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Romanian War of Independence (1877 – 1878)
Kärtchen zur Schlacht bei Plewna (11. & 12.09.1877).jpg
Map of the Siege of Plevna
Date 1877 – 1878
Location Balkans
Result Russian/Romanian victory
Territorial
changes
Congress of Berlin
Belligerents
Romania Romanian Principality
Russian Empire Russia
Bulgaria Bulgarian volunteers
 Ottoman Empire
Commanders
Carol I of Romania.jpg
Marele Duce Nicolae al Rusiei.jpg
Flag of Romania.svg Carol I Russian Empire Grand Duke Nikolai
Mukhtar Pasha.jpg
GhaziOsmanPasha.jpg
Ottoman Empire Ahmed Muhtar Pasha Ottoman Empire Ghazi Osman Pasha
Strength
Romania 58,700 troops
190 guns
Casualties and losses
Romania 4,302 dead and missing
3,316 wounded
19,904 sick
Russian Empire 27,512 killed in battle, missing in action, and died of wounds
49,828 wounded
46,000+ non-combat deaths, mostly from disease
(during the entire Russo-Turkish War)
151,750+ killed, wounded, or captured
(during the entire Russo-Turkish War)

The Romanian War of Independence was fought in 1877 against the Ottoman Empire. On April 16 [O.S. April 4] 1877, Romania and the Russian Empire signed a treaty at Bucharest under which Russian troops were allowed to pass through Romanian territory, with the condition that Russia respects the integrity of Romania. The mobilization began, and about 120,000 soldiers were massed in the south of the country to defend against an eventual attack of the Ottoman forces from south of the Danube. On April 24 [O.S. April 12] 1877, Russia declared war on the Ottoman Empire and its troops entered Romania.

Contents

Overview

On May 21 [O.S. May 9] 1877, in the Romanian parliament, Mihail Kogălniceanu declared the independence of Romania as the will of the Romanian people. A day later, the act was signed by Prince Carol I. The next day, the Romanian government canceled paying tribute to Turkey (914,000 lei), and the sum was given instead to the War Minister.

Initially, before 1877, Russia did not wish to cooperate with Romania, since they did not wish Romania to participate in the peace treaties after the war, but the Russians encountered a very strong Turkish army of 50,000 soldiers led by Osman Pasha at the Siege of Pleven (Plevna) where the Russian troops led by Russian generals suferred very heavy losses and were routed in several battles.[1]

War

The battlefield of Plevna and Grivitsa
Romanian troops taking Grivitsa Strongpoint

Due to great losses, Nikolai Konstantinovich, Grand Duke of Russia asked Carol I for the Romanian Army to intervene and join forces with the Russian Army.[1] [2]

Prince Carol I accepted the Duke's proposal to become the Marshal of the Russian troops in addition to the Command of his own Romanian army, thus being able to lead the combined armed forces to the conquest of Plevna and the formal surrender, after heavy fighting, of the Turkish General (Osman Pasha). The Romanian Army won the battles of Grivitsa and Rahova, and on 28 November 1877 the Plevna citadel capitulated, and Osman Pasha surrendered the city, the garrison and his sword to the Romanian colonel Mihail Cerchez. After the occupation of Plevna, the Romanian Army returned to the Danube and won the battles of Vidin and Smârdan. On 19 January 1878, the Ottoman Empire requested an armistice, which was accepted by Russia and Romania. Romania won the war but at a cost of more than 10,000 casualties. Its independence from the Porte was finally recognised by the Central Powers on 13 July 1878.

Aftermath

The peace treaty between Russia and the Ottoman Empire was signed at San Stefano, on 3rd March 1878. Russia did not keep its promises of the 4 April 1877 treaty (signed by the Russian consul Stuart Dimitri (and approved by the Czar Alexander II; Aleksandr II, Nikolaevich ) and the Romanian Prime Minister of the day Mihail Kogălniceanu) to respect Romania's territorial integrity. However, the treaty was not recognised by the Central Powers and the 1878 peace conference in Berlin decided that Russia would give Romania its independence, the territories of Dobrogea, the Danube Delta and access to the Black Sea including the ancient port of Tomis (Constantza), as well as the tiny Snake Island (Insula Şerpilor), but Russia would nevertheless occupy as a so-called "compensation" the old Romanian Southern counties of Bessarabia (Cahul, Bolgrad and Ismail), which by the Treaty of Paris of 1856 (after the Crimean War) were included in Moldavia. Prince Carol was most unhappy by this imposition of Russian occupation of Romanian territories that seriously breached the Russo-Romanian treaty of 4 April 1877; he was finally persuaded by Bismark (in now published original letters exchanged at that time) to accept this compromise with Russia in view of the great economical potential of Romania's direct access to the Black Sea ancient ports.[3]

See also

External links

Footnotes

  1. ^ a b http://www.archive.org/stream/reminiscencesofk00kremiala "Reminiscences of the KING OF ROMANIA", Edited from the original with an Introduction by Sidney Whitman, Authorized edition, Harper& Brothers: New York and London, 1899
  2. ^ The telegram of Nikolai to Carol I (translated in Romanian): "Turcii îngrãmãdind cele mai mari trupe la Plevna ne nimicesc. Rog sã faci fuziune, demonstratiune si dacã-i posibil sã treci Dunãrea cu armatã dupã cum doresti. Între Jiu si Corabia demonstratiunea aceasta este absolut necesarã pentru înlesnirea miscãrilor mele" ("The Turks massed together the greatest troop at Pleven to lay us waste. I ask you to make mergers, demonstrations and if it is possible cross the Danube with the army as you wish. Between Jiu and Corabia the demonstration is absolutely necessary to facilitate my movements.)
  3. ^ http://www.archive.org/stream/reminiscencesofk00kremiala "Reminiscences of the KING OF ROMANIA", Edited from the original with an Introduction by Sidney Whitman, Authorized edition, Harper& Brothers: New York and London, 1899, pp.15-20.

Simple English

Romanian War of Independence (1877–1878)
Date 18771878
Location Balkans
Result Russian victory
Territorial
changes
Congress of Berlin
Combatants
 Russian Empire
Romanian Principality
Bulgarian volunteers
 Ottoman Empire
Commanders
Carol I Grand Duke Nikolai
Ahmed Muhtar Pasha Ghazi Osman Pasha
Casualties
10,000

The Romanian War of Independence was battled in 1877. It was against the Ottoman Empire. On April 16 [O.S. April 4] 1877, Romania and the Russian Empire signed a treaty that allowed Russian troops to pass through Romanian land, so long as the Russians respected the integrity of the Romanians.

On May 21 [O.S. May 9] 1877, in the Romanian parliament, Mihail Kogălniceanu said that it was the will of the Romanian people to be independent. In the beginning of this war, Russia did not want to help the Romanians with the war.

Other websites

  • The Plevna Delay by Richard T. Trenk, Sr. (Originally published in Man At Arms magazine, Number Four, August, 1997)








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