing resorts along the Valea Prahovei and Poiana Braşov are popular with foreign visitors. For their medieval atmosphere and castles, Transylvanian cities such as Sibiu, Braşov, Sighişoara, Cluj-Napoca, Târgu Mureş have become important touristic attractions for foreigners. Rural tourism focused on folklore and traditions, has become an important alternative recently,[182] and is targeted to promote such sites as Bran and its Dracula's Castle, the Painted churches of Northern Moldavia, the Wooden churches of Maramureş, or the Merry Cemetery in Maramureş County.[183] Other major natural attractions in Romania such as Danube Delta,[131] Iron Gates (Danube Gorge), Scărişoara Cave and several other caves in the Apuseni Mountains have yet to receive great attention.

Culture

The Palace of Culture in Iaşi was built between 1906 and 1925 and hosts several museums
Romania has a unique culture, which is the product of its geography and of its distinct historical evolution. Like Romanians themselves, it is fundamentally defined as the meeting point of three regions: Central Europe, Eastern Europe, and the Balkans, but cannot be truly included in any of them.[184] The Romanian identity formed on a substratum of mixed Roman and quite possibly Dacian elements,[185] with many other influences. .During late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, the major influences came from the Slavic peoples who migrated and settled in near Romania;[185] from medieval Greeks,[185] and the Byzantine Empire;[186] from a long domination by the Ottoman Empire;[187] from the Hungarians;[185] and from the Germans living in Transylvania.^ This is a title that will have a long history in the Middle Ages.
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^ In the Middle Ages, this was regarded as a triumphant period, when the Roman Empire was redeemed and ennobled with its conversion to and transformation by Christianity -- becoming a "Romania" whose name is now not even familiar as the name of the Roman Empire.
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^ Meanwhile, the collapse of the Danube frontier was not now the doing of Germans but of Slavs and Steppe people -- the latter beginning with the Altaic Avars, whose kin would dominate Central Asia in the Middle Ages.
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.Modern Romanian culture emerged and developed over roughly the last 250 years under a strong influence from Western culture, particularly French,[186] and German culture.^ He knows that the Empire is now centered in Christian Constantinople, and his awareness of this is strong enough that it actually erases the existence of the last Western Emperors.
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^ The last twenty years of the Western Empire are mainly the story of the commander Ricimer.
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^ LAST WESTERN EMPERORS the End of Roman Gaul C. THE EAST ALONE, 476-518, 42 Years 1.
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[186]

Arts

The Romanian Athenaeum in Bucharest was opened in 1888
Brâncuşi's Endless Column in Târgu Jiu
.The Romanian literature began to truly evolve with the revolutions of 1848 and the union of the two Danubian Principalities in 1859. The Origin of the Romanians began to be discussed and in Transylvania and Romanian scholars began studying in France, Italy and Germany.^ Indeed, one could even say that the Renaissance began there, since many of its scholars, with their books, fled the Turkish Conquest to Italy, which was ready for them.
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[186] .The German philosophy and French culture were integrated into modern Romanian literature and a new elite of artists led to the appearance of some of the classics of the Romanian literature such as Mihai Eminescu, George Coşbuc, Ioan Slavici.^ In Modern thought, this construction tends to be reversed, with the superstition and dogmatism of Christianity dragging the Classical World down into the Dark Ages.
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^ Lucian Nastasă, Târgu Mureş, 22-23 septembrie 2005, conferinţă internaţională „European Integration between tradition and modernity”, comunicarea The German Academic space and the formation of the Romanian intellectual elite .

^ In modern parlance, the convention for some time was that Romance speakers south of the Danube spoke "Vlach" and those north of the Danube spoke "Romanian."
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.Although they remain little known outside Romania, they are very appreciated within Romania for giving birth to a true Romanian literature by creating modern lyrics with inspiration from the old folklore tales.^ The Italians are now gone (there being the Schism and all), but there are also (modern) Romanians present, though they do not have their own monastery.
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.Of them, Eminescu is considered the most important and influential Romanian poet, and is still very much loved for his creations, and especially the poem Luceafărul.^ This was less than half of the Augustan Army and not even a quarter of Constantine's; but considering that the Empire is reduced to the lower Balkans and Anatolia, it is proportionally still robust, especially in an Age when a paid military establishment was impossible in most of Europe.
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[188] .Among other writers that made large contributions around the second half of 19th century are Mihail Kogălniceanu (also the first prime minister of Romania), Vasile Alecsandri, Nicolae Bălcescu, Ion Luca Caragiale, and Ion Creangă.^ They would continue to do so for more than three centuries -- the first reference to Englishmen in the service of Romania was in 1088, the last in 1404 -- 316 years.
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^ Meanwhile, another North African author, far less accomplished as a writer, nevertheless made an epochal contribution to the character of education in the Middle Ages.
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^ Ladislau Gyèmànt* , The Jewish Problem as Part of the Political Culture in Transylvania in the First Half of the 19th Century , „Nouvelles Études d ’Histoire”, XI, 2005, p.

.The first half of the 20th century is regarded by many Romanian scholars as the Golden Age of Romanian culture and it is the period when it reached its main level of international affirmation and a strong connection to the European cultural trends.^ In time, the Emperor came to be regarded as superior to any mere king, as the reach and authority of many Emperors was indeed great beyond precedent or (local) comparison.
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[189] .The most important artist who had a great influence on the world culture was the sculptor Constantin Brâncuşi, a central figure of the modern movement and a pioneer of abstraction, the innovator of world sculpture by immersion in the primordial sources of folk creation.^ Intrinsically one of the most interesting and important periods in Roman history, the Tetrarchy unfortunately suffers from the relative poverty of the sources we have for it.
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^ One Roman source not mentioned there is the handy Who Was Who In The Roman World , edited by Diana Bowder [1980, Washington Square Press, Pocket Books, 1984].
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^ The cultural and intellectual sea change of the period, soon followed by Diocletian's reforms and then Constantine, usher in the distinctive world of Late Antiquity .
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

His sculptures blend simplicity and sophistication that led the way for modernist sculptors.[190] As a testimony to his skill, one of his pieces, "Bird in Space" , was sold in an auction for $27.5 million in 2005, a record for any sculpture.[191][192] In the period between the two world wars, authors like Tudor Arghezi, Lucian Blaga, Eugen Lovinescu, Ion Barbu, Liviu Rebreanu made efforts to synchronize Romanian literature with the European literature of the time. .George Enescu, probably the best known Romanian musician, also came from this period;[193] a composer, violinist, pianist, conductor, and teacher,[194] the annual George Enescu Festival is held in Bucharest in his honor.^ Fitness BEST CLUB Adresa: Piata George Enescu nr.
  • Romania Ghid turistic Romania ghiduri turistice Romania destinatia Romania informatii Romania statiuni Romania referate Romania atractii Romania obiective turistice Romania capitala Romania clima moneda monumente aeroporturi populatia religia relief istorie capitala autostrazi 16 September 2009 12:10 UTC www.besttourism.ro [Source type: General]

After the world wars, communism brought heavy censorship and used the cultural world as a means to better control the population. Freedom of expression was constantly restricted in various ways, but the likes of Gellu Naum, Nichita Stănescu, Marin Sorescu or Marin Preda managed to escape censorship, broke with "socialist realism" and were the leaders of a small "Renaissance" in Romanian literature.[195] .While not many of them managed to obtain international acclaim due to censorship, some, like Constantin Noica, Paul Goma and Mircea Cărtărescu, had their works published abroad even though they were jailed for various political reasons.^ However, this does not count the Auxilia , units like cavalry and others that consisted of those who are not Roman citizens (though they gained citizenship from service).
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Even so, it is questionable how interested Hollywood will ever be, even after Gladiator , and even when the legendary material, like the Virgin Mary retrieving her Icon, or the various versions of the death of Constantine, simply cry out for cinematic representation.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Theophano was no Porphyrogenita (though some sources can be found referring to her as John's own daughter, or even as a daughter of Romanus II).
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Some artists chose to leave the country entirely, and continued to make contributions in exile. Among them Eugen Ionescu, Mircea Eliade and Emil Cioran became renowned internationally for their works. Other literary figures who enjoy acclaim outside of the country include the poet Paul Celan and Nobel laureate Elie Wiesel, both survivors of the Holocaust. Some famous Romanian artists musicians are the folk artist Tudor Gheorghe, and the virtuoso of the pan flute Gheorghe Zamfir – who is reported to have sold over 120 million albums worldwide.[196][197]
Romanian cinema has recently achieved worldwide acclaim with the appearance of such films as The Death of Mr. Lazarescu, directed by Cristi Puiu, (Cannes 2005 Prix un certain regard winner), and 4 Months, 3 Weeks and 2 Days, directed by Cristian Mungiu (Cannes 2007 Palme d'Or winner).[198] The latter, according to Variety, is "further proof of Romania's new prominence in the film world."[199]

Monuments

.The UNESCO List of World Heritage Sites[200] includes Romanian sites such as the Saxon villages with fortified churches in Transylvania, the Painted churches of northern Moldavia with their fine exterior and interior frescoes, the Wooden Churches of Maramures unique examples that combine Gothic style with traditional timber construction, the Monastery of Horezu, the citadel of Sighişoara, and the Dacian Fortresses of the Orăştie Mountains.^ The public side of a church is thus the interior, not the exterior, and the outwardly ugliest early churches often contain marvelous inner spaces, with rich decoration.
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[201] .Romania's contribution to the World Heritage List stands out because it consists of some groups of monuments scattered around the country, rather than one or two special landmarks.^ As the Turks fatally invested Constantinople in 1453, it was Genoa rather than Venice that contributed to its defense -- though Galata itself remained neutral.
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^ This confirmed that Italy rather than Romania would be the center of trade and naval power in the Christian Mediterranean.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Some, of course, may have been for traders rather than members of the Varangian Guard, but a few mention deaths fighting in Serkland , i.e.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

[202] Also, in 2007, the city of Sibiu famous for its Brukenthal National Museum is the European Capital of Culture alongside the city of Luxembourg.

National Flag

.The national flag of Romania is a tricolour with vertical stripes: beginning from the flagpole, blue, yellow and red.^ The banner that Whitney Smith shows for Romania itself [p.45] has the flag with the distinctive devices quartered with a simple red cross on white.
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It has a width-length ratio of 2:3. Romania's national flag is very similar to that of Chad.[203][204][205]

Sports

Football (soccer) is the most popular sport in Romania.[206] The governing body is the Romanian Football Federation, which belongs to UEFA. The top division of the Romanian Professional Football League attracted an average of 5,417 spectators per game in the 2006–07 season.[207] .At international level, the Romanian National Football Team has taken part 7 times in the Football World Cup, and it had the most successful period throughout the 1990s, when during the 1994 World Cup in the United States, Romania reached the quarter-finals and was ranked by FIFA on the 6th place.^ During the honeymoon period we get the completion of St. Mark's Cathedral -- a mature Romania seeding its culture into the maturing Venice.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ They were the first Roman dynasty with a surname, which shows some of the social changes that took place during the long period of the Macedonians.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Boniface himself was killed in 1207 and the Kingdom of Thessalonica turned out to be the most short-lived of the Crusader states in Romania, falling to Epirus.
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The core player of this "Golden Generation"[208] and perhaps the best known Romanian player internationally is Gheorghe Hagi (nicknamed the Maradona of the Carpathians).[209] Famous currently active players are Adrian Mutu and Cristian Chivu. .The most famous football club is Steaua Bucureşti, who in 1986 became the first Eastern European club ever to win the prestigious European Champions Cup title, and who played the final again in 1989.^ The success of this coup was a chilling precursor to the eventual Fall of the Western Empire, whose final Emperors became the futile play things of Germanic commanders.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ After Flanders and the Netherlands became centers of trade and manufacture, the Dukes of Burgundy first benefited from this wealth, then the Hapsburgs , and finally the Netherlands as an independent power.
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Another successful Romanian team Dinamo Bucureşti played a semifinal in the European Champions Cup in 1984 and a Cup Winners Cup semifinal in the 1990. Other important Romanian football clubs are Rapid Bucureşti, CFR 1907 Cluj-Napoca and FC Universitatea Craiova.
Tennis is the second most popular sport in terms of registered sportsmen.[206] Romania reached the Davis Cup finals three times (1969, 1971, 1972). The tennis player Ilie Năstase won several Grand Slam titles and dozens of other tournaments, and was the first player to be ranked as number 1 by ATP from 1973 to 1974. The Romanian Open is held every fall in Bucharest since 1993.
Popular team sports are rugby union (national rugby team has so far competed at every Rugby World Cup), basketball and handball.[206] .Some popular individual sports are: athletics, chess, sport dance, and martial arts and other fighting sports.^ But St. George has been widely popular and is the patron of many places, including Genoa and some other Italian, German, and Spanish states, and Georgia in the Caucasus.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

[206]
Romanian gymnastics has had a large number of successes – for which the country became known worldwide.[210] In the 1976 Summer Olympics, the gymnast Nadia Comăneci became the first gymnast ever to score a perfect ten. She also won three gold medals, one silver and one bronze, all at the age of fifteen.[211] Her success continued in the 1980 Summer Olympics, where she was awarded two gold medals and two silver medals.
Romania participated for the first time in the Olympic Games in 1900 and has taken part in 18 of the 24 summer games. .Romania has been one of the more successful countries at the Summer Olympic Games (15th overall) with a total of 283 medals won throughout the years, 82 of which are gold medals.^ The betrayal it represents, then, was of a more intimate character, since Venice was in origin, culture, and tradition one of Romania's own.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ They would continue to do so for more than three centuries -- the first reference to Englishmen in the service of Romania was in 1088, the last in 1404 -- 316 years.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It is certainly the right place for such a building, and so one is a little surprised to learn that no secular building, as far as we know, was put there all the years of Romania.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

[212] Winter sports have received little investments and thus only a single bronze medal was won by Romanian sportsmen in the Winter Olympic Games.

International rankings

Organization Survey Ranking
Institute for Economics and Peace [1] Global Peace Index[213] 31 out of 144
United Nations Development Programme Human Development Index 63 out of 182
Transparency International Corruption Perceptions Index 71 out of 180
World Economic Forum Global Competitiveness Report 64 out of 133

See also

Notes

  1. ^ "am scris aceste sfente cǎrţi de învăţături, sǎ fie popilor rumânesti... sǎ înţeleagǎ toţi oamenii cine-s rumâni creştini" "Întrebare creştineascǎ" (1559), Bibliografia româneascǎ veche, IV, 1944, p. 6.
    "...că văzum cum toate limbile au şi înfluresc întru cuvintele slǎvite a lui Dumnezeu numai noi românii pre limbă nu avem. Pentru aceia cu mare muncǎ scoasem de limba jidoveascǎ si greceascǎ si srâbeascǎ pre limba româneascǎ 5 cărţi ale lui Moisi prorocul si patru cărţi şi le dăruim voo fraţi rumâni şi le-au scris în cheltuială multǎ... şi le-au dăruit voo fraţilor români,... şi le-au scris voo fraţilor români" Palia de la Orǎştie (1581–1582), Bucureşti, 1968.
    În Ţara Ardealului nu lăcuiesc numai unguri, ce şi saşi peste seamă de mulţi şi români peste tot locul..., Grigore Ureche, Letopiseţul Ţării Moldovei, p. 133–134.
  2. ^ In his well known literary testament Ienăchiţă Văcărescu writes: "Urmaşilor mei Văcăreşti!/Las vouă moştenire:/Creşterea limbei româneşti/Ş-a patriei cinstire."
    In the "Istoria faptelor lui Mavroghene-Vodă şi a răzmeriţei din timpul lui pe la 1790" a Pitar Hristache writes: "Încep după-a mea ideie/Cu vreo câteva condeie/Povestea mavroghenească/Dela Ţara Românească.
  3. ^ The first known mention of the term "Romania" in its modern denotation dates from 1816, as the Greek scholar Dimitrie Daniel Philippide published in Leipzig his work "The History of Romania", followed by "The Geography of Romania".
    On the tombstone of Gheorghe Lazăr in Avrig (built in 1823) there is the inscription: "Precum Hristos pe Lazăr din morţi a înviat/Aşa tu România din somn ai deşteptat."
  4. ^ 2002 census data, based on Population by ethnicity, gives a total of 535,250 Romanies in Romania. This figure is disputed by other sources, because at the local level, many Romanies declare a different ethnicity (mostly Romanian, but also Hungarian in the West and Turkish in Dobruja) for fear of discrimination[citation needed]. Many are not recorded at all, since they do not have ID cards. International sources give higher figures than the official census(UNDP's Regional Bureau for Europe, World Bank, "International Association for Official Statistics" (PDF). Archived from the original on 2008-02-26. http://web.archive.org/web/20080226202154/http://www.msd.govt.nz/documents/publications/msd/journal/issue25/25-pages154-164.pdf. .

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  200. ^ "Official list of WHS within Romania". UNESCO. http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/?search=&searchSites=&search_by_country=romania&type=&media=&region=&order=&criteria_restrication=&x=0&y=0. Retrieved 2008-01-31. 
  201. ^ "World Heritage List from Romania". UNESCO. http://www.cimec.ro/Monumente/unesco/UNESCOen/fastvers.htm. Retrieved 2008-01-31. 
  202. ^ "World Heritage Site - Romania". http://www.worldheritagesite.org/countries/romania.html. Retrieved 2008-01-31. 
  203. ^ Law no. 75 of 16 July 1994, published in Monitorul Oficial no. 237 of 26 August 1994.
  204. ^ Governmental Decision no. 1157/2001, published in Monitorul Oficial no. 776 of 5 December 2001.
  205. ^ "'Identical flag' causes flap in Romania". bbc.co.uk. 2004-04-14. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/3626821.stm. Retrieved 2009-09-07. 
  206. ^ a b c d "Romania". The Europa World Year Book. 2. Routledge. 2007. 
  207. ^ european-football-statistics.co.uk "EFS Attendances". European Football Statistics. http://www.european-football-statistics.co.uk/attn.htm european-football-statistics.co.uk. Retrieved 2008-08-31. 
  208. ^ "Hagi leaves Romania post". BBC Sport. 2001-11-26. http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport1/hi/football/world_cup_2002/1677201.stm. Retrieved 2008-08-31. "Hagi enjoyed legendary status in Romania where he spearheaded the 'Golden Generation' of players..." 
  209. ^ "Hagi snubs Maradona". BBC Sport Online. 2001-04-06. http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport2/low/football/europe/1264097.stm. Retrieved 2008-08-31. 
  210. ^ Romanians were for example stereotyped as gymnasts, as in the South Park episode Quintuplets 2000
  211. ^ Robin Herman (1976-03-28). "Gymnast Posts Perfect Mark". New York Times. http://www.gymn-forum.net/Articles/NYT-1976_AmCup2.html. Retrieved 2008-08-13. 
  212. ^ "All-Time Medal Standings, 1896-2004". infoplease.com. http://www.infoplease.com/ipsa/A0115108.html. Retrieved 2008-08-31. 
  213. ^ "Vision of Humanity". Vision of Humanity. http://www.visionofhumanity.org/gpi/home.php. Retrieved 2010-02-04. 

External links

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Travel

Quotes

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiquote

Romania is an European country.

By Romanians

.
  • "There is an untranslatable Romanian word that expresses with great precision the kind of unbearable longing and nostalgia that grips one's heart when thinking of home.^ Since there are two of those, one might think there is one each for East and West.
    • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Curiously, there is an archaic adjective in English, "mickle," meaning "great" or "large," which is this very same word.
    • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

    That word is dor. I have felt it many times. Nostalgia for the medieval squares of Sibiu steeped in golden light, longing for the outdoor cafes of Bucharest, drinking new wine, all of us young, intoxicated with poetry and song. I missed the smells of flowering linden trees, the blue reflections of deep mountain snow in the evenings, the old peasant villages that Ceauşescu's insanity almost wiped off the face of the earth. I missed the real fairy tales I was raised on. The story of the waters of life and death, youth without age, the tale of the sheep Mioriţa that recites the cosmic poetry of the sky, the story of the poplars that grew pears..."

By non-Romanians

  • I was barely seventeen when I came to you. .I was young and ignorant, but very proud of my native country, and even now, I am proud to have been born an Englishwoman...^ Latin used to be taught in my High School, but now it is not even taught in the college where I teach.
    • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

    but .I bless you, dear Romania, country of my joy and my grief, the beautiful country which has lived in my heart.^ For example, lots of Labour MPs seem to like living in my neck of the woods and for 900 a month you have a vast choice of 2 bed properties to rent.
    • politicalbetting.com » Blog Archive » Are the over 55 figures the best indicator? 16 September 2009 12:10 UTC politicalbetting.com [Source type: General]

External links

Wikipedia
Wikipedia has an article about:

Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

Europe : Balkans : Romania
noframe
Location
noframe
Flag
Image:ro-flag.png
Quick Facts
Capital Bucharest
Government Parliamentary Republic
Currency leu (RON)
Area 237,500 sq km
Population 22,317,730 (July 2002 est.)
Language Romanian
Religion Eastern Orthodox 87%, Protestant (mostly Calvinist, Unitarian and Lutheran) 6.8%, Catholic 5.6%, other (mostly Muslim) 0.4%, unaffiliated 0.2%
Electricity 220V/50Hz (European plug)
Calling Code +40
Internet TLD .ro
Time Zone UTC +2
.Romania (România) [1] is a country located north of the Balkan Peninsula on the western shores of the Black Sea.^ Gura Humorului is a town located in north Romania, Suceava County in southern Bukovina .
  • Jewish Web Index - Make it easier for you to do your personal research 23 September 2009 1:42 UTC jewishwebindex.com [Source type: General]

^ The Dobrudja Tableland situated in the southeastern part of the country at the Black Sea shore; it consists of Precambrian green schists, crystalline and igneous rocks, Paleozoic and Mesozoic rocks.
  • Gateway to Land and Water Information: Romania national report 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.icpa.ro [Source type: Academic]

^ Romania also is a founding member of the Black Sea Consortium for Economic Development.
  • Romania (03/09) 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

It is a country of great natural beauty and diversity and a rich cultural heritage. Romania enchants visitors with its scenic mountain landscapes and unspoilt rural areas, but also with its historic cities and its busy capital. .Over the last decade, it has seen significant development and is one of the most recent members of the European Union.^ The future trend of agricultural production in this country depends also on external factors, among which the most important is the agricultural policy of the European Union which Romania intends to join.
  • Gateway to Land and Water Information: Romania national report 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.icpa.ro [Source type: Academic]

^ Concerning the development trend of drip and sprinkler irrigation, the last one remains a basic technique.
  • Gateway to Land and Water Information: Romania national report 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.icpa.ro [Source type: Academic]

^ The sons, however, ended up with no heirs themselves, and the last family member on the throne, Julian, was one of the cousins who had escaped the massacre.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

.Still, it may surprise some of its visitors who are used to western Europe.^ The "greed" of those who make a profit while prices rise is still a point of useful political appeal for many politicians and leftist activists.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This all is striking for Ptolemy's willingness to use the best of all that was available to him -- though it may still surprise some, as we now know independently from Egyptian records, that the astronomy of the Egyptians themselves, except for (or perhaps because of) their year, had less to offer than the Babylonian.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But the answer to the "ou" may have been suggested by Panagiotidis himself, who uses, in passing, the Mediaeval and Modern Greek version of Constantinople, Konstantin ou polis .
  • Roman Decadence, Rome and Romania, and the Emperors Who Weren't 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

.Romania is a large country which can sometimes be shocking with contrasts: some cities are truly Western Europe; some villages can seem to have been brought back from the past.^ Of international interest are also the rivers from the western part of Romania: the Somes, Cris and Mures rivers, shared with Hungary, and the Timis river, shared with Yugoslavia.
  • Gateway to Land and Water Information: Romania national report 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.icpa.ro [Source type: Academic]

^ Foreign capital investment in Romania has been increasing rapidly, although it remains less in per capita terms than in some other countries of East and Central Europe.
  • Romania (03/09) 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Drainage, mainly open drainage, is developed especially in the Danube river Flood Plain and in some parts of the low-lying areas of the western part of the country.
  • Gateway to Land and Water Information: Romania national report 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.icpa.ro [Source type: Academic]

While it has significant cultural similarities with other Balkan states, it is regarded as unique due to its strong Latin heritage. .Things for which Romania is famous include: the Carpathian mountains, Constantin Brancusi, wine, medieval fortresses, Mircea Eliade, the electronic microscope, Dacia cars, Dracula, insulin, E. M. Cioran, stuffed cabbage leaves, multi-ethnic peace, the jet engine, Nadia Comaneci, the Black Sea, Gheorghe Hagi, sunflower fields, painted monasteries and the Danube Delta.^ Types of soil The dominant soils in the wetalnd area of Romania are organic ones, rich in sulfides in the Danube Delta and strongly acid in the mountains region.
  • Gateway to Land and Water Information: Romania national report 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.icpa.ro [Source type: Academic]

^ The Danube Delta is even a more flat plain, lying on average 0,52 m above the mean Black Sea level, with a general gradient of 0,006 m/km.
  • Gateway to Land and Water Information: Romania national report 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.icpa.ro [Source type: Academic]

^ The famous painted monasteries of Bukovina make an important contribution to European architecture.
  • Romania (03/09) 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Understand

.With a Black Sea coast to the east, it is bordered by Bulgaria to the south, Serbia to the southwest, Hungary to the northwest, Moldova to the northeast and Ukraine in both the north and the east.^ It borders Bulgaria on the south, Yugoslavia on the south-west, Hungary on the west, Ukraine on the north, the north-east and the southern part of the east, Moldavia on the east, and the Black Sea on the south-east.
  • Gateway to Land and Water Information: Romania national report 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.icpa.ro [Source type: Academic]

^ Located in southeastern Europe, Romania borders the Black Sea and is between Bulgaria and Ukraine.
  • Jewish Web Index - Make it easier for you to do your personal research 23 September 2009 1:42 UTC jewishwebindex.com [Source type: General]

^ During the war that percentage was halved, largely by the loss of the border areas of Bessarabia and northern Bukovina (to the former Soviet Union -- now Moldova and a portion of south-west Ukraine) and southern Dobrudja (to Bulgaria), as well as by the postwar flight or deportation of ethnic Germans.
  • Romania (03/09) 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.While its southern regions are usually seen as part of Southeastern Europe (Balkans), Transylvania, its largest region is in Central Europe.^ Geography Romania is situated in the south-eastern part of Central Europe at its contact with Oriental Europe and Balcanic Europe, inside and outside of the Carpathian mountains.
  • Gateway to Land and Water Information: Romania national report 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.icpa.ro [Source type: Academic]

^ The largest irrigation schemes are located in the southern and southeastern part of the country, within the Romanian Plain and Dobrudja Tableland.
  • Gateway to Land and Water Information: Romania national report 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.icpa.ro [Source type: Academic]

.The country - which joined the European Union in January 2007 - is currently enjoying its highest living standards since Communist times, with foreign investment on the rise and one of the fastest growing economies in Europe.^ Financial and technical assistance continues to flow from the U.S., European Union, other industrial nations, and international financial institutions facilitating Romania's reintegration into the world economy.
  • Romania (03/09) 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The future trend of agricultural production in this country depends also on external factors, among which the most important is the agricultural policy of the European Union which Romania intends to join.
  • Gateway to Land and Water Information: Romania national report 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.icpa.ro [Source type: Academic]

^ Romania acceded to the European Union on January 1, 2007 along with Bulgaria, bringing the number of EU states to 27.
  • Romania (03/09) 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

This has given way to a series of technological developments. Therefore, we can see a fast-changing, booming Romania, and you will be amazed at how civilized, advanced, clean and of quality it is. Of course, along the way, you will be met with experiences that you are sure to remember for a long, long time.

History

.In ancient times the territory of present day Romania was inhabited mainly by Dacian tribes, which were a remarkable, although not very well known, culture.^ The very changeable configuration of the baric field makes the territory of Romania accessible to a very large scale of air masses, adding to the climate the transition character.
  • Gateway to Land and Water Information: Romania national report 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.icpa.ro [Source type: Academic]

^ On the second page, however, we have the interesting statement, "...although classicists (albeit often grudgingly) would admit that without the intervention of Byzantine scribes no texts in ancient Greek would have survived to the present day" [p.4].
  • Roman Decadence, Rome and Romania, and the Emperors Who Weren't 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Romania Special Interest Group ( ROMSIG ) - The countries known today as Romania and Moldova , as well as the southwestern portion of Ukraine and Southern Hungary are the areas of interest.
  • Jewish Web Index - Make it easier for you to do your personal research 23 September 2009 1:42 UTC jewishwebindex.com [Source type: General]

.The Dacian kingdom reached the height of its power in the 1st century BC, when their king Burebista ruled from his power base in the Carpathian Mountains over a vast territory stretching from Central Europe to the Black Sea.^ Geography Romania is situated in the south-eastern part of Central Europe at its contact with Oriental Europe and Balcanic Europe, inside and outside of the Carpathian mountains.
  • Gateway to Land and Water Information: Romania national report 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.icpa.ro [Source type: Academic]

^ And when Zeno invited the Ostrogothic king Theodoric to get rid of Odoacer and rule Italy, the eastern empire stood free of a German presence for the first time in a century.
  • Roman Decadence, Rome and Romania, and the Emperors Who Weren't 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Located in southeastern Europe, Romania borders the Black Sea and is between Bulgaria and Ukraine.
  • Jewish Web Index - Make it easier for you to do your personal research 23 September 2009 1:42 UTC jewishwebindex.com [Source type: General]

The intriguing network of fortifications and shrines built around the Dacian capital Sarmisegetuza, in today's south-western Transylvania, has been relatively well preserved through the ages and is now a UNESCO World Heritage site.
.In 106 AD the Dacians were defeated by the Romans and most of their homeland became part of the Roman Empire.^ The Pope thus became, as Popes had long desired, the ruler of all the Roman Empire.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ To most people thinking of the "Roman Empire," we are well into terra incognita here.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Venice was obviously not claiming 3/8 of the Empire of Trajan, but of the much reduced mediaeval Romania (this looks like part of the conspiracy of ignore the word "Romania" in Roman and "Byzantine" studies).
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

.Being very rich in natural resources (especially gold), the region prospered under the Roman administration: cities developed rapidly, important roads were built and people from all over the Empire settled here.^ Under the emperor Trajan early in the second century A.D., Dacia was incorporated into the Roman Empire, but was abandoned by a declining Rome less than two centuries later.
  • Romania (03/09) 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The office of the Roman Consuls, and dating by them, continues under the Empire until Justinian .
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Roman Empire, and by saturating the European peoples with alien ideals of life gradually undermined the whole fabric of ancient civilization.
  • Roman Decadence, Rome and Romania, and the Emperors Who Weren't 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

.That's why, despite the fact that Roman rule lasted less than 200 years, a population with a distinctive Latin character and language emerged, which was however influenced by the Slavic peoples with whom it later came in contact.^ Less than half survived the war and those that did either died off in the last 50 years, or they, or their descendants, move to either Israel, US or other parts of Europe.
  • Jewish Web Index - Make it easier for you to do your personal research 23 September 2009 1:42 UTC jewishwebindex.com [Source type: General]

^ Under the emperor Trajan early in the second century A.D., Dacia was incorporated into the Roman Empire, but was abandoned by a declining Rome less than two centuries later.
  • Romania (03/09) 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The unified country itself became first "Roumania" or "Rumania," later further Latinized into "România," and soon the Cyrillic alphabet was traded in for the Latin alphabet, as the Roman roots of the people were increasingly emphasized.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

.In the Early Middle Ages Hungarians began to settle in the area today known as Transylvania, which would eventually become part of the Kingdom of Hungary.^ Romania Special Interest Group ( ROMSIG ) - The countries known today as Romania and Moldova , as well as the southwestern portion of Ukraine and Southern Hungary are the areas of interest.
  • Jewish Web Index - Make it easier for you to do your personal research 23 September 2009 1:42 UTC jewishwebindex.com [Source type: General]

^ Indeed, it may have been left alone for much of the Middle Ages -- I am only aware of a couple of Mediaeval institutions in the area.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ From this statement one would not know that the Russian and other Orthodox churches, covering a considerable part of the area of Europe, would not join in his lack of "sympathy."
  • Roman Decadence, Rome and Romania, and the Emperors Who Weren't 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

.Germans also settled in that area (in several waves), some coming as early as the 12th century.^ It was about a period in which several emperors were in fact young men, usually coming to the throne because of some hereditary connections.
  • Roman Decadence, Rome and Romania, and the Emperors Who Weren't 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

.In order to protect themselves from the frequent Tartar and Turkish invasions they set about building fortified cities and castles, many of which remain to this day.^ Many of the recipients were elderly or city dwellers, and the slow progress of granting formal land titles remains an obstacle to leasing or selling land to active farmers.
  • Romania (03/09) 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The local Turkish community helped feed the passengers during the 70 days that the ship remained in the port.
  • Jewish Web Index - Make it easier for you to do your personal research 23 September 2009 1:42 UTC jewishwebindex.com [Source type: General]

^ Generations of Turkish governments took these stories with sufficient seriousness that the Golden Gate remains bricked up to this very day.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

.South and east of the Carpathians the principalities of Wallachia and Moldavia were created in the 14th century.^ Romania's location gives it a continental climate, particularly in Moldavia and Wallachia (geographic areas east of the Carpathians and south of the Transylvanian Alps, respectively) and to a lesser extent in centrally located Transylvania, where the climate is more moderate.
  • Romania (03/09) 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Principalities of Wallachia and Moldavia are the first Vlach/Romanian states that we see north of the Danube.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It borders Bulgaria on the south, Yugoslavia on the south-west, Hungary on the west, Ukraine on the north, the north-east and the southern part of the east, Moldavia on the east, and the Black Sea on the south-east.
  • Gateway to Land and Water Information: Romania national report 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.icpa.ro [Source type: Academic]

.Starting with the 15th century, both of them (and for a while Transylvania too) fell under the domination of the Ottoman Empire.^ Under the emperor Trajan early in the second century A.D., Dacia was incorporated into the Roman Empire, but was abandoned by a declining Rome less than two centuries later.
  • Romania (03/09) 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Empire of Michael VIII did seem to have a chance, but a new Turkish state, of the Ottomans , soon surged into dominance.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

.A Romanian national revival movement started in Transylvania in the late 1700's and swept across the Carpathians, inspiring the 1859 union of Moldavia and Wallachia, thus creating modern Romania.^ In legend and horror, one might almost say romance, this cruel man has grown into the paradigmatic vampire, Count Dracula , though his home has been slightly relocated, from Wallachia to Transylvania and the Carpathian Mountains (between Transylvania and Moldavia).
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Principalities of Wallachia and Moldavia are the first Vlach/Romanian states that we see north of the Danube.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

.In 1917-1919 Transylvania and Eastern Moldavia (present day Moldova) were united with Romania.^ Feb 1919                Eastern Banat, around Temesvár (later Timisoara), annexed                              by Romania; western Banat annexed by Yugoslavia                               (within Serbia [later as part of Vojvodina ]).

^ Romania 23 Dec 1861                United Rumanian Principalities                             (in usage by Ottoman suzerain 23 Dec 1861 - 13 Jul 1878:                              United Pricipalities of  Moldavia and Romanian Lands ).

^ National Holiday : 1 Dec (1918)  Unification Day (of Romania and Transylvania) .

."Soviet occupation following World War II led to the formation of a Communist "peoples republic" in 1947 and the abdication of the king.^ During the First World War, he led the armies of South Africa against Germany, capturing German South-West Africa and commanding the British Army in East Africa.
  • Eine ganz normale Familie 23 September 2009 1:44 UTC www.weissgarnix.de [Source type: Academic]

^ This weakened defenses that Andronicus II weakened further with military economies, failing to follow the maxim of Machiavelli that the first duty of a prince is war.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Chairman of the Presidium of the Romanian People's Republic 30 Dec 1947 - 13 Apr 1948 Constantin I. Parhon (b.
  • Countries QR 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC rulers.org [Source type: Academic]

.Between 1947 and 1965, Romania was led by Gheorghiu Gheorghiu-Dej, who led the country with a pro-Soviet stance throughout most of his administration.^ Presidents of the State Council 21 Mar 1961 - 19 Mar 1965 Gheorghe Gheorghiu-Dej (s.a.
  • Countries QR 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC rulers.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Between 1965 and 1998, in the forests of Romania there were 3007 fires (an average of 88 fires per year).
  • Gateway to Land and Water Information: Romania national report 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.icpa.ro [Source type: Academic]

^ In 1965 numele orasului este schimbat la Gheorge Gheorghiu-Dej, iar in 1990, dupa revolutia anticomunista, este schimbat inapoi la Onesti.
  • Romania Ghid turistic Romania ghiduri turistice Romania destinatia Romania informatii Romania statiuni Romania referate Romania atractii Romania obiective turistice Romania capitala Romania clima moneda monumente aeroporturi populatia religia relief istorie capitala autostrazi 16 September 2009 12:10 UTC www.besttourism.ro [Source type: General]

.In 1965, he was succeeded by Nicolae Ceauşescu who was less enthusiastic towards the Soviet Union and maintained a more neutral foreign and domestic policy than his predecessor while, during the 1980s, the Securitate secret police became a strong force.^ Since this is more or less the Christian critique of pagan society, we have the curious case of critics maintaining the perspective of Christian moralism even while rejecting Christianity as the appropriate response.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I just did the euprofiler one that Jonathan posted and it told me I was a little more right wing and Eurosceptic than Tory policy.
  • politicalbetting.com » Blog Archive » Are the over 55 figures the best indicator? 16 September 2009 12:10 UTC politicalbetting.com [Source type: General]

^ Im März 1965 übernahm Nicolae Ceauşescu das Amt des Generalsekretärs der Kommunistischen Partei.
  • Rumänien - Online Lexikon 23 September 2009 1:44 UTC lexikon.dpahl.de [Source type: General]

The leader was overthrown and executed in late 1989."(CIA World Factbook). .Former Communists, regrouped around the Front of National Salvation and the Romanian Party for Social Democracy dominated the government until the 1996 elections, when they were swept from power by a fractious coalition of centrist parties but after failed reforms were replaced by the Social Democratic Party.^ They would soon become a loose cannon within the Empire, shattering essential supports of Roman power as the tribe rolled around.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Dec 1989 - 26 Dec 1989 Council of the National Salvation Front 26 Dec 1989 - 29 Nov 1996 Ion Iliescu (1st time) (b.
  • Countries QR 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC rulers.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The Pechenegs (or Patzinaks), a Turkic steppe people, will remain pagans until they are swept from history by the Cumans and Mongols.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

.Both groups attempted to amend ties with Hungary, which were deeply fractured in the 1980s, when Ceausescu either encouraged the large Hungarian community to leave the country or exile them outright (5.000 Hungarians left Romania per year).^ The refugees left the port of Constanta , Romania ( the last ship to leave Germany carrying refugees who were bound for Palestine ) were trying to reach Turkey or Palestine , but didn't have Visas for either country although the fare was to include Visas for Palestine .
  • Jewish Web Index - Make it easier for you to do your personal research 23 September 2009 1:42 UTC jewishwebindex.com [Source type: General]

^ Maps covering the Romania/Moldova Region - Transylvania-Eastern Hungary - Austro-Hungarian Empire 1882 .
  • Jewish Web Index - Make it easier for you to do your personal research 23 September 2009 1:42 UTC jewishwebindex.com [Source type: General]

^ Between 1965 and 1998, in the forests of Romania there were 3007 fires (an average of 88 fires per year).
  • Gateway to Land and Water Information: Romania national report 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.icpa.ro [Source type: Academic]

.The 2004 elections brought to power an alliance formed by the National Liberal and Democratic parties.^ It was formed as an alliance between the AJA, ATAEA, Actors Equity and other interested parties...
  • Sites Blocked in China - Yahoo: News and Media 16 September 2009 12:10 UTC cyber.law.harvard.edu [Source type: News]

They currently govern with the support of most minority parties in Romania. .In 2008 Romania held its legislative elections with the right wing party of the PDL (Democratic Liberal Party) won the national elections by a small margin against the PSD (Social Democratic Party).^ For the EU elections Votematch does a good job of matching your views against the parties: .
  • politicalbetting.com » Blog Archive » Are the over 55 figures the best indicator? 16 September 2009 12:10 UTC politicalbetting.com [Source type: General]

^ Party abbreviation : PRT = Pational Român din Transilvania (Romanian National Party of Transylvania, nationalist, pro-unification with Romania) .

The current Prime Minister is Emil Boc while the Deputy Prime Minister is Dan Nica of the Social Democratic Party.
As of the year 2009 the Romanian Government has decided to implement a massive infrastructure investment programme which will benefit the whole country. The Romanian Government hopes to successfully implement the massive infrastructure program by the end of their mandate in 2012.
.When the economic, social and political development is concerned Romania is doing well in comparison to other countries in the Western Balkans region and other surrounding countries in Eastern Europe such as Ukraine and Moldova.^ Romania > Central and Eastern Europe > countries > home .
  • Gateway to Land and Water Information: Romania national report 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.icpa.ro [Source type: Academic]

^ Today, all of these regions are in Romania and Moldova , with a portion in southern Ucraina ( Ukraine) .
  • Jewish Web Index - Make it easier for you to do your personal research 23 September 2009 1:42 UTC jewishwebindex.com [Source type: General]

^ A similar problem later occurred all over again in Eastern Europe, where the Kings of Poland were eager to bring in a more sophisticated population, unwelcome in Western Europe, to develop the country and strengthen the throne.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

.However when compared to Western Europe, Romania still has some ways to go to reach that level of development that is enjoyed by the Western Europeans.^ It is noteworthy that some differences have developed between the organization of the Western and the Eastern Armies.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Of international interest are also the rivers from the western part of Romania: the Somes, Cris and Mures rivers, shared with Hungary, and the Timis river, shared with Yugoslavia.
  • Gateway to Land and Water Information: Romania national report 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.icpa.ro [Source type: Academic]

^ That the gold coinage of the solidus still exists at all, however, is testimony to the fact that the prosperity and material culture of Romania never fell as far as it did in Francia .
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

.However Romania's membership in the European Union will help in closing the gap in the years to come.^ The future trend of agricultural production in this country depends also on external factors, among which the most important is the agricultural policy of the European Union which Romania intends to join.
  • Gateway to Land and Water Information: Romania national report 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.icpa.ro [Source type: Academic]

^ Only the Balkan European possessions, secured not long before, enable Romania to endure and recover, somewhat -- with the dangerous help of the Crusaders.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

The regions of Romania
The regions of Romania
.Transylvania
It is the most famous region of Romania, a land of medieval castles and towns, dark forests, snowy peaks (especially those in Transylvanian Alps) At the same time a region experiencing rapid economical development, with modern youthful cities, huge shopping centers, massive infrastructure projects etc.^ At the same time, new land area affected by water erosion is probably going down as some areas with cropland in hilly regions were abandoned since 1990.
  • Gateway to Land and Water Information: Romania national report 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.icpa.ro [Source type: Academic]

^ At present-time one can not detect very clear trends in land productivity in Romania.
  • Gateway to Land and Water Information: Romania national report 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.icpa.ro [Source type: Academic]

^ Most of the fires take place in period of drought, especially in spring and in the second part of the summer, when forests present a high degree of kindling.
  • Gateway to Land and Water Information: Romania national report 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.icpa.ro [Source type: Academic]

Banat
This western-most province is probably the most economically developed in Romania. .It has beautiful baroque cities and traditional German villages in the western plains and huge mountain forests in the eastern parts.^ Geography Romania is situated in the south-eastern part of Central Europe at its contact with Oriental Europe and Balcanic Europe, inside and outside of the Carpathian mountains.
  • Gateway to Land and Water Information: Romania national report 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.icpa.ro [Source type: Academic]

^ Drainage, mainly open drainage, is developed especially in the Danube river Flood Plain and in some parts of the low-lying areas of the western part of the country.
  • Gateway to Land and Water Information: Romania national report 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.icpa.ro [Source type: Academic]

^ Agroecological zones As shown in map 2.3.1 ., four agroecological zones are distinguished I. The Warm and Dry agroecological zone comprises the steppe and partly the forest steppe regions from the south and eastern part of the country; a small area in the western side also being included.
  • Gateway to Land and Water Information: Romania national report 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.icpa.ro [Source type: Academic]

.Oltenia
The south-western region, with impressive monasteries, caves and health resorts along the mountains in its northern part and a bizarre desert-like area in the south.^ Geography Romania is situated in the south-eastern part of Central Europe at its contact with Oriental Europe and Balcanic Europe, inside and outside of the Carpathian mountains.
  • Gateway to Land and Water Information: Romania national report 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.icpa.ro [Source type: Academic]

^ Agroecological zones As shown in map 2.3.1 ., four agroecological zones are distinguished I. The Warm and Dry agroecological zone comprises the steppe and partly the forest steppe regions from the south and eastern part of the country; a small area in the western side also being included.
  • Gateway to Land and Water Information: Romania national report 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.icpa.ro [Source type: Academic]

Bucovina
This north-eastern region is famous for its Painted Monasteries, tucked away between picturesque rolling hills.
Maramureş
The northern-most region, it's best known for its timeless villages, traditional wooden churches and beautiful mountain landscape.
.Crişana
Located along the border with Hungary, this western region is the entry point for most travelers into Romania, who often neglect its Central-European style cities, numerous medieval sites and resorts on the western side of the Apuseni mountains.^ Capella was popularized by Cassiodorus and hence made his way into subsequent education, such as with Isidore of Seville -- who, like Capella, is often called an "Enyclopedist."
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Although sacked by the Goths, the Huns, and the Lombards, Venetia remained the most important city of the region for most of the middle ages.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ To ensure that terror was universal, provinces too were cut into fragments; many governors and even more officials were imposed on individual regions, almost on individual cities, and to these were added numerous accountants, controllers and prefects' deputies.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

.Dobrogea
A seaside province dotted by ruins of ancient Greek and Roman cities, with various summer resorts along the Black Sea Coast and the unspoiled natural landscape of the Danube Delta in the region's north.^ Types of soil The dominant soils in the wetalnd area of Romania are organic ones, rich in sulfides in the Danube Delta and strongly acid in the mountains region.
  • Gateway to Land and Water Information: Romania national report 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.icpa.ro [Source type: Academic]

^ The Danube Delta is even a more flat plain, lying on average 0,52 m above the mean Black Sea level, with a general gradient of 0,006 m/km.
  • Gateway to Land and Water Information: Romania national report 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.icpa.ro [Source type: Academic]

^ Today natural products extracted from the Danube Delta have an annual economic value of around 16 mill.
  • Gateway to Land and Water Information: Romania national report 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.icpa.ro [Source type: Academic]

.Moldavia
Certainly one of the most extraordinary regions in Romania, it offers a pleasant blend of historical cities, medieval fortresses, churches, wine and friendly locals.^ Types of soil The dominant soils in the wetalnd area of Romania are organic ones, rich in sulfides in the Danube Delta and strongly acid in the mountains region.
  • Gateway to Land and Water Information: Romania national report 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.icpa.ro [Source type: Academic]

^ It is certainly the right place for such a building, and so one is a little surprised to learn that no secular building, as far as we know, was put there all the years of Romania.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Although sacked by the Goths, the Huns, and the Lombards, Venetia remained the most important city of the region for most of the middle ages.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

.
Wallachia
Also known as Muntenia. The capital, Bucharest, is in this southern region, as well as the early residences of the Wallachian princes and the mountain resorts on the Prahova Valley. .It is also the name of the old kingdom of leaders such as the notorious Vlad Ţepeş (The Impaler).^ This is unlikely on its face -- or that someone named after the Emperor would already be old enough to have such a command (Vladimir Monomakh was born in 1053).
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

  • Bucharest is the capital of Romania.
  • Braşov - located in south-eastern Transylvania, its main attractions are the well kept medieval downtown, the nearby luxury resort of Poiana Braşov and the proximity to Rasnov and the Bran Castle.
  • Sibiu - one of the most beautiful cities in the region, it has the best preserved historical sites in the country, numerous museums and exhibitions, proximity to the stunning Făgăraş mountains, for which reasons it became the 2007 European Capital of Culture.
  • Sighişoara - the city's downtown area, the Sighisoara Citadel, is the last inhabited medieval citadel in Europe and one of the best preserved.
  • Iaşi - the second largest Romanian city, it was the capital of the Moldavian principality until 1861 and briefly capital of Romania.^ Four main subunits are distinguished: The Transylvanian Depression (Tableland) located in the middle of the country and surrounded by The Carpathian Arch; it exhibits an undulated to hilly relief (250 700 m absolute altitude) consisting of tertiary deposits.
    • Gateway to Land and Water Information: Romania national report 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.icpa.ro [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Title: Mountain Echo Homepage Site: www.mountainecho.com (and subdirectories) Blocking quotient: Blocked on: Mar 31 (Guangzhou) , Oct 12 (Guangdong) Yahoo: Regional > U S States > California > Cities > Fall River Mills > News and Media Description: This is the homepage for the Mountain Echo, a newspaper for the Intermountain Area.
    • Sites Blocked in China - Yahoo: News and Media 16 September 2009 12:10 UTC cyber.law.harvard.edu [Source type: News]

    ^ What's more, Amsterdam became the center of European banking, with that preeminence passing from, as it happened, the cities of Northern Italy (remembered in "Lombard Street" in the City of London).
    • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

    .Today it remains one of the major economic and cultural centers in the country.
  • Cluj-Napoca - the largest town in Transylvania, is a major economic center and also a very youthful city, as it has one of the largest universities in Europe.
  • Constanţa - it's Romania's main Black Sea port and one of the major commercial hubs in the region.^ Title: Falkirk Today Site: www.falkirkherald.co.uk (and subdirectories) Blocking quotient: Blocked on: Apr 21 (Guangdong) , Oct 12 (Guangdong) Yahoo: Regional > Countries > United Kingdom > Scotland > Counties and Regions > Central > Cities and Towns > Falkirk > News and Media Google: Regional > Europe > United Kingdom > Scotland > News and Media > Newspapers Description: The Falkirk Herald On-Line, Scotlands largest selling, award winning, local weekly newspaper.
    • Sites Blocked in China - Yahoo: News and Media 16 September 2009 12:10 UTC cyber.law.harvard.edu [Source type: News]

    ^ The betrayal it represents, then, was of a more intimate character, since Venice was in origin, culture, and tradition one of Romania's own.
    • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ At present-time one can not detect very clear trends in land productivity in Romania.
    • Gateway to Land and Water Information: Romania national report 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.icpa.ro [Source type: Academic]

    The northernmost district, Mamaia, is one of the best Black Sea resorts.
  • Suceava - the main city in Bukovina and the medieval capital of Moldavia; it can be used as starting point for visiting the Monasteries in the region.
  • Timişoara - the largest town in the Banat region, it's one of the most prosperous and modernized cities in Romania; it was here that the 1989 Romanian anti-communist revolution began.
The following are some possible itineraries for traveling Romania :

Get in

.Getting to Romania is easy from nearly all parts of the world, due to its position, as well as the fact that it is served by an array of transport types and companies.^ These figures show that the forests of Romania by their natural composition and structure, as well as due to local climatic conditions, have a high tolerance to fires.
  • Gateway to Land and Water Information: Romania national report 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.icpa.ro [Source type: Academic]

^ We see nothing of the sort in Egypt, Babylon, or Jerusalem, and domes in Islamic architecture are all due to the influence of Romania.
  • Roman Decadence, Rome and Romania, and the Emperors Who Weren't 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The peculiar or anachronistic devices in the movie all serve to create dramatic tension and conflict, which is well within understandable poet license.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

Romania is a member of the Schengen Agreement but has not yet fully implemented it. For EU, EEA (Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway) or Swiss citizens an officially approved ID card (or a passport) is sufficient for entry. In no case will they need a visa for a stay of any length. Others will generally need a passport for entry.
.Travel to/from any other country (Schengen or not) from/to Romania will (as of now) result in the normal border checks.^ In other words, Mediaeval Romania wasn't Roman enough for Smith, except for its architecture, which is now not Greek enough.
  • Roman Decadence, Rome and Romania, and the Emperors Who Weren't 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

.Inquire at your travel agent, call the local consulate or embassy of Romania.^ Contact the nearest embassy or consulate of Romania Take advantage of our extensive embassy and consular database to find the nearest one.
  • Romania Visa : Application, Requirements. Apply for Romanian Visas Online. 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC romania.visahq.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Steps that you can take: Check the current validity of your passport and the availability of blank visa pages All travelers will need a valid passport for their travels to Romania.
  • Romania Visa : Application, Requirements. Apply for Romanian Visas Online. 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC romania.visahq.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ All travelers will need a passport valid for at least 90 days following your departure date from Romania.
  • Romania Visa : Application, Requirements. Apply for Romanian Visas Online. 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC romania.visahq.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The visa list is already consistent with those of the Schengen countries fully implementing the agreement.
.As of January 2010 only the citizens of the following non-EU/EEA/Swiss countries do not need a visa for entry into the Schengen Area; note that they must not stay longer than three months in half a year and must not work while in the EU: Andorra, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Australia, Bahamas, Barbados, Bermuda, Brazil, Brunei, Canada, Chile, Costa Rica, Croatia, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Israel, Japan, Macedonia*, Malaysia, Mauritius, Mexico, Monaco, Montenegro*, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Saint Kitts and Nevis, San Marino, Serbia*/**, Seychelles, Singapore, South Korea, United States, Uruguay, Vatican City, Venezuela, additionally persons holding British National (Overseas), Hong Kong SAR or Macau SAR passports.^ The largest modern states are much larger in area than Rome: Australia is 7.68 (more than twice the size of Rome), the United States 9.37, China 9.56, Canada 9.97, and Russia 17.08 million km 2 .
  • Roman Decadence, Rome and Romania, and the Emperors Who Weren't 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Smuts wrote the preamble to the United Nations Charter, and was the only person to sign the charters of both the League of Nations and the UN. He sought to redefine the relationship between the United Kingdom and her colonies, by establishing the British Commonwealth, as it was known at the time.
  • Eine ganz normale Familie 23 September 2009 1:44 UTC www.weissgarnix.de [Source type: Academic]

^ Title: Pakistan Daily Site: www.pakistandaily.com (and subdirectories) Blocking quotient: Blocked on: Apr 5 (Guangzhou) , Apr 14 (Guangzhou) , Apr 21 (Guangdong) , Apr 29 (Guangdong) , Aug 14 (Jiangsu) , Aug 17 (Jiangsu) , Aug 19 (Jiangsu) , Aug 20 (Jiangsu) , Aug 23 (Jiangsu) , Aug 27 (Jiangsu) , Aug 29 (Jiangsu) , Sep 1 (Jiangsu) , Sep 3 (Jiangsu) , Sep 21 (Jiangsu) , Sep 30 (Shanghai) , Sep 30 (Jiangsu) , Sep 30 (Guangdong) , Oct 12 (Shanghai) , Oct 12 (Guangdong) , Oct 12 (Yantian) Yahoo: News and Media > Newspapers > By Region > Countries > Pakistan Description: Pakistan Daily News, World News from WN Network Caribbean Keywords: Pakistan Daily News, WorldNews, WN Network, business, politics, sport, photos, headlines, radio, fm, Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Panama, ceribbean, Inbound Link Count: 612 linking pages .
  • Sites Blocked in China - Yahoo: News and Media 16 September 2009 12:10 UTC cyber.law.harvard.edu [Source type: News]

Note that
  • while British subjects with the right of abode in the United Kingdom and British Overseas Territories citizens connected to Gibraltar are considered "United Kingdom nationals for European Union purposes" and therefore eligible for unlimited access to the Schengen Area,
  • British Overseas Territories citizens without the right of abode in the United Kingdom and British subjects without the right of abode in the United Kingdom as well as British Overseas citizens and British protected persons in general do require visas.
.However, all British Overseas Territories citizens except those solely connected to the Cyprus Sovereign Base Areas are eligible for British citizenship and thereafter unlimited access to the Schengen Area.^ The building is strategically located, Easy access to all areas of the city.
  • Romania Real Estate Listings & Properties, Free Real Estate Portal Romania - Mondinion.com - Free International Real Estate Listings & International Property Ads, Overseas Real Estate 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.mondinion.com [Source type: News]

Further note that
(*) Macedonian, Montenegrin and Serbian citizens need a biometric passport to enjoy visa-free travel and
.(**) Serbian citizens with passports issued by the Serbian Coordination Directorate (Serbs residing in Kosovo) still do need a visa.^ The agony of the Battle of Kosovo in 1389, the "Field of the Blackbirds," still echoes today in the fierceness of the attachment of modern Serbs for the area, now largely populated by Albanians.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

.If you do need to obtain a visa from outside your own country, try obtaining it from somewhere else beside Budapest, where it can take 3 to 4 days.^ You can leave a response , or trackback from your own site.
  • Florin Ciornei si PC-ul « ministru >> prim-ministru >> blogger 16 September 2009 12:10 UTC nastase.wordpress.com [Source type: General]

^ Everything you need to get married in NJ. Your source for the reception hall, wedding dress, photographer, florist honeymoons and more.
  • Sites Blocked in China - Yahoo: News and Media 16 September 2009 12:10 UTC cyber.law.harvard.edu [Source type: News]

^ James Burdett May 29th, 2009 at 11:36 am 210, 213 - A squash ball does the job just as well and you can take it with you for all your plugging needs, thus slashing your plug-related bills.
  • politicalbetting.com » Blog Archive » Are the over 55 figures the best indicator? 16 September 2009 12:10 UTC politicalbetting.com [Source type: General]

From Ljubljana the process can sometimes be done in a day because they are not so busy.

By plane

Romania has 17 civilian airports, out of which currently 10 are served by scheduled international flights. The main international airports are:
  • Bucharest's Henri Coanda (Otopeni) Airport [2] is the largest and busiest, it has flights to nearly all the major cities in Europe, to a few Middle Eastern capitals, to all other Romanian cities, but just one direct flight to the USA;
  • The Traian Vuia International Airport [3] in Timisoara is the second largest in the country; it has flights to several large cities in Germany, Italy, Austria, Hungary, Greece, Ukraine as well as to various cities in Romania;
  • Bucharest's Aurel Vlaicu (Baneasa) Airport [4] recently became a major low cost airlines hub;
  • Cluj-Napoca International Airport [5], as the largest airport in Transylvania it is served by a growing number of flights from various European destinations;
Other smaller international airports are located in Arad [6] (flights to Valencia, Verona, Barcelona, Stuttgart, Milan), Sibiu (flights to Vienna, Munich and Stuttgart), Iasi [7] (flights to Vienna), Constanta [8] (various seasonal flights, including one Ryanair flight from Pisa) and Targu-Mures [9] (one daily flight from Budapest).
There are three important Romanian airlines:
  1. TAROM[10], the Romanian flag carrier, based in Bucharest Otopeni
  2. Carpatair[11] , based in Timisoara, connects this city with eight Italian and three German destinations, and also has collector/distributor flights to the following Romanian airports: Cluj-Napoca, Bucharest, Constanta, Oradea, Sibiu, Iasi, Suceava, Satu-Mare and Bacau
  3. Blue Air[12], the only Romanian low-cost airline, based in Bucharest Baneasa
There are several flights a day from Dusseldorf, Frankfurt, Munich, Vienna and Zurich offered by Austrian, Carpatair, Lufthansa, Swiss and Tarom. Lufthansa opened its flight from Cluj-Napoca to Munich, Germany for only €110. GermanWings opened also from Cluj-Napoca towards Cologne.
In recent times Romania became increasingly attractive for low cost carriers. Blue Air, a Romanian low-fare airline, serves various destinations in Europe from Bucharest (Aurel Vlaicu Airport), Arad, Targu Mures and Bacau. .A Hungarian budget airline, Wizzair [13], introduced direct flights from London Luton to Bucharest in January 2007. Several others, including Wind Jet [14], MyAir [15], Sky Europe [16], AlpiEagles [17], Ryanair [18], GermanWings [19], and AirBerlin [20]) already operate flights to Romania.^ Article 4(2) states that " Romania is the common and indivisible homeland of all its citizens," without any discrimination on account of several protected grounds, including sex.

^ Gender discrimination is proscribed in employment (Articles 5, 6, 7 and 8), choice of residence (Article 17), access to public services (Article 10), education (Article 15) and public places (Article 18).

^ My modeller gives them one more seat on a distribution of 29.5/18.5/13/19/11/4/3 (C/L/LD/UK/G/B/Nat).
  • politicalbetting.com » Blog Archive » Are the over 55 figures the best indicator? 16 September 2009 12:10 UTC politicalbetting.com [Source type: General]

Easyjet [21] operates flights from London, Milan and Madrid.

By train

Romania is relatively well connected with the European rail network. There are daily international trains to Munich, Prague, Venice, Vienna, Budapest, Zagreb, Belgrade, Sofia, Thessaloniki, Istanbul, Chişinău, Kiev and Moscow. But due to the poor quality of rail infrastructure in the region train travel on long distances takes considerable time.
.Nonetheless, trains are the ideal way of reaching cities in western and central Romania such as Brasov, Sighisoara, Oradea or Cluj-Napoca coming from Central Europe.^ The price include 19% VAT and it is an excellent long term investment for anybody interested in investing in the north-western gate of Romania: Satu Mare city.
  • Romania Real Estate Listings & Properties, Free Real Estate Portal Romania - Mondinion.com - Free International Real Estate Listings & International Property Ads, Overseas Real Estate 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.mondinion.com [Source type: News]

^ Romania > Central and Eastern Europe > countries > home .
  • Gateway to Land and Water Information: Romania national report 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.icpa.ro [Source type: Academic]

^ Romania Real Estate , Satu Mare Real Estate , Satu Mare Real Estate : Commercial for Sale Full central opportunity in center of Satu Mare city, near the City Hall.
  • Romania Real Estate Listings & Properties, Free Real Estate Portal Romania - Mondinion.com - Free International Real Estate Listings & International Property Ads, Overseas Real Estate 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.mondinion.com [Source type: News]

International trains to Romania include EuroCity trains which are of a relatively high standard and night trains. Romania is part of the Eurailpass offer.
A cheap way of traveling to or from Romania might be the Balkan Flexipass.

By bus

.Even though Romania has not been traditionally seen as a 'bus country', buses are becoming a more and more popular way to reach the country from overseas, especially from the Balkans and the former USSR, but also from Western Europe, e.g.^ A similar problem later occurred all over again in Eastern Europe, where the Kings of Poland were eager to bring in a more sophisticated population, unwelcome in Western Europe, to develop the country and strengthen the throne.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This trend, more or less accentuated, is specific to all countries of Eastern and Central Europe.
  • Gateway to Land and Water Information: Romania national report 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.icpa.ro [Source type: Academic]

^ During the Middle Ages, however, I've found less use of Romania in the West and, especially after 800, more references to the 'empire of the Greeks'.
  • Roman Decadence, Rome and Romania, and the Emperors Who Weren't 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

Germany and Switzerland. .Even though trains are still the most popular way of getting to Romania from Central Europe, due to good service, train services to the Balkans and former USSR are of a considerably poorer quality and are less frequent (mainly because railway infrastructure in these countries is a lot poorer than Romania's infrastructure).^ A good way, but there are still anomalies.
  • Roman Decadence, Rome and Romania, and the Emperors Who Weren't 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Romania > Central and Eastern Europe > countries > home .
  • Gateway to Land and Water Information: Romania national report 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.icpa.ro [Source type: Academic]

^ The differences of the precipitation are more important, from about 700 mm in west side of the country to less than 400 mm in the east side.
  • Gateway to Land and Water Information: Romania national report 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.icpa.ro [Source type: Academic]

.For this reason, a slew of private bus operators now provide quicker and arguably more comfortable coach services to and from cities such as Chişinău, Kiev, Odessa, Sofia and Istanbul.^ Another was to put it to office expenses which do not directly benefit the MEP (except arguably very distantly by enabling them to spend more on running an office thus providing a fractionally better service and marginally increasing their chances of re-election).
  • politicalbetting.com » Blog Archive » Are the over 55 figures the best indicator? 16 September 2009 12:10 UTC politicalbetting.com [Source type: General]

.A general rule of the thumb on whether you should use bus or train is this: if trains are available just as frequently, and at around the same price, and take around the same amount of time, then definitely use them.^ I have never used the word criminal anywhere, and nor should you.
  • politicalbetting.com » Blog Archive » Are the over 55 figures the best indicator? 16 September 2009 12:10 UTC politicalbetting.com [Source type: General]

^ Or would you take the company car and let your son use your old one….
  • politicalbetting.com » Blog Archive » Are the over 55 figures the best indicator? 16 September 2009 12:10 UTC politicalbetting.com [Source type: General]

^ Change over time in amounts of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium applied on arable land, of total available sources (kg/ha)] .
  • Gateway to Land and Water Information: Romania national report 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.icpa.ro [Source type: Academic]

Otherwise, consider the buses.
For all information about buses in Romania and online reservations and tickets (i.e. timetables and prices) you can use www.Autogari.ro [22] ("Autogari" is the romanian word for bus-stations).

By boat

.Cruises on Danube are available, very expensive though, starting from Passau or Vienna and having a final destination in Danube Delta.^ Large wetlands, as the Danube Delta, are very important touristic zones of national and international value.
  • Gateway to Land and Water Information: Romania national report 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.icpa.ro [Source type: Academic]

These cruises will stop in every major port along the road, in Austria, Hungary, Serbia and Romania. .There you can travel by rapid boats, fisherman's boats on endless channels to watch huge colonies of pelicans, cranes or small migratory birds.^ You can still get 4/6 Yes with Ladbrokes (£25 a day maximum), so there are small amounts of free money available for those who are keen to get it.
  • politicalbetting.com » Blog Archive » Are the over 55 figures the best indicator? 16 September 2009 12:10 UTC politicalbetting.com [Source type: General]

^ I can tell you where there are no locals people are confused,hacked off and that small minority that will vote want to send a message.
  • politicalbetting.com » Blog Archive » Are the over 55 figures the best indicator? 16 September 2009 12:10 UTC politicalbetting.com [Source type: General]

.You can enjoy a local dish, fishermen's borsch, prepared using different species of fish, but take care, they use the Danube's river water!^ A special Soil Protection Law (Land care) is under preparation by the Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Forestry).
  • Gateway to Land and Water Information: Romania national report 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.icpa.ro [Source type: Academic]

^ Or would you take the company car and let your son use your old one….
  • politicalbetting.com » Blog Archive » Are the over 55 figures the best indicator? 16 September 2009 12:10 UTC politicalbetting.com [Source type: General]

^ If you ask you’re local authority what a ‘family home’ is, they’ll point you to a shoebox on the local estate.
  • politicalbetting.com » Blog Archive » Are the over 55 figures the best indicator? 16 September 2009 12:10 UTC politicalbetting.com [Source type: General]

.It is the only way to travel around the Danube Delta, and the only way to get to the city of Sulina.^ Pollution The only wetlands monitored systematically as regard pollution are those of the Danube Delta.
  • Gateway to Land and Water Information: Romania national report 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.icpa.ro [Source type: Academic]

^ Dystrification Dystrification is reported only in limited area of the Danube Delta, where sulfide rich soils were drained and sulfides oxidized.
  • Gateway to Land and Water Information: Romania national report 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.icpa.ro [Source type: Academic]

^ Today natural products extracted from the Danube Delta have an annual economic value of around 16 mill.
  • Gateway to Land and Water Information: Romania national report 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.icpa.ro [Source type: Academic]

There are ferries across the Danube to/from Bulgaria in several ports: from Calafat to Vidin (runs daily), from Bechet to Oryahovo (daily) and from Zimnicea to Svishtov (only on weekends).

By car

.You can easily drive into Romania coming from countries in the West, but when coming from the East you will have to drive through Moldova and you may experience troubles there.^ The differences of the precipitation are more important, from about 700 mm in west side of the country to less than 400 mm in the east side.
  • Gateway to Land and Water Information: Romania national report 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.icpa.ro [Source type: Academic]

^ Since there are two of those, one might think there is one each for East and West.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ C. Between the west side and the east side of the country the temperature difference is only ca.
  • Gateway to Land and Water Information: Romania national report 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.icpa.ro [Source type: Academic]

.There is not a direct border crossing between Ukraine and Romania in the south-eastern corner of Romanian Moldavia (Reni/Galati), you must go via Giurgiulesti, which is in Moldova (a small stretch of about 500 meters).^ Geography Romania is situated in the south-eastern part of Central Europe at its contact with Oriental Europe and Balcanic Europe, inside and outside of the Carpathian mountains.
  • Gateway to Land and Water Information: Romania national report 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.icpa.ro [Source type: Academic]

^ So say you fly to London, they say “there you go, here’s £200″ (or whatever).
  • politicalbetting.com » Blog Archive » Are the over 55 figures the best indicator? 16 September 2009 12:10 UTC politicalbetting.com [Source type: General]

^ Between 1965 and 1998, in the forests of Romania there were 3007 fires (an average of 88 fires per year).
  • Gateway to Land and Water Information: Romania national report 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.icpa.ro [Source type: Academic]

Moldovan border control officers will ask several times for money (ecological tax, road tax ... up to 20 € in July 2007). .Coming from the north (Ukraine), can also be time-consuming, times can vary from 1 to more than 5 hours.^ Thus, not all farmers are engaged in agriculture on a full time basis, and over 20 percent are people of more than 65 years old.
  • Gateway to Land and Water Information: Romania national report 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.icpa.ro [Source type: Academic]

.Also be aware if you plan to drive to Romania, the road infrastructure is undeveloped compared to Western and Central Europe.^ Romania > Central and Eastern Europe > countries > home .
  • Gateway to Land and Water Information: Romania national report 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.icpa.ro [Source type: Academic]

^ Geography Romania is situated in the south-eastern part of Central Europe at its contact with Oriental Europe and Balcanic Europe, inside and outside of the Carpathian mountains.
  • Gateway to Land and Water Information: Romania national report 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.icpa.ro [Source type: Academic]

.There are few highways and only in the south of the country.^ Not only now are there whole countries where the dependent classes exceed the numbers of the productive classes (e.g.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

The upside to this is that most european roads which you will mostly be traveling on are denominated with an E followed by a number (e.g. E63), are scenic roads and cross some spectacular scenery of mountains, valleys and forests. .The roads especially in Transylvania are built on top of the old medieval routes and there is always something to stop and visit on your way.^ There had been similar estrangements earlier, which had always been patched up without much in the way of hard feelings.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

.On the roads linking Romania to its western borders take particular care as there are many trucks and visibility is limited with most roads having one lane for each way, and in most parts are unlit.^ Most of the fires take place in period of drought, especially in spring and in the second part of the summer, when forests present a high degree of kindling.
  • Gateway to Land and Water Information: Romania national report 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.icpa.ro [Source type: Academic]

^ If "the Greeks" are calling the Empire "Romania," then clearly this is the name of the Empire to its own subjects , yet Vasiliev manages to admit this only in the most obscure and roundabout way.
  • Roman Decadence, Rome and Romania, and the Emperors Who Weren't 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Indeed, one could even say that the Renaissance began there, since many of its scholars, with their books, fled the Turkish Conquest to Italy, which was ready for them.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

Get around

.Getting around Romania is relatively hard and inefficient for the great distances that have to be covered in this country (this is after all, the second-largest country in Central Europe, after Poland).^ Romania > Central and Eastern Europe > countries > home .
  • Gateway to Land and Water Information: Romania national report 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.icpa.ro [Source type: Academic]

^ A similar problem later occurred all over again in Eastern Europe, where the Kings of Poland were eager to bring in a more sophisticated population, unwelcome in Western Europe, to develop the country and strengthen the throne.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The incompetence and viciousness of Commodus then set off his assassination and the second great free-for-all fight for the throne, in 193.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

The transport infrastructure has been improving quite significantly recently, even though roads remain a weak point. There are several highways under construction, but as of yet none are fully operational. Train travel, however, has improved dramatically. Several upgrade projects are under way for several railway tracks and that makes rail traffic on those lines a bit slow for the time being.

By train

The easiest, most comfortable and most rewarding way of traveling between cities is by train. .Romania's railway network is one of the largest (the 4th in Europe) and most dense in Europe, with trains servicing every town and city in the country, and the many villages.^ Romania > Central and Eastern Europe > countries > home .
  • Gateway to Land and Water Information: Romania national report 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.icpa.ro [Source type: Academic]

.Usually a train station is no more than 10km from a village, in the vast majority of cases.^ If the rules are wrong they should be changed, pillorying people for following the rules is no more nor less than a witch hunt.
  • politicalbetting.com » Blog Archive » Are the over 55 figures the best indicator? 16 September 2009 12:10 UTC politicalbetting.com [Source type: General]

^ Milliband came across as supporting an unpopular unaccountable European establishment for no better reason than that the unpopular, unaccountable European establishment would like us more if we carried on supporting it.
  • politicalbetting.com » Blog Archive » Are the over 55 figures the best indicator? 16 September 2009 12:10 UTC politicalbetting.com [Source type: General]

^ There are areas with more than 45 mg/l, but also areas with less than 45 mg/l NO 3 (the maximum limit allowed for drinking water).
  • Gateway to Land and Water Information: Romania national report 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.icpa.ro [Source type: Academic]

Most trains are run by the state carrier, Căile Ferate Române, abbreviated as (SN)CFR [23]. You can get tickets at the railway station or at a CFR agency, which can usually be found in the city center. For trains which require reservations (e.g. InterCity, Rapid) you can get the ticket at the railway station, and are made available 24 hours before the train departs. Tickets for train services on a future day are only available at the CFR agency, and in some larger stations. .Additionally, tickets can be bought in the train, but you will end up paying about three times the fare you would have paid in the train station.^ Nothing was done about this at the time, and Anastasius, by temperament or by wisdom, concentrated on allowing the East to rest and build up its strength.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In the normal course of things, Odoacer would have set up his own titular emperor and then seen about getting recognition from the eastern emperor in Constantinople.
  • Roman Decadence, Rome and Romania, and the Emperors Who Weren't 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I’m not sure about the elderly vote, though - the disappearance of all-postal voting that three regions had last time is likely to reduce elderly turnout a bit.
  • politicalbetting.com » Blog Archive » Are the over 55 figures the best indicator? 16 September 2009 12:10 UTC politicalbetting.com [Source type: General]

A modern double decker train in Cluj station.
A modern double decker train in Cluj station.
In recent years CFR has been leasing an ever increasing number of secondary lines to smaller private railway companies. So far they have the same tariffs as CFR and use mainly second-hand Western European DMU's. The biggest company offering regional services is Regiotrans [24]. For private operators tickets are usually issued in the train.
CFR offers four main types on trains in its route network.

"P" Personal:

Slow trains, stopping in every station on the rail line (including some in the middle of nowhere); extremely cheap. (Bucureşti-Braşov, 166km, 15.5 RON (5 EUR), app. .4 hours, no less than 33 stops).^ If the rules are wrong they should be changed, pillorying people for following the rules is no more nor less than a witch hunt.
  • politicalbetting.com » Blog Archive » Are the over 55 figures the best indicator? 16 September 2009 12:10 UTC politicalbetting.com [Source type: General]

^ There are areas with more than 45 mg/l, but also areas with less than 45 mg/l NO 3 (the maximum limit allowed for drinking water).
  • Gateway to Land and Water Information: Romania national report 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.icpa.ro [Source type: Academic]

Extremely basic service and sometimes uncomfortable (no seat reservation, no ventilation to speak of, sometimes crowded, no working toilets in some trains, poor lighting). .Western Desiro and French Z-type DMUs have been introduced on some routes, including Suceava-Cacica, Craiova-Sibiu, Sibiu-Brasov, Cluj-Teius-Brasov, Cluj-Bistrita, Brasov-Sfantu Gheorghe.^ INTERFORELLE Adresa: DN 11 Brasov - Sfantu Gheorghe km.
  • Romania Ghid turistic Romania ghiduri turistice Romania destinatia Romania informatii Romania statiuni Romania referate Romania atractii Romania obiective turistice Romania capitala Romania clima moneda monumente aeroporturi populatia religia relief istorie capitala autostrazi 16 September 2009 12:10 UTC www.besttourism.ro [Source type: General]

^ Education and research in agriculture is a well developed system: 5 state Agricultural and Veterinary Medicine Universities (Bucharest, Iasi, Cluj, Timisoara, Craiova) including 123 Agricultural colleges.
  • Gateway to Land and Water Information: Romania national report 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.icpa.ro [Source type: Academic]

^ Manifestarea face parte dintr-un turneu, care cuprinde 4 jazz meetinguri, la Ploiesti, Cluj, Brasov si Festivalul de Jazz de la Sibiu.
  • Romania Ghid turistic Romania ghiduri turistice Romania destinatia Romania informatii Romania statiuni Romania referate Romania atractii Romania obiective turistice Romania capitala Romania clima moneda monumente aeroporturi populatia religia relief istorie capitala autostrazi 16 September 2009 12:10 UTC www.besttourism.ro [Source type: General]

Z-type cars provide a more comfortable seating arrangement but a bouncier ride, which is diametrically opposed to Desiro's improvement. .Oftentimes these are routes that would be used by people on short distance, so expect to be uncomfortable if traveling for a long period of time, even on these trains, which are often cleaner, but more crowded, than traditional ones.^ Even more interesting is that I am more closely aligned to labour than Lib Dem.
  • politicalbetting.com » Blog Archive » Are the over 55 figures the best indicator? 16 September 2009 12:10 UTC politicalbetting.com [Source type: General]

^ Here we do actually have the vowel "o," which, with the absence of the prefixed "i," makes the name look more like what the city would be called in Greek, rather than in Turkish.
  • Roman Decadence, Rome and Romania, and the Emperors Who Weren't 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Thus, not all farmers are engaged in agriculture on a full time basis, and over 20 percent are people of more than 65 years old.
  • Gateway to Land and Water Information: Romania national report 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.icpa.ro [Source type: Academic]

"A" Accelerat:

.Semi-slow trains, often cross-country routes, stopping in all towns, but not villages; cheap, but twice as expensive as Personal; same conditions as P in most cases (but with working lights and toilets).^ The cases coming to light badly need to be prioritised, with those involving possible tax evasion and fraud receiving most attention.
  • politicalbetting.com » Blog Archive » Are the over 55 figures the best indicator? 16 September 2009 12:10 UTC politicalbetting.com [Source type: General]

^ Prevention and Sanction of All Forms of Discrimination , Article 1 guarantees equality between citizens in working conditions, recruitment, promotions, access to training, social security, public services, education, and public peace.

.(Bucuresti-Brasov, 166km, 2nd class: 31.3 RON (10 EUR), approx 2 hours 45 minutes, stops in Bucureşti, Ploieşti, Câmpina, Breaza, Sinaia, Buşteni, Azuga, Predeal and Braşov).^ Paraul Rece-Predeal-Brasov Telefon: 0268.45.64.91 Hotel Camping Darste Adresa: Brasov, Calea Bucuresti nr.
  • Romania Ghid turistic Romania ghiduri turistice Romania destinatia Romania informatii Romania statiuni Romania referate Romania atractii Romania obiective turistice Romania capitala Romania clima moneda monumente aeroporturi populatia religia relief istorie capitala autostrazi 16 September 2009 12:10 UTC www.besttourism.ro [Source type: General]

Newly-renovated cars have been introduced on several routes including Bucuresti- Targu Jiu and Bucuresti-Brasov. .However, many consider these cars as uncomfortable, if not more so, than older cars, with just an improved visual element.^ A little digging, however, and the whole idea of Roman "decadence" begins to look more than a little peculiar.
  • Roman Decadence, Rome and Romania, and the Emperors Who Weren't 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It took more than a century for the Ottomans to scoop up all the spoils, but, like a slow motion car crash, the outcome has a horrible inevitability.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In the next few days, however, a lot of old Labour activists are going to use the Green party as their exit point from the process but there are just not that many of them.
  • politicalbetting.com » Blog Archive » Are the over 55 figures the best indicator? 16 September 2009 12:10 UTC politicalbetting.com [Source type: General]

There is little baggage room and little leg-room compared to 1980's carriages.

"R" Rapid:

Better, more comfortable, faster trains used on trunk routes from Bucharest (few interregional services); more expensive, almost the same speed as Accelerat, but sometimes stop in fewer stations. .(Bucuresti-Brasov, 166km, 2nd class: 38.0 RON (12 EUR), approx 2 hours 20 minutes, stops in Bucureşti, Ploieşti, Sinaia and Predeal).^ Paraul Rece-Predeal-Brasov Telefon: 0268.45.64.91 Hotel Camping Darste Adresa: Brasov, Calea Bucuresti nr.
  • Romania Ghid turistic Romania ghiduri turistice Romania destinatia Romania informatii Romania statiuni Romania referate Romania atractii Romania obiective turistice Romania capitala Romania clima moneda monumente aeroporturi populatia religia relief istorie capitala autostrazi 16 September 2009 12:10 UTC www.besttourism.ro [Source type: General]

Because of restrictions on InterCity transportation on several routes, Rapid trains to Constanta and Brasov have an IC-level service.

"IC" Intercity:

.The best of CFR's network; very comfortable, although cheap for Western standards; very clean almost all of the time; same speed as Rapid and Accelerat.^ Raids by the Arabs, Vikings, and now Magyars are giving all of Europe a very bad time.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

(Bucuresti-Brasov, 166km, 2nd class: 41.9 RON (13 EUR), approx 2 hours 20 minutes). .All IC trains will offer air conditioning, individual reading lights, dining cars, and some will offer power plugs (both in first and second class).^ He was the only person to sign the peace treaties ending both the First and Second World Wars.
  • Eine ganz normale Familie 23 September 2009 1:44 UTC www.weissgarnix.de [Source type: Academic]

Wi-Fi is provided in some dining cars and in business class (where available). .Travelers with large backpacks should note that baggage storage racks on intercity trains are small, and therefore they are likely to find Intercity trains rather less comfortable than Rapide or Accelerat.^ The one point they missed is that Darling’s tax claim was for his personal tax affairs rather than his office ones, at least in part, as it included a claim for advice on property income.
  • politicalbetting.com » Blog Archive » Are the over 55 figures the best indicator? 16 September 2009 12:10 UTC politicalbetting.com [Source type: General]

^ Here we do actually have the vowel "o," which, with the absence of the prefixed "i," makes the name look more like what the city would be called in Greek, rather than in Turkish.
  • Roman Decadence, Rome and Romania, and the Emperors Who Weren't 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ If the rules are wrong they should be changed, pillorying people for following the rules is no more nor less than a witch hunt.
  • politicalbetting.com » Blog Archive » Are the over 55 figures the best indicator? 16 September 2009 12:10 UTC politicalbetting.com [Source type: General]

.However, experiences seem to vary depending on the particular train, as in some trains this is true only for non-compartmented cars, so it might be worth trying to get a seat in a compartment.^ The claim that UKIP might save Labour seats in the next GE (which is what I was responding to orginally) seems far-fetched.
  • politicalbetting.com » Blog Archive » Are the over 55 figures the best indicator? 16 September 2009 12:10 UTC politicalbetting.com [Source type: General]

Go to a CFR office in a city, as train stations do not have the facilities to grant such a request.

Other Information about trains

.Much of the Romanian railway infrastructure is either being upgraded or modernized.^ The Italians are now gone (there being the Schism and all), but there are also (modern) Romanians present, though they do not have their own monastery.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

.However, due to many obstacles, including lack of available labor, this process is fairly slow, and will probably continue for some years.^ It is not clear that the eruption alone would produce the effects seen over many years, for the weather would be colder and the growing season shorter for some time (as noted for 540).
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But St. George has been widely popular and is the patron of many places, including Genoa and some other Italian, German, and Spanish states, and Georgia in the Caucasus.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In the next few days, however, a lot of old Labour activists are going to use the Green party as their exit point from the process but there are just not that many of them.
  • politicalbetting.com » Blog Archive » Are the over 55 figures the best indicator? 16 September 2009 12:10 UTC politicalbetting.com [Source type: General]

.Bucharest-Constanta and Bucharest-Brasov lines are currently under heavy modernization, and, until such work is completed, trains on these routes will run significantly slower than average (5 hours instead of 2 on Bucuresti-Constanta, 3 hours instead of 2 on Bucuresti-Brasov).^ Under the conditions of such evolution of soil agrochemical supply status and of maintaining a low fertilizer input level, it is not possible to have a modern, intensive agriculture in Romania.
  • Gateway to Land and Water Information: Romania national report 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.icpa.ro [Source type: Academic]

All CFR train services, except the "Personal" trains, which stop at every station and are awfully slow, are of a relatively high quality.
The "Personal" trains stop at every station and are the only option when traveling to small villages. Even though they do make for very original and memorable experiences, they're usually not so comfortable and very slow, albeit very cheap. Most will not offer 1st class. Usually they use 1970s single-suburban or double-decker cars, with 4 seats per row. Many have poor lighting, few toilets (that might also be dirty), and may be crowded.
.Accelerat is quite uncomfortable (sharing some rolling stock with Personal), with old, unmodernized cars, albeit somewhat faster than personal.^ Cameron would have had some sort of “mentor”, and who better than the person he was replacing for part of the seat?
  • politicalbetting.com » Blog Archive » Are the over 55 figures the best indicator? 16 September 2009 12:10 UTC politicalbetting.com [Source type: General]

Some personal trains can be dirty, and heating may not work. Do not expect air conditioning in either Accelerat or Personal trains. .It is the only service where it is recommended to get a 1st class ticket - 2nd class is usually crowded, and, because of the really long journeys that many trains do, cars and toilets may be really dirty.^ Ricimer may not have really wanted it to succeed, and it wasn't long before he got rid of Anthemius.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

.These trains are currently being modernized, with some (such as the seaside special trains) being given more modern (usually refurbished double-decker cars).^ For these deeds, now, he took more pleasure in being loved that in being honoured.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

.Rapid and Intercity are usually of a high standard - however, some Rapid trains should be avoided because of bad rolling stock (the Bucharest-Belgrade train, Mangalia - Oradea and Mangalia - Baia Mare, using Accelerat-type stock).^ However, its use of it, and of other history, although meriting an A for effort, involves some confusions and anachronisms.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

.If you can, use InterCity trains, which connect the hubs in Cluj-Napoca, Timişoara and Bucharest to other major cities.^ To address Panagiotidis's other points, it is not surprising that the major city of Romania should be called "the City" ( hê Polis ).
  • Roman Decadence, Rome and Romania, and the Emperors Who Weren't 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

.These trains are of a Western European standard and are incredibly clean and modern, with automatic doors, futuristic ecological toilets, air conditioning, ergonomic seats, free newspapers and all the other amenities.^ With some other Gothic groups, these all became the Visigoths.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

Also, they are reasonably cheap and are increasingly used by Romanians (and tourists) on most trips. .They are only marginally more expensive than Rapid trains (usually only a few euro cents more expensive).^ Indeed, the Romans were rather more successful than is usually thought.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ If the rules are wrong they should be changed, pillorying people for following the rules is no more nor less than a witch hunt.
  • politicalbetting.com » Blog Archive » Are the over 55 figures the best indicator? 16 September 2009 12:10 UTC politicalbetting.com [Source type: General]

^ Under the Palaeologi, starting in 1383, the Despot (sometimes more than one) was usually a son or brother of the Emperor.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

.The "Rapid" trains should be your second choice - they stop at more stations, but serve more destinations, and, although being a little bit more traditional, are still comfortable.^ If the rules are wrong they should be changed, pillorying people for following the rules is no more nor less than a witch hunt.
  • politicalbetting.com » Blog Archive » Are the over 55 figures the best indicator? 16 September 2009 12:10 UTC politicalbetting.com [Source type: General]

^ In the movie, the Iazyges are called "Sarmatians," which they were, but the more general name obscures the unique experience of the Iazyges in being settled and assimilated as Roman soldiers.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Although today the Bulgarians are thought of as simply a Slavic people, like the Russians or Serbs, they were originally a nomadic Turkic steppe people, more like the Huns or Mongols.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

.Rapid carriages are still used on InterCity trains, or, at the very least, were still used 5 years ago at the most.^ At least in the first five years of the analysed period, when most of the livestock was concentrated in great animal farms, their organic residues were only partially used as fertilizers, on limited area, around the animal farms.
  • Gateway to Land and Water Information: Romania national report 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.icpa.ro [Source type: Academic]

^ It didn't end up working very well, but it was, with marriage alliances, still close to the system of Imperial adoption used by the Antonines .
  • Roman Decadence, Rome and Romania, and the Emperors Who Weren't 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

"Accelerat" is a third choice, with little comfort in second class.
A refurbished 2nd class train coach.
A refurbished 2nd class train coach.
If presented with a choice of Intercity trains (Classic or "Săgeata Albastră" - The blue arrow) it is advisable to choose Classic, as these are faster, more comfortable trains. Săgeata Albastră are small 3-car diesel trains with slower service (120 km/h top speed in regards to 160km/h). The difference in price between 1st and 2nd class can be as much as the price of a 2nd class ticket, if not more. .However, the difference in comfort is not huge, and it is even possible to get worse seats in 1st class than in 2nd class (this is very common on Rapid trains heading for Iaşi, Botoşani and Suceava).^ It is quite possible that Labour could win fewer votes than UKIP and end up with more seats - which would be ironic for a PR election.
  • politicalbetting.com » Blog Archive » Are the over 55 figures the best indicator? 16 September 2009 12:10 UTC politicalbetting.com [Source type: General]

Sleepers and Couchettes are usually clean, and quite modern, even on Accelerat trains. .In winter due to harsh climatic conditions (snow storms) huge delays are possible so avoid traveling by train or at least watch the weather forecast (note that during the snow storms, trains are usually the only way of transport, with roads becoming blocked and airports closing down).^ These figures show that the forests of Romania by their natural composition and structure, as well as due to local climatic conditions, have a high tolerance to fires.
  • Gateway to Land and Water Information: Romania national report 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.icpa.ro [Source type: Academic]

In summer the trains and cars can run slower because the rails can be deformed by heat but delays are rather insignificant. The country is investing in upgrading its railways and railway stations.
.In some mountain cities the rail fans can travel by a narrow gauge rail train, but these trips are only available for small groups and not for individual tourists (an exception is Valea Vaserului in Maramureş, a scenic mountain railway, which offers trips with a narrow gauge steam train to individual tourists during weekends - note that you may be able to get a ride during the weekdays, but you will either ride in the steam-engine itself, or on the logs in the open carriages, as the line is still in industrial use).^ Stuart Dickson May 29th, 2009 at 6:00 am Stuart Dickson.Just for you the last traded prices on the Betfair Line for the GE. .
  • politicalbetting.com » Blog Archive » Are the over 55 figures the best indicator? 16 September 2009 12:10 UTC politicalbetting.com [Source type: General]

^ You can still get 4/6 Yes with Ladbrokes (£25 a day maximum), so there are small amounts of free money available for those who are keen to get it.
  • politicalbetting.com » Blog Archive » Are the over 55 figures the best indicator? 16 September 2009 12:10 UTC politicalbetting.com [Source type: General]

^ This all is striking for Ptolemy's willingness to use the best of all that was available to him -- though it may still surprise some, as we now know independently from Egyptian records, that the astronomy of the Egyptians themselves, except for (or perhaps because of) their year, had less to offer than the Babylonian.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

Groups can also rent the former Romanian king's personal train or Ceauşescu's private train but these trips are rather expensive. .Trains are usually on time, with delays only caused by weather or heavy modernization involving serious infrastructure work such as the one currently in progress on the Bucharest - Constanţa line.^ In Bucharest, for instance, the water losses and waste reach 40 - 50 percent; in the irrigation projects only 40 - 50 percent of pumped water is used; in some industries, such as the iron and steel industry, energetic, chemical and textile ones, the water consumption exceeds by 1.5 - 2.0 times the comparable consumption in developed countries.
  • Gateway to Land and Water Information: Romania national report 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.icpa.ro [Source type: Academic]

^ The main cause for fire bursting is the breaking of the rules of fire prevention by people during the working time or during passing by (workers, tourists, cowboys and children).
  • Gateway to Land and Water Information: Romania national report 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.icpa.ro [Source type: Academic]

.Since the 10th of December 2007, CFR has introduced a new service, Business Class, with two subdivisions: standard and exclusive.^ We provide Chinese News and Business services.
  • Sites Blocked in China - Yahoo: News and Media 16 September 2009 12:10 UTC cyber.law.harvard.edu [Source type: News]

  • Standard has plush armchairs instead of leather, as exclusive does, but is around 20RON cheaper. For the beginning, they only operate on Bucureşti-Craiova-Timişoara and Bucureşti-Braşov-Cluj-Oradea routes. As more rolling stock is introduced, most trunk routes will have this service (Suceava, Iaşi, Constanţa, Arad), although some (Suceava, Constanţa) only standard Business Class.
  • The Business Class service has Personal TV's and Wireless internet access. It is 50% more expensive than regular InterCity services.
.If traveling by rail with a rail pass in Romania, it is mandatory to purchase a reservation on all "InterCity", "Rapid" and "Accelerat". While cheap, they are only available starting 60 minutes prior to the departure time.^ With a text of 214 pages, Part V of the book, "The Army of Late Antiquity," starting with Diocletian, is only 16 pages long, 7% of the total -- again for 38% of the time.
  • Roman Decadence, Rome and Romania, and the Emperors Who Weren't 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ By the time the Templars arrived in Jerusalem, they might not even have been aware that the Nea Church had existed -- the cistern was only discovered by Israeli archaeologists after 1967.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ They only got 2.4% last time (1.4% SNP + 1.0% PC).
  • politicalbetting.com » Blog Archive » Are the over 55 figures the best indicator? 16 September 2009 12:10 UTC politicalbetting.com [Source type: General]

For up-to-date timetable information on CFR operated lines see CFR's timetable site [25]. For timetables on lines operated by other companies check [26].

By car

Traveling by car or coach is the easiest way and a vast majority, over 60 percent of foreign tourists use this way of transportation. The steering wheel is on the left and European driver's licenses are recognized by police. For Americans, a passport and valid US driver's license are sufficient for car rental. .If you drive your own car, you must purchase a road tax sticker (the "Rovinieta") either from the border or from the nearest gas station.^ You can leave a response , or trackback from your own site.
  • Florin Ciornei si PC-ul « ministru >> prim-ministru >> blogger 16 September 2009 12:10 UTC nastase.wordpress.com [Source type: General]

^ Or would you take the company car and let your son use your old one….
  • politicalbetting.com » Blog Archive » Are the over 55 figures the best indicator? 16 September 2009 12:10 UTC politicalbetting.com [Source type: General]

^ Thats not what they are doing , they are claiming mileage on the company car and also on their son driving their own car , that is the issue.
  • politicalbetting.com » Blog Archive » Are the over 55 figures the best indicator? 16 September 2009 12:10 UTC politicalbetting.com [Source type: General]

Driving without one will incur a severe fine.
.Rentals can be expensive; avoid the major international rental companies, as well as the "friendly" locals who are willing to rent you their own car.^ On-The-Job Training in local major Film/TV Production Companies, Radio-TV Stations, Recording Studios, and Record Companies.
  • Sites Blocked in China - Yahoo: News and Media 16 September 2009 12:10 UTC cyber.law.harvard.edu [Source type: News]

.In Bucharest and throughout the country rentals start at €20 - €30 per day (without fuel) for a small hatchback, go around 65 - €90 for an average car or lame SUV and may go up to €170 - €200 for a luxury sedan or a luxury SUV. You may be denied renting unless you are 25 or older.^ Martin Day May 29th, 2009 at 2:30 pm 449 - Indeed.
  • politicalbetting.com » Blog Archive » Are the over 55 figures the best indicator? 16 September 2009 12:10 UTC politicalbetting.com [Source type: General]

^ Stuart Dickson May 29th, 2009 at 7:20 am 27 If you met English Democrats, you’d understand why they don’t do well.
  • politicalbetting.com » Blog Archive » Are the over 55 figures the best indicator? 16 September 2009 12:10 UTC politicalbetting.com [Source type: General]

^ You can still get 4/6 Yes with Ladbrokes (£25 a day maximum), so there are small amounts of free money available for those who are keen to get it.
  • politicalbetting.com » Blog Archive » Are the over 55 figures the best indicator? 16 September 2009 12:10 UTC politicalbetting.com [Source type: General]

While Romanians are generally friendly and polite, this doesn't apply to their driving style. Speeding is very common, angry drivers are the norm, the accident rates are amongst the highest in the European Union. City roads tend to be heavily overcrowded, particularly in Bucharest. Beware of unpredictable hazards, such as parked cars, pedestrians, sudden braking to avoid a pothole, or stray animals entering the road. Most intercity routes are 2 lane roads, used by everything from horsecarts to communist era trucks to modern sportscars. .Romania has almost no modern highways, so plan for longer driving times than in other areas of Europe.^ From this statement one would not know that the Russian and other Orthodox churches, covering a considerable part of the area of Europe, would not join in his lack of "sympathy."
  • Roman Decadence, Rome and Romania, and the Emperors Who Weren't 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In the last ten years large areas from these lands have been given other uses than agriculture.
  • Gateway to Land and Water Information: Romania national report 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.icpa.ro [Source type: Academic]

^ The modern West, at least in elite culure, no longer is conscious of its heritage or conscientious for its preservation.
  • Roman Decadence, Rome and Romania, and the Emperors Who Weren't 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

Bucharest is a very dense and crowded city, with narrow, twisting roads, built mainly in the 19th century, with little traffic in mind. Those roads are suffocated by over 1 million cars - it is possible to take 2 hours to drive a distance that could be walked in 20-25 minutes. Navigation is difficult, a GPS or local guide is a necessity. If you need to travel within Bucharest, use the still fairly cheap taxis or the metro.
If you have a good car and you also like speeding be aware that Romanian police have recently bought very modern radars to catch speeding motorists. .Speed limits are generally 100 km/h outside of a city and 50 km/h within a village.^ In general, Romans were Romans -- the movie perpetuates the idea that "Rome" meant the City, when this limitation was long gone.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

Some police cars are modern, while others are old Dacia cars. Although rare, some highway patrols have BMW bikes. .On major roads, motorists in the opposite direction will sometimes flash their headlights to warn they recently passed a radar trap which may be just ahead of you.^ Stuart Dickson May 29th, 2009 at 6:00 am Stuart Dickson.Just for you the last traded prices on the Betfair Line for the GE. .
  • politicalbetting.com » Blog Archive » Are the over 55 figures the best indicator? 16 September 2009 12:10 UTC politicalbetting.com [Source type: General]

^ Stuart Dickson May 29th, 2009 at 7:20 am 27 If you met English Democrats, you’d understand why they don’t do well.
  • politicalbetting.com » Blog Archive » Are the over 55 figures the best indicator? 16 September 2009 12:10 UTC politicalbetting.com [Source type: General]

^ Chris A May 29th, 2009 at 2:24 pm 431 - The problem with that approach is you could well be just storing up pain for a later date.
  • politicalbetting.com » Blog Archive » Are the over 55 figures the best indicator? 16 September 2009 12:10 UTC politicalbetting.com [Source type: General]

Highways and national roads can also be discreetly watched by Police Puma helicopters, produced also in Romania. .(Note: Americans will notice Romania has substantially less highway patrol than the US.) Since December 2006, even small offenses are subject to heavy fines by the traffic police (Poliţia Rutieră), they may even take one's driver's license for an irregular passing.^ Since this is more or less the Christian critique of pagan society, we have the curious case of critics maintaining the perspective of Christian moralism even while rejecting Christianity as the appropriate response.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Indeed, one could even say that the Renaissance began there, since many of its scholars, with their books, fled the Turkish Conquest to Italy, which was ready for them.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Fall of Constantinople in 1453 itself is one of the traditional termination dates for the Middle Ages, though less popular than Columbus in 1492.
  • Roman Decadence, Rome and Romania, and the Emperors Who Weren't 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

Both hidden and visible speed cameras are becoming common on major roads and highways. .Policemen sometimes seem to be more lenient with locals, than with foreigners - however, fines are stricter for locals than for foreigners (for locals, as few as two or three minor offenses will get their license suspended for six months).^ This was more effective (although the blind Isaac II was restored by the Fourth Crusade), though now it may not seem particularly more humane than execution.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ They would continue to do so for more than three centuries -- the first reference to Englishmen in the service of Romania was in 1088, the last in 1404 -- 316 years.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Since Orthodox Churches use the Julian Calendar, this day can be more than a month after the first Sunday of Lent on the Gregorian calendar.
  • Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc. 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

Bribing is a very common way of dealing with the police, but it can be risky especially to a foreigner. As of 2008, bribing is less and less accepted, so for a foreigner it is not recommended to attempt this get-away technique - it can easily land you in jail. The Romanian police are tough on drunk driving - controls are very frequent - and basically any alcohol counts as drunk driving. If you are involved in a car accident while driving and someone is hurt you must stop and wait for the traffic police. Driving away from the scene is considered hit-and-run. .Simpler accidents with no injuries can be solved with yourself and all parties involved having to go to a police station and make a statement, but, if in doubt, better phone 112 (Emergency Services) and ask for directions.^ I assumed that they were trying to involve more of the parties unofficially without having to have a panel of 57 party leaders.
  • politicalbetting.com » Blog Archive » Are the over 55 figures the best indicator? 16 September 2009 12:10 UTC politicalbetting.com [Source type: General]

In most of the cases, after an accident it is mandatory to take a blood test to establish if the drivers had consumed alcohol. Refusal to undergo this test is almost certainly to land you in jail - the punishment is usually more harsh then the one for drunk driving.
Many important roads were once wagon trails which go straight through the center of many villages. Passing while driving is the norm rather than the exception as slow moving trucks, slower moving horse drawn carts, and non-moving herds of cows often frequent the major roads. Travelers joke that if you haven't experienced a possible head-on collision then you haven't been driving in Romania. Road blocks and traffic delays occur frequently.

Types of roads

Motorways (autostrada)
.
  • A1 - planned to connect Bucharest with cities in southern Transylvania and then proceed to the western border; the only part completed so far is the 110 km long stretch between Bucharest and Piteşti.^ With a text of 214 pages, Part V of the book, "The Army of Late Antiquity," starting with Diocletian, is only 16 pages long, 7% of the total -- again for 38% of the time.
    • Roman Decadence, Rome and Romania, and the Emperors Who Weren't 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

    .Arad - Timişoara is under construction, and should be opened by November 2010.
  • A2 - by 2010 is expected to link Bucharest with the Black Sea port of Constanta; for now, out of the total 225 km length, only the Bucharest - Cernavodă segment (about 150 km) is completed.^ The almost only collector is the Danube River, which crosses the country in the south on 1075 km length and flows into the Black Sea trough a large delta almost entirely located in Romania.
    • Gateway to Land and Water Information: Romania national report 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.icpa.ro [Source type: Academic]

    ^ The Danube Delta is even a more flat plain, lying on average 0,52 m above the mean Black Sea level, with a general gradient of 0,006 m/km.