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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Romanization of Greek is the representation of Greek language texts, that are usually written in the Greek alphabet, with the Latin alphabet, or a system for doing so. There are several methods for the romanization of Greek, especially depending whether the language written with Greek letters is Ancient Greek or Modern Greek and whether a phonetic transcription or a graphemic transliteration is intended.

Contents

Table

This table lists several transcription schemes from the Greek alphabet to the Latin alphabet.

Greek Ancient Modern
Clas-
sical
Scien-
tific
Beta
code
ISO BGN/
PCGN
UN/
ELOT
Greeklish[note 1]
α a a A a a a a
β b b B v v v b, v
γ g g G g g, y[note 2] g g, y
δ d d D d dh, d[note 3] d d
ε e e E e e e e
ζ z z, (dz) Z z z z z
η e ē H ī i i h, i, e
θ th th Q th th th th, 8
ι i i I i i i i
κ c k K k k k k, c
λ l l L l l l l
μ m m M m m m m
ν n n N n n n n, v
ξ x x C x x x ks, x, 3
ο o o O o o o o
π p p P p p p p
ρ r, rh[note 4] r, (rh[note 4]) R r r r r
σ s s S s s[note 5] s s
τ t t T t t t t
υ y y, (u) U y i y y
φ ph ph F f f f f, ph
χ ch ch X ch kh ch ch, x, h
ψ ps ps Y ps ps ps ps
ω o ō W ō o o w, o
Vowel digraphs[note 6]
Greek Ancient Modern
Clas-
sical
Scien-
tific
Beta
code
ISO BGN/
PCGN
UN/
ELOT
Greeklish[note 1]
αι ae, e ai AI ai e ai ai, e
αυ au au AU au av av[note 7], af[note 8] ay, au, af, av
ει i ei EI ei i ei ei, i
ευ eu eu EU eu ev ev[note 7], ef[note 8] ey, eu, ef, ev
ηυ eu ēu HU īy iv iv[note 7], if[note 8] hy, hu, if, iv
οι oe, e oi OI oi i oi oi, i
ου u ou OU ou u ou ou, u
υι ui ui UI yi i yi yi, gi, i
Consonant digraphs
Greek Ancient Modern
Clas-
sical
Scien-
tific
Beta
code
ISO BGN/
PCGN
UN/
ELOT
Greeklish[note 1]
γγ ng ng GG gg ng ng gg, gk, ng
γξ nx nx GC gx nx nx gks, gx
γκ nc nk GK gk g[note 9], ng[note 10] gk gk
γχ nch nch GX gch nkh nch nx, nch
μπ mp mp MP mp b[note 9], mb[note 10] b[note 9], mp[note 10] mp, b, mb
ντ nt nt NT nt d[note 9], nd[note 10] nt nt, d, nd
Modifiers (only classical Greek)
Greek Ancient  
Clas-
sical
Scien-
tific
Beta
code
 
h[note 11] h[note 11] ( (spiritus asper, δασεῖα)
᾿ none none ) (spiritus lenis, ψιλή)
ͺ i? i? | (iota subscript, ὑπογεγραμμένη)[note 12]
Archaic letters
Greek Ancient  
Clas-
sical
Scien-
tific
Beta
code
 
ϝ w V (digamma)
ϛ st #2 (stigma)
ͱ h[note 11] h[note 11] (heta)
ϻ s, ś #711 (san)
ϸ sh (sho)
ϟ q #3 (qoppa)
ϡ ss #5 (sampi)
ͱ ng #6 (engom)
ͱ none #7 (om)
Special letter
Greek Ancient  
Clas-
sical
Scien-
tific
Beta
code
 
ȷ j (yot)

Diacritics

The traditional polytonic orthography of Greek uses several distinct diacritic signs to render what was originally the pitch accent of Ancient Greek, and the presence or absence of word-initial h. In 1982, monotonic orthography was officially introduced for modern Greek. The only diacritics that remain are the acute accent (indicating stress) and the diaeresis (indicating that two consecutive vowels should not be combined). The acute accent and the diaeresis are kept in both the BGN/PCGN and the UN/ELOT romanization systems. There is one exception: in the vowel combinations αυ, ευ and ηυ the accent moves from the υ (that becomes v or f) to the preceding vowel.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b c The use of 'Greeklish' (here: writing Greek in the Latin alphabet) has risen enormously with the advent of SMSs, email, online chatting, and other digital media, where Greek fonts are not always readily available. Examples:
    • Θέλω → Thelo
    • Ξανά → Ksana or Xana etc
    • Ψυχή → Psyhi etc
  2. ^ before αι, ε, ει, η, ι, οι, υ, υι.
  3. ^ between ν and ρ.
  4. ^ a b with spiritus asper.
  5. ^ sometimes doubled between vowels (ex. Larissa).
  6. ^ except when there is a diaeresis ( ¨ ) on the second vowel
  7. ^ a b c before β, γ, δ, ζ, λ, μ, ν, ρ and vowels.
  8. ^ a b c before θ, κ, ξ, π, σ, τ, φ, χ, ψ and at the end of a word.
  9. ^ a b c d at the beginning of a word.
  10. ^ a b c d in the middle of a word.
  11. ^ a b c d on vowel: h before the vowel; on ρ: rh.
  12. ^ under long vowels.

References

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