The Full Wiki

More info on Rome

Rome: Wikis

  
  
  
  
  

Note: Many of our articles have direct quotes from sources you can cite, within the Wikipedia article! This article doesn't yet, but we're working on it! See more info or our list of citable articles.

Did you know ...


More interesting facts on Rome

Include this on your site/blog:






















































Encyclopedia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Rome
Roma
—  Comune  —
Comune di Roma
A view of Rome: the top left picture to the is the Colosseum, followed (left to right) by the Vittorio Emanuele II monument, the Piazza della Repubblica, the Castel Sant' Angelo, the Trevi Fountain, the dome of St. Peter's Basilica and finally an aerial view of the city's historic centre.

Flag

Coat of arms
Rome is located in Italy
Rome
Location of Rome in Italy
Coordinates: 41°54′N 12°30′E / 41.9°N 12.5°E / 41.9; 12.5Coordinates: 41°54′N 12°30′E / 41.9°N 12.5°E / 41.9; 12.5
Country Italy
Region Lazio
Province Rome (RM)
Government
 - Mayor Gianni Alemanno (PdL)
Area
 - Total 1,285.31 km2 (496.3 sq mi)
Elevation 20 m (66 ft)
Population (August 2009)[1]
 - Total 2,731,996
 Density 2,125.6/km2 (5,505.2/sq mi)
 - Demonym Romani
Time zone CET (UTC+1)
 - Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)
Postal code 00121 to 00199
Dialing code 06
Patron saint Saint Peter and Saint Paul
Saint day 29 June
Website Official website

Rome (English pronunciation: /roʊm/; Italian: Roma About this sound listen , pronounced [ˈroːma]; Latin: Rōma) is the capital of Italy and the country's largest and most populated municipality (central area), with over 2.7 million residents in 1,285.3 km2 (496.3 sq mi). While the population of the urban area was estimated by Eurostat to have been 3.46 million in 2004,[2] the metropolitan area of Rome was estimated by OECD to have had a population of 3.7 million no later than 2006.[3]

The city of Rome is located in the central-western portion of the Italian Peninsula, on the Tiber river within the Lazio region of Italy. Rome's history spans over two and a half thousand years. It was the capital city of the Roman Kingdom, the Roman Republic and the Roman Empire, which was a major political and cultural influence in the lands bordering the Mediterranean Sea for over four hundred years from the 1st Century BC until the 4th Century AD. Since the 2nd Century AD Rome has been the seat of the Papacy and, after the end of Byzantine domination in the eight century it became the capital of the Papal States, which lasted until 1870. In 1871 Rome became the capital of the Kingdom of Italy, and in 1946 that of the Italian Republic. Since 1929 it is also the site of the Vatican City, an independent city-state run by the Pope.[4]

During the Middle-Ages, Rome was home to popes such as Alexander VI and Leo X, who transformed the city into one of the major centres of the Italian Renaissance, along with Florence.[5] The current-day version of St Peter's Basilica was built and the Sistine Chapel was painted by Michelangelo. Famous artists and architects, such as Bramante, Bernini and Raphael resided for some time in Rome, contributing to its Renaissance and Baroque architecture.

Rome has been influential in the world regarding subjects such as architecture, art, culture, politics, literature, law, philosophy and religion.[6] Due to this centrality on many levels and powerful city-status, Rome has been nicknamed "Caput Mundi" (Latin for "Capital of the World")[7] and "The Eternal City". The city is, on addition, an important centre of pilgrimage in the Christian, notably the Roman Catholic Church,[8][9][10] and St Peter's Basilica, found in the Holy See, is often called the "the greatest of all churches of Christendom".[11][12][13] Rome's architectural and archaeological sites contribute to it having many UNESCO World Heritage Sites.[14][15][16] Its global influence in politics, literature, high culture, the arts, music, religion, education, fashion, cinema and cuisine lead it to being considered an Alpha- world city, according to Loughborough University and GaWC in 2008.[17] Rome is also a hub of the cinematic and filming industry; for example, the Cinecittà Studios,[18] which saw the filming of several internationally acclaimed movies as well as television programmes, are located in the city.

Since the 1957 Treaty of Rome establishing the European Economic Community, the metropolis has served as a centre for international co-operative activities, with worldwide organizations such as World Food Programme (WFP), Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO),[19] International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD) and the NATO Defence College being headquartered in the city. Rome is regarded as being one of the nation's principle centres of business, media and finance, along with Milan. The Rome metropolitan area has a GDP of €109.4 billion (US$ 149.14), and according to a 2008 study, the city is the world's 35th richest city by purchasing power, with a GDP of €94.376 billion (US$ 121.5 billion),[20] and is the world's 18th most expensive city (in 2009).[21]

The city hosted the 1960 Olympic Games,[22] and is also an official candidate for the 2020 Olympic Games.[23]

In 2007 Rome was the 11th-most-visited city in the world, 3rd most visited in the EU, and the most popular tourist attraction in Italy.[24] Its historic centre is listed by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site.[25] Monuments and museums such as the Vatican Museums and the Colosseum are amongst the world's 50 most visited tourist destinations (the Vatican Museums receiving 4.2 million tourists and the Colosseum receiving 4 million tourists every year).[26]

Contents

History

Earliest history

There is archaeological evidence of human occupation of the Rome area from at least 14000 years, but the dense layer of much younger debris obscures Palaeolithic and Neolithic sites.[27] Evidence of stone tools, pottery and stone weapons attest to at least 10000 years of human presence. The power of the well known tale of Rome's legendary foundation tends also to deflect attention from its actual, and much more ancient, origins.

Monarchy, Republic, Empire

Capitoline Wolf suckles the infant twins Romulus and Remus.

Rome's early history is shrouded in legend. According to Roman tradition, the city was founded by Romulus[28] on 21 April 753 BC.[29]

The legendary origin of the city's name is the traditional founder and first ruler. It is said that Romulus and Remus decided to build a city. After an argument, Romulus killed his brother Remus. Then he named it after himself, Rome. More recently, attempts have been made to find a linguistic root for the name Rome. Possibilities include derivation from Greek language Ῥώμη meaning bravery, courage;[30] possibly the connection is with a root *rum-, "teat", with possible reference to the totem wolf that adopted and suckled the cognately named twins Romulus and Remus. Etruscan gives us the word Rumach, "from Rome", from which Ruma can be extracted. Its further etymology, as with that of most Etruscan words, remains unknown. The Basque scholar Manuel de Larramendi thought that the origin could be related to the Basque language word orma (modern Basque kirreal), "wall".

Archaeological evidence supports the view that Rome grew from pastoral settlements on the Palatine Hill built in the area of the future Roman Forum. While some archaeologists argue that Rome was indeed founded in the middle of the 8th century BC, the date is subject to controversy.[31] The original settlement developed into the capital of the Roman Kingdom (ruled by a succession of seven kings, according to tradition), and then the Roman Republic (from 510 BC, governed by the Senate), and finally the Roman Empire (from 27 BC, ruled by an Emperor). This success depended on military conquest, commercial predominance, as well as selective assimilation of neighbouring civilisations, most notably the Etruscans and Greeks. From its foundation Rome, although losing occasional battles, had been undefeated in war until 386 BC, when it was briefly occupied by the Gauls.[32] According to the legend, the Gauls offered to deliver Rome back to its people for a thousand pounds of gold, but the Romans refused, preferring to take back their city by force of arms rather than ever admitting defeat, after which the Romans recovered the city in the same year.

The Roman Republic was wealthy, powerful and stable before it became an empire. According to tradition, Rome became a republic in 509 BC. However, it took a few centuries for Rome to become the great city of popular imagination, and it only became a great empire after the rule of Augustus (Octavian). By the 3rd century BC, Rome had become the pre-eminent city of the Italian peninsula, having conquered and defeated the Sabines, the Etruscans, the Samnites and most of the Greek colonies in Sicily, Campania and Southern Italy in general. During the Punic Wars between Rome and the great Mediterranean empire of Carthage, Rome's stature increased further as it became the capital of an overseas empire for the first time. Beginning in the 2nd century BC, Rome went through a significant population expansion as Italian farmers, driven from their ancestral farmlands by the advent of massive, slave-operated farms called latifundia, flocked to the city in great numbers. The victory over Carthage in the First Punic War brought the first two provinces outside the Italian peninsula, Sicily and Sardinia. Parts of Spain (Hispania) followed, and in the beginning of the 2nd century the Romans got involved in the affairs of the Greek world. By then all Hellenistic kingdoms and the Greek city-states were in decline, exhausted from endless civil wars and relying on mercenary troops. This saw the fall of Greece in 146 BC, which ended up with what is known as the Greek Dark Ages and Roman rule in Greece.[33]

The Roman Empire at its greatest extent under Trajan in AD 117

The Roman Empire began in a more formalised way when Emperor Augustus (63 BC–AD 14; also known as Octavian) founded the principate in 27 BC,[34] which was a monarchy system which was headed by an emperor holding power for life, rather than making himself dictator like Julius Caesar had done, which had resulted in his assassination on 15 March, 44 BC.[35] At home, Emperor Augustus started off a great programme of social, political and economic reform and grand-scale reconstruction of the city of Rome. The city became dotted with impressive and magnificent new buildings, palaces, fora and basilicae. He became a great and enlightened patron of the arts, and his court was surrounded by Virgil, Horace and Propertius.[34] His rule also established the Pax Romana, a long period of relative peace which lasted approximately 200 years.[36] Following his rule were emperors such as Caligula, Nero, Trajan, and Hadrian, to name a few. Roman emperor Nero was well-known for his extravagance, cruelty, tyranny, and the myth that he was the emperor who "fiddled while Rome burned" during the night of 18 to 19 July 64 AD.[37]

Roman dominance expanded over most of Europe and the shores of the Mediterranean Sea, while its population surpassed one million inhabitants.[38] For almost a thousand years, Rome was the most politically important, richest, and largest city in the Western world. After the Empire started to decline and was split, it lost its capital status to Milan and then to Ravenna, and was surpassed in prestige by the Eastern capital of the Roman Empire Constantinople whose inhabitants continued to call themselves Roman until the capture of the city by the Ottomans under Sultan Mehmet II in 1453.

Fall of the (Western) Empire and Middle Ages

15th century miniature depicting the Sack of Rome (410)

With the reign of Constantine I, the 'Bishop of Rome' gained political as well as religious importance, eventually becoming known as the Pope and establishing Rome as the centre of the Catholic Church. After the Sack of Rome in 410 AD by Alaric I and the fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476 AD, Rome alternated between Byzantine and Germanic control. Its population declined to a mere 20,000 during the Early Middle Ages, reducing the sprawling city to groups of inhabited buildings interspersed among large areas of ruins and vegetation. Rome remained nominally part of the Byzantine Empire until 751 AD, when the Lombards finally abolished the Exarchate of Ravenna. In 756, Pepin the Short gave the Pope temporal jurisdiction over Rome and surrounding areas, thus creating the Papal States. In 846, Muslim Arabs invaded Rome and looted St. Peter's Basilica.[39]

Rome remained the capital of the Papal States until its annexation by the Kingdom of Italy in 1870; the city became a major pilgrimage site during the Middle Ages and the focus of struggles between the Papacy and the Holy Roman Empire starting with Charlemagne, who was crowned its first emperor in Rome in 800 by Pope Leo III. Apart from brief periods as an independent city during the Middle Ages, Rome kept its status as Papal capital and "holy city" for centuries, even when the Papacy briefly relocated to Avignon (1309–1377).

Renaissance

The latter half of the 15th century saw the seat of the Italian Renaissance move to Rome from Florence. The Papacy wanted to equal and surpass the grandeur of other Italian cities and to this end created ever more extravagant churches, bridges, squares and public spaces, including a new Saint Peter's Basilica, the Sistine Chapel, Ponte Sisto (the first bridge to be built across the Tiber since antiquity), and Piazza Navona. The Popes were also patrons of the arts engaging such artists as Michelangelo, Perugino, Raphael, Ghirlandaio, Luca Signorelli, Botticelli, and Cosimo Rosselli.

The Tempietto (San Pietro in Montorio), which is an excellent example of Italian Renaissance architecture

The period was also infamous for papal corruption, with many Popes fathering children, and engaging in nepotism and simony. The corruption of the Popes and the extravagance of their building projects led, in part, to the Reformation and, in turn, the Counter-Reformation. Popes, such as Alexander VI, were well-known for their decadence, wild parties, extravagance and immoral lives.[40] However, under these extravagant and rich popes, Rome was transformed into a centre of art, poetry, music, literature, education and culture. Rome became able to compete with other major European cities of the time in terms of wealth, grandeur, the arts, learning and architecture.

The Italian Renaissance in Rome more or less began when the end of the French captivity came in 1377, and the return of the papacy to Rome.[41] Pope Martin V (1417–1431), planned to renew the Roman Catholic Church, and pursue new spiritual and political reforms. Martin V and his successors began to follow these new instructions, and Pope Nicholas V (1447–1455) really began to plan out much of the Renaissance-style urban re-development of the city.[41]

The Renaissance period changed Rome's face dramatically, with works like the Pietà by Michelangelo and the frescoes of the Borgia Apartment, all made during Innocent's reign. Rome reached the highest point of splendour under Pope Julius II (1503–1513) and his successors Leo X and Clement VII, both members of the Medici family. In this twenty-years period Rome became one of the greatest centres of art in the world. The old St. Peter's Basilica built by Emperor Constantine the Great[42] (which by then was in a terrible state) was demolished and a new one begun. The city hosted artists like Ghirlandaio, Perugino, Botticelli and Bramante, who built the temple of San Pietro in Montorio and planned a great project to renovate the Vatican. Raphael, who in Rome became one the most famous painters of Italy creating frescos in the Cappella Niccolina, the Villa Farnesina, the Raphael's Rooms, plus many other famous paintings. Michelangelo started the decoration of the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel and executed the famous statue of the Moses for the tomb of Julius. Rome lost in part its religious character, becoming increasingly a true Renaissance city, with a great number of popular feasts, horse races, parties, intrigues and licentious episodes. Its economy was rich, with the presence of several Tuscan bankers, including Agostino Chigi, who was a friend of Raphael and a patron of arts. Before his early death, Raphael also promoted for the first time the preservation of the ancient ruins.

Towards the reunification of Italy

Giuseppe Garibaldi defends Rome against the French in 1849.

The rule of the Popes was interrupted by the short-lived Roman Republic (1798), which was built under the influence of the French Revolution. During Napoleon's reign, Rome was annexed into his empire and was technically part of France. After the fall of Napoleon's Empire, new states were created in Italy through the Congress of Vienna of 1814. The Kingdom of the Two Sicilies (Naples and Sicily) under Bourbon Ferdinand IV, the restored Papal States, and the Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia under King Charles-Albert. The two regions of Venetia and Lombardy were given to the Austrians under their direct control for some time.

Another Roman Republic arose in 1849, within the framework of revolutions of 1848. Two of the most influential figures of the Italian unification, Giuseppe Mazzini and Giuseppe Garibaldi, fought for the short-lived republic. However, the actions of these two great men would not have resulted in unification without the sly leadership of Camille Cavour, Prime Minister of the Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia.

Rome became caught up in the nationalistic turmoil of the 19th century and twice gained and lost a short-lived independence. Rome became the focus of hopes of Italian reunification when the rest of Italy was reunited under the Kingdom of Italy with a temporary capital at Florence. In 1861, Rome was declared the capital of Italy even though it was still under the control of the Pope. During the 1860s, the last vestiges of the Papal States were under the French protection Napoleon III. And it was only when this was lifted in 1870, owing to the outbreak of the Franco-Prussian War, that Italian troops were able to capture Rome through Porta Pia (see capture of Rome). Afterwords, Pope Pius IX declared himself as prisoner in the Vatican, and in 1871, the capital of Italy was moved from Florence, to Rome.[43]

20th and 21st centuries

German troops occupying Rome in 1943

Soon after World War I, Rome witnessed the rise to power of Italian Fascism guided by Benito Mussolini, who marched on the city in 1922, eventually declaring a new Empire and allying Italy with Nazi Germany. This was a period of rapid growth in population, from 212,000 people at the time of unification to more than 1,000,000, but this trend was halted by World War II, during which Rome was damaged by both Allied forces bombing and Nazi occupation. After the execution of Mussolini and the end of the war, a 1946 referendum abolished the monarchy in favour of the Italian Republic.

Rome grew momentously after the war, as one of the driving forces behind the "Italian economic miracle" of post-war reconstruction and modernisation. It became a fashionable city in the 1950s and early 1960s, the years of la dolce vita ("the sweet life"), with popular classic fims such as Ben Hur, Quo Vadis, Roman Holiday and La Dolce Vita.[44] being filmed in the city's iconic Cinecittà Studios. A new rising trend in population continued until the mid-1980s, when the commune had more than 2,800,000 residents; after that, population started to slowly decline as more residents moved to nearby suburbs.

Rome hosted the 1960 Summer Olympics, with great success, using many ancient sites such as the Villa Borghese and the Thermae of Caracalla as venues. For the Olympic Games many new structures were created, notably the new large Olympic Stadium (which was also enlarged and renewed to host qualification and the final match of the 1990 FIFA football World Cup), the Villaggio Olimpico (Olympic Village, created to host the athletes and redeveloped after the games as a residential district), etc. Rome is also an official candidate for the 2020 Olympic Games, along with Milan, Tel Aviv, Toronto, Brisbane and Montreal.[23]

Many of the monuments of Rome were restored by the Italian state and by the Vatican for the 2000 Jubilee.

Being the capital city of Italy, Rome hosts all the principal institutions of the nation, like the Presidency of the Republic, the government (and its single Ministeri), the Parliament, the main judicial Courts, and the diplomatic representatives of all the countries for the states of Italy and the Vatican City (curiously, Rome also hosts, in the Italian part of its territory, the Embassy of Italy for the Vatican City, a unique case of an Embassy within the boundaries of its own country). Many international institutions are located in Rome, notably cultural and scientific ones - such as the American Institute, the British School, the French Academy, the Scandinavian Institutes, the German Archaeological Institute - for the honour of scholarship in the Eternal City, and humanitarian ones, such as the FAO. Rome, also hosts major international and worldwide political and cultural organisations, such as the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD), World Food Programme (WFT), and the NATO Defence College.

The official logo of the Great 2000 Jubilee features its motto: Christ Yesterday, Today, Forever.

Rome is currently an alpha- world city, along with Chicago, Istanbul, Frankfurt, Athens, Zurich, Mexico City, Prague, Budapest, Amsterdam, Vienna and Dublin, to name a few.[45] Rome was in 2008, also ranked 15th out of all the cities of the world for global importance, mainly for cultural experience.[46]

Rome today is one of the most important tourist destinations of the world, due to the incalculable immensity of its archaeological and artistic treasures, as well as for the charm of its unique traditions, the beauty of its panoramic views, and the majesty of its magnificent "villas" (parks). Among the most significant resources are the many museums - (Musei Capitolini, the Vatican Museums, Galleria Borghese, including those dedicated to modern and contemporary art and great many others) — aqueducts, fountains, churches, palaces, historical buildings, the monuments and ruins of the Roman Forum, and the Catacombs.

Rome has a growing stock of contemporary and modern art and architecture. The National Gallery of Modern Art has works by Balla, Morandi, Pirandello, Carrà, De Chirico, De Pisis, Guttuso, Fontana, Burri, Mastroianni, Turcato, Kandisky, Cézanne on permanent exhibition. 2010 sees the opening of Rome's newest arts foundation, a contemporary art and architecture gallery designed by acclaimed Iraqi architect Zaha Hadid. Known as Maxxi National Museum of XXIst century Art and Architecture it restores a dilapidated area with striking modern architecture. Maxxi [47] features a campus dedicated to culture, experimental research laboratories, international exchange and study and research. It is one of Rome's most ambitious modern architecture projects alongside Renzo Piano's Auditorium Parco della Musica [48] and Massimiliano Fuksas' Rome Convention Center, Centro Congressi Italia EUR, in the EUR district, due to open in 2011 [49]. The Convention Center features a huge translucent container inside which is suspended a steel and teflon structure resembling a cloud and which contains meeting rooms and an auditorium with two piazzas open to the neighbourhood on either side.

Rome is the 3rd most visited city in the EU, after London and Paris, and receives an average of 7-10 million tourists a year, which sometimes doubles on holy years. The Colosseum (4 million tourists) and the Vatican Museums (4.2 million tourists) are the 39th and 37th (respectively) most visited places in the world, according to a recent study.[50]

Among its hundreds of churches, Rome contains the only four Major Basilicas of the Catholic Church: Basilica di San Giovanni in Laterano (Basilica of St. John Lateran, Rome's cathedral), Basilica di San Pietro in Vaticano (St. Peter's Basilica), Basilica di San Paolo fuori le Mura (Basilica of St. Paul Outside the Walls), and Basilica di Santa Maria Maggiore (St. Mary Major). Along with the minor basilica of Basilica di San Lorenzo fuori le Mura (Basilica of St. Lawrence Outside the Walls), those churches correspond to the five ancient sees of chalcedonian Christianity namely Rome, Byzantium, Alexandria, Antioch, and Jerusalem respectively. The Bishop of Rome is the Pope.

Administration

The 19 municipi of Rome.

Capital of Italy

Rome is the national capital of Italy and is the seat of the Italian Government. The official residences of the President of the Italian Republic and the Italian Prime Minister, the seats of both houses of the Italian Parliament and that of the Italian Constitutional Court are located in the historic centre. The state ministries are spread out around the city; these include the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, which is located in Palazzo della Farnesina near the Olympic stadium.

City government

Rome constitutes one of Italy's 8,101 communes, and is the largest both in terms of land area and population. It is governed by a mayor, currently Gianni Alemanno, and a city council. The seat of the commune is in on the Capitoline Hill the historic seat of government in Rome. The local administration in Rome is commonly referred to as "Campidoglio", the name of the hill in Italian.

Administrative divisions

Rome is divided into 19 administrative areas, called municipi or municipalities. They were created in 1972 for administrative reasons to increase decentralisation in the city.[51] Each municipality is governed by a president and a council of four members who are elected by the residents of the municipality every five years. The municipalities frequently cross the boundaries of the traditional, non-administrative divisions of the city.

Rioni of Rome

Rome is also divided into differing types of non-administrative divisions. The historic centre is divided into 22 rioni, all of which are located within the Aurelian Walls except Prati and Borgo.

The Rioni have changed in number throughout history, from ancient Rome, the medieval period,[52] to the Renaissance. They were later organized in a more precise way by Pope Benedict XIV in 1743.

Even after Napoleon I lost his power in the city, there were no sensible changes in the organisation of the city, until Rome became the capital of the new born Italy. The needs of the new capital caused a great urbanization and an increase of the population, both within the Aurelian walls and outside them. In 1874 the rioni became 15 adding Esquilino, obtained taking a part from Monti. At the beginning of the 20th century some rioni started being split up and the first parts outside the Aurelian walls started being considered part of the city.

In 1921 the number of the rioni increased to 22. Prati was the last rione to be established. and the only one outside the City Walls.

The latest reform, which is still mostly valid, was made in 1972: Rome was divided in 20 circoscrizioni (later renamed municipi, one of which has since become an independent municipality) and all the 22 rioni (thus the historical center) were placed in the first one, Municipio I.

The complete list of the modern rioni, in order of number, is the following:

Piazza Navona, held inside Parione.[53]
  1. Monti
  2. Trevi
  3. Colonna
  4. Campo Marzio
  5. Ponte
  6. Parione
  7. Regola
  8. Sant'Eustachio
  9. Pigna
  10. Campitelli
  11. Sant'Angelo
  12. Ripa
  13. Trastevere
  14. Borgo
  15. Esquilino
  16. Ludovisi
  17. Sallustiano
  18. Castro Pretorio
  19. Celio
  20. Testaccio
  21. San Saba
  22. Prati

Geography

Location

Rome is in the Lazio region of central Italy on the Tiber river (Italian: Tevere). The original settlement developed on hills that faced onto a ford beside the Tiber island, the only natural ford of the river. The Rome of the Kings was built on seven hills: the Aventine Hill, the Caelian Hill, the Capitoline Hill, the Esquiline Hill, the Palatine Hill, the Quirinal Hill, and the Viminal Hill. The city is also crossed by another river the Aniene which joins the Tiber north of the historic centre.

Although the city centre is about 24 km (14.9 mi) inland from the Tyrrhenian Sea, the city territory extends to the shore, where the south-western district of Ostia is located. The altitude of the central part of Rome ranges from 13 m (43 ft) above sea level (at the base of the Pantheon) to 139 m (456 ft) above sea level (the peak of Monte Mario).[54] The Commune of Rome covers an overall area of about 1,285 km2 (496 sq mi), including many green areas.

Topography

Rome seen from satellite.

Throughout the history of Rome, the urban limits of the city were considered to be the area within the city walls. Originally, these consisted of the Servian Wall, which was built twelve years after the Gaulish sack of the city in 390 BC. This contained most of the Esquiline and Caelian hills, as well as the whole of the other five. Rome outgrew the Servian Wall, but no more walls were constructed until almost 700 years later, when, in 270 AD, Emperor Aurelian began building the Aurelian Walls. These were almost 19 km (12 mi) long, and were still the walls the troops of the Kingdom of Italy had to breach to enter the city in 1870. Modern Romans frequently consider the city's urban area to be delimited by its ring-road, the Grande Raccordo Anulare, which circles the city centre at a distance of about 10 km.

The Commune of Rome, however, covers considerably more territory and extends to the sea at Ostia, the largest town in Italy that is not a commune in its own right. The Commune covers an area roughly three times the total area within the Raccordo and is comparable in area to the entire provinces of Milan and Naples, and to an area six times the size of the territory of these cities. It also includes considerable areas of abandoned marsh land which is suitable neither for agriculture nor for urban development.

As a consequence, the density of the Commune is not that high, the communal territory being divided between highly urbanised areas and areas designated as parks, nature reserves, and for agricultural use. The Province of Rome is the largest by area in Italy. At 5,352 km², its dimensions are comparable to the region of Liguria.

Climate

12 February 2010, the first snowfall in Rome since 1986

Rome enjoys a Mediterranean climate, typical of the Mediterranean coasts of Italy. It is most comfortable from April through June, and from mid-September through October; in particular, the Roman ottobrate ("beautiful October days") are known as being sunny and warm. By August, the maximum diurnal temperature often exceeds 32 °C (90 °F). Traditionally, many businesses were accustomed to closing during August, while Romans visited holiday resorts. In more recent years, however, in response to growing tourism and changing work habits, the city has been staying open for the whole summer.

The average high temperature in December is about 13 °C (55 °F), but in hot periods it can be higher, while subzero lows are not uncommon. Snowfalls can occur in December, January and February. Within the last four decades they have been rare in Rome: the most recent snowfall with accumulation was in February 2010,[55] the first since 1986 (in some peripheral areas since 1991); between 1986 and 2010 snow fell four times, without significant traces on the ground.

Climate data for Rome
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 12.9
(55)
13.7
(57)
15.3
(60)
18.0
(64)
22.0
(72)
25.6
(78)
28.6
(83)
28.7
(84)
26.0
(79)
22.0
(72)
17.2
(63)
13.9
(57)
20.3
(69)
Average low °C (°F) 3.7
(39)
4.4
(40)
5.8
(42)
8.3
(47)
11.9
(53)
15.6
(60)
18.2
(65)
18.4
(65)
15.8
(60)
12.0
(54)
8.1
(47)
5.1
(41)
10.6
(51)
Precipitation cm (inches) 8.00
(3.1)
7.49
(2.9)
6.50
(2.6)
5.47
(2.2)
3.18
(1.3)
1.63
(0.6)
1.47
(0.6)
3.33
(1.3)
6.82
(2.7)
9.34
(3.7)
11.05
(4.4)
8.96
(3.5)
73.31
(28.9)
Avg. precipitation days 9.1 8.3 7.9 7.0 4.4 2.4 1.6 2.8 4.5 7.0 9.9 9.0 73.9
Source: World Meteorological Organization (UN)[56]

Demographics

St. Peter's Basilica from the River Tiber. The iconic dome dominates the skyline of Rome

At the time of the Emperor Augustus, Rome was the largest city in the world, which may have inspired John Heywood's famous epigram, "Rome wasn't built in a day." Estimates of its peak population range from 450,000 to over 3.5 million people, with 1 to 2 million being most popular with historians. Estimates have been made using the weight and consumption of imported grain and the free dole to 20% of the population. In the 1st and 2nd centuries, this suggests an 800,000 - 1.2 million inhabitants based on various per capita consumption figures. The figure 25.5 million modii of grain (400 million pounds) in storage in the time of emperor Septimius Severus is taken from the late 4th century Historia Augusta. The city population may have been as high as 600,000 until the loss of the richest North African Provinces in the 430s, 440s, and 450s. Thereafter, the population fell rapidly without grain imports (except for some from Sicily and Sardinia) and the unwillingness of the upper classes to support the continued cost to them after the loss of many of their own estates outside Italy. Moreover, it was not worth the effort to maintain an artificially large population. However, every effort was made to keep the area of the Palatine and Forum intact as well as the largest Baths and some other amenities for a smaller population of 90-150,000. After the fall of the Roman Empire, the city's population fell dramatically to less than 50,000 people, and continued to either stagnate or shrink until the Renaissance.[citation needed] When the Kingdom of Italy annexed Rome in 1870, the city had a population of about 200,000, which rapidly increased to 600,000 by the eve of World War I. The Fascist regime of Mussolini tried to block an excessive demographic rise of the city, but failed to prevent it from reaching one million people by 1931. After the Second World War, growth continued, helped by a post-war economic boom. A construction boom also created a large number of suburbs during the 1950s and 1960s.

Year Population
350 BC 30,000
250 BC 150,000
44 BC 1,000,000
120 1,000,000
330 800,000
410 700-800,000
530 90-150,000
650 70,000
1000 20,000
1400 20,000
1526 50,000–60,000
1528 20,000
Year Population
1600 100,000
1750 156,000
1800 163,000
1820 139,900
1850 175,000
1853 175,800
1858 182,600
1861 194,500
1871 212,432
1881 273,952
1901 422,411
1911 518,917
Year Population
1921 660,235
1931 930,926
1936 1,150,589
1951 1,651,754
1961 2,188,160
1971 2,781,993
1981 2,840,259
1991 2,775,250
2001 2,663,182
2009 2,726,927
Map depicting late ancient Rome

In 2007, there were 2,718,768 people resident in Rome (some 4 million live in the greater Rome area), located in the province of Rome, Lazio, of whom 47.2% were male and 52.8% were female. Minors (children ages 18 and younger) totalled 17.00 percent of the population compared to pensioners who number 20.76 percent. This compares with the Italian average of 18.06 percent (minors) and 19.94 percent (pensioners). The average age of a Roman resident is 43 compared to the Italian average of 42. In the five years between 2002 and 2007, the population of Rome grew by 6.54 percent, while Italy as a whole grew by 3.56 percent.[57] The current birth rate of Rome is 9.10 births per 1,000 inhabitants compared to the Italian average of 9.45 births.

Ethnic groups

As of 2006, 92.63% of the population was Italian, either born in Rome or coming from other cities in the country. The largest ethnic minority groups came from other European countries (mostly from Romania and Poland): 3.14%, East Asia (mostly Filipino): 1.28%, and the Americas (mostly from Argentina): 1.09%.

Religion

Much like the rest of Italy, Rome is predominantly Roman Catholic, and the city has been an important centre of religion and pilgrimage for centuries, the base of the ancient Roman Religion with the pontifex maximus and later the seat of the Vatican City and the pope. Before the arrival of the Christians in Rome, the Religio Romana (literally, the "Roman Religion") was the major religion of the city in classical antiquity. The first gods held sacred by the Romans were Jupiter, the most high, and Mars, god of war, and father of Rome's twin founders, Romulus and Remus, according to tradition. Other gods and goddesses such as Vesta and Minerva were honoured. Rome was also the base of several mystery cults, such as Mithraism. Later, after St Peter and St Paul were martyred in the city, and the first Christians began to arrive, Rome became Christian, and the St. Peter's Basilica was first constructed in 313 AD. Despite some interruptions (such as the Avignon papacy), Rome has for centuries been the home of the Roman Catholic Church and the bishop of Rome, otherwise known as the pope.

Despite the fact that Rome is home to the Vatican City and St. Peter's Basilica, Rome's cathedral is the Basilica of St. John Lateran, located to the south-east of the city-centre. There are around 900 churches in Rome in total, aside from the cathedral itself, some others of note include: the Basilica di Santa Maria Maggiore, the Basilica of Saint Paul Outside the Walls, the Basilica di San Clemente, San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane and the Church of the Gesu. There are also the ancient Catacombs of Rome underneath the city. Numerous highly important religious educational institutions are also in Rome, such as the Pontifical Lateran University, Pontifical Biblical Institute, Pontifical Gregorian University, and Pontifical Oriental Institute.

Basilica of St. John Lateran, the cathedral of Rome

The territory of Vatican City is part of the Mons Vaticanus, and of the adjacent former Vatican Fields, where St. Peter's Basilica, the Apostolic Palace, the Sistine Chapel, and museums were built, along with various other buildings. The area was part of the Roman rione of Borgo until 1929. Being separated from the city, on the west bank of the Tiber river, the area was an outcrop of the city that was protected by being included within the walls of Leo IV, and later expanded by the current fortification walls of Paul III/Pius IV/Urban VIII. When the Lateran Treaty of 1929 that gave the state its present form was being prepared, the boundaries of the proposed territory was influenced by the fact that much of it was all but enclosed by this loop. For some tracts of the frontier, there was no wall, but the line of certain buildings supplied part of the boundary, and for a small part of the frontier a modern wall was constructed.

The territory includes Saint Peter's Square, distinguished from the territory of Italy only by a white line along the limit of the square, where it touches Piazza Pio XII. St. Peter's Square is reached through the Via della Conciliazione, which runs from the Tiber River to St. Peter's. This grand approach was constructed by Benito Mussolini after the conclusion of the Lateran Treaty. According to the Lateran Treaty, certain properties of the Holy See that are located in Italian territory, most notably Castel Gandolfo and the major basilicas, enjoy extraterritorial status similar to that of foreign embassies.

In recent years, there has been a significant growth in Rome's Muslim community, mainly due to immigration from North African and Middle Eastern countries into the city. As a consequence of this increase of the local practitioners of the Islamic faith, the comune promoted the building of the largest mosque in Europe, which was designed by architect Paolo Portoghesi and inaugurated on June 21, 1995. Rome is also the centre of an important Jewish community, which was once based in the Roman Ghetto. There is also a major synagogue in Rome, the Great.

Cityscape

The Pantheon.
The Forum Romanum with the Capitoline Hill behind.

Architecture

Ancient Rome

One of the symbols of Rome is the Colosseum (70–80 AD), the largest amphitheatre ever built in the Roman Empire. Originally capable of seating 60,000 spectators, it was used for gladiatorial combat. A list of important monuments of ancient Rome includes the Roman Forum, the Domus Aurea, the Pantheon, Trajan's Column, Trajan's Market, the Catacombs, the Circus Maximus, the Baths of Caracalla, Castel Sant'Angelo, the Mausoleum of Augustus, the Ara Pacis, the Arch of Constantine, the Pyramid of Cestius, and the Bocca della Verità.

Medieval

Often overlooked, Rome's medieval heritage is one of the largest in Italian cities. Basilicas dating from the Paleochristian age include Santa Maria Maggiore and San Paolo Fuori le Mura (the latter largely rebuilt in the 19th century), both housing precious 4th century AD mosaics. Later notable medieval mosaic and fresco art can be also found in the churches of Santa Maria in Trastevere, Santi Quattro Coronati, and Santa Prassede. Lay buildings include a number of towers, the largest being the Torre delle Milizie and the Torre dei Conti, both next the Roman Forum, and the huge staircase leading to the basilica of Santa Maria in Ara Coeli.

Renaissance and Baroque

Rome was a major world centre of the Renaissance, second only to Florence, and was profoundly affected by the movement. The most impressive masterpiece of Renaissance architecture in Rome is the Piazza del Campidoglio by Michelangelo, along with the Palazzo Senatorio, seat of the city government. During this period, the great aristocratic families of Rome used to build opulent dwellings as the Palazzo del Quirinale (now seat of the President of the Italian Republic), the Palazzo Venezia, the Palazzo Farnese, the Palazzo Barberini, the Palazzo Chigi (now seat of the Italian Prime Minister), the Palazzo Spada, the Palazzo della Cancelleria, and the Villa Farnesina.

Rome is also famous for her huge and majestic squares (often adorned with obelisks), many of which were built in the 17th century. The principal squares are Piazza Navona, Piazza di Spagna, Campo de' Fiori, Piazza Venezia, Piazza Farnese and Piazza della Minerva. One of the most emblematic examples of Baroque art is the Fontana di Trevi by Nicola Salvi. Other notable 17th-century baroque palaces are the Palazzo Madama, now the seat of the Italian Senate and the Palazzo Montecitorio, now the seat of the Chamber of Deputies of Italy.

Neoclassicism

The neoclassical Piazza del Popolo.

In 1870, Rome became the capital city of the new Kingdom of Italy. During this time, neoclassicism, a building style influenced by the architecture of antiquity, became a predominant influence in Roman architecture. During this period, many great palaces in neoclassical styles were built to host ministries, embassies, and other governing agencies. One of the best-known symbols of Roman neoclassicism is the Monument of Vittorio Emanuele II or "Altar of the Fatherland", where the Grave of the Unknown Soldier, that represents the 650,000 Italians that fell in World War I, is located.

Fascist architecture

The Fascist regime that ruled in Italy between 1922 and 1943 developed an architectural style that was characterised by its links with ancient Roman architecture. The most important Fascist site in Rome is the E.U.R district, designed in 1938 by Marcello Piacentini. It was originally conceived for the 1942 world exhibition, and was called "E.42" ("Esposizione 42"). The world exhibition, however, never took place because Italy entered the Second World War in 1940. The most representative building of the Fascist style at E.U.R. is the Palazzo della Civiltà Italiana (1938–1943), the iconic design of which has been labelled the cubic or Square Colosseum. After World War II, the Roman authorities found that they already had the seed of an off-centre business district of the type that other capitals were still planning (London Docklands and La Défense in Paris). Also the Palazzo della Farnesina, the current seat of Italian Foreign Ministry, was designed in 1935 in Fascist style.

Parks and gardens

Public parks and nature reserves cover a large area in Rome, and the city has one of the largest areas of green space amongst European capitals.[58] The most notable part of this green space is represented by the large number of villas and landscaped gardens created by the Italian aristocracy. While many villas were destroyed during the building boom of the late 19th century, a great many remain. The most notable of these are Villa Borghese, Villa Ada, and Villa Doria Pamphili. Villa Doria Pamphili is high on the Gianicolo hill comprising some 1.8 km. Also on the Gianicolo hill there is Villa Sciarra, with playgrounds for children and shaded walking areas. In the nearby area of Trastevere the Orto Botanico (Botanical Garden) is a cool and shady green space. The old Roman hippodrome (Circus Maximus) is another large green space but the main attraction is the ancient site of the chariot racing and it has few trees. Nearby is the lush Villa Celimontana, close to the gardens surrounding the Baths of Caracalla and Rose Garden (‘roseto comunale’). The Villa Borghese garden is the best known large green space in Rome, with famous art galleries among its shaded walks. It is close to the Spanish Steps and Piazza del Popolo. Rome also has a number of regional parks of much more recent origin including the Pineto Regional Park and the Appian Way Regional Park. There are also nature reserves at Marcigliana and at Tenuta di Castelporziano.

Fountains and aqueducts

Rome is a city famous for its numerous fountains, built in all different styles, from Classical and Medieval, to Baroque and Neoclassical. The city has had fountains for more than two thousand years, and they have provided drinking water and decorated the piazzas of Rome. During the Roman Empire, in 98 A.D., according to Sextus Julius Frontinus, the Roman consul who was named curator aquarum or guardian of the water of the city, Rome had nine aqueducts which fed 39 monumental fountains and 591 public basins, not counting the water supplied to the Imperial household, baths and owners of private villas. Each of the major fountains was connected to two different aqueducts, in case one was shut down for service.[59] During the 17th and 18th century the Roman popes reconstructed other ruined Roman acqueducts and built new display fountains to mark their termini, launching the golden age of the Roman fountain. The fountains of Rome, like the paintings of Rubens, were expressions of the new style of Baroque art. They were crowded with allegorical figures, and filled with emotion and movement. In these fountains, sculpture became the principal element, and the water was used simply to animate and decorate the sculptures. They, like baroque gardens, were "a visual representation of confidence and power." [60]

Obelisks

The obelisk in St Peter's Square.
The Solare obelisk, in Piazza Montecitorio.

The city contains eight ancient Egyptian and five ancient Roman obelisks, together with a number of more modern obelisks; there was also formerly (until 2005) an ancient Ethiopian obelisk in Rome.[61] The city contains some of obelisks in piazzas, such as in Piazza Navona, St Peter's Square, Piazza Montecitorio, and Piazza del Popolo, and others in villas, thermae parks and gardens, such as in Villa Celimontana, the Baths of Diocletian, and the Pincian Hill.

Bridges

The city of Rome contains numerous famous bridges which cross the Tiber. Famous ones include the Ponte Cestio, the Ponte Milvio, the Ponte Nomentano, the Ponte Sant'Angelo, the Ponte Vittorio Emanuele II, the Ponte Sisto and the Ponte dei Quattro Capi. Currently there are five ancient Roman bridges still remaining in the city.[62] Most of the city's public bridges were built in Classical or Renaissance style, but also in Baroque, Neoclassical and Modern styles. According to the Encyclopædia Britannica, the finest ancient bridge remaining in Rome is the Ponte Sant'Angelo, which was completed in 135AD, and was decorated with 10 statues of the angels, designed by Bernini in 1688.[63]

Catacombs

Rome has extensive amount of ancient catacombs, or underground burial places under or near the city, of which there are at least forty, some discovered only in recent decades. Though most famous for Christian burials, they include pagan and Jewish burials, either in separate catacombs or mixed together. The first large-scale catacombs were excavated from the 2nd century onwards. Originally they were carved through tuff, a soft volcanic rock, outside the boundaries of the city, because Roman law forbade burial places within city limits. Currently maintenance of the catacombs is in the hands of the Papacy which has invested in the Salesians of Don Bosco the supervision of the Catacombs of St. Callixtus on the outskirts of Rome.

Economy

Eni's headquarters in EUR, Rome's business district
The Banca d'Italia (Bank of Italy) in Via Nazionale, Rome.

With a 2005 GDP of €94.376 billion (US$121.5 billion),[64] the city produces 6.7% of the national GDP (more than any other single city in Italy), and its unemployment rate, lowered from 11.1% to 6.5% between 2001 and 2005, is now one of the lowest rates of all the European Union capital cities.[64] Rome grows +4.4% annually and continues to grow at a higher rate in comparison to any other city in the rest of the country.[64] This means that were Rome a country, it would be the world's 52nd richest country by GDP, near to the size to that of Egypt. Rome also had a 2003 GDP per capita of €29,153 (US$ 37,412), which was second in Italy, (after Milan), and is more than 134.1% of the EU average GDP per capita.[65]

Although the economy of Rome is characterized by the absence of heavy industry and it is largely dominated by services, high-technology companies (IT, aerospace, defense, telecommunications), research, construction and commercial activities (especially banking), and the huge development of tourism are very dynamic and extremely important to its economy. Rome's international airport, Fiumicino, is the largest in Italy, and the city hosts the head offices of the vast majority of the major Italian companies, as well as the headquarters of three of the world's 100 largest companies: Enel, Eni, and Telecom Italia.[66]

Universities, national radio and television and the movie industry in Rome are also important parts of the economy: Rome is also the hub of the Italian film industry, thanks to the Cinecittà studios, working since the 1930s. The city is also a centre for banking and insurance as well as electronics, energy, transport, and aerospace industries. Numerous international companies and agencies headquarters, government ministries, conference centres, sports venues, and museums are located in Rome's principal business districts: the Esposizione Universale Roma (EUR); the Torrino (further south from the EUR); the Magliana; the Parco de' Medici-Laurentina and the so-called Tiburtina-valley along the ancient Via Tiburtina.

Tourism in Rome

The Spanish Steps, one of the city's iconic tourist attractions.

Tourism is one of Rome's chief industries, with numerous notable museums including the Vatican Museum, the Borghese Gallery, and the Musei Capitolini: in 2005 the city registered 19.5 million visitors, up of 22.1% from 2001.[64] In 2006 Rome was visited by 6.03 million international tourists, reaching the 8th place in the ranking of the world's 150 most visited cities.[67] Rome is also the 3rd most visited city in the EU,[24] and its historic centre along with "the Properties of the Holy See in that City Enjoying Extraterritorial Rights and San Paolo Fuori le Mura" listed by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site.[25] The World Heritage site was extended in 1990 to the walls of Urban VIII, to include the Forums, the Mausoleum of Augustus, the Mausoleum of Hadrian, the Pantheon, Trajan’s Column and the Column of Marcus Aurelius, as well as the religious and public buildings of papal Rome.

Public monuments and buildings, such as the Vatican Museums and the Colosseum are amongst the world's 50 most visited tourist destinations (the Vatican Museums receiving 4.2 million tourists and the Colosseum receiving 4 million tourists every year).[26]

Education

Rome is a nation-wide and major international centre for higher education, containing numerous academies, colleges and universities. According to the City Brands Index, Rome is considered the world's second most historically, educationally and culturally interesting and beautiful city.[68] It boasts a large variety of academies and colleges, and has always been a major worldwide intellectual and educational centre, especially during Ancient Rome and the Renaissance, along with Florence.[69]

Libraries

The interior of the Biblioteca Casanatense.

Rome's major libraries include: the Biblioteca Angelica, opened in 1604, making it Italy's first public library; the Biblioteca Casanatense, opened in 1701; the Biblioteca Vallicelliana; Bibliotheca Hertziana – Max Planck Institute of Art History, a German library located in Rome, often noted for excellence in the arts and sciences;[70] the National Central Library, one of the two national libraries in Italy, which contains 4,126,002 volumes; The Biblioteca del Ministero degli Affari Esteri, specialised in diplomacy, foreign affairs and modern history; the Biblioteca dell'Istituto dell'Enciclopedia Italiana; the Biblioteca Don Bosco, one of the largest and most modern of all Salesian libraries; the Biblioteca e Museo teatrale del Burcardo, a museum-library specialised in history of drama and theatre; the Biblioteca della Società Geografica Italiana, which is based in the Villa Celimontana and is the most important geographical library in Italy, and one of Europe's most important;[71] and the Vatican Library, one of the oldest and most important libraries in the world, which was formally established in 1475, though in fact much older and has 75,000 codices from throughout history.[72]

Universities

Rome has numerous universities and colleges. Its first university, La Sapienza (founded in 1303), is the largest in Europe and the second-largest in the world, with more than 150,000 students attending.[citation needed] La Sapienza in 2005 was Europe's 33rd best university,[73] and currently ranks amongst Europe's 50 and the world's 150 best colleges.[74] Two new public universities were founded: Tor Vergata in 1982, and Roma Tre in 1992.

Others include:

Other institutions and foreign schools

The exterior of the Pontifical Gregorian University.

Rome contains a large number of pontifical universities and other institutes, including the British School at Rome, the French School in Rome, the Pontifical Gregorian University (The oldest Jesuit university in the world, founded in 1551), Istituto Europeo di Design, the St. John's University, the American University of Rome, the Scuola Lorenzo de' Medici, the Link Campus of Malta, and the Università Campus Bio-Medico. Rome is also the location of the John Felice Rome Center, a campus of Loyola University Chicago.

Museums

The interior of the Capitoline Museums

Rome contains huge vastities of culture, treasures, art and sculpture, stored in some of Rome's numerous museums. The Vatican Museums are amongst the most famous and important in the world, with over 4.2 million visitors a year, making them the world's 37th most visited tourist destination.[50] Other major museums in Rome include the Accademia di San Luca, Capitoline Museums, Lateran Museum, Galleria Borghese, Galleria Colonna, Galleria Doria Pamphilj, Museum of Rome and Palazzo Altemps, to name a few.[76]

Culture

Historic Centre of Rome, the Properties of the Holy See in that City Enjoying Extraterritorial Rights and San Paolo Fuori le Mura*
UNESCO World Heritage Site

Forum Romanum Rom.jpg
Type Cultural
Criteria i, ii, iii, iv, vi
Reference 91
Region** Europe and North America
Inscription history
Inscription 1980  (4th Session)
Extensions 1990
* Name as inscribed on World Heritage List.
** Region as classified by UNESCO.
Michelangelo's frescos in the Sistine Chapel, such as The Last Judgement.

Archaeology

Rome is a major archaeological hub, and one of the world's main centres of archaeological research. There are numerous cultural and research institutes located in the city, such as the American Academy in Rome,[77] and The Swedish Institute at Rome,[78] to name a few. Rome contains numerous ancient sites, including the Forum Romanum, Trajan's Market, Trajan's Forum,[79] the Colosseum, and the Pantheon, to name but a few. The Colosseum, arguably one of Rome's most iconic archaeological sites, is regarded as a wonder of the world.[80][81]

Art

Rome contains a vast and impressive collection of art, sculpture, fountains, mosaics, frescos, and paintings, from all different periods. Rome first became a major artistic centre during ancient Rome, with forms of important Roman art such as architecture, painting, sculpture and mosaic work. Metal-work, coin-die and gem engraving, ivory carvings, figurine glass, pottery, and book illustrations are considered to be 'minor' forms of Roman artwork.[82] Rome later became a major centre of Renaissance art, since the popes spent vast sums of money for the constructions of grandiose basilicas, palaces, piazzas and public buildings in general. Rome became one of Europe's major centres of Renaissance artwork, second only to Florence, and able to compare to other major cities and cultural centres, such as Paris and Venice. The city was affected greatly by the baroque, and Rome became the home of numerous artists and architects, such as Bernini, Caravaggio, Carracci, Borromini and Cortona, to name a few.[83] In the late 1700s and early 1800s, the city was one of the centres of the Grand Tour,[84] when wealthy, young English and other European aristocrats visited the city to learn about ancient Roman culture, art, philosophy and architecture. Rome hosted a great number of neoclassical and rococo artists, such as Pannini and Bernardo Bellotto. Today, the city is a major artistic centre, with numerous art institutes[85] and museums.

Music

Rome is an important centre for music, and it has an intense musical scene, including several prestigious music conservatories and theatres. It hosts the Accademia Nazionale di Santa Cecilia (founded in 1585), for which new concert halls have been built in the new Parco della Musica, one of the largest musical venues in the world. Rome also has an opera house, the Teatro dell'Opera di Roma, as well as several minor musical institutions. The city also played host to the Eurovision Song Contest in 1991 and the MTV Europe Music Awards in 2004.

Rome has also had a major impact in music history. The Roman School was a group of composers of predominantly church music, which were active in the city during the 16th and 17th centuries, therefore spanning the late Renaissance and early Baroque eras. The term also refers to the music they produced. Many of the composers had a direct connection to the Vatican and the papal chapel, though they worked at several churches; stylistically they are often contrasted with the Venetian School of composers, a concurrent movement which was much more progressive. By far the most famous composer of the Roman School is Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina, whose name has been associated for four hundred years with smooth, clear, polyphonic perfection. However, there were other composers working in Rome, and in a variety of styles and forms.

Cuisine and gastronomy

Spaghetti alla Carbonara, a typical Roman dish.

Rome's cuisine has evolved through centuries and periods of social, cultural, and political changes. Rome became a major gastronomical centre during Ancient Rome. Ancient Roman cuisine was highly influenced by Ancient Greek culture, and after, the empire's enormous expansion exposed Romans to many new, provincial culinary habits and cooking techniques. In the beginning, the differences between social classes were not very great, but disparities developed with the empire's growth. Later, during the Renaissance, Rome became well-known as a centre of high-cuisine, since some of the best chefs of the time, worked for the popes. An example of this could be Bartolomeo Scappi, who was a chef, working for Pius IV in the Vatican kitchen, and he acquired fame in 1570 when his cookbook Opera dell'arte del cucinare was published. In the book he lists approximately 1000 recipes of the Renaissance cuisine and describes cooking techniques and tools, giving the first known picture of a fork.[86] Today, the city is home to numerous formidable and traditional Italian dishes A Jewish influence can be seen, as Jews have lived in Rome since the 1st century BCE. Vegetables, especially globe artichokes, are common.[87] Examples of these include "Saltimbocca alla Romana" - a veal cutlet, Roman-style; topped with raw ham and sage and simmered with white wine and butter; "Carciofi alla giudia" - artichokes fried in olive oil, typical of Roman Jewish cooking; Carciofi alla romana - artichokes Roman-style; outer leaves removed, stuffed with mint, garlic, breadcrumbs and braised; "Spaghetti alla carbonara" - spaghetti with bacon, eggs and pecorino, and "Gnocchi di semolino alla romana" - semolina dumpling, Roman-style, to name but a few.

Cinema

Set of Gangs of New York in Cinecittà studios, Rome

Rome hosts the Cinecittà Studios,[18] the largest film and television production facility in continental Europe and the centre of the Italian cinema, where a large number of today's biggest box office hits are filmed. The 99-acre (40-ha) studio complex is 5.6 miles (9 km) from the centre of Rome and is part of one of the biggest production communities in the world, second only to Hollywood, with well over 5,000 professionals — from period costume makers to visual effects specialists. More than 3,000 productions have been made on its lot, from recent features like The Passion of the Christ, Gangs of New York, HBO's Rome, The Life Aquatic and Dino De LaurentiisDecameron, to such cinema classics as Ben-Hur, Cleopatra, and the films of Federico Fellini.

Founded in 1937 by Benito Mussolini, the studios were bombed by the Western Allies during the Second World War. In the 1950s, Cinecittà was the filming location for several large American film productions, and subsequently became the studio most closely associated with Federico Fellini. Today Cinecittà is the only studio in the world with pre-production, production, and full post-production facilities on one lot, allowing directors and producers to walk in with their script and "walk out" with a completed film.

Language

The original language of Rome was Latin, which evolved during the Middle Ages into Italian. The latter emerged as the confluence of various regional dialects, among which the Tuscan dialect predominated, but the population of Rome also developed its own dialect, the Romanesco. The ancient Romanesco, used during the Middle Ages, was a southern Italian dialect, very close to the Neapolitan. The influence of the Florentine culture during the renaissance, and, above all, the immigration to Rome of many Florentines, amongst them the two Medici Popes (Leo X and Clement VII) and their suite, caused a major shift in the dialect, which began to resemble more the Tuscan varieties. This remained largely confined to Rome until the 19th century, but then expanded to other zones of Lazio (Civitavecchia, Latina), from the beginning of the 20th century, thanks to the rising population of Rome and to better transportation systems. As a consequence, Romanesco abandoned its traditional forms to mutate into the dialect spoken within the city, which is more like standard Italian, although it remains distinct from the other Romanesco-influenced local dialects of Lazio. Dialectal literature in the traditional form Romanesco includes the works of such authors as Giuseppe Gioachino Belli, Trilussa, and Cesare Pascarella. Contemporary Romanesco is mainly represented by popular actors such as Aldo Fabrizi, Alberto Sordi, Nino Manfredi, Anna Magnani, Gigi Proietti, Enrico Montesano, and Carlo Verdone.

Rome's historic contribution to language in a worldwide sense is much more extensive however. Through the process of Romanisation, the peoples of Gallia, the Iberian Peninsula, Italy and Dacia developed languages which derive directly from Latin and were adopted in large areas of the world both through colonization and cultural influence. Moreover, also modern English, because of the Norman Conquest, borrowed a large percentage of its vocabulary from the Latin Language. The Roman or Latin alphabet is the most widely used writing system in the world used by the greatest number of languages.[88]

Media

See also List of radio stations in Rome.

A list of newspapers, magazines, radio stations and television channels based in Rome:

Newspapers Magazines Television Radio
  • Audio Review
  • L'Espresso
  • Frequency
  • XL Repubblica
  • Il Venerdì di Repubblica
  • RAI (national centre)
  • SKY Italia (national centre)
  • La7 (national centre)
  • Mediaset Centri di Produzione TV (Rome centre)
  • Mediaset centri produzione Fiction
  • TG5 (Rome centre)

Fashion

Via Condotti, Rome's main upscale shopping street. Seen from the top of the Spanish steps

Rome is widely recognised as a world fashion capital. Although not as important as Milan, Rome is the world's 4th most important center for fashion in the world, according to the 2009 Global Language Monitor after Milan, New York and Paris, and beating London.[89] Major luxury fashion houses and jewelry chains, such as Bulgari, Fendi,[90] Laura Biagiotti and Brioni (fashion), just to name a few, are headquartered or were founded in the city. Also, other major labels, such as Chanel, Prada, Dolce & Gabbana, Armani and Versace have luxury boutiques in Rome, primarily along its prestigious and upscale Via dei Condotti.

Seven hills

The city is famous for its seven hills, east of the river Tiber: Aventine Hill (Aventinus), Caelian Hill (Caelius), Capitoline Hill (Capitolinus), Esquiline Hill (Esquilinus), Palatine Hill (Palatinus), Quirinal Hill (Quirinalis), Viminal Hill (Viminalis).[91] Of the seven hills of current Rome, five (Aventine, Caelian, Esquiline, Quirinal and Viminal hills) are populated with monuments, buildings, and parks. The Capitoline now hosts the Municipality of Rome, and the Palatine Hill is an archaeological area. All these hills have strong cultural legacies and have unique histories. There are also other hills in Rome, such as the Janiculum Hill, the Pincian Hill and the Vatican Hill, to name a few, but these do not count as part of the seven hills of the city.

Sports

Rome hosted the 1960 Summer Olympics and is an official candidate to host the 2020 Summer Olympics.

Football is the most popular sport in Rome, as in the rest of the country. The city hosted the final games of the 1934 and 1990 FIFA World Cup. The latter took place in the Olympic Stadium, which is also the home stadium for local Serie A clubs A.S. Roma and S.S. Lazio, whose rivalry has become a staple of Roman sports culture. Footballers who play for these teams and are also born in the city tend to become especially popular, as has been the case with players such as Francesco Totti and Daniele De Rossi (both for A.S. Roma).

Rugby union is gaining wider acceptance. The Stadio Flaminio is the home stadium for the Italy national rugby union team, which has been playing in the Six Nations Championship since 2000, albeit with less than satisfactory performances, as they have never won the championship. Rome is home to local rugby teams, such as Unione Rugby Capitolina, Rugby Roma, and S.S. Lazio.

Every May, Rome hosts the ATP Masters Series tennis tournament on the clay courts of the Foro Italico. Cycling was popular in the post-WWII period, although its popularity has faded. Rome has hosted the final portion of the Giro d'Italia twice, in 1989 and 2000. Rome is also home to other sports teams, including basketball (Virtus Roma), volleyball (M. Roma Volley), handball or waterpolo.

Transportation

Rome-Fiumicino Airport in 2008 was the sixth busiest airport in Europe.

Rome is at the centre of the radial network of roads that roughly follow the lines of the ancient Roman roads that began at the Capitoline Hill and connected Rome with its empire. Today Rome is circled, at a distance of about 10 km (6 mi), by the ring-road (the Grande Raccordo Anulare).

Due to its location in the centre of the Italian peninsula, Rome is a principal railway node for central Italy. Rome's main train station, Termini, is one of the biggest train stations in Europe and the most heavily used in Italy, with around 400 thousand travellers passing through every day. The second-largest station in the city, Roma Tiburtina, is currently being redeveloped as a high-speed rail terminus.[92]

Rome is served by three airports. The intercontinental Leonardo Da Vinci International Airport is Italy's chief airport and is commonly known as "Fiumicino Airport", as it is located within the nearby Comune of Fiumicino, south-west of Rome. The older Rome Ciampino Airport is a joint civilian and military airport. It is commonly referred to as "Ciampino Airport", as it is located beside Ciampino, south-east of Rome. A third airport, the Roma-Urbe Airport, is a small, low-traffic airport located about 6 km north of the city centre, which handles most helicopter and private flights.

The city suffers from traffic problems largely due to this radial street pattern, making it difficult for Romans to move easily from the vicinity of one of the radial roads to another without going into the historic centre or using the ring-road. These problems are not helped by the limited size of Rome's metro system when compared to other cities of similar size. In addition, Rome has only 21 taxis for every 10,000 inhabitants, far below other major European cities.[93] Chronic congestion caused by cars during the 1970s and 1980s led to restrictions being placed on vehicle access to the inner city-centre during the hours of daylight. Areas where these restriction apply are known as Limited Traffic Zones (Zona a Traffico Limitato (ZTL) in Italian). More recently, heavy night-time traffic in Trastevere and San Lorenzo has led to the creation of night-time ZTLs in those districts, and there are also plans to create another night-time ZTL in Testaccio.

Overview map of Rome Underground and Rail in 2010

A 2-line metro system called the Metropolitana operates in Rome. Construction on the first branch started in the 1930s. The line had been planned to quickly connect the main train station with the newly planned E42 area in the southern suburbs, where the 1942 World Fair was supposed to be held. The event never took place because of war. The area was later partly redesigned and renamed EUR (Esposizione Universale di Roma: Rome Universal Exhibition) in the 1950s to serve as a modern business district. The line was finally opened in 1955, and it is now part of the B Line.

The A line opened in 1980 from Ottaviano to Anagnina stations, later extended in stages (1999 – 2000) to Battistini. In the 1990s, an extension of the B line was opened from Termini to Rebibbia. This underground network is generally reliable (although it may become very congested at peak times and during events, especially the A line) as it is relatively short. As of 2005, its total length is 38 km (24 mi).

The two existing lines, A and B, intersect at Roma Termini station. A new branch of the B line (B1) is under construction with an estimated cost of €500 million. It is scheduled to open in 2012. B1 will connect to line B at Piazza Bologna and will have four stations over a distance of 3.9 km (2 mi). A third line, line C, is under construction with an estimated cost of €3 billion and will have 30 stations over a distance of 25.5 km (16 mi). It will partly replace the existing Rail Road line, Termini-Pantano. It will feature full automated, driverless trains.[94] The first section is due to open in 2011 and the final sections in 2015, but archaeological findings often delay underground construction work.

A fourth line, D line, is also planned. It will have 22 stations over a distance of 20 km (12 mi). The first section is projected to open in 2015 and the final sections before 2035.

Above-ground public transport in Rome is made up of a bus and tram network. This network is run by Trambus S.p.A. under the auspices of ATAC S.p.A. (which originally stood for the Bus and Tram Agency of the Commune, Azienda Tranvie ed Autobus del Comune in Italian). The bus network has in excess of 350 bus lines and over 8 thousand bus stops, whereas the more-limited tram system has 39 km of track and 192 stops.[95] There is also one trolleybus line, opened in 2005, and additional trolleybus lines are planned.[96]

International entities, organisations and involvement

FAO headquarters in Rome

Rome is unique in having a sovereign state located entirely within its city limits, the Vatican City. The Vatican is a enclave of Rome and a sovereign possession of the Holy See, the supreme government of the Roman Catholic Church. Rome hosts foreign embassies to both Italy and the Holy See, although frequently the same ambassador is accredited to both.

Another body, the Sovereign Military Order of Malta (SMOM), took refuge in Rome in 1834 after having lost Malta to Napoleon. It is sometimes classified as having sovereignty but does not claim any territory in Rome or anywhere else, hence leading to dispute over its actual sovereign status.

Rome is also the seat of international agencies of the United Nations, such as the World Food Programme (WFP), the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), and the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD).

Rome has traditionally been involved in the process of European political integration. In 1957, the city hosted the signing of the Treaty of Rome, which established the European Economic Community (predecessor to the European Union), and also played host to the official signing of the proposed European Constitution in July 2004.

Rome is the seat of the NATO Defence College and is the place where the Statute of the International Criminal Court was formulated.

International relations

Twin towns, Sister cities & Partner cities

Column dedicated to Paris in 1956 near the Baths of Diocletian

Rome is since 1956 exclusively and reciprocally twinned only with:

  • *(French: Seule Paris est digne de Rome; seule Rome est digne de Paris; Italian: Solo Parigi è degna di Roma; solo Roma è degna di Parigi; English: Only Paris is worthy of Rome; only Rome is worthy of Paris)

Rome's sister and partner cities are:

See also

References

  1. ^ "Demography in Figures". Istituto nazionale di statistica (ISTAT). http://demo.istat.it/index_e.html.  August 2009.
  2. ^ "Urban Audit". Urbanaudit.org. http://www.urbanaudit.org/DataAccessed.aspx. Retrieved 2009-03-03. . This is the Total Resident population for the LUZ of Roma in 2004, the latest data they have.
  3. ^ OECD (2006). "OECD Territorial Reviews: Competitive Cities in the Global Economy". p. 39. http://213.253.134.43/oecd/pdfs/browseit/0406041E.PDF. Retrieved 2009-04-30. 
  4. ^ "Aboutroma.com". Aboutroma.com. http://www.aboutroma.com/City-of-Rome.html. Retrieved 2010-02-03. 
  5. ^ "Rome, city, Italy". Columbia Encyclopedia (6th ed.). 2009. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=117042793. 
  6. ^ Szasz, Colin (Winter, 2001). "The Influence of Roman Engineering and Architecture". McGill University, School of Architecture. http://www.arch.mcgill.ca/prof/sijpkes/arch304/winter2001/cszasz/u1/roman.htm. Retrieved 3 March 2010. 
  7. ^ Capotolium.org (1999). "Fori Imperiali". Capitolium.org. http://www.capitolium.org/eng/imperatori/mappaimpero.htm. Retrieved 2010-02-03. 
  8. ^ "RE:Quest: Places of Christian Pilgrimage". Request.org.uk. http://www.request.org.uk/main/dowhat/pilgrimage/places/places01.htm. Retrieved 2010-03-14. 
  9. ^ "Rome, A Brief History". Classic Pilgrimages. http://www.classic-pilgrimages.com/rome-information.asp. Retrieved 2010-03-14. 
  10. ^ http://ragz-international.com/christianity.htm. "Christianity, ROMAN CATHOLICISM". History-world.org. http://history-world.org/roman_catholicism.htm. Retrieved 2010-03-14. 
  11. ^ James Lees-Milne describes St Peter's Basilica as "a church with a unique position in the Christian world" in Lees-Milne 1967, p. 12.
  12. ^ Banister Fletcher, the renowned architectural historian calls it "...The greatest of all churches of Christendom" in Fletcher 1996, p. 719.
  13. ^ "The greatest church in Christendom",Roma 2000
  14. ^ "Rome, Town in Rome and Latium, Italy". Summerinitaly.com. http://www.summerinitaly.com/guide/rome. Retrieved 2009-10-17. 
  15. ^ "Historic Centre of Rome - World Heritage Sites on Waymarking.com". Waymarking.com. http://www.waymarking.com/waymarks/WMDFE_Historic_Centre_of_Rome. Retrieved 2009-10-17. 
  16. ^ "Historic Centre of Rome, the Properties of the Holy See in that City Enjoying Extraterritorial Rights and San Paolo Fuori le Mura - UNESCO World Heritage Centre". Whc.unesco.org. http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/91. Retrieved 2009-10-17. 
  17. ^ "GaWC - The World According to GaWC 2008". Lboro.ac.uk. 2009-06-03. http://www.lboro.ac.uk/gawc/world2008t.html. Retrieved 2009-10-17. 
  18. ^ a b "history of Cinecittà Studios in Rome". Romefile.com. http://www.romefile.com/culture/cinecitta.php. Retrieved 2009-10-17. 
  19. ^ "Working opportunities with FAO". Fao.org. http://www.fao.org/VA/Employ.htm. Retrieved 2009-10-17. 
  20. ^ "World's richest cities by purchasing power". City Mayors. http://www.citymayors.com/economics/usb-purchasing-power.html. Retrieved 2009-10-17. 
  21. ^ "Cost of living - The world's most expensive cities 2009". City Mayors. 2009-07-07. http://www.citymayors.com/features/cost_survey.html. Retrieved 2009-10-17. 
  22. ^ "1960 Rome, Italy". Cartage.org.lb. http://www.cartage.org.lb/en/themes/sports/olympicgames/1960/rome.htm. Retrieved 2009-10-17. 
  23. ^ a b "Candidate Cities for Future Olympic Games". Bladesplace.id.au. http://www.bladesplace.id.au/olympic-games-candidates.html. Retrieved 2009-10-17. 
  24. ^ a b Bremner, Caroline (12 December 2008). "Euromonitor International's Top City Destinations Ranking". Euromonitor International. http://www.euromonitor.com/_Euromonitor_Internationals_Top_City_Destinations_Ranking. Retrieved 2 March 2010. 
  25. ^ a b "Historic Centre of Rome, the Properties of the Holy See in that City Enjoying Extraterritorial Rights and San Paolo Fuori le Mura". UNESCO World Heritage Center. http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/91. Retrieved 2008-06-08. 
  26. ^ a b "Itv News | The 50 Most Visited Places in The World". Itvnews.tv. http://www.itvnews.tv/Blog/Blog/the-50-most-visited-places.html. Retrieved 2009-10-17. 
  27. ^ Heiken, G., Funiciello, R. and De Rita, D. (2005), The Seven Hills of Rome: A Geological Tour of the Eternal City. Princeton University Press.
  28. ^ Livy, Ab Urbe Condita I, 7
  29. ^ "Rome: Pre-20th-Century History". Lonely Planet. http://www.lonelyplanet.com/worldguide/italy/rome/history. Retrieved 2008-07-04. 
  30. ^ Cf. Jean-Jacques Rousseau and his "The Social Contract", Book IV, Chapter IV, written in 1762, where he writes in a footnote that the word for Rome is Greek in origin and means force. "There are writers who say that the name 'Rome' is derived from 'Romulus'. It is in fact Greek and means force."
  31. ^ Wilford, John Nobel (2007-06-12). "More Clues in the Legend (or Is It Fact?) of Romulus". New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2007/06/12/science/12rome.html. Retrieved 2008-08-11. 
  32. ^ Livy, Ab Urbe Condita V.
  33. ^ CosmoLearning (1944-06-06). "Cosmolearning.com". Cosmolearning.com. http://www.cosmolearning.com/topics/greece-3650-bc-146-bc/. Retrieved 2010-02-03. 
  34. ^ a b "BBC.co.uk". BBC.co.uk. http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/augustus.shtml. Retrieved 2010-02-03. 
  35. ^ "BBC.co.uk". BBC.co.uk. http://www.bbc.co.uk/dna/h2g2/A531767. Retrieved 2010-02-03. 
  36. ^ "Unrv.com". Unrv.com. http://www.unrv.com/early-empire/pax-romana.php. Retrieved 2010-02-03. 
  37. ^ "University of Chicago". Penelope.uchicago.edu. http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Roman/Texts/secondary/journals/CJ/42/4/Nero_Fiddled*.html. Retrieved 2010-02-03. 
  38. ^ Population crises and cycles in history. A review of the book Population Crises and Population cycles by Claire Russell and W.M.S. Russell.
  39. ^ Italian Peninsula, 500–1000 A.D., The Metropolitan Museum of Art
  40. ^ "Nndb.com". Nndb.com. http://www.nndb.com/people/159/000092880/. Retrieved 2010-02-03. 
  41. ^ a b "Mariamilani.com". Mariamilani.com. http://www.mariamilani.com/ancient_rome/renaissance_rome.htm. Retrieved 2010-02-03. 
  42. ^ "Newadvent.org". Newadvent.org. 1912-02-01. http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/13369b.htm. Retrieved 2010-02-03. 
  43. ^ "Newadvent.org". Newadvent.org. http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/12134b.htm. Retrieved 2010-02-03. 
  44. ^ IMDb.com
  45. ^ "Lboro.ac.uk". Lboro.ac.uk. 2009-06-03. http://www.lboro.ac.uk/gawc/world2008t.html. Retrieved 2010-02-03. 
  46. ^ "Foreignpolicy.com". Foreignpolicy.com. 2008-10-15. http://www.foreignpolicy.com/story/cms.php?story_id=4509. Retrieved 2010-02-03. 
  47. ^ http://www.maxxi.beniculturali.it/english/
  48. ^ http://www.auditorium.com/
  49. ^ http://www.skyscrapercity.com/showthread.php?t=866754
  50. ^ a b ITVnews.tv
  51. ^ Originally founded as circoscrizioni in 1972, they became municipi in 2001: "Territorio" (in Italian). Comune di Rome. http://www.comune.roma.it/was/wps/portal/!ut/p/_s.7_0_A/7_0_21L?menuPage=/Area_di_navigazione/Sezioni_del_portale/Dipartimenti_e_altri_uffici/Dipartimento_XV/www-9-romastatistica-9-it/Territorio/&flagSub=. Retrieved 2009-10-05. 
  52. ^ "Romeartlover.it". Romeartlover.it. http://www.romeartlover.it/Rioni.html. Retrieved 2010-02-03. 
  53. ^ "University of Oregon". Nolli.uoregon.edu. 2006-09-25. http://nolli.uoregon.edu/rioni.html. Retrieved 2010-02-03. 
  54. ^ Ravaglioli, Armando (1997) (in Italian). Roma anno 2750 ab Urbe condita. Rome: Tascabili Economici Newton. ISBN 888183670X. 
  55. ^ "Snow in Rome". guardian.co.uk. 2010-02-12. http://www.guardian.co.uk/weather/gallery/2010/feb/12/rome-europe. Retrieved 2010-02-14. 
  56. ^ "Weather Information for Rome". http://www.worldweather.org/176/c00201.htm. 
  57. ^ "Statistiche demografiche ISTAT". Demo.istat.it. http://demo.istat.it/bil2007/index.html. Retrieved 2010-02-03. 
  58. ^ "Green Areas". RomaPerKyoto.org. http://www.romaperkyoto.org/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=35&Itemid=52. Retrieved 2008-11-09. 
  59. ^ Frontin, Les Aqueducs de la ville de Rome, translation and commentary by Pierre Grimal, Société d'édition Les Belles Lettres, Paris, 1944.
  60. ^ Italian Gardens, a Cultural History, Helen Attlee. Francis Lincoln Limited, London 2006.
  61. ^ "Initaly.com". Initaly.com. http://www.initaly.com/regions/classic/obelisks.htm. Retrieved 2010-02-03. 
  62. ^ "Citrag.it". Citrag.it. http://www.citrag.it/archi/page/bridges/e_f_pn_ro.htm. Retrieved 2010-02-03. 
  63. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica. "Britannica.com". Britannica.com. http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/523159/SantAngelo-Bridge. Retrieved 2010-02-03. 
  64. ^ a b c d "Rapporto Censis 2006". Censis.it. http://www.censis.it/277/372/5732/5766/5783/5784/content.asp. Retrieved 2010-02-03. 
  65. ^ Observatoribarcelona.org
  66. ^ DeCarlo, Scott (2006-03-30). "The World's 2000 Largest Public Companies". Forbes. http://www.forbes.com/2006/03/29/06f2k_worlds-largest-public-companies_land.html. Retrieved 2007-01-16. 
  67. ^ Caroline Bremner (2007-10-11). "Top 150 City Destinations: London Leads the Way". Euromonitor International. http://www.euromonitor.com/Top_150_City_Destinations_London_Leads_the_Way. Retrieved 2008-08-03.  This article has the complete list of 150 cities
  68. ^ "How the world views its cities" - The Anholt City Brands Index 2006
  69. ^ "Newadvent.org". Newadvent.org. 1907-03-01. http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/01083b.htm. Retrieved 2010-02-03. 
  70. ^ Max Planck Gesellschaft e.V (2006-05-17). "Max Planck Society - Hanno and Ilse Hahn Prize". Mpg.de. http://www.mpg.de/english/aboutTheSociety/aboutUs/scientificAwards/awardsOfMPS/hannoIlseHahnPrize/index.html. Retrieved 2010-01-25. 
  71. ^ Amedeo Benedetti, La Biblioteca della Società Geografica Italiana, "Biblioteche oggi", n. 3, aprile 2009, p. 41.
  72. ^ Vatican Film Library informational pamphlet
  73. ^ Arwu.org
  74. ^ Arwu.org
  75. ^ Nella sede romana sono presenti le facoltà di medicina e di economia.
  76. ^ Activitaly.it (Italian)
  77. ^ "Romanculture.org". Romanculture.org. http://www.romanculture.org/index.php?page=airc-hc-rome-program-in-archaeology-and-classical-studies. Retrieved 2010-02-03. 
  78. ^ "Isvroma.it". Isvroma.it. http://www.isvroma.it/public/EN/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=13&Itemid=%20. Retrieved 2010-02-03. 
  79. ^ "Archaeology.org". Archaeology.org. http://www.archaeology.org/9801/abstracts/trajan.html. Retrieved 2010-02-03. 
  80. ^ I H Evans (reviser), Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase and Fable (Centenary edition Fourth impression (corrected); London: Cassell, 1975), page 1163
  81. ^ Francis Trevelyan Miller, Woodrow Wilson, William Howard Taft, Theodore Roosevelt. America, the Land We Love (1915), page 201 Google Books Search
  82. ^ Toynbee, J. M. C. (December 1971). "Roman Art". The Classical Review 21 (3): 439–442. http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0009-840X%28197112%292%3A21%3A3%3C439%3ARA%3E2.0.CO%3B2-O. Retrieved 2007-12-11. 
  83. ^ "Trincoll.edu". Trincoll.edu. http://www.trincoll.edu/depts/rome/curriculum/rome211.html. Retrieved 2010-02-03. 
  84. ^ "About.com". Geography.about.com. 2009-11-02. http://geography.about.com/od/historyofgeography/a/grandtour.htm. Retrieved 2010-02-03. 
  85. ^ "Trincoll.edu". Trincoll.edu. http://www.trincoll.edu/depts/rome/curriculum/rome350.html. Retrieved 2010-02-03. 
  86. ^ (Rolland 2006, p. 273).
  87. ^ Piras, 291.
  88. ^ Ostler, N. (2007), Ad Infinitum: A Biography of Latin. London: HarperCollins
  89. ^ "The Global Language Monitor » Fashion". Languagemonitor.com. 2009-07-20. http://www.languagemonitor.com/popular-culture/fashion. Retrieved 2009-10-17. 
  90. ^ "Bot generated title ->". Fendi<!. http://www.fendi.com/. Retrieved 2009-10-17. 
  91. ^ "The Seven Hills of Rome". Musesrealm.net. http://www.musesrealm.net/rome/sevenhills.html. Retrieved 2010-01-25. 
  92. ^ — Entry on Roma Tiburtina station on the official website of the Italian high-speed rail service (Italian)
  93. ^ "Central Rome Streets Blocked by Taxi Drivers". New York Times. 2007-11-30. http://www.nytimes.com/2007/11/30/world/europe/30rome.html?scp=93&sq=Rome&st=nyt. Retrieved 2008-02-10. 
  94. ^ Kington, Tom (2007-05-14). "Roman remains threaten metro". Guardian. http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2007/may/14/italy.artnews. Retrieved 2008-08-10. 
  95. ^ The figures are from the ATAC website (Italian).
  96. ^ Webb, Mary (ed.) (2009). Jane's Urban Transport Systems 2009-2010, p. 195. Coulsdon (UK): Jane's Information Group. ISBN 978-0-7106-2903-6.
  97. ^ "Les pactes d'amitié et de coopération". Mairie de Paris. http://www.paris.fr/portail/accueil/Portal.lut?page_id=6587&document_type_id=5&document_id=16468&portlet_id=14974. Retrieved 2007-10-14. 
  98. ^ "International relations: special partners". Mairie de Paris. http://www.paris.fr/en/city_government/international/special_partners.asp. Retrieved 2007-10-14. 
  99. ^ "Sister Cities". Beijing Municipal Government. http://www.ebeijing.gov.cn/Sister_Cities/Sister_City/. Retrieved 2009-06-23. 
  100. ^ "Le jumelage avec Rome" (in French). Municipalité de Paris. http://www.paris.fr/portail/accueil/Portal.lut?page_id=6587&document_type_id=5&document_id=16467&portlet_id=14974. Retrieved 2008-07-09. 
  101. ^ Madrid city council webpage "Mapa Mundi de las ciudades hermanadas". Ayuntamiento de Madrid. http://www.munimadrid.es/portal/site/munimadrid/menuitem.dbd5147a4ba1b0aa7d245f019fc08a0c/?vgnextoid=4e84399a03003110VgnVCM2000000c205a0aRCRD&vgnextchannel=4e98823d3a37a010VgnVCM100000d90ca8c0RCRD&vgnextfmt=especial1&idContenido=1da69a4192b5b010VgnVCM100000d90ca8c0RCRD Madrid city council webpage. Retrieved 2009-10-17. 
  102. ^ "NYC's Sister Cities". Sister City Program of the City of New York. 2006. http://www.nyc.gov/html/unccp/scp/html/sc/main.shtml. Retrieved 2008-09-01. 
  103. ^ "Twinning Cities: International Relations" (PDF). Municipality of Tirana. www.tirana.gov.al. http://www.tirana.gov.al/common/images/International%20Relations.pdf. Retrieved 2009-06-23. 
  104. ^ Twinning Cities: International Relations. Municipality of Tirana. www.tirana.gov.al. Retrieved on 2008-01-25.
  105. ^ "Cooperation Internationale" (in French). © 2003-2009 City of Tunis Portal. http://www.commune-tunis.gov.tn/fr/mairie_cooperation1.htm. Retrieved 2009-07-31. 
  106. ^ "Rome and Multan ‘to be made sister cities’". Thenews.com.pk. 2008-11-05. http://www.thenews.com.pk/daily_detail.asp?id=145013. Retrieved 2009-10-17. 

Bibliography

  • Lucentini, Mario (2002) (in Italian). La Grande Guida di Roma. Rome: Newton & Compton Editori. ISBN 88-8289-053-8. 
  • Spoto, Salvatore (1999) (in Italian). Roma Esoterica. Rome: Newton & Compton Editori. ISBN 88-8289-265-4. 
  • Richard Brilliant (2006). Roman Art. An American's View. Rome: Di Renzo Editore. ISBN 88-8323-085-X. 

Documentaries

  • The Holy Cities: Rome produced by Danae Film Production, distributed by HDH Communications; 2006.

External links

Official


Quotes

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiquote

Rome was not built in a day.
The traveler who has contemplated the ruins of ancient Rome may conceive some imperfect idea of the sentiments which they must have inspired when they reared their heads in the splendor of unsullied beauty. ~ Edward Gibbon

Rome (Italian and Latin: Roma) is the capital city of Italy and of the Lazio region. According to legend, the city of Rome was founded by the twins Romulus and Remus on April 21, 753 BC. Archaeological evidence supports claims that Rome was inhabited since the 8th century BC and earlier. It was already a famous city in the ancient as the capital of the Republic of Rome and later as of the Roman Empire. Rome is also identified with Christianity and the Catholic Church and has been the episcopal seat of the Popes since the 1st century AD. The State of the Vatican City, the sovereign territory of the Holy See and smallest nation in the world, is an enclave of Rome.

It has been nicknamed Caput mundi ("capital of the world"), la Città Eterna ("the Eternal City"), Limen Apostolorum ("threshold of the Apostles"), la città dei sette colli ("the city of the seven hills") or simply l'Urbe ("the City").

Sourced

The story of Romulus and Remus being suckled by a wolf is not a meaningless fable. ~ Henry David Thoreau
  • I found Rome a city of bricks and left it a city of marble.
  • The story of Romulus and Remus being suckled by a wolf is not a meaningless fable. The founders of every State which has risen to eminence have drawn their nourishment and vigor from a similar wild source. It was because the children of the Empire were not suckled by the wolf that they were conquered and displaced by the children of the Northern forests who were.

Unsourced

All roads lead to Rome.
It has created nothing, only a spirit of greatness and order of beautiful things; but the most magnificent monuments on the earth have extended and were fixed in it with such energy to leave the most numerous and indelible tracks in it, more than in anywhere else on the globe. ~ Maurice Maeterlinck
  • Rome was not built in a day.
    • Proverb
  • All roads lead to Rome.
    • Proverb, referring to the vast amount of roads the Romans had built.
  • It is my sixth time in the Eternal City, but I’m deeply touched again. Being touched while coming to Rome is usual in sensitive people, so I’m almost ashamed of my writings.
  • The light that reveals Rome's monuments is not that to which we are accustomed; it produces numerous optical effect plus a certain atmosphere, all impossible to put into words. The light strikes Rome in ways that I've never seen.
  • Yes, I have finally arrived to this Capital of the World! I now see all the dreams of my youth coming to life... Only in Rome is it possible to understand Rome.
  • In the world Rome is probably the place where most in beauty has been accumulated and subsists in span of twenty centuries. It has created nothing, only a spirit of greatness and order of beautiful things; but the most magnificent monuments on the earth have extended and were fixed in it with such energy to leave the most numerous and indelible tracks in it, more than in anywhere else on the globe.
  • Rome makes fall in love with itself very slowly but forever.
    • Nikolaj Vasil'evic Gogol
  • Rome is beautiful, so beautiful, I swear, all the other things seem nothing in front of it.
    • Charles de Brosses
  • The Roman evening either keeps still or it sings. No one can behold it without growing dizzy, and time has filled it with eternity.
  • Rome so craved, in yourself you hold me, in yourself I’m, and you feel in myself! I expand or thin through streets and squares of the quarter where I live, near the river...
    • Rafael Alberti
  • Rome is like a book of fables, on every page you meet up with a prodigy. And at the same time we live in dream and reality.
  • O Rome! My country! City of the soul!
  • From the dome of St. Peter's one can see every notable object in Rome... He can see a panorama that is varied, extensive, beautiful to the eye, and more illustrious in history than any other in Europe.
  • I wouldn't leave Rome to go to Heaven
    • Joie Davidow
  • For me, Rome is the old center, with her narrow streets, in warm colours, orange,red and even gold. Here is Rome like a house. The alleys are passages, and in three minutes you are in the most beatiful squares of the City, Piazza della Rotonda with the monument, the Pantheon, and the Piazza Navona. These are my reading rooms, my refreshment rooms, my salons where I meet my guests.
    • Rosita Steenbeek She is a Dutch writer. (this text is literally translated)
  • If Europe needs a Capital, when it is finally united. It should be Rome. Here was the creation of Europe, here you can feel Europe, and even feels live.
  • For someone who has never seen Rome, it is hard to believe how beautiful live can be!
    • Italian proverb
  • Methinks I will not die quite happy without having seen something of that Rome of which I have read so much.
    • Sir Walter Scott
  • When in Rome, do as the Romans do.
    • Proverb
  • Rome,old lady of the world,in the name of our glorious deads wich gave their life to make the wonderful days possible,we salute you!

External links


Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010
(Redirected to Rome article)

From Wikitravel

For other places with the same name, see Rome (disambiguation).
The Colosseum
The Colosseum
Rome is a huge city with several district articles containing sightseeing, restaurant, nightlife and accommodation listings — consider printing them all.

Rome, the 'Eternal City', is the capital of Italy and of the Lazio (Latium) region. It's the famed city of the Seven Hills, La Dolce Vita, the Vatican City and Three Coins in the Fountain. The Historic Center is a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

Rome's central districts
Rome's central districts
  • Modern Center — Where the hotels are, as well as shopping and dining galore along the Via Veneto; home to the Quirinale, Trevi, Castro Pretorio, and Repubblica neighborhoods
  • Old Rome — the center of the Roman medieval and Renaissance periods, with beautiful plazas, cathedrals, the Pantheon, and plenty of laid back dining; includes the Navona, Campo de' Fiori, and the Jewish Ghetto neighborhoods
  • The Vatican — the Papal City State and its endless treasure troves of sights, relics, and museums, as well as the surrounding Italian neighborhood, Vaticano
  • Colosseo — the heart of ancient Rome, the Colosseum, the Roman Forum, the Forum of Augustus, the Forum and Markets of Trajan, the Capitoline and its museums
  • North Center — situated in the north part of Rome, home to the Villa Borghese, the Spanish Steps, and the elegant neighborhoods of Parioli and Salario
  • Trastevere — the land to the south of the Vatican, on the west bank of the Tiber River, full of narrow cobbled streets and lonely plazas that served as the inspiration for artists such as Giorgio de Chirico, now arguably the center of Rome's artistic life
  • Aventino-Testaccio — off-the-beaten-path neighborhoods of Rome with plenty of surprises waiting for interested travelers, as well as some truly great food
  • Esquilino-San Giovanni — south of Termini, with an indoor market, Piazza Vittorio Emanuele, and the Cathedral of Rome Saint John in Lateran
  • Nomentano — Municipio III, the neighborhoods "behind" the train station
  • North — the vast suburban neighborhoods to the north of the center (Municipi 4, 15-20)
  • South — home to extensive suburbs and fascist monumental architecture at EUR as well as catacombs and the Appian Way.(Municipi 5-13)
  • Lido di Ostia — Rome's beach resort
  • Ostia Antica — the impressive ruins of Ancient Rome's harbour.
S.P.Q.R.
S.P.Q.R.

Situated on the River Tiber, between the Apennine Mountains and the Tyrrhenian Sea, the "Eternal City" was once the administrative center of the mighty Roman Empire, governing a vast region that stretched all the way from Britain to Mesopotamia. Today it remains the seat of the Italian government and home to numerous ministerial offices. The metropolitan area is home to around 3.3 million people.

The abbreviation "S.P.Q.R" is ubiquitous in Rome, short for the old democratic motto "Senatus Populusque Romanus" (Latin) or "The Senate and People of Rome" (English translation).

For two weeks in August, many of Rome's inhabitants shut up shop (literally) and go on their own vacations; many stores and other amenities will be closed during this time. The temperature in the city centre at this time of year is not particularly pleasant. If you do travel to Rome at this time, be prepared to see Chiuso per ferie (Closed for holidays) signs on many establishments. Even in these weeks the city is very beautiful and if you are looking for a less overcrowded vacation in Rome, this is not a bad time.

Roman Forum
Roman Forum

Rome's history spans over two and half thousand years, transforming itself from a small Italian village to the center of a vast empire, through the founding of Catholicism, and into the capital of today's Italy. Rome's history is long and complex. What follows is merely a quick summary.

Rome is traditionally thought to have been founded by the mythical twins Romulus and Remus, who were abandoned as infants in the Tiber River and raised by a mother wolf before being found by a shepherd who raised them as his own sons. Rome was founded as a small village sometime in the 8th century BC surrounding Palatine Hill, where the Roman Forum is currently located. Due to the village's position at a ford on the Tiber River, Rome became a crossroads of traffic and trade.

The settlement developed into the capital of the Roman Kingdom, led by a series of Etruscan kings, before becoming the seat of the Roman Republic at around 500 BC, and then the center of the Roman Empire from 27 BC on. For almost a thousand years, Rome was the largest, wealthiest, most powerful city in the Western World, with dominance over most of Europe and the Mediterranean Sea. Even after the fall of the Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, Rome maintained considerable importance and wealth.

Beginning with the reign of Constantine I, the Bishop of Rome (later known as the Pope) gained political and religious importance, establishing Rome as the center of the Catholic Church. During the Early Middle Ages, the city declined in population but gained a new importance as the capital of the newly formed Papal States. Throughout the Middle Ages, Rome was a major pilgrimage site and the focus of struggles between the Holy Roman Empire and the Papacy.

With the Italian Renaissance fully under way in the 15th century, Rome changed dramatically. Extravagant churches, bridges, and public spaces, including a new Saint Peter's Basilica and the Sistine Chapel, were constructed by the Papacy in order so that Rome would equal the grandeur of other Italian cities of the period. The corruption of the popes (which was partly responsible for the extravagance of their building projects) during this period led to the Protestant Reformation and, in turn, the Catholic Reformation.

In the 19th century, Rome again became the focus of a power struggle with the rise of the Kingdom of Italy, who wished to see a reunification of Italy. The Papal States remained in control of Rome under French protection, but with the outbreak of the Franco-Prussian War of 1870, French troops were forced to abandon Rome, leaving it clear for the Kingdom of Italy to capture. Rome became the capital of Italy, and has remained such ever since.

Rome today is a contemporary metropolis that reflects the many periods of its long history - Ancient times, Middle Ages, and the Renaissance. With the rise of Italian Fascism following World War I, Rome's population grew. This trend was stopped by World War II, which dealt relatively minor damage to Rome. With the dismantlement of the monarchy and the creation of the Italian Republic following WWII, Rome again began to climb in population and grew into a modern city. The city stands today as the capital of Italy and a major tourist destination.

Get in

One general warning: In Italy timetables and similar information is "just a suggestion" (Quote from the fellow Italian traveler). Do not put too much faith into any information you read or get - just get used to it, you will enjoy your stay much more if you do.

By plane

Rome has two main international airports:

  • Leonardo da Vinci/ Fiumicino International Airport [1] (Rome Fiumicino, code FCO) - Rome's main airport is modern, large, rather efficient, and well connected to the center of the city by public transportation, but consider not arriving late in the evening in Rome to have the most transportation options to downtown.
  • Ciampino International Airport[2] (Rome Ciampino, code CIA) - Located to the southeast of the capital, this is the city's low-cost airline airport, serving Easyjet, Ryanair and Wizzair flights, among others (see Discount airlines in Europe). This small airport is closer to the city center than Fiumicino but has no direct train connection. There are plans to move the low-cost airport much further out of Rome, but this is unlikely for some years. Note that at Ciampino cash machines are available only in the departures area. Please note that this is a small airport, really only a step above a regional airport. And despite its status as an "international airport" it does close. The last buses from the city are around 12:00am which means arrival at the airport is around 1am, an hour after the airport closes. You will be locked out of the airport until it opens again for the first check-in around 4:30 or 5am, be prepared to wait. Flying into Ciampino try to sit on the right of the plane, which will fly just to the east of the centre of the city. Reaching Rome you first see the River Tiber and then the Olympic Stadium, Castel Sant' Angelo, St Peter's and the Vatican and the Colosseum. Before touchdown you fly parallel with the old Appian Way, the tree-lined road on a slight incline about 1km from the flightpath.

Public Airport Transportation

From Leonardo da Vinci/Fiumicino airport, there are two train lines to get you into Rome:

  • Leonardo Express trains leave every 30 minutes to the central train station Roma Termini (35 minute trip). Trains from Roma Termini depart from Track 24 on the right. Tickets cost €11 and are available at the counter as well as the Termini news stand. Tickets sold at the departure platform are more expensive. You can't buy a ticket for a specific train; it's just a general ticket for a specific route (Termini), but it's good for any time. Get your ticket stamped in a yellow validation machine just before using it. The ticket will expire 90 minutes after validation.
  • The Metropolitan train does not stop at Termini. Get off at Tiburtina Station or at Ostiense Station to connect to Line B of the Rome Metro, or get off at Trastevere Station and from there take the '8' tram (direction 'Argentina') to go to Largo Argentina and Campo de' Fiori. Tickets are €5.50, plus €1 for a metro/tram ticket. The extra cost of the Leonardo Express is for the convenience of a direct ride to Termini. If you are going somewhere else on the Metro, Tiburtina and Ostiense are as convenient. Get your ticket stamped in a yellow validation machine just before using it.

COTRAL/Schiaffini [3] operates buses from both airports to the city. Don't forget to mark your ticket after getting on the bus; if the machine doesn't work (which is fairly common), you have to write your name, birth date and current date & time on the ticket.

If you arrive or depart after hours at Fiumicino (Unlike some airports that close down completely, there are a few flights in the early hours, although these tend to be charters for Italian holidaymakers), the airport shuttle ([4]) is probably your best bet. They charge EUR 25.00 per passenger and are pretty reliable. Phone 0642013469 or 064740451. Advance booking essential. Taxis should charge the fixed price of EUR 40.00 for the ride into town at nighttime, but they often try to charge more.

From Leonardo da Vinci/Fiumicino, the bus stop is located outdoors at ground level, at the bottom of the A Terminal (Domestic Arrivals). You can buy tickets at the tobacco shop in the A Terminal baggage area, with the blue sign (Tabacheria). Lines from Leonardo da Vinci/Fiumicino are:

  • Aeroporto-Termini-Tiburtina (€3.60)
The schedule for Aeroporto-Termini-Tiburtina is:
from Fiumicino: 1:15, 2:15, 3:30, 5:00, 10:55, 12:00, 15:30
from Tiburtina: 0:30, 1:15, 2:30, 3:45, 9:30, 10:00

(Sept. 2009 -- The night Fiumicino timetable is not kept very well. The bus may be half an hour late or not arrive at all. Perch on the bus stop, do not give up, it will probably come ,eventually.)

  • Aeroporto-Roma Cornelia (metro A) (€2.80) (schedule [5])
  • Aeroporto-Roma Magliana (metro B) (€1.60) (schedule [6])
  • Aeroporto-Ostia Lido (€1.00) (schedule [7])
  • Aeroporto-Fregene (€1.00) (schedule [8])
  • Aeroporto-Fiumicino (città) (€0.77) (schedule [9])

A good choice from Fiumicino is to take the bus to EUR Magliana (stops directly at the metro station, which belongs to line B) and then take the Metro. It's the cheapest way to get to the centre (€2 bus + €1 metro). The sign on this bus reads "Fiumicino-Porto-Magliana" number 771.

From Ciampino airport, you can take the bus from the stop located outside the terminal building to Metro Line A Anagnina station (ticket: €1.20). A metro ticket to central Rome costs another €1. There are also buses at the same price to Ciampino local train station; from there there is a train to Rome Termini station (ticket: €2). The buses operate roughly every hour or 30 minutes during the Italian work day (8-12 and 16-20), and you should count on at least 45 minutes travel time for either route. The Metro can get very crowded. Timetable booklets are available in some information booths.

There are a few direct bus services from Ciampino, all of which go to the Termini in Downtown Rome:

  • Sit bus shuttle [10] runs a line that costs €6 one-way or 10€ with return (approx. 40 min, with about 25 services a day).
  • Terravision [11]. Please note that this is a dedicated airport-city transfer only for the major low cost airlines. The price is €6 one-way or €12 return when booked online (approx. 40 min, with a service every 30 min). It is advised that passengers on the return trip from Termini to board the bus 3 hours before their flight's departure time.
  • COTRAL's direct line costs €5 one-way (approx. 40 min), but has far fewer departures than Terravision. These buses are not mentioned on the airport website yet, but you can find them on Schiaffini's own site. This bus may be useful if you arrive at a time when the Metro is closed.

A shared airport shuttle can be hired for around €15 per person to take you from Ciampino airport. However, since the shuttle is shared, it may take longer to reach your destination if other customers are dropped off before you are.

  • Travel Rome Italy [12]

Private Airport Transportation

Taxis in Rome are white. There are fixed fares from downtown (within the city walls - see map below) to the airports. City center to Fiumicino and vice-versa cost €40. City center to Ciampino and vice-versa cost €30. For other destinations fares are not fixed. Do NOT negotiate the price for the city center with anyone and be sure your driver activates the meter (all regular taxis have a meter) when he starts driving to any other destination. Fee for luggage is around €1 for each piece. Be aware of unlicensed taxi drivers or limousine drivers (dark cars) that approach you at the airports: A drive with them could reach as high as €80. Go directly to the taxi stand and ignore touts.

If you are not going to the city center, be aware that both airports are outside of Rome's ring motorway (GRA). This means that the fare for the first part of the journey is higher (a number 2 appears on the meter): the driver is supposed to change the fare to number 1 once he passes over or joins the GRA. If, when travelling from Fiumicino you pass a service area on both sides of the highway, with a McDonalds on the left side, and the meter has not been changed you should ask the driver to change it (Numero uno per favore). The quality of Rome's taxis is very variable. You may get a brand-new Mercedes or you may get a 10-year-old Fiat with no shock absorbers and no luggage space. But the fare will be the same!

Rental cars are available from all major carriers at both airports. Providers can be reached easily in the Arrivals Hall at Fiumicino and in the airport terminal at Ciampino.

By train

Rome's main railway station is Termini Station. Like any other train station, it is not very safe at night. It is also locked up between 00:30 and 04:30, when the only people hanging around outside are taxi drivers and the homeless. Most long-distance trains passing through Rome between these times will stop at Tiburtina station instead.

Other main stations include Ostiense, Trastevere, Tuscolana, Tiburtina.

By car

Driving to Rome is quite easy; as they say, all roads lead to Rome. The city is ringed by a motorway, the GRA. If you are going to the very centre of the city any road leading off the GRA will get you there. If you are going anywhere else, however, a GPS or a good map is essential. Signs on the GRA indicate the name of the road leading to the centre (e.g. Via Appia Nuova, Via Aurelia, Via Tiburtina) but this is useful only for Romans who know where these roads pass.

By boat

Most cruise ships dock in Civitavecchia, to afford their passengers opportunity to visit the area and/or Rome. Many ships arrange a shuttle bus to and from the port entrance. From there you can walk 10-15 minutes to the Civitavecchia train station. Purchase of a B.I.R.G. round trip train ticket for Rome costs just 9 Euros (as of Fall 2008), and also entitles you to unlimited use of Rome's Metro/underground and bus lines. Trains for commuters leave every hour or so, and take about 80 minutes. You can get off near St. Peters, or continue to the Termini station right downtown, where countless buses and the Metro await. At some ten times the cost, ships often offer bus trips as well, taking 2 hours or so to reach Rome.

Now it is possible for modest-sized cruise ships to dock in new Porto di Roma, Ostia, located a few kilometers from Rome and linked by train and metro.

Get around

Roma Pass

If you'll be staying in Rome for at least 3 days, consider purchasing the Roma Pass (http://www.romapass.it). The cost is 23 euros and entitles holders to free admission to the first two museums and/or archaeological sites visited, full access to the public transport system, reduced tickets and discounts for any other following museums and sites visited, as well as exhibitions, music events, theatrical and dance performances and all other tourist services.

By car

In a nutshell: Don't do it. Well, some people actually enjoy it. Roman traffic is chaotic, but it is possible to drive there. However, the roads are not logical and the signs are few. It will take a few weeks to understand where to drive, to get where you want to go. When driving in Rome it is important to accept that Italians drive in a very pragmatic way. Taking turns and letting people go in front of you is rare. There is little patience so if the light is green when you go into the intersection and you are too slow they will let you know. A green light turning to amber is a reason to accelerate, not brake, in part because the lights usually stay amber for several seconds. If you brake immediately when the light changes you are likely to get rear-ended. Parking is scarce. Rome is plagued with people who demand money to direct you to a space, even on the rare occasions when there are many places available. While in Rome, it is far better to travel by bus or metro, or (in extremis) take a taxi.

If you are driving in the center, note that many areas are limited to people with special electronic passes. If you go into these areas (which are camera controlled and marked with the sign ZTL) you may end up with a fine, particularly if your car has Italian plates.

Fake taxis

Some private citizens dress up their cars to look like cabs. These people strategically locate themselves at airports and railway stations waiting for travelers. Beware of operators who don't display a licensed meter and ID. Use only authorized taxis (white vehicles with a taximeter) that are available in the arrivals areas of the terminals. Also, some airport employees may direct you to a 'Taxi' driver if you ask where you find them when you are inside the airport terminal. The 'Taxi' could end up being a Mercedes limo, costing you double the fare of a real taxi, and a tricky situation to get out of as your luggage is locked away in the limo's trunk.

Taxis are the most expensive way to get around Rome, but when weighed against convenience and speed, they are often worth it. Roman taxis within the city walls run on meters, and you should always make sure the driver starts the meter. Taxis will typically pick you up only at a taxi stand, which you will find at all but the smallest piazzas, as well as at the main train station or when called by phone. Flagging down a taxi (like in London) is possible but quite rare as the taxi drivers prefer to use the stands. When you get in the cab, there will be a fixed starting charge, which will be more for late nights, Sundays and holidays. Supplements will be requested for bags that the driver has to handle, typically €1 per bag. So, if you have a limited amount of luggage that wouldn't need to go in the trunk, you may decline when the driver offers to put your bags in the trunk. Drivers may not use the shortest route, so try to follow the route with a map and discuss if you feel you're being tricked.

Be warned that when you phone for a taxi, the cab's meter starts running when it is summoned, not when it arrives to pick you up, so by the time a cab arrives at your location, there may already be a substantial amount on the meter. You can get a taxi pretty easily at any piazza though, so calling ahead is really not required.

A trip completely across the city (within the walls) will cost about €11, a little more if there is heavy traffic at night or on a Sunday. From Ciampino airport the flat rate is €30 to anywhere in the historic centre, that is inside the Roman walls, while from Fiumicino (Leonardo da Vinci) airport the flat rate is €40 to anywhere in the city also inside the roman walls, and this is set by the city council. Outside the walls you pay according to the distance. Drivers at the airport may try to talk you into more, saying that your destination is 'inside the wall' or 'hard to get to'. State clearly before you drive away that you want the meter to run. If they try to overcharge you, say that you are looking for a policeman. They will probably back down. Taxi drivers can often try to trick customers by switching a 50 euro note for a 10 euro note during payment, leading you to believe that you handed them only 10 euro when you have already given them 50 euro. The main taxi companies may be called at 063570 and 065551.

Rome also has several taxi cooperatives:

  • La Capitale, Tel 064994
  • Roma Sud, Tel 066645
  • Cosmos, Tel 0688177

By foot

Once you're in the center, you are best off on foot. What could be more romantic than strolling through Rome on foot holding hands? That is hard to beat!

Crossing a street in Rome can be a bit challenging. There are crosswalks, but they are rarely located at signaled intersections. Traffic can be intimidating, but if you are at a crosswalk just start walking and cars will let you cross the street. While crossing watch out for the thousands of mopeds. As in many European cities, even if the cars and trucks are stationary due to a jam or for another legal reason, mopeds and bikes will be trying to squeeze through the gaps and may be ignoring the reason why everyone else has stopped. This means that even if the traffic seems stationary you need to pause and look around into the gaps.

By public transport (ATAC)

Tickets must be bought (from a 'Tabacchi' - look for the big 'T' sign, these shops are plentiful), before you board the bus, Metro, or tram. Metro stations will have automated ticket kiosks, and major Metro stations will have clerked ticket windows. Many trams have single ticket machines as well. Tickets for regular ATAC buses, Metro, and trams are the same fares and are compatible with each other. Options as of March 2009 are the following:

  • a single ticket ride ('Biglietto') - €1.00 - you can change buses or into and out of the metro on one journey (valid for 75 minutes)
  • Integrated Daily Ticket ('Biglietto Giornaliero') - €4 (Valid until midnight).
  • Integrated Tourist Ticket ('Biglietto Turistico') (3-day) - €11
  • Integrated Weekly Ticket ('Carta Integrata Settimanale') (7-day) - €16
  • Monthly Pass ('Abbonamento Mensile') - €30
  • Annual Pass ('Abbonamento Annuale') - €230

When you board the bus or metro you should validate it ('convalidare') in the little yellow machine. The last four passes on the list must be validated the first time you use it only. On the whole, the integrated passes are not economical. Unless you take many rides spread all over the day, the single ticket ride option is preferable. Calculating if a pass is worthy is easy since a single ticket ride costs €1. For example, for a daily ticket (€4) to be worthy, you would have to make 5 or more trips at intervals greater than 75 minutes apart on a single day. The common daily case for most visitors is walking through the city in one direction and taking a single ride back.

ATAC [15] polices the buses, Metro, and trams for people riding without tickets. Inspectors can be rare on some buses, although they tend to increase their presence in the summer. Inspectors are present on the Metro as well, and you should keep your validated ticket throughout your journey as proof-of-payment. If you don't have sufficient money on you to pay the fine, they will actually escort you to an ATM to pay the fee. If you don't have an ATM card to withdraw money, you will be asked to pay by mail, and the fee goes up to €140. Inspectors can also fine you for getting in and out of the wrong door, even if the bus is empty! The entrances are the front and rear doors and the exit in the middle. Many Romans ignore this distinction.

Bus

Roman buses are reliable but crowded. They are the best way to get around the city (except walking).

Free maps of the bus system are available. Others for purchase (3.5 euro at Termini). Bus stops list the stops for each route. Ask for assistance. (In Rome, there is always somebody nearby who speaks English.)

  • One of the most popular and useful lines is the 40, which arches from the Termini station through the historic center and then up to the Castel Sant'Angelo, near the Vatican. It is considered an express route, so its bus stops are spaced about 1/2 mile (2/3 km) apart; but it is also very frequent, very convenient for most places that the Metro does not go to, and very fast moving, especially compared to other routes.
  • The 64 also goes from Termini to the Vatican. Beware, it is a favourite with pickpockets.
  • The 116 and 117 are little electric buses which winds through the Centro Storico.
  • The metro is quick and efficient, especialy 'Linea A' (the 'red' route). It goes South to Anagnina, from where busses leave every half-hour or so to Ciampino airport. (Ticket on this bus costs EUR 1.20 - but on the bus.)
  • Night buses should be useful due to the closing of the Metro stations at 23:30 and the stop of regular lines of buses and Trams at midnight. During the summer (until 23rd September) and on Fridays and Saturdays, the frequency of the rides is halved, which can vary among 10, 15, 30 and 35 minutes depending on the line, and of course, the particular pace of the city. In any case they are much more punctual than during the day, as traffic is much less jammed. This makes the drivers drive at high speeds, allowing passengers to experience a strange mixture of adrenaline and (the city's) classical views. Hubs of the night buses are Termini and Piazza Venezia.

Hop on / Hop off Buses

A popular alternative to city and pre-planned tour buses are the hop-on/hop-off, open-top double-decker buses. In the last few years there has been a veritable explosion in the number of such tours and at the last count there were seven different companies. An all-day ticket runs about 18-20 Euros, can be purchased as you board at any stop, and provides unlimited access to available seats (upper deck highly preferrable in good weather) and earbud phones to plug into outlets for running commentary on approaching sights. Commentary is offered in nearly every European language. Most companies follow more or less the same route, starting at Termini station but there are also two different tours of "Christian Rome" and the Archeobus, which will take you to the catacombs and along the Appian Way.

Tram

Rome's metro network
Rome's metro network

The Tram routes mostly skirt the historic center, but there are stops convenient for the Vatican, the Colosseum, and the Trastevere area. The number 8 does run into the center to Largo Argentina, not far from the Pantheon. If you want to catch a soccer game at one of the stadiums in the north of the city, catch the tram (2) just north of the Piazza del Popolo. Number 19 links the Vatican with Villa Borghese.

Metro

There are two lines, crossing at Termini station. Line A (red line) runs northwest past the Vatican, and south. Line B (Blue Line) runs southwest past the Colosseum and northeast. In 2008 Line A stops running at 11:00 pm. On Fridays and Saturdays the last trains of Line B leave from the stations at 1:30 am and the line closes at 2:00 am to re-open at 5.00. The Metro is the most punctual form of public transportation in Rome, but it can get extremely crowded during rush hour. See safety warning in the Stay Safe section.

By commuter rail

There is a network of suburban rail lines that mostly connect to smaller towns and conurbations of Rome. However, most of Rome is well covered by the ATAC buses, Metro, and trams.

On a moped

There is the possibility to hire motor bikes or scooters. Motorbikes are not particularly safe in Rome and most accidents seem to involve one (or two!). Nevertheless, Roman traffic is chaotic and a scooter provides excellent mobility within the city. Scooter rental costs between 30 and 70 euros per day depending on scooter size and rental company. The traffic can be intimidating and the experience exciting but a bit insane.

Some of the main rental shops:

Scoot A Long noleggio scooter via Cavour 302 00193 Roma (RM) tel: 06 6780206

Centro Moto Coloseo strada statale Quattro, 46 tel: 06 70451069

Eco Move Rent Via Varese 48/50 00185 - Roma 06.44704518

Rent & Rent 00184 Roma (RM) 33, v. Capo d'Africa tel: 06 7002915

On a bicycle

There is the possibility to hire any kind of bike in Rome: from tandem, road bikes, children bikes to trekking bikes. Some shops are even specialized only on high quality ones while street stands will hire you cheaper and heavy ones. Bicycling alone can be stressful because of the traffic. The best way is to discover first how to move around and avoid traffic and stress with a guide thanks to one of the tours offered by almost all rental shops. There are different itineraries offered from the basic city center, panoramic Rome, tour to the Ancient Parks (from 29euro for 4h). The experience is well worth it and you would reduce also your impact on the city environment and on the traffic which is the biggest problem of the capital.

Some of the many rental shops:

  • Punto Informativo via Appia Antica 58/60. From Monday to Saturday from 9.3am to 1.30pm and from 2.00pm to 5.30pm (4.30 in wintertime) and on Sundays and holidays from 9.30am to 5.30pm non stop (4.30 wintertime). Price: 3 Euro/hour and 10 Euro/day (info tel. 06 5126314)
  • Comitato per la Caffarella (Largo Tacchi Venturi). Sundays from 10am to 6pm. Price: 3 Euro/hour and 10 Euro/day (Info and reservations tel. 06 789279)
  • Catacombe di San Sebastiano. Every day except Sundays; Price: 3 Euro/hour and 10 Euro/day (Info tel. 06 7850350).
  • TopBike Rental & Tours. Via Quattro Cantoni 40 (between Termini Station and the Colosseum). Everyday from 9.30 to 19 nostop (For info or reservations tel. 06 4882893)
  • Bici & Baci. Via del Viminale, 5 (Termini Station). Tel. 064828443
  • Collalti. Via del Pellegrino, 82 (Campo de’ Fiori). Tel.0668801084
  • Romarent. Vicolo dei Bovari, 7/a (Campo de’ Fiori). Tel.066896555
  • Bikeaway. Via Monte del Gallo, 25 A ( Stazione FS S. Pietro). Tel.0645495816
Campidoglio Rome
Campidoglio Rome

Italians are very fond of their landmarks; in order to make them accessible to everyone one week a year there is no charge for admittance to all publicly owned landmarks and historical sites. This week, known as "La settimana dei beni culturali", typically occurs in mid-May and for those 7 to 10 days every landmark, archaeological site and museum belonging to government (including the Quirinale presidential palace and gardens, the Colosseum and all of the ancient Forum) are accessible and free of charge. For more information and for specific dates see [16] or [17].

You are able to buy full day passes for €10(not up to date) or a standard Colosseum + Palatine ticket at €12 or a 3-day pass for €23(not up to date). This pass gets you in to the Colosseum (Colosseo), Palatine Hill (Palatino Hill), the Baths of Caracalla (Terme di Caracalla), and the catacombs as well as the Terme di Diocleziano, Palazza Massimo alle Terme, Crypta Balbi, Palazzo Altemps, Villa dei Quintili, Tomba di Cecilia Metella. If you don't want to cram it all into one day, get the pass. Plus, it is nice to buy a slice of pizza and eat in the gardens of Palatine Hill. The Colosseum and Palatine Hill are not much more impressive from the inside than they are from the outside. If you're not into ruins, save yourself the two hours and the €12 entrance fee.

Coffers and Oculus of the Pantheon
Coffers and Oculus of the Pantheon

The main area for exploring the ruins of ancient Rome is in Rome/Colosseo either side of Via dei Fori Imperiali, which connects the Colosseum and Piazza Venezia. Constructed between 1931 and 1933, at the time of Mussolini, this road destroyed a large area of Renaissance and medieval buildings constructed on top of ruins of the ancient forums and ended forever plans for an archeological park stretching all the way to the Appian Way. Heading towards the Colosseum from Piazza Venezia, you see the Roman Forum on your right and Trajan's Forum and Market on the left. To the right of the Colosseum is the Arch of Constantine and the beginning of the Palatine Hill, which will eventually lead you to ruins of the Flavian Palace and a view of the Circus Maximus (see Rome/Aventino-Testaccio). To the left, after the Colosseum is a wide, tree-lined path that climbs through the Colle Oppio park. Underneath this park is the Golden House of Nero (Domus Aurea), an enormous and spectacular underground complex restored and then closed again due to damage caused by heavy rain. Further to the left on the Esquiline Hill are ruins of Trajan's baths.

In Old Rome you must see the Pantheon, which is amazingly well preserved considering it dates back to 125 AD. There is a hole on the ceiling so it is an interesting experience to be there when it is raining. If you are heading to the Pantheon from Piazza Venezia you first reach Largo di Torre Argentina on your left. Until 1926 this was covered in narrow streets and small houses, which were razed to the ground when ruins of Roman temples were discovered. Moving along Corso Vittorio Emmanuelle and crossing the Tiber river into the Vatican area you see the imposing Castel Sant' Angelo, built as a Mausoleum for the Emperor Hadrian. This is connected by a covered fortified corridor to the Vatican and served as a refuge for Popes in times of trouble.

South of the Colosseum are the Baths of Caracalla (Aventino-Testaccio). You can then head South-East on the old Appian Way, passing through a stretch of very well-preserved city wall. For the adventurous, continuing along the Appian Way (Rome/South) will bring you to a whole host of Roman ruins, including the Circus of Maxentius, the tomb of Cecilia Metella, the Villa dei Quintili and, nearby, several long stretches of Roman aqueduct.

Returning to the Modern Center, the Baths of Diocletian are opposite the entrance to the main railway station, Termini. The National Museum of Rome stands in the South-West corner of the Baths complex and has an enormous collection of Roman scultures and other artifacts. But this is just one of numerous museums devoted to ancient Rome, including those of the Capitoline Hill. It is really amazing how much there is.

Baldacchino and Dome, St. Peter's Basilica
Baldacchino and Dome, St. Peter's Basilica

There are more than 900 churches in Rome. Probably one third would be well worth a visit! The first churches of Rome originated in places where early Christians met, usually in the homes of private citizens. By the IVth Century, however, there were already four major churches, or basilicas. Rome had 28 cardinals who took it in turns to give mass once a week in one of the basilicas. In one form or another the four basilicas are with us today and constitute the major churches of Rome. They are St Peter’s, St Paul’s Outside the Walls, Santa Maria Maggiore and San Giovanni. All pilgrims to Rome are expected to visit these four basilicas, together with San Lorenzo fuori le mura, Santa Croce in Gerusalemme, and the Sanctuary of Divino Amore. The latter was inserted as one of the seven at the time of the Great Jubilee in 2000, replacing San Sebastiano outside the walls.

Take a look inside a few churches. You'll find the richness and range of decor astonishing, from fine classical art to tacky electric candles.

Some churches in Rome deny admission to people who are dressed inappropriately. You will find "fashion police" at the most visited churches. ("Knees and shoulders" are the main problem - especially female ones.) Bare shoulders, short skirts, and shorts are officially not allowed, but long shorts and skirts reaching just above the knee should generally be no problem. However, it's always safer to wear longer pants or skirts that go below the knee; St. Peter's in particular is known for rejecting tourists for uncovered knees, shoulders, midriffs, etc. (You also generally won't be told until right before you enter the church, so you will have made the trek to the Vatican and stood in a long security line for nothing.) The stricter churches usually have vendors just outside selling inexpensive scarves and sometimes plastic pants. But relatively few churches enforce dress codes and you can wander into most wearing shorts, sleeveless shirts, or pretty much anything without problems. It is, however, good to keep one's dress tasteful, as these are still churches and houses of prayer for many people. (Older Romans might comment on your attire and perhaps harass you if it is particularly revealing.)

The original seven hills and the city wall
The original seven hills and the city wall

To the modern visitor, the Seven Hills of Rome can be rather difficult to identify. In the first place generations of buildings constructed on top of each other and the construction of tall buildings in the valleys have tended to make the hills less pronounced than they originally were. Secondly, there are clearly more than seven hills. In Roman days many of these were outside the city boundaries.

The seven hills were first occupied by small settlements and not recognized as a city for some time. Rome came into being as these settlements acted together to drain the marshy valleys between them and turn them into markets and fora. The Roman Forum used to be a swamp.

The Palatine Hill looms over Circus Maximus and is accessed near the Colosseum . Legend has it that this was occupied by Romulus when he fell out with his brother, Remus, who occupied the Aventine Hill on the other side of the Circus. Also clearly recognisable as hills are the Caelian, to the southeast of Circus Maximus and the Capitoline, which overlooks the Forum and now hosts the Municipality of Rome. East and northeast of the Roman Forum are the Esquiline, Viminal, and Quirinal hills. These are less easy to distinguish as separate hills these days and from a distance look like one.

The red line on the map indicates the Servian Wall, built in the Fourth Century BC by the Emperor Servius. Small bits of this wall can still be seen, particularly close to Termini railway station and on the Aventine hill. As Rome expanded new walls were required to protect the larger area. These were built in the Third Century AD by the Emperor Aurelian. Lengthy sections of this wall remain all around the outskirts of Rome's center. Much is in very good condition.

Among other hills of Rome, not included in the seven, are that overlooking the Vatican; the Janiculum overlooking Trastevere, which provides excellent views of Rome; the Pincio on the edge of the Borghese Gardens, which gives good views of the Vatican and the Monte Mario to the north.

Museums

If you are in Rome for the Arts there are several world class museums in the city, the natural starting point is a visit to Villa Borghese in Campo Marzio, where there is a cluster of art museums, Galleria Borghese houses a previously private art collection of the Borghese family, Museo Nazionale di Villa Giulia is home of the worlds largest Etruscan art collection, and Galleria Nazionale d'Arte Moderna is both home of some national master pieces, and international blockbusters like Cézanne, Degas, Monet and Van Gogh. The Capitoline Museums in the Colosseo district opens its doors to city's most important collection of antique Roman and Greek art and sculptures. Visit the Galleria d'Arte Antica, housed in the Barberini palace in the Modern center, for Italian Renaissance and Baroque art.

Rome's National Museum at the Baths of Diocletian in the Modern Center has a vast archaeological collection as does the national museum at Palazzo Altemps, close to Piazza Navona. Further afield, the Museo di Civilta Romana (Museum of Rome's Civilization), in EUR is most famous for a large model of Imperial Rome, but also has a large display of plaster casts, models and reconstructions of statues and Roman stonework.

If you have plenty of time there is absolutely no shortage of other museums covering a wide variety of interests. Examples include the Museum of the Walls (see Rome/South), the Musical Instrument Museum and a museum devoted to the liberation of Rome from German occupation in the Second World War (Rome/Esquilino-San Giovanni)

Check museum opening hours before heading there. Government museums are invariably closed on Mondays, so that is a good day for other activities.

Just walking around

Much of the attraction of Rome is in just wandering around the old city. You can quickly escape from the major tourist routes and feel as if you are in a small medieval village, not a capital city. Keep your eyes pointing upwards. There are some amazing roof gardens and all sorts of sculptures, paintings and religious icons attached to exterior walls. Look through 2nd and 3rd floor windows to see some oak-beamed ceilings in the old houses. Look through the archway entrances of larger Palazzos to see incredible courtyards, complete with sculptures, fountains and gardens. Take a stroll in the area between Piazza Navona and the Tiber river in Old Rome where artisans continue to ply their trade from small shops. Also in Old Rome, take a 1km stroll down Via Giulia, which is lined with many old palaces. Film enthusiasts will want to visit Via Veneto (Via Vittorio Veneto) in the Modern Center, scene for much of Fellini's La Dolce Vita.

The Piazzas

The narrow streets frequently broaden out into small or large squares (piazzas), which usually have one or more churches and a fountain or two. Apart from Piazza Navona and Piazza della Rotonda (in front of the Pantheon), take in Piazza della Minerva, with its unique elephant statue by Bernini and Piazza Colonna with the column of Marcus Aurelius and Palazzo Chigi, meeting place of the Italian Government. On the other side of Corso Vittorio Emanuele are Piazza Farnese with the Palazzo of the same name (now the French Embassy) and two interesting fountains and the flower sellers at Campo dei Fiori, scene of Rome's executions in the old days. All of these squares are a short distance from each other in Old Rome. The enormous Piazza del Popolo in the North Center, which provided an imposing entrance to the city when it represented the northern boundary of Rome, is well worth a visit. A short walk back towards the center brings you to Piazza di Spagna at the foot of the Spanish Steps. Yet another fascinating fountain here. On the other side of the river is, of course, the magnificent square of St Peter's at the Vatican. Further south, in Trastevere is Piazza Santa Maria in Trastevere, a great place to watch the world go by, either from one of the restaurants or bars that line two sides of the square or, if that is too expensive, from the steps of the central fountain. The square attracts many street entertainers.

Moving back to the Modern Center you have to see the Trevi Fountain, surely a part of everyone's Roman holiday. Visitors are always amazed that such a big and famous fountain is tucked away in a small piazza in the middle of side streets. Take extra-special care of your possessions here. Further up the Via del Tritone we come to Piazza Barberini, now full of traffic but the lovely Bernini fountain is not to be missed.

  • Rome like You’ll Never Forget

How to have a Hollywood-inspired Roman holiday

Exuding an unbelievable character spun by the legacy of the past mixed with the energetic vibe of the future, Rome is indeed the Eternal City where time does not seem to rule. Both the new and the old find their place in Rome, which is full of timeless and significant monuments that appeal to every tourist’s need for awe-striking things to see. The classic multicultural tourism scene of Rome enjoys an enthusiastic mishmash of cultures and sensations and has made its appearance in popular films through the years.

Start Your Roman Holiday at the Piazza di Spagna

One of the most popular attractions of Rome is the Piazza di Spagna or the Spanish Square, a highly popular meeting place situated in the center of Rome’s historic district. The Piazza di Spagna is a good place to start your vacation in Rome, and the classic 1953 romantic comedy “Roman Holiday” attests to this.

The Piazza di Spagna is a long and spacious square flanked on three sides by three important Roman attractions, and “each, in its own way, is unforgettable,” as Hepburn’s Princess Ann expressed. These attractions are the Spanish Steps, the Barcaccia Fountain just at the foot of the Spanish Steps, and the Trinita dei Monti at the top of the Spanish Steps.

The unique shape of Piazza di Spagna makes it one of the most distinct plazas in the world, and it is surrounded by a rich and colorful Roman baroque environment that distinguished its many attractions, hotels, residences, inns, cafes, and restaurants.

This distinct area of Piazza di Spagna serves as the main setting of Roman Holiday, which was the first film that introduced film icon Audrey Hepburn. She was joined in the film by Gregory Peck and Eddie Albert. The film centered around the secret but carefree Roman holiday enjoyed by Hepburn’s character Ann, a princess who escapes from her official visit to Rome to be able to roam the city by herself. By the Spanish Steps, she meets Joe, played by Peck, who encourages her to try a gelato and loosen up so she can fully embrace her Roman holiday.

Wind Your Way through Rome by the Via Veneto

A few steps away from the Trinita dei Monti lies the Via Veneto, one of the most famous and most expensive streets of Rome. The famous street factors into certain significant scenes in the iconic 1960 film La Dolce Vita or The Sweet Life, an unforgettable film that offered an equally memorable mirage of classic and romantic Rome.

The film, directed by renowned director Federico Fellini, centered around the life of Marcello, a journalist exploring Rome and searching for real happiness and love. In the span of seven days, he meets two beautiful women, Maddalena and Sylvia, as well as an old friend and his father.

Due to the popularity sparked by the film, Via Veneto became a bustling market for the upper classes, and tourists looking for the sweet luxurious life of Rome need only to go to Via Veneto for the best cafes and shops. The street of Via Veneto is lined with trees and flower beds, as well as with famous celebrities from all over the world. The street then branches out into little lanes that lead to the famous trattorias of Rome.

Live the Sweet Life at the Trevi Fountain

The famous film, La Dolce Vita, also made another important Roman attraction, the Trevi Fountain, a world icon. The Fontana di Trevi is undoubtedly the most beautiful fountain in Rome. Fashioned in baroque style, the fountain now serves as an important Roman landmark where three roads and Rome’s ancient aqueducts met. It was commissioned in 1732 and completed in 1762. It was originally designed by Bernini, but the completion of the project was led by Nicola Salvi.

The fountain’s central figure is a statue of Neptune, the god of the sea, while riding on a shell-shaped chariot. The chariot is pulled by two sea horses of differing characters, one calm and the other restless. The site of the fountain is now often overflowing with tourists, and many can be seen tossing a coin into the fountain and envisioning their return to Rome.

This famous fountain was made even more famous thanks to the iconic and controversial scene in Federico Fellini’s La Dolce Vita. In the movie, Anita Ekberg played the role of Sylvia, a Swedish-American movie star Marcello desired. And in the unforgettable scene, Sylvia waded into the fountain and was followed by Marcello. In many reviews, Sylvia was later dubbed as Aphrodite incarnate. The scene fast became a cinematic revolution, and played a role in the fame of the Trevi Fountain.

Celebrate Rome at the Pantheon

Finally, don’t forget to drop by the Pantheon to complete your Roman holiday. The Pantheon is one of the most historically important monuments in Rome. It is considered as the temple of all the gods. It was constructed between 118 and 125 AD and is well-known for its large dome. Wonderfully preserved, the Pantheon provides a glimpse of the unforgettable past. It is now teeming with cafes and a piazza where Roman tourists and residents can mingle and relax.

The Pantheon was recently featured in the Hollywood film Angels and Demons, based on the famous novel by controversial author Dan Brown. In the film, Robert Langdon’s frantic search for the Illuminati led him to the Pantheon, which lies to the north of the Piazza della Rotunda. The Pantheon was already a famous monument prior to the making of the movie, but the recent film once again immortalized the historical story surrounding the ancient temple and celebrated the grandeur of Rome.

To experience the breathtaking history of Rome, book a room at the Hotel Barocco in Rome to make your Roman holiday an even more unforgettable one.

Viewpoints

With no tall buildings in Rome, views of the city come from climbing the many hills, either the original seven hills of Rome or others that surround them. The two most popular views of Rome are from the Janiculum hill overlooking Trastevere and the Pincio at the edge of the Borghese Gardens. The former, best reached by car, has sweeping views of the center of Rome, as long as the authorities remember to prune the trees on the hillside in front of the viewpoint. Cross over the piazza for an excellent view of the dome of St Peter's. The Vatican is the main sight from the Pincio (metro Line A, Piazza del Popolo, and then a good climb). Less popular, but just as nice, is the orange grove at Parco Savello on the Aventine Hill.

Rome for kids

If you are planning some serious sightseeing then leave the kids with their grandparents! They don’t take kindly to being dragged from ruin to ruin and church to church. A common sight in Rome is miserable looking kids traipsing after their parents. Also, push chairs/buggies are difficult to use because of the cobbled streets. If you are a family, do not try to do to much. It will be a big strain on kids and in the end everyone will be tired.

Apart from the major attractions Rome has relatively little to entertain kids. If you noticed a big Ferris wheel on your way in from Fiumicino Airport, think again. Lunapark at EUR was closed down in 2008. A few of the other ways to bribe your kids, however, are:

  • Children's Museum. Via Flaminia 82. Just north of Piazza del Popolo. Controlled entrance at 10.00, 12,00, 15.00 and 17.00 for visits lasting 1 hour 45 minutes. Closed Mondays and for much of August. Best to check the web site for up-to-date info and to book in advance.[18] Hands-on science, mainly for pre-teens, housed in a former tram-car depot.
  • 3d-Rewind, Via Capo D'Africa 5 (just behind the Colosseum), [19]. 9.00-19.00. provides a three-dimensional look at what the Colosseum and the Forum were like in the days of the Romans. Kids really like it but parents beware that you have to brave a large "merchandising" area after leaving the show, with overpriced souvenirs. €15 for adults and €8 for kids.  edit.
  • Bioparco. The renamed Rome Zoo. On the edge of the Borghese Gardens. From 09.30 to 17.00 or 18.00 depending on the month. They try hard, but San Diego this isn't. If you are a regular zoo-goer you will be disappointed.[20]
  • The Time Elevator. Via dei Santi Apostoli, 20 on a side street between Piazza Venezia and the Trevi Fountain. Daily 10.30 to 19.30. "Five-dimensional" shows on the Origins of Life and on the History of Rome, plus "The House of Horrors". Not for the faint-hearted: your seats move all over the place. Kids love it. [21]
  • Rome's Wax Museum. 67 Piazza di Santi Apostoli, next to Piazza Venezia. Few good reports about this museum. Comments invited.
  • Planetarium at EUR. This also has an excellent astronomy museum and is conveniently next to the Museum of Rome's Civilization [22].
  • The Vatican is, by and large, not a great idea for kids although they often enjoy is the Sistine Chapel and are impressed by the beauty and the fact that it was all done in just four years. However, the Sistine Chapel is very crowded and getting there through the corridors of the Vatican Museum is even worse. It is easy for families to get separated so determine a meeting point. The best part of St. Peters Basilica is that kids can go to the top of the dome. It is 500 steps but you can take the elevator up to the third floor. From there there are another 323 exhausting steps. So it is fun for older kids who can both climb up all the stairs and walk down as there is a huge line for the elevator.
  • Zoomarine. Dolphins, sea lions, exotic birds, splashy rides and swimming pools, some 20km south of Rome near Pomezia. A good day out, but is this really why you came to Rome? Free transport from EUR and Pomezia railway station. Check web site for details. [23]

Do

Walk and feel the energy of the place, sights are everywhere waiting to be discovered.

Explore the Trastevere neighbourhood for some great cafes and trattorie, and a glimpse at a hip Roman neighbourhood.

  • Estate Romana Festival (Roman Summer Festival) - from late June through early September offers various musical events of jazz, rock, and classical music, and film, sport, theater and children’s fun.
  • White Night (Notte Bianca) [24] - in early to mid-September, various events and plus shops and restaurants, museums stay open while the Roman Notte Bianca stages music, dance and theater events. Expect enormous crowds; buses and trams will be packed to the brim; prepare on getting cozy with copious Romans.
  • Opera at Caracalla, Baths of Caracalla (see Rome/Aventino-Testaccio), [25]. If you are in Rome during summertime don’t miss the chance to experience a lyric opera in the truly unique setting of the Caracalla Thermae. 2009 program included: Tosca, Carmen and Midsummer Night’s Dream. Shows starting at 21.00  edit

Learn

Rome is replete with foreign language and cultural institutions. Of course, learning Italian is a worthwhile activity while in Rome.

Be a good guest if you do not speak Italian. Being extra polite will keep you out of trouble.

  • The regional government and two historical societies are offering free Latin classes to tourists. [26].
  • The Historical Group of Rome runs a gladiator school. 18 Via Appia Antica. ph 00396 51607951. [27], [28].

Work

If you want to work during the tourist season, ask around at the hostels, hotels and restaurants with that touristy feel. It is quite easy to get a job, and it is a lot of fun even if it does not usually pay well. There are differing views on how easy it is to get a job out here. There is high unemployment and most jobs seem to go on a family - friends - other romans - other Italians - white EU - other foreigners pecking order. Italian helps. And be wary about making any financial commitments before you've actually been paid -- late and non-payment is common here, and you may find as a non-Roman you are more likely to be seen as an easy target for this. You will also need a permesso di soggiorno, whether or not you are an EU resident. Legally, you are required to have a working visa, although it is very easy to work and live without one.

Talk

In Rome, obviously the population speaks in Italian for formal purposes. The road signs are in Italian but it's common to find explanations in English too.

Residents in their common life speak their own slang, romanesco, a dialectal form of Italian based on vernacular expressions and particular contractions and vocabulary. Roman slang is not far from Italian language so is easily understood by other Italian people, while for foreigners it can become harder. If they see that you are foreigner, usually they'll speak in correct Italian language. Roman people are very fond of their language. In southern Italy and in the big cities people use dialects. Don't be surprised if you can't understand locals in Naples or Reggio di calabria even if you know Italian quite well. In this situation, politely ask them to repeat.

English is widely spoken in Rome, especially by people working in virtually any touristy areas. But you'll be able to speak English with common people very often, especially with younger persons aged between 14 and 35. English is studied by Italian students since lower schools and they often can speak it: if you meet someone who's not skilled, he'll however understand basic questions and will surely try to help you. Among older citizens, the chance is rather low.

Other Romance languages, especially Spanish and French, are also fairly widely spoken.

snapshot of a Roman market
snapshot of a Roman market

Main shopping areas include Via del Corso, Via Condotti, and surroundings. The finest designer stores are around Via Condotti, whilst Via del Corso has more affordable clothing, and Via Cola di Rienzo, and the surroundings of Via del Tritone, Campo de'Fiori, and Pantheon is place to go for the cheapest items. Upim is a good shop for cheap clothing of workable quality. Some brands (like Miss Sixty and Furla) are excellent, some are not as good - be sure to feel garments and try them on. There are also great quality shoes and leather bags at prices that compare well to the UK and US. But when shopping for clothes note that bigger sizes than a UK size 16/US 12 isn't always easy to find, and Children's clothing can be expensive - basic vests (tank tops) can cost 21 euro in non-designer shops. Summer sales begin around July 15th.

If you want to spend a day in a large shopping mall, there's the Euroma2 with about 230 shops (mainly clothes and accessories) and restaurants near EUR district. Take Metro B line from Termini to EUR Palasport station, cross the road and take the frequent free bus (ride takes ca 15 minutes) to the mall. In addition to many shops and food, the conditioned air and free toilets may be helpful for a tourist.

There are lots of fake plastic 'Louis Vuitton' bags on sale from immigrants. Make sure you haggle; unsuspecting tourists pay up to 60euro for them. Be aware, that buying of fake products is criminalized in Italy. Fines up to €1000 have been reported. It is possible that having a receipt helps even if the product is fake - this is, however, quite uncertain.

Factory Outlets

  • Castel Romano, near Rome, along the Pontina regional highway, [29]. A very large Factory Outlet with more than 100 branded shops. A car is needed to reach the place but a 30% discount in a designer shop is surely worth the 20Km trip.
  • Valmontone, [30]. A little further away from Rome than Castel Romano, you can find Valmontone outlet on the motorway towards Napoli just 50 Km far from Rome. Valmontone itself is a delightful little town - 30 mins by train.

Eat

The Trastevere neighborhood and the old Jewish quarter have some of the best trattorie and ristoranti in Rome.

Eat like a Roman

In Rome you can ask for:

  • Carciofi alla romana - Artichokes, Roman style
  • Carciofi alla giudia - Artichokes, Jewish style
  • Puntarelle - Chicory salad
  • Bucatini alla Amatriciana - A pasta dish
  • Spaghetti (or Rigatoni) alla Carbonara - A sauce made with egg and pancetta (bacon)
  • Abbacchio alla "scottadito" - lamb chops
  • Scaloppine alla romana - Veal sautéed with fresh baby artichokes
  • Coda alla vaccinara - Oxtail stew
  • Cornetti & cappucino - Sweet pastry and coffee
  • Pizza al Taglio - Pizza by the slice.
  • Panino - Italian Sandwich
  • Trippa - Tripe, Offal is a roman tradition, e.g. osso buco, bone marrow.
  • Fiori di Zucca fritta - Zucchini Flower, prepared in a deep fried batter.

Many of the good restaurants in Rome are hard to find, but a good tip is to go where Italians live and eat. On the top of the green, old mountain (Monte Verde Vecchio) there are some trattorias with authentic Italian cuisine at an affordable price. Rome also has many beautiful spots to eat, so buying some delicacies to bring with you can be a great experience. In Via Marmorata you find Volpetti's which is known for their good picks of cheese, prosciutto and delicous pastries. A more affordable choice is to go to a local supermarket which have also good fresh foods for lunch.

Pizza

Lots of the better places serve pizza only in the evening, as it takes most of the day to get the wood oven up to the right temperature. Try some of the fried things like baccala (battered salt cod) for a starter, followed by a pizza for a really Roman meal. For one of the most famous places for pizza, try 'Da Baffetto' (Via del Governo Vecchio). Roman pizzas tend to be very thin crusted. Avoid the tourist areas where you'll often pay double the going rate just to get a badly reheated frozen pizza. Instead, head for a pizzeria like 'Pizzeria Maratoneta' in via dei Volsci / via del Sardi, San Lorenzo area, where you'll find a fine atmosphere of families and groups of students, menus in English, and you'll get a good meal with a bottle of local plonk at a very reasonable price. Pizza al Taglio Is a good cheap way to get something to fill you up, and it makes a good lunch. Point to the one you want, indicate if you want more or less than your server is indicating with the knife. It's sold by weight (the listed price is usually per 100 gm) and a good quick lunch or snack.

Ice cream

Look for a gelateria with a big plastic sign with a big 'G' on it outside. This means it has a guild association and will be good quality. Remember that it costs extra to sit inside. You pay for your ice cream first...take your receipt and go fight your way through the throng to choose your flavors. You will be asked "Panna?" when it's almost made - this is the offer of whipped cream on top. If you've already paid, this is free.

There are a few signs to keep in mind: "Produzione Propria" (homemade - our own production), "Nostra Produzione" (our production), "Produzione Artigianale" (production by craftsmen). If the colors seem dull and almost ugly it is probably natural, the bright colors being just a mix. Keep in mind, Italians usually won't queue, but if they are in line for gelato, get in line yourself, you may have hit the jackpot.

Coffee

Italian cafes are great. A latte in Italian is just a glass of milk. If you're expecting coffee in that glass, you should ask for a caffe latte. A latte macchiato (meaning "marked") is steamed milk stained with a smaller shot of espresso. "Espresso" or "normale" is just that, but more commonly just referred to as caffe. Espresso doppio means a double shot of espresso, while espresso macchiato is espresso 'marked' with a dab of steamed milk. Americano — the one to order if you like filter coffee — is espresso diluted with hot water and not drunk much by Italians. Cappuccino is well known outside of Italy, but be warned: it is considered very un-classy, and somewhat childish, to order one after 11am (and certainly after a meal). Decaffeinato is self explanatory, but often referred to by the common brand-name Caffe Hag; it is usually instant coffee and not nearly as good as the real thing.

Vegetarians

Vegetarians should have an easy time. Buffets usually have a good range of delicious vegetarian stuff - eg gratinated roast peppers/aubergines, etc. Vegans should do all right too; pizzas don't always have cheese - a Marinara for example, is just tomato, garlic and oregano.

  • Il Margutta RistorArte (Margutta Vegetariano), Via Margutta 118 - Roma, +39 0632 650 577 (, fax: +39 063 218 457). Expensive but amazing vegetarian and vegan food. Organic & bio-dynamic wines. €30-€40 set menus as well as individual dishes.  edit

Kosher dining

While there is not much choice, at least Rome's Kosher restaurant is truly excellent. "La Taverna del Ghetto" is in the heart of the Jewish Quarter, steps away from the Colosseum.

Pricing

You can get cheap food in Rome, the problem is that if you don't know the city well or are forced to eat out in the centre, the prices go up.

  • €3.5 - You buy the pizza and eat it walking around, since it's a bread shop with no sitting area. You can choose how much you want to eat, but you'll be spending about €2 each + about €1.50 for a can of soda or €1 for water.
  • €15-20 - At lunchtime if you go to a restaurant you'll be spending between €15 for a set menu (not always good, try to go where you see Italian office people having their lunch as your best bet) and €20. For this you should get a pasta dish and a second course (meat) ending with coffee. Obviously if you have special wine the price will increase.
  • €20 - At night you can spend about €20 at a pizza restaurant or if you have only one main course. Again, if you have special wine it will cost more.
  • €15-20 - In any case, for a sit down lunch or dinner in a restaurant €15 is cheap and €20 is more normal and then up from there.

Chinese restaurants are still quite cheap but other ethnic restaurants (Thai, Indian) are generally expensive (think €30 upwards per person). Sushi is very expensive (€40 minimum per person).

Drink

Regional wines are cheaper and very good. House wines are almost always drinkable and inexpensive (unlike, say in the UK). Most trattorie would not be caught dead serving poor wine. You may often find a bottle of wine on the table for you. Believe it or not: this bottle will be less expensive than a glass would be in the US or UK, possibly only €4 or €5. This does not always apply to those places that look really tourist-trap-like!

Water is free at most designated water fountains. Some of these date to ancient times, and the water is still very good. It's fresh spring water coming from the famous underground springs of Rome and is safe to drink. If you carry an empty bottle, fill it up for the rest of the day. Look for the drinking fountain with constant running water, plug the bottom hole, and cool water will shoot up from a smaller hole on top of the tap. Don't put your lips round the hole at the bottom, as stray dogs tend to like to get a drink.

Before dinner

Pre-dinner drinks (7.00 PM to around 9.00 PM) accompanied with small hors d'oeuvres (aperitivo) are very common for Romans: 1) chic yuppies in their 20s-30s crowd the area around Piazza delle Coppelle (behind the Parliament) and Piazza di Pietra (near the Chamber of Commerce); 2) younger generations sprawl around the square and streets of Campo de' Fiori (behind Piazza Venezia); 3) everyone sits to drink in the narrow streets behind the Pantheon (Piazza Pasquino and Via del Governo Vecchio).

Campo del fiori is a popular drinking spot
Campo del fiori is a popular drinking spot

Given a heart for exploration, Testaccio is the place to wander for after-dinner partying. Head down there around 11pm (take metro Line B and get off at Piramide station) and listen for music. There are usually loads of people simply walking through the street or looking for parking. Be brave, walk in, meet some wonderful Romans. This area is best in the winter when the dancing moves outside, especially in Ostia and Fregene to towns 30 minutes driving car from Rome, at the seaside. In the summer, many clubs close and you might have to inquire to find out which ones are open.

Young tourists and backpackers like to go on famous Roman pub crawls. The Colosseum Pub Crawl[31] for example, has been throwing parties since 1999.

Not far from Termini Station and near the first University of Rome "La Sapienza" is located the San Lorenzo district, where you will find many pubs and clubs where usually university students and young Romans in their twenties spend their nights. On Saturday night the streets are crowded by people moving from one pub to another. Also near the Termini, near Santa Maria Maggiore Cathedral, are located a bunch of great Irish pubs, i.e. the Fiddler's Elbow [32], the oldest in Rome, where many English-speaking residents and Italian customers like to sip their pints. It's a good place to meet Romans who speak English. Also nearby are the Druid's Den and the Druid's Rock [33] .

On Via Nazionale there's a huge and beautiful pub called The Flann o'Brien [34] , one of the biggest in Rome. On the same street near Piazza Venezia there is another cluster of pubs including The Nag's Head Scottish Pub [35] . After 22.00 their Dj makes you also dance, unfortunately it's very expensive at night,like a disco. Entrance with first drink costs 13 Euros and drinks cost 8 Euros. Before midnight they could host live music concerts. In the same area, at the beginning of Via Vittorio Emanuele II you can find The Scholar's Lounge Irish pub [36] with nice music. This is definitely worth a look but there is no room to dance. During winter American colleges students residents in Rome end up their highly alcoholic nights here. Also nearby there's the Trinity College Irish Pub [37] but drinks are quite expensive there.

Also on via Vittorio Emanuele, near Piazza Navona, there's the Bulldog's Inn English pub. DJs play very good music there and there's room to dance, although few do. Nearby inCampo dei fiori squarethere are several crowded pubs. Beware, there have been huge and serious fights there. After Piazza Navona, in the narrow streets there are also many places to go. We recommend a visit to the artistic bathroom of Jonathan's Angels in via del Fico. Also the Abbey Theatre Irish pub [38]is a good place in Via del Governo Vecchio.

On the other side of the River Tevere is Trastevere district where there are many places to eat and drink. Also a good place where to enjoy a walk in crowded streets at night. In summer time on Isola Tiberina, the island in the Tiber, are built temporary bars and people crowd happily and restlessly at night.

Far from the center there are some good places also. The Palacavicchi in a small suburban town called Ciampino is a multi-dance room area where they play different kinds of music, mostly latin american. You definitely need to get a cab to get there and that's expensive in Rome. Near the Ice Palace of Rome, in the area called Santa Maria delle Mole, which belongs to the small town of Marino, there are The Ice Palace [39] itself for ice skating, the Kirby's[40] and the Geronimo pubs. All of them are nice places. At the Geronimo[41] pub before midnight there usually are live music concerts with many bands covering different genres. On friday and saturday nights after the concert they play disco music. Entrance is free and you may drink and eat as you feel. Very cool place and for every budget. Unfortunately you need a cab to get there.

Those Romans who speak fluent english usually have a great deal of confidence with tourists, so just offer them a beer and they will be glad to share with you their tip & tricks about night life in Rome.

Discos: Nightlife in Rome is quite expensive, but there are many beautiful discos. Unfortunately the city is huge and it's not very easy to find them, unless you have a very good guide.

The best way to start is from the most established ones: Piper, Gilda, Alien, all of them run by the Midra Srl [42]. Their website is very old fashioned, those discos should deserve a better website, anyway just use it to discover telephone numbers and addresses. Gilda is near the Spanish Steps, and the others not too much far from Termini station. During summer they close to move to the seaside of Fregene (north of Fiumicino and Ostia) where stands the Gilda on the Beach

A pint of beer in pubs usually costs around 6 euros, entrance in discos around 20 euros with first drink included. Drinks in discos cost around 10 euros.

Gay travellers

Friday nights at Giardino delle Rose in via Casilina Vecchia 1 (rather central but reachable only by taxi): a luxurious garden with open-air bars and tables. Two large discos are cramped up with people on Friday and Saturday nights: check out Mucca Assassina (one-nigh party usually held at the disco in via del Gazometro or at Classico in via Ostiense). During the week there is little to do except for meeting after dinner at Coming Out (a bar right in front of the Coliseum where crowds of gay romans and tourists gather in and outside, all year round but overwhelmingly crowded during the summer) or going to late-night clubs such as Hangar in Via in Selci (Metro Line A, get off at Manzoni station). The best sauna (open 24 hours during week ends) is Europa Multiclub in via Aureliana (behind Piazza Esedra, Metro Line A Repubblica station). The meeting spot for gays day and (especially) night is Monte Caprino, the park on the Palatine hill behind the City Hall (Piazza Venezia) with spectacular views over the temples and ruins of ancient Rome.

Rome by night
Rome by night

The best choice for a first-time visitor is to stay downtown (like near the Pantheon): most attractions are walking distance from there, it will save much time from transportation and leave more for enjoying the city. Hotels in the downtown are costly, but a good apartment is a decent alternative, especially for couples and if you don't mind cooking yourself from time to time: it will save even more of your budget.

Being as it is one of the world's most popular tourist destinations, there are tons of choices for where to stay, and you will have the choice of whatever type of accommodation you wish.

Warning! Rome hotel touts

This Rome guide is heavily frequented by business owners keen on adding their own hotel or rental agency. While we try our best to root out the worst of them on a regular basis, you should always check other reviews before commiting. Many unscrupulous hotel owners are also busy creating false reviews of their accommodation on sites like Tripadvisor and Hotels.com - so tread carefully!

Note Hotel listings can be found in the appropriate districts, and should be added there too:

Apartments

Offering of short term apartment rentals is enormous. Many apartments can be booked directly through the owner, but most make arrangements via rental agencies, both large and small. Please note that this list is heavily edited by the business owners themselves, and you shouldn't consider any of the entries below, as endorsed or approved by anyone.

  • Feel Home in Rome, Via delle Mantellate 16, +39 33 5528 8908 (), [43]. About 100 properties in Rome available for short lets. Linens and towels as well as weekly cleaning service provided. More frequent maid service on demand. Working hours 9AM-1PM, 3PM-7PM. Low season: €50-200, high season: €70-250.  edit
  • House and the City (House and the City), Via della Rotonda 41, +39 06 686 062 (), [44]. checkin: 2PM; checkout: 11AM. Rents out around 50 properties in Rome, mostly apartments but also a few villas.  edit
  • Rome Sweet Home (Rome Sweet Home), Via della Vite 32, +39 06 69924833 (, fax: +39 0668390832), [45]. checkin: 3PM; checkout: 11AM. 300 apartments in the heart of Rome , Daily , weekly and monthly rentals. Office hours: 10.00AM/6.30PMA €70-230. Final Cleaning: €40.  edit
  • Leisure in Rome (Leisure in Rome), Via Metastasio 11, +39 06 6830 0335 (), [46]. checkin: 3PM; checkout: 11AM. 150 apartments all located in Rome city center, Linen included. Office hours: 10.30AM/7.30PMA €80-250. Final Cleaning: €35/45.  edit
  • Rental In Rome (Rental in Rome), Via dei Riari 55, +39 06 9905199 (), [47]. checkin: 3PM; checkout: 11AM. Over 600 apartments all located in the city center, available from 3 days to 1 year. Office hours: 9.30AM-7.30PM €49-€300. Final Cleaning and Linen included..  edit
  • Rome Loft, Via della Scala 31, +39 06 9761 9064 (), [48]. About 50 centrally located apartments.Linens are included. Final cleaning (mandatory) of the apartment is 50€, while extra cleaning service is available on request (35€). Office hours: 9AM-6PM Low season: €80-400, high season: €80-500.  edit

When looking for a hotel or an apartment in Rome, take note that the price of accommodations varies significantly from month to month, depending on typical amount of tourists—always check prices at your accommodation for your specific dates.

Camping

There are at least three campsites near Rome, they are:

  • Camping Tiber, Via Tiberina Km. 1400, Prima Porta (On Rome's ringroad, take exit No 6 Via Flaminia. If arriving by public transport, take the ground-level Roma-nord Subway leaving from Piazza Flaminia towards Prima Porta. From there, there's a free shuttle service to the Camp site), 06 33610733 (fax: 06 33612314). On the bank of the river from which it draws it's name is to the north of the city proper. There's a minimarket, a pool, a restaurant and a bar.  edit
  • Happy Valley, (In the Hills north of the city at Via Prato della Corte 1915, Prima Porta-Cassia Bis, Roma Take exit no 5 from Rome's ring road and head towards Cassia-Veientana. If you get there by public transport, take the ground-level Roma-nord Subway leaving from Piazza Flaminia towards Prima Porta and wait for the free shuttle bus service.), 06.33626401 (fax: 06.33613800). It has a pool, a bar, a restaurant and a minimarket.  edit

Respect

Romans regularly interact with foreigners and tourists; it shouldn't be hard to find friendly help. As for most every place in Italy, just be polite and you won't have much trouble.

If you hit someone with your luggage or shoulder while walking on a street, say "sorry" (Mi scusi): despite being very busy, Rome is not London or New York and going ahead is considered bad behaviour, while a little apology will be satisfactory.

In buses or trains, let older people have your seat if there's no space available. The gesture will be appreciated. Romans, and Italians as well, are very chaotic while in a queue, and often "clump" without any particular order: It's considered unpolite, but they do it anyway. Be careful while driving, as Romans often drive frantically and bend the rules to cope with the heavy traffic.

Stay safe

Rome is generally a safe place, even for women travelling alone. There is very little violent crime, but plenty of scams and pickpocketing which will target tourists. As in any big city, it is better if you don't look like a tourist: don't exhibit your camera or camcorder to all and sundry, and keep your money in a safe place. Conscientiousness and vigilance are your best insurances for avoiding becoming a victim of a crime in Rome. Remember, if you are pickpocketed or another scam, don't be afraid to shout Aiuto, al ladro! (Help, Thief!). Romans will not be nice to the thief.

Members of the Italian public are likely to be sympathetic if you are a crime victim. Police are also generally friendly if not always helpful. Carabinieri (black uniform, red striped trousers) are military police, and Polizia (blue and grey uniform) are civilians, but they both do essentially the same thing and are equally good, or bad. If you are robbed, try to find a police station and report it. This is essential to establishing a secure travel insurance claim.

Rome is home to two rival Serie A football clubs, A.S. Roma and S.S. Lazio, and there is a history of conflict, and even rioting, between the two. If you dare to wear anything that supports either of them, especially during the Rome Derby (when the two clubs play each other), make sure you don't wander into supporters of the other club, or you may be subject to heckling or even confrontation. Play it safe and refrain from openly supporting either club unless you are very familiar with the rivalry. If you are a fan of a foreign team playing in Rome (especially against Roma) be very very careful as a number of supporters have been stabbed over the past few years purely for being foreign.

Pickpocketing

Being the incredibly popular tourist destination it is, a great deal of pickpocketing and bag or purse natching takes place in Rome, especially in crowded locations, and pickpocketers in Rome can get pretty crafty.

As a rule, you should pretty much never carry anything very valuable in any pocket. The front pocket of your pants is one of the easiest and most common targets. Keeping your wallet in your front pocket or in your bag is far from safe. You should consider using a money belt and carry only the cash for the day in your pocket.

Also beware of thieves--one popular technique that they use is to ride by you on a moped, slice the strap with a knife, and ride off. They might also try to cut the bottom of your bag open and pick your wallet from the ground. Others will use the old trick of one person trying to distract you (asking for a cigarette, doing a strange dance) while another thief picks your pockets from behind. Bands of gypsy kids will sometimes crowd you and reach for your pockets under the cover of newspapers or cardboard sheets. It is generally a good idea to be extremely wary of any strange person who gets too close to you, even in a crowd. If someone is in your personal space, shove them away. As one frequent traveller put it, "Don't be afraid to be a dick in Rome." Better to risk coming off as rude than to reach for your wallet and find it missing.

Termini (the main railway station), Esquilino and bus line 64 (Termini to San Pietro) are well known for pick-pockets, so take extra care in these areas. On the Metro, pickpockets are extremely skilled.

Remember that hotel rooms are not safe places for valuables; if your room doesn't have a safe give them to the hotel staff for safekeeping.

You don't have to be totally paranoid, but do be aware of the danger and take the usual precautions.

Tourist scams

Read up on the legends concerning tourist scams. Most of them occur regularly in Rome and you will want to see them coming.

A particular scam is when some plainclothes police will approach you, asking to look for "drug money," or ask to see your passport. This is a scam to take your money. You can scare them by asking for their ID. Guardia di Finanza (the grey uniformed ones) do customs work.

Currently there are two middle-aged men working near the Spanish Steps. They approach you, asking where you are from and begin to tie bracelets around your wrists. When they are done they will charge you upwards of €20 for each bracelet. There are also two men in their early twenties doing the same thing in the Piazza Navona. If anyone makes any attempt to reach for your hand, retract quickly. If you get trapped, you can refuse to pay, but this may not be wise if there are not many people around.

When taking a taxi, be sure to remember license number written on the card door. In seconds your taxi bill can raise by 5, 10 or more euros. When giving money to taxi driver, be careful.

Be careful of con-men who may approach you at tourist sights such as the Colosseum or Circus Maximus. Eg. a car may pull up next to you, and the driver ask you for directions to the Vatican. He will strike up a conversation with you while he sits in his car, and tell you he is a sales representative for a large French fashion house. He will then tell you he likes you and he would like to give you a gift of a coat worth several thousand euros. As you reach inside his car to take the bag the coat is in, he will ask you for €200 for gas, as his car is nearly empty. When you refuse, he could turn angry and now demand money from you, any money, of any currency. Don't fall for such confidence-tricks - if something sounds too good to be true, it is.

Emergencies

In an emergency call 112 (Carabinieri), 113 (Police), 118 (medical first aid) or 115 (firemen). Carry the address of your embassy or consulate.

  • Police. At pl Lorenzo is where to report theft.
  • Left Luggage Termini. You can leave luggage at Termini but they have a lot of security and only one X-ray machine so there can be a +100 people queue. It costs about €3.40 per bag(of any size) for the first 5 hours, €0.80 per bag for each hour thereafter. There's a sign limiting bags to 20kg each, but no facility for weighing them (that I saw) so it's probably not enforced.
  • Splasnet laundry, internet, left luggage, Via Varesi 33, 100 m west of Termini. €2 per luggage left (and 15 min of internet included).
  • Australian Embassy, Via Antonio Bosio 5, +39 06 85 2721 (fax: +39 06 85 272 300), [49]. M-F 8:30AM-4PM.  edit
  • Austrian Embassy, Via Pergolesi 3, 068440141 (fax: +39 06 85 43286), [50]. M-F 9AM-noon.  edit
  • British Embassy, Via XX Settembre 80, +39 06 4220 0001, +39 06 4220 2603 after hours (fax: +39 06 4220 2347), [51]. M-F 9AM-5PM.  edit
  • Bulgarian Embassy, Via Pietro Polo Rubens 21, +39 06 322 46 40, +39 06 322 46 43 (, fax: +39 06 322 61 22), [52]. M-F 9AM-5PM.  edit
  • Chinese Embassy, Via Bruxelles 56, +39 (0)6 8413458 (fax: +39 (0)6 85352891), [53].  edit
  • Canadian Embassy, Via Zara 30, +39 06 44598 1 (fax: +39 06 44598 2905), [54].  edit
  • Croatian Embassy, Via Luigi Bodio 74/76, +39 06 363 07650 (, fax: +39 06 3630 3405), [55]. M-F 09.30-12.30.  edit
  • Danish Embassy, Via dei Monti Parioli 50, +39 06 9774 831 (, fax: +39 06 9774 8399), [56]. M-F 8AM-5:30PM.  edit
  • Estonian Embassy, Ambasciata di Estonia, Viale Liegi 28 int. 5, +39 06 844 075 10 (, fax: +39 06 844 075 19), [58]. M-F 9AM-5:00PM.  edit
  • Greek Embassy, Ambasciata di Grecia, Via S. Mercadante 36, +39 06 853 7551 (, fax: +39 06 841 5927), [60].  edit
  • Indian Embassy, Via XX Settembre, 5, 00187 Rome (Italy), +39 06 4884642/3/4/5 (fax: +39 06 4819539).  edit
  • Maltese Embassy, Lungotevere Marzio 12, +39 06 6879990.  edit
  • Embassy of Malaysia, Via Nomentana, 297, +39 06 8415764 (, fax: +39 06 8555040). 09.00am-16.00pm (no lunch break).  edit
  • Norwegian Embassy, Via delle Terme Deciane 7, +39 06 571 7031 (, fax: ++39 06 571 70326), [62].  edit
  • Embassy of Serbia and Montenegro, Via dei Monti Parioli 20, +39 06 320 07 96, +39 06 320 08 90, +39 06 320 09 59, +39 06 320 08 05 (all night) (, fax: +39 06 320-08-68), [63]. telex 616-303  edit
  • Russian Embassy, (Via Gaeta 5), 06/4941680, 06/4941681 (fax: 06/491031).  edit
  • Consulate General of the Republic of Singapore, Via Nazionale, 200,00184 Rome, +39 06 4875 9510 (, fax: +39 06 4875 9511).   edit
  • South African Embassy, Via Tanaro 14, +39 06 85 25 41, [64]. M-F 8AM-4:30PM.  edit
  • Spanish Embassy, Palazzo Borghese, Largo Fontanella di Borghese 19, +39 06 684 04 011.  edit
  • Turkish Embassy, 28, Via Palestro 00185, +39 06 445 941.  edit
  • US Embassy, Via Vittorio Veneto 119/A, +39 06 4674 1 (fax: +39 06 4882 672, +39 06 4674 2356), [65]. 8:30AM-5:30PM.  edit
  • Especially if you have a rail pass, making Pompeii a day trip, while it is a very full day, is very doable. To reach Pompeii from Rome will take about 3 hours.
  • Head to Frascati, one of the historic hill towns to the South East of Rome known as the Castelli Romani. This town has been a popular destination for centuries away from the hustle and bustle of the capital, and this is still true today. Famous worldwide for its white wine, Frascati is a relaxed hill town with a slower pace of life. Just 21km from Rome, Frascati is accessible by bus or train. Trains run from Roma Termini approximately every hour, take about 30 minutes, and cost around € 2. Also in the Castelli is Castel Gandolfo, the summer residence of the Pope. The town overlooks Lake Albano, a popular weekend trip for Romans in the summer. Also accessible by bus and train but there are several interesting towns and villages in the Castelli so hiring a car for the day would be well-rewarded.
  • Head to Ostia Antica, the ancient harbor and military colony of Rome. It is accessible by tube every 30 minutes from Stazione Piramide (near the Piramid). It is a monumental area a bit like the Roman Forum. But in Ostia Antica you can get an impression how a Roman city looked.
  • Consider a day trip to Tivoli to see the Villa d'Este with its famous and glorious fountains. Check out the Emperor Hadrian's Villa while you are out there. Hourly trains from Tiburtina; fewer on Sundays.
  • Understand the Second World War in Italy by visiting the Anzio beachhead area and Monte Cassino.
  • Discover the papal city of Viterbo, well-known medieval and thermal destination (about 1 and half hours from Rome)
  • Civitavecchia, the port of Rome, is the point of arrival and departure of hundreds of ships, cruises, ferries travelling all around the Mediterranean. From here it is possible to reach Sardinia, Corsica, Sicily, Spain, France, some other small islands, and even north Africa. A good transportation system links the port to the Eternal City.
This is a usable article. It has information for getting in as well as some complete entries for restaurants and hotels. An adventurous person could use this article, but please plunge forward and help it grow!
This article may contain pieces contributed by people external to Wikitravel, namely: TripAdvisor user "Gabriella (Nabu)"

Source material

Up to date as of January 22, 2010

From Wikisource

< Poems of Italy: selections from the Odes of Giosue Carducci
 
Rome
by Giosuè Carducci, translated by M.W. Arms
Information about this edition
From Poems of Italy : selections from the Odes of Giosue Carducci, 1906
[page]

 
ROME, on thine air I cast my soul adrift,
To soar sublime; do thou, O Rome, receive
This soul of mine and flood it with thy light.

Not curiously concerned with little things
To thee I come; who is there that would seek
For butterflies beneath the Arch of Titus?

     * * * * * * * * *

Do thou but shed thine azure round me, Rome,
Illumine me with sunlight; all-divine
Are the sun's rays in thy vast azure spaces.

They bless alike the dusky Vatican,
The beauteous Quirinal, and ancient there
The Capitol, amongst all ruins holy.

And from thy seven hills thou stretchest forth
Thine arms, O Rome, to meet the love diffused,
A radiant splendor, through the quiet air.

The solitudes of the Campagna form
That nuptial-couch; and thou, O hoar Soratte,
Thou art the witness in eternity.

[page]

 
O Alban Moutains, sing ye smilingly
The epithalamium; green Tusculum
Sing thou; and sing, O fertile Tivoli!

Whilst I from the Janiculum look down
With wonder on the city's pictured form—
A mighty ship, launched toward the world’s dominion.

O ship, whose poop rising on high attains
The infinite, bear with thee on thy passage
My soul unto the shores of mystery!

Let me, when fall those twilights radiant
With the white jewels of the coming night,
Quietly linger on the Flaminian Way;

Then may the hour supreme, in fleeing, brush
With silent wing my forehead, while I pass
Unknown through this serenity of peace,

Pass to the Councils of the Shades, and see
Once more the lofty spirits of the Fathers
Conversing there beside the sacred river.

Notes

[page]The asterisks after the second stanza mark four verses which I have omitted from my translation, because they consist of political allusions that to an [page]American reader could mean nothing. For the rest, the poem requires no annotation. The original is one of the most harmoniously beautiful compositions in the whole range of modern Italian literature. Only one who, like the poet, has looked down from the Janiculum on the “pictured form” of the Eternal City, who has felt the wonder of her grandeur and the immortal loveliness of her decay, can fully realize how exquisitely, how subtly her charm pervades each word of the poet's Ave. The essential spirit of Rome is there—of that Rome who is as truly Mistress of the World to-day, in her empire over men's hearts, as when of old she ruled their lives.


1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

There is more than one meaning of Rome discussed in the 1911 Encyclopedia. We are planning to let all links go to the correct meaning directly, but for now you will have to search it out from the list below by yourself. If you want to change the link that led you here yourself, it would be appreciated.


Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

Wikipedia-logo.png
Wikipedia has an article on:

Wikipedia

Contents

English

Most common English words: enter « consider « provided « #969: Rome » twelve » opposite » vast

Pronunciation

Proper noun

Rome

  1. A province of Latium, Italy.
  2. A city, the capital of the province of Latium and also of Italy.
  3. The Roman Empire

Translations

The translations below need to be checked and inserted above into the appropriate translation tables, removing any numbers. Numbers do not necessarily match those in definitions. See instructions at Help:How to check translations.
  • Slovak: Lácium n. (1), Rím m. (2)

See also

Anagrams


Dutch

Wikipedia-logo.png
Dutch Wikipedia has an article on:
Rome

Wikipedia nl

Pronunciation

Proper noun

Rome

  1. Rome

French

Proper noun

Rome f.

  1. Rome (province)
  2. Rome (city)

Anagrams


Italian

Proper noun

Rome f.

  1. Plural form of Roma
    le due Rome, the two Romes

Anagrams


Bible wiki

Up to date as of January 23, 2010

From BibleWiki

the most celebrated city in the world at the time of Christ. It is said to have been founded B.C. 753. When the New Testament was written, Rome was enriched and adorned with the spoils of the world, and contained a population estimated at 1,200,000, of which the half were slaves, and including representatives of nearly every nation then known. It was distinguished for its wealth and luxury and profligacy. The empire of which it was the capital had then reached its greatest prosperity.

On the day of Pentecost there were in Jerusalem "strangers from Rome," who doubtless carried with them back to Rome tidings of that great day, and were instrumental in founding the church there. Paul was brought to this city a prisoner, where he remained for two years (Acts 28:30, 31) "in his own hired house." While here, Paul wrote his epistles to the Philippians, to the Ephesians, to the Colossians, to Philemon, and probably also to the Hebrews. He had during these years for companions Luke and Aristarchus (Acts 27:2), Timothy (Phil 1:1; Col 1:1), Tychicus (Eph. 6: 21), Epaphroditus (Phil 4:18), and John Mark (Col 4:10).

Beneath this city are extensive galleries, called "catacombs," which were used from about the time of the apostles (one of the inscriptions found in them bears the date A.D. 71) for some three hundred years as places of refuge in the time of persecution, and also of worship and burial. About four thousand inscriptions have been found in the catacombs. These give an interesting insight into the history of the church at Rome down to the time of Constantine.

This entry includes text from Easton's Bible Dictionary, 1897.

what mentions this? (please help by turning references to this page into wiki links)

This article needs to be merged with ROME (Jewish Encyclopedia).
This article needs to be merged with Rome (Catholic Encyclopedia).

Genealogy

Up to date as of February 01, 2010

From Familypedia

Comune di Roma
{{border|Official flag of Comune di Roma}}
Official seal of Comune di Roma
Flag Seal
Nickname: ""The Eternal City""
Motto: "'"Senatus Populusque Romanus" (SPQR)  (Latin)"
Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey)
Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey)
Coordinates: 41°54′N, 12°30′E Latitude: 41°53′60″N
Longitude: 12°30′0″E
Region Lazio
Province Province of Rome
History  
Founded 21 April, 753 BC
Government  
 - Mayor Walter Veltroni
Population  
 - City (December 2006) 2,705,603
 - Urban 4,013,057
 - Metro 5,493,308
Time zone CET (UTC+1)
 - Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)
Postal codes 00121 to 00199
Website: http://www.comune.roma.it

Rome (Italian: Roma) is the capital city of Italy and of the Lazio region, as well as the country's largest and most populous comune, with more than 2.7 million residents.[1] The metropolitan area has a population of about 4 million. It is located in the central-western portion of the Italian peninsula, where the river Aniene joins the Tiber. The Mayor of Rome is Walter Veltroni.

An enclave of Rome is the State of the Vatican City, the sovereign territory of the Holy See. It is the smallest nation in the world, and the capital of the only religion to have representation in the United Nations (as a non-member observer state).

Rome, Caput mundi ("capital of the world"), la Città Eterna ("the Eternal City"), Limen Apostolorum ("threshold of the Apostles"), la città dei sette colli ("the city of the seven hills") or simply l'Urbe ("the City"),[2]

Contents

Rome's History

Main article: History of Rome

From founding to Empire

The ancient Etruscan bronze Capitoline Wolf suckles the infant twins Romulus and Remus, who were not part of the original, but were added in the late 15th century.

According to legend, the city of Rome was founded by the twins Romulus and Remus on April 21, 753 BC, and archaeological evidence supports the theory that Rome grew from pastoral settlements on the Palatine Hill built in the area of the future Roman Forum, coalescing into a city in the 8th century BC. The city developed into the capital of the Roman Kingdom (ruled by a succession of seven kings, according to tradition), Roman Republic (from 510 BC, governed by the Senate), but finally the Roman Empire (from 27 BC, ruled by an Emperor); this success depended on military conquest, commercial predominance, as well as selective assimilation of neighboring civilizations, most notably the Etruscans and Greeks. From the foundation of Rome in 753 BC, the City of Rome was undefeated militarily (though losing occasional battles), until 386 BC, when Rome was occupied by Celts (one of the three main Gallic tribes), and then recovered by Romans in the same year. Livy, Book 5. According to the history, the Gauls offered to deliver Rome back to its people for a thousand pounds of gold, but the Romans refused, preferring to take back their city by force of arms rather than ever admitting defeat. Id.

Roman dominance expanded over most of Europe and the shores of the Mediterranean sea, while its population surpassed one million inhabitants. For almost a thousand years, Rome was the most politically important, richest and largest city in the Western world, and remained so after the Empire started to decline and was split, even if it ultimately lost its capital status to Milan and then Ravenna, and was surpassed in prestige by the Eastern capital Constantinople.

Fall of the Empire and Middle Ages

With the reign of Constantine I, the Bishop of Rome gained political as well as religious importance, eventually becoming known as the Pope and establishing Rome as the centre of the Catholic Church. After the Sack of Rome by Alaric I and the fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476 AD, Rome alternated between Byzantine and plundering by Germanic barbarians. Its population declined to a mere 20,000 during the Early Middle Ages, reducing the sprawling city to groups of inhabited buildings interspersed among large areas of ruins and vegetation. Rome remained nominally part of the Byzantine Empire until 751 AD when the Lombards finally abolished the Exarchate of Ravenna. In 756, Pepin the Short gave the pope temporal jurisdiction over Rome and surrounding areas, thus creating the Papal States. Rome remained the capital of the Papal States until its annexation into the Kingdom of Italy in 1870; the city became a major pilgrimage site during the Middle Ages and the focus of struggles between the Papacy and the Holy Roman Empire starting with Charlemagne, who was crowned its first emperor in Rome on Christmas 800 AD by Pope Leo III. Apart from brief periods as an independent city during the Middle Ages, Rome kept its status of Papal capital and "holy city" for centuries, even when the Pope briefly relocated to Avignon (1309–1337). While no longer politically powerful, as tragically shown by the brutal sack of 1527, the city flourished as a hub of cultural and artistic activity during the Renaissance and the Baroque, under the patronage of the Papal court.

Garibaldi attacks Papal Rome in 1849

17–19th century

Population rose again and reached 100,000 during the 17th century, but Rome ultimately lagged behind the rest of the European capitals over the subsequent centuries, being largely busy in the Counter-Reformation process. Caught up in the nationalistic turmoils of the 19th century and having twice gained and lost a short-lived independence, Rome became the focus of the hopes for Italian unification, as propelled by the Kingdom of Italy ruled by King Vittorio Emanuele II; after the French protection was lifted in 1870, royal troops stormed the city, and Rome was declared capital of the newly unified Italy in 1871.

20th century

After a victorious World War I, Rome witnessed the rise to power of Italian fascism guided by Benito Mussolini, who marched on the city in 1922, eventually declared a new Empire and allied Italy with Nazi Germany. This was a period of rapid growth in population, from the 212,000 people at the time of unification to more than 1,000,000, but this trend was halted by World War II, during which Rome was damaged by both Allied forces bombing and Nazi occupation; after the execution of Mussolini and the end of the war, a 1946 referendum abolished the monarchy in favor of the Italian Republic. Rome grew momentously after the war, as one of the driving forces behind the "Italian economic miracle" of post-war reconstruction and modernization. It became a fashionable city in the 1950s and early 1960s, the years of la dolce vita ("the sweet life"), and a new rising trend in population continued till the mid-1980s, when the comune had more than 2,800,000 residents; after that, population started to slowly decline as more residents moved to nearby comuni; this has been attributed to their perceiving a decrease in the quality of life, especially because of the continuously jammed traffic and the worsening pollution it brings about. In recent years the trend has changed again and the population is increasing again, thanks also to the cultural and economic dynamism of the city and immigration from many different countries.

Geography and climate

Panorama of Rome from the Cupolone
Satellite image of Rome, showing natural and built environment in the city

Location

Rome is in the Lazio region of central Italy, at the confluence of the Aniene and Tiber (Italian: Tevere) rivers. Although the city center is about 24 kilometers inland from the Tyrrhenian Sea, the city territory extends to the very shore, where the south-western Ostia district is located. The altitude of Rome ranges from 13 meters above sea level (in Piazza del Popolo) to 120 meters above sea level (the peak of Monte Mario). The comune of Rome covers an overall area of about 1,285 square kilometers, including many green areas.

Climate

Rome enjoys a typical Mediterranean climate which characterizes the Mediterranean coasts of Italy. It is at its most comfortable from April through June, and from mid-September to October; in particular, the Roman ottobrate (ottobrata can roughly be translated as "beautiful October day") are famously known as sunny and warm days. By August, the temperature during the heat of the day often exceeds 32 °C (90 °F); traditionally, many businesses would close during August, and Romans would abandon the city for holiday resorts, but this trend is weakening, and the city is increasingly remaining fully functional during the whole summer, in response to growing tourism as well as change in the population's work habits. The average high temperature in December is about 14 °C (57 °F).

<center>
Weather averages for Rome, Italy
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °F (°C) style="Template:Infobox Weather/colt" | 55 (12) style="Template:Infobox Weather/colt" | 56 (13) style="Template:Infobox Weather/colt" | 59 (15) style="Template:Infobox Weather/colt" | 63 (17) style="Template:Infobox Weather/colt" | 71 (21) style="Template:Infobox Weather/colt" | 77 (25) style="Template:Infobox Weather/colt" | 83 (28) style="Template:Infobox Weather/colt" | 83 (28) style="Template:Infobox Weather/colt" | 79 (26) style="Template:Infobox Weather/colt" | 71 (21) style="Template:Infobox Weather/colt" | 62 (16) style="Template:Infobox Weather/colt" | 57 (13) style="Template:Infobox Weather/colt border-left-width:medium;" | 68 (20)
Average low °F (°C) style="Template:Infobox Weather/colt" | 39 (3) style="Template:Infobox Weather/colt" | 40 (4) style="Template:Infobox Weather/colt" | 43 (6) style="Template:Infobox Weather/colt" | 47 (8) style="Template:Infobox Weather/colt" | 54 (12) style="Template:Infobox Weather/colt" | 61 (16) style="Template:Infobox Weather/colt" | 66 (18) style="Template:Infobox Weather/colt" | 67 (19) style="Template:Infobox Weather/colt" | 62 (16) style="Template:Infobox Weather/colt" | 56 (13) style="Template:Infobox Weather/colt" | 46 (7) style="Template:Infobox Weather/colt" | 42 (5) style="Template:Infobox Weather/colt border-left-width:medium;" | 52 (11)
Precipitation inch (cm) style="Template:Infobox Weather/colp" | 3.2 (8) style="Template:Infobox Weather/colp" | 2.8 (7) style="Template:Infobox Weather/colp" | 2.7 (6) style="Template:Infobox Weather/colp" | 2.0 (6) style="Template:Infobox Weather/colp" | 2.0 (5) style="Template:Infobox Weather/colp" | 1.3 (3) style="Template:Infobox Weather/colp" | 0.6 (1) style="Template:Infobox Weather/colp" | 1.0 (2) style="Template:Infobox Weather/colp" | 2.7 (6) style="Template:Infobox Weather/colp" | 4.5 (11) style="Template:Infobox Weather/colp" | 4.4 (11) style="Template:Infobox Weather/colp" | 3.8 (9) style="Template:Infobox Weather/colp border-left-width:medium;" | 31.6 (80)
Source: Weatherbase[3] 2007

</center>

Architecture

Ancient Rome

Main article: Roman architecture

One of the symbols of Rome is the Colosseum (70-80), the largest amphitheatre ever built in the Roman Empire. Originally capable of seating 60,000 spectators, it was used for gladiatorial combat. The list of the very important monuments of ancient Rome includes the Roman Forum, the Domus Aurea, the Pantheon, Trajan's Column, Trajan's Market, the Catacombs of Rome, the Circus Maximus, the Baths of Caracalla, the Arch of Constantine, the Pyramid of Cestius, the Bocca della Verità.

Renaissance and Baroque

See also: Renaissance architecture
See also: Baroque architecture

Rome was a major world center of the Renaissance, second only to Florence, and was profoundly affected by the movement. The most impressive masterpiece of Renaissance architecture in Rome is the Piazza del Campidoglio by Michelangelo, along with the Palazzo Senatorio, seat of the city government. During this period, the great aristocratic families of Rome used to build opulent dwellings as the Palazzo del Quirinale (now seat of the President of the Republic), the Palazzo Venezia, the Palazzo Farnese, the Palazzo Barberini, the Palazzo Chigi (now seat of the Prime Minister), the Palazzo Spada, the Palazzo della Cancelleria, and the Villa Farnesina. Rome is also famous for her huge and majestic squares, often adorned with obelisks, many of which were built in the XVII century. The principal squares are Piazza Navona, Piazza di Spagna, Campo de' Fiori, Piazza Venezia, Piazza Farnese, and Piazza della Minerva. One of the most emblematic examples of the baroque art is the Fontana di Trevi by Nicola Salvi. Other notable baroque palaces of XVII century are the Palazzo Madama, now seat of the Italian Senate and the Palazzo Montecitorio, now seat of the Chamber of Deputies of Italy.

Neoclassicism

See also: Neoclassical architecture

In 1870, Rome became capital city of the new Kingdom of Italy. During this time, neoclassicism, a building style influenced by the architecture of Antiquity, became a predominant influence in Roman architecture. In this period many great palaces in neoclassical styles were built to host ministries, embassies and other governing agencies. One of the best-known symbol of Roman neoclassicism is the Monument of Vittorio Emanuele II or "Altar of Fatherland", where the grave of the Unknown Soldier, that represents the 650,000 Italians that fell in World War I, is located.

Fascist architecture

See also: Fascist architecture

The Fascist regime that ruled in Italy between 1922 and 1943 developed an original architectural style, characterized by feast and the research of a link with ancient Rome architecture. The most important fascist style site in Rome is the E.U.R. district, built in 1935. It was originally conceived for the 1942 world exhibition, and was called "E.42" ("Esposizione 42"). However, the world exhibition never took place because Italy entered the Second World War in 1940. The most representative building of the Fascist style at E.U.R. is the Palazzo della Civiltà Italiana (1938-1943), the iconic design of which has been labeled the cubic or Square Colosseum. After World War II, the Roman authorities found that they already had a gem of an off-centre business district that other capitals were still planning (London Docklands and La Defense in Paris). Also the Palazzo della Farnesina, the actual seat of Italian Foreign Ministry, was designed in 1935 in fascist style.

Villas and gardens

The center of Rome is surrounded by some large green areas and opulent ancient villas, which are the remains of the crowns of villas which encircled the papal city. Most of them were largely destroyed by real estate speculation at the end of the 19th century. The most important among the surviving ones are:

Government

Capital status

Rome is the national capital of Italy and is the seat of the President of the Italian Republic, whose official residence is Quirinale Palace. Rome hosts also the Italian Parliament, Italian Prime Minister and all the ministries. The Mayor of Rome is Walter Veltroni of The Union,[4] elected in 2001 and again for a second term in 2006. A political debate in Italy focuses on the opportunity of providing the city with "special powers" of local jurisdiction (the "Roma Capitale" directives),[5] separate from the Lazio region, modelled after other European capital cities.

Subdivisions

Main article: Administrative subdivision of Rome
Map of Rome's nineteen boroughs.

The territory of the commune of Rome is divided into 19 Municipi (area subdivisions).[6] Originally, the city was divided into 20 sub-municipalities, but the XIV, what is now the Comune di Fiumicino, voted some years ago to become a full municipality itself and eventually detached from Rome.

Other sovereign entities

Rome is unique in its containing two other sovereign entities. One is the Holy See, the political and religious entity that governs the territory of the Vatican City (a de facto enclave since 1870, officially recognised as such in 1929), as well as claiming extraterritorial rights over a few other palaces and churches, mostly in the city centre; indeed, Rome hosts foreign embassies to both Italy and the Holy See. The other entity is the Sovereign Military Order of Malta (SMOM), which took refuge in Rome in 1834 after having lost Malta to Napoleon in 1798, and thus claims no territory (leading to disputes over its actual sovereign status); SMOM too owns extraterritorial palaces in central Rome.

International involvement

Rome has traditionally been heavily involved in the process of European political integration. In 1957, the city hosted the signing of the treaty of Rome, which established the European Economic Community (predecessor to the European Union), and also played host to the official signing of the proposed European constitution in July 2004. Rome is also the seat of significant international organizations, such as the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, and is the place where the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court was formulated.

Demography

At the time of Emperor Augustus, Rome was the largest city in the world, and probably the largest ever built until the nineteenth century. Estimates of its peak population range from 450,000 to over 3.5 million people with 1 to 2 million being most popular with historians. After the fall of the Roman Empire, the city's population may have been less than 50,000, and continued to stagnate (or shrink) until the Renaissance. When the Kingdom of Italy annexed Rome in 1870, it had a population of about 200,000, which rapidly increased to 600,000 by the end of the 19th century. The fascist regime of Mussolini tried to block an excessive demographic rise of the city, but failed to prevent it from reaching one million people by 1931.

After World War II, Rome continued to expand, with the creation of new quartieri and suburbs in '50s and '60s. Today the official population stands at 2.7 million; the Urban Area of Rome is home to about 4 million in an area of 5,352 km² (2,066 sq mi). 156,833 residents in the comune are of foreign nationality, representing 6.2% of total residents.[7]

Economy

The ENI palace at EUR neighbour

Modern day Rome has a dynamic and diverse economy with thriving technologies, communications, and service sectors. It produces 6.7% of the national GDP (more than any other city in Italy). Rome grows +4,4% annually and continues to grow at a higher rate in comparison to any other city in the rest of the country. Following World War II Rome's economic growth began to overtake its rivals, Naples and Milan, although a traditional rivalry persists with Milan today. Tourism is inevitably one of Rome's chief industries, with numerous notable museums including the Vatican Museum, the Borghese Gallery, and the Musei Capitolini. Rome is also the hub of the Italian film industry, thanks to the Cinecittà studios. The city is also a center for banking as well as electronics and aerospace industries. Numerous international headquarters, government ministries, conference centres, sports venues and museums are located in Rome's principal business districts: the Esposizione Universale Roma (EUR); the Torrino (further south from the EUR); the Magliana; the Parco de' Medici-Laurentina and the so-called Tiburtina-valley along the ancient Via Tiburtina.

Culture and society

Events in Rome

Main article: Events in Rome

Religion

The Religio Romana (literally, the "Roman Religion") constituted the major religion of the city in antiquity. The first gods held sacred by the Romans were Jupiter, the most high, and Mars, god of war, and father of Rome's twin founders, Romulus and Remus, according to tradition. The goddess Vesta became an important part of the Roman Pantheon at an early stage of the Roman Monarchy. The goddess Diana joined Roman Pantheon during the Monarchy times as the central goddess uniting worship between Rome and several of its neighbors, thus creating the basis for a coalition. The goddess Juno was imported to Rome from the ancient city of Veii, after Veii fell to the Roman military, following a long period of wars between the two cities, during the time of the Roman Republic. Other gods and goddesses were honored in Rome and added to the Pantheon throughout the Monarchy and Republic periods. See Livy, Books 1-5.

The Roman religion was largely concerned with interpreting divine messages (augeries) through natural occurrences (omens). However, Rome had no augerers of its own, and largely relied upon Etruscan augerers to interpret the divine omens. For this reason, Rome was left without any augerers during its last war with Veii, and Etruscan city, and was forced to send envoys all the way to Greece, to consult the famous Oracle at Delphi. Livy, Book 5.

Several other religions and imported mystery cults remained represented within its ever-expanding boundaries during the Roman Republic and Empire periods, including Judaism, whose presence in the city dates back from the Roman Republic and was sometimes forcibly confined to the Roman Ghetto, as well as Mithraism which was the official religion of the Roman Empire for about two centuries, until being superceded by Christianity, following the death of Emperor Constantine in the 4th Century AD. Christianity was made the official religion of the Roman Empire in 380 by Emperor Theodosius I, allowing it to spread further and eventually wholly replace Mithraism and the Roman Religion.

Rome became the pre-eminent Christian city (vis-a-vis Antioch and Alexandria, and later Constantinople and Jerusalem) based on the tradition that Saint Peter and Saint Paul were martyred in the city during the 1st century, coupled with the city's political importance. The Bishop of Rome, later known as the Pope, claimed primacy over all Bishops and therefore all Christians on the basis that he is the successor of Saint Peter, upon whom Jesus built his Church; his prestige had been enhanced since 313 through donations by Roman emperors and patricians, including the Lateran Palace and patriarchal basilicas, as well as the obviously growing influence of the Church over the failing civil imperial authority. Papal authority has been exercised over the centuries with varying degrees of success, at times triggering divisions among Christians, until the present.

St. Peter's Square in the early morning.

With the increasing chaos and disorder leading to the collapse of the Roman Empire in 476, the popes assumed more and more civil authority first in Rome and in the surrounding territories. Rome became the center of the Catholic Church and the capital city of the Papal States; consequently, a great number of churches, convents and other religious buildings were erected in the city, sometimes above the ruins of older pre-Christian sites of worship. Churches proliferated during the Renaissance, when the Rome's most notable churches were built (this includes St. Peter's basilica on the Vatican Hill (the largest church in the world) and the city cathedral of St. John at the Lateran. The Papacy established its residence first in the Lateran Palace, then in the Quirinal Palace. When Rome was annexed by force to the newly unified Kingdom of Italy In 1870, Pope Pius IX retired to the Vatican, proclaiming himself a prisoner of the Savoy monarchy and leading to decades of conflict between the neonate state and the Catholic Church. This was resolved in 1929, when the Lateran Treaty were signed in Rome, establishing the right for the Holy See to govern the Vatican City as an independent, sovereign state. The patron saints of Rome remain Saint Peter and Saint Paul (or, as they are collectively referred to in this context, "the most holy Saints Peter and Paul"), both celebrated on June 29.

Central mosque by Paolo Portoghesi, Rome (1974)

In recent years, the Islamic community has grown significantly, in great part due to immigration from North African and Middle Eastern countries into the city. As a consequence of this trend, the comune promoted the building of the largest mosque in Europe, which was designed by architect Paolo Portoghesi and inaugurated on June 21, 1995.

Language

The original language of Rome was Latin, which evolved during the Middle Ages into Italian. The latter emerged as the confluence of various regional dialects, among which the Tuscan dialect predominated, but the population of Rome also developed its own dialect, the Romanesco. The ancient romanesco, used during the Middle Ages, was a southern Italian dialect, very close to the Neapolitan. The influence of the Florentine culture during the renaissance, and, above all, the immigration to Rome of many Florentines who were among the two Medici Popes' (Leo X and Clement VII) suite, caused a strong change of the dialect, which became much closer to the Tuscan varieties (the immigration of Florentines was mainly due to the Sack of Rome in 1527 and the subsequent demographic decrease). This remained largely confined to Rome until the 19th century, but then expanded other zones of Lazio (Civitavecchia, Latina), from the beginning of the 20th century, thanks to the rising population of Rome and to better transportation systems. As a consequence, Romanesco abandoned its traditional forms to mutate into the dialect spoken within the city, which is more similar to standard Italian, although remaining distinct from other Romanesco-influenced local dialects of Lazio. Dialectal literature in the traditional form Romanesco includes the works of such authors as Giuseppe Gioacchino Belli, Trilussa, and Cesare Pascarella. Contemporary Romanesco is mainly represented by popular actors such as Aldo Fabrizi, Alberto Sordi, Nino Manfredi, Anna Magnani, Gigi Proietti, Enrico Montesano, and Carlo Verdone.

The statue of Minerva in La Sapienza University

Universities

Rome is a nation-wide center for higher education. Its first university, La Sapienza (founded in 1303), is the largest in Europe and the second largest in the world, with more than 150,000 students attending. Two new public universities were founded: Tor Vergata in 1982, and Roma Tre in 1992, although the latter has now become larger than the former. Rome also contains a large number of pontifical universities and institutes, including the Pontifical Gregorian University (The oldest Jesuit university in the world, founded in 1551), the Pontifical University of St. Thomas Aquinas, and many others. The city also hosts various private universities, such as the LUMSA, the Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore (Roman centre), the LUISS, Istituto Europeo di Design,the St. John's University, the John Cabot University, the IUSM, the American University of Rome,the Link Campus of Malta, the S. Pio V University of Rome, and the Università Campus Bio-Medico. Rome is also the location of the John Felice Rome Center, a campus of Loyola University Chicago.

Music

Rome is an important center for music. It hosts the Accademia Nazionale di Santa Cecilia (founded in 1585), for which new concert halls were recently built in the new Parco della Musica, one of the largest musical venues in the world. Rome also has an opera house, the Teatro dell'Opera di Roma, as well as several minor musical institutions. The city also played host to the Eurovision Song Contest 1991 and the MTV Europe Music Awards 2004.

Cinema

Set of Gangs of New York in Cinecittà studios, Rome

Rome hosts the Cinecittà Studios, the largest film and television production facility in continental Europe and the center of the Italian cinema, where a large number of today's biggest box office hits are filmed. The 99 acre (40 ha) studio complex is just 5.6 miles (9 km) from the centre of Rome and is part of one of the biggest production communities in the world, second only to Hollywood, with well over 5,000 experienced, multilingual professionals - from period costume makers to visual effects specialists. With more than 3,000 productions which have been made on its lot, from recent features like The Passion of Christ, Gangs of New York, HBO’S Rome, The Life Aquatic and Dino De LaurentiisDecameron, to such cinema classics as Ben Hur, Cleopatra and the films of Federico Fellini, many consider it synonymous with Italian cinema and moviemaking in general.

Founded in 1937 by Fascist dictator Benito Mussolini, the studios were bombed by the Western Allies during World War II. In the 1950s, Cinecittà was the filming location for several large American film productions, and subsequently became the studio most closely associated with Federico Fellini. Today Cinecittà is the only studio in the world with pre-production, production and full post-production facilities on one lot, allowing directors and producers to walk in with their script and walk out with a completed film.

Media

Newspapers Magazines TVs Radios

Sports

Club Sport Founded League Venue Head Coach
A.S. Roma Football 1927 Serie A Stadio Olimpico Luciano Spalletti
S.S. Lazio Football 1900 Serie A Stadio Olimpico Delio Rossi
A.S. Cisco Roma Football 1972 Serie C2 Stadio Flaminio Fabio Fratena
Pallacanestro Virtus Roma Basketball 1960 Serie A PalaLottomatica Jasmin Repeša
M. Roma Volley Volleyball 2006 A 1 Palazzetto dello Sport Roberto Serniotti
Unione Rugby Capitolina Rugby union 1996 Super 10 Stadio Flaminio Massimo Mascioletti

Rome hosted the 1960 Summer Olympics and is an official candidate to hosting the 2020 Summer Olympics. Football is the most popular sport in Rome, as in the rest of the country. The Stadio Olimpico hosted the final game of the 1990 FIFA World Cup; it is also the home stadium for local Serie A clubs A.S. Roma and S.S. Lazio, whose rivalry has become a staple of Roman sports culture. Indeed, famous footballers who play for these teams and are also born in the city tend to become especially popular, as has been the case with players such as Francesco Totti and Giuseppe Giannini (both for A.S. Roma); Paolo Di Canio and Alessandro Nesta (both for Lazio). While far from being as popular as football, rugby union is gaining wider acceptance. The Stadio Flaminio is the home stadium for the Italy national rugby union team, which has been playing in the Six Nations Championship since 2000, albeit with less than satisfactory performances, as they have never won the championship so far. Rome is home to local rugby teams, such as Unione Rugby Capitolina, Rugby Roma, and S.S. Lazio. Every May, Rome hosts the ATP Masters Series tennis tournament on the clay courts of the Foro Italico. Cycling was immensely popular in the post-WWII period, although its popularity has faded in the last decades; Rome has hosted the final portion of the Giro d'Italia twice, in 1989 and 2000. Every spring, the annual Rome marathon is considered to be the most widely attended sports event in Italy. Rome is also home to many other sports teams, including basketball (Pallacanestro Virtus Roma), handball (S.S. Lazio), volleyball (male: M. Roma Volley, female: Virtus Roma and Linea Medica Siram Roma), and waterpolo (A.S. Roma, S.S. Lazio).

City layout and sites of interest

City centre

Piazza del Campidoglio
Santa Maria Maggiore
Palace of Justice
Via della Conciliazione
Piazza del Popolo
Vittorio Emanuele's Monument)
Fontana di Nettuno
Piazza della Repubblica
Pope's gardens
San Paolo fuori le mura
San Giovanni in Laterano
A typical Rome view

The historical centre ville is dominated by the traditional "Seven hills of Rome": the Capitoline, Palatine, Viminal, Quirinal, Esquiline, Caelian, and Aventine hills. The Tiber flows south through Rome, with the city centre located where the midstream Tiber Island facilitated crossing. Large parts of the ancient city walls remain. The Servian Wall was built twelve years after Gauls' sack of the city in 390 BC; it contained most of the Esquiline and Caelian hills, as well as the whole of the other five. Rome grew out of the Servian Wall, but no more walls were constructed until 270 AD, when Aurelian began building the Aurelian Walls. These were almost twelve miles (19 km) long, and was still the wall the troops of the Kingdom of Italy had to breach to enter the city in 1870.

Though relatively small, the old city center contains about 300 hotels and 300 pensioni,[8] over 200 palaces,[9] 900 churches,[10] eight of Rome's major parks, the residence of the President of the Italian Republic, the houses of the Parliament, offices of the city and city government, and many great and well-known monuments. The old city also contains thousands of workshops, offices, bars, and restaurants. Millions of tourists visit Rome annually, making it one of the most visited cities in the world.

Peripheral layout

Via Appia, landscape near Rome

The ancient city within the walls covers about four percent of the modern municipality's 1,507 square kilometres (582 sq mi). The historic city centre is the smallest of Rome's nineteen administrative zones. The city centre is made up of 22 rioni (districts), with one of them, ( Prati), actually lying out of the walled area. Surrounding the centre are 35 quartieri urbani (urban sectors), and within the city limits are six large suburbi (suburbs). The comune of Rome located outside the municipal boundaries about doubles the area of the actual city.

The belt highway known as Grande Raccordo Anulare (G.R.A.) describes a huge circle around the capital, about six miles (10 km) out from the city centre; unlike most Italian highways, the G.R.A. is toll-free. The circlular highway ties together the ancient roads that led to Rome in antiquity: the Via Flaminia, Via Aurelia, Via Salaria, Via Tiburtina, Via Casilina and Via Appia. The modern Via Appia connects the city centre to a string of towns known as Castelli Romani.

File:St Peter's Square, Vatican City - April 2007.jpg

Vatican City

Main article: Vatican City

The city of Rome surrounds the Vatican City, the enclave of the Holy See, which is a separate sovereign state. It hosts Saint Peter's Square with the Saint Peter's Basilica. The open space before the basilica was redesigned by Gian Lorenzo Bernini, from 1656 to 1667, under the direction of Pope Alexander VII, as an appropriate forecourt, designed "so that the greatest number of people could see the Pope give his blessing, either from the middle of the façade of the church or from a window in the Vatican Palace" (Norwich 1975 p 175). In Vatican City there are also the prestigious Vatican Library, Vatican Museums with the Sistine Chapel, the Raphael Rooms and other important works of Leonardo Da Vinci, Raphael, Giotto, and Botticelli.

Museums and galleries

The list of most important museums and galleries of Rome includes: the National Museum of Rome, the Museum of Roman Civilization, the Villa Giulia National Etruscan Museum, the Capitoline Museums, the Borghese Gallery, the Museum of Castel Sant'Angelo, and the National Gallery of Modern Art.

Transportation

Airports

Rome is served by three airports, of which the main two are owned by Aeroporti di Roma. The intercontinental Leonardo Da Vinci International Airport is Italy's chief airport; it is more commonly known as "Fiumicino airport", as it is located within the territory of the nearby comune of Fiumicino, south-west of Rome. The older Rome Ciampino Airport is a joint civilian and military airport; it is more commonly referred to as "Ciampino Airport", as it is located within Roman territory near the border with the comune of Ciampino, south-east of Rome.

A third airport, the Aeroporto dell'Urbe, is a small, low-traffic airport located about 6 km north of the city centre, which handles most helicopter and private flights. A fourth airport in the eastern part of the city, the Aeroporto di Centocelle (dedicated to Francesco Baracca), is no longer open to flights; it hosts the Comando di Squadra Aerea (which coordinates the activities of the Aeronautica Militare Italiana) and the Comando Operative di Vertice Interforze[11] (which coordinates all Italian military activities), although large parts of the airport are being redeveloped as a public park.

Railways

Rome is the hub of the Italian railways.

History of Rome railroad

Stations in the city

Located on the Esquiline Hill, Rome's central station, called Roma Termini, was opened in 1863, then demolished and completely rebuilt between 1939 and 1951; it is operated by Grandi Stazioni and mainly served by Trenitalia. It is the single largest station in Europe and is visited by 600,000 passengers daily; it has twenty-nine railway platforms, and also serves as a shopping centre and art gallery. The second largest station in the city is Roma Tiburtina, which is being redeveloped for high-speed rail service.[12] Other notable stations include Roma Ostiense, Roma Trastevere, Roma Tuscolana, Roma San Pietro, Roma Nomentana and Roma Casilina.

Urban transportation

Underground

Map of Rome Metro.

A 2-line subway system operates in Rome, called the "Metropolitana" or Rome Metro. Construction on the first branch started in the 1930s. The line had been planned to quickly connect the main train station (Termini) with the newly planned E42 area in the southern suburbs, where the 1942 World Fair was supposed to be held. The event never took place because of war. The area was later partly redesigned and renamed EUR (Esposizione Universale di Roma: Rome Universal Exhibition) in the 1950s to serve as a modern business district. The line was finally opened in 1955 and it is now part of the B Line. The A line opened in 1980 from Ottaviano to Anagnina stations, later extended in stages (1999 - 2000) to Battistini. In the 1990s, an extension of the B line was opened from Termini to Rebibbia. This underground network is generally reliable (although it may become very congested at peak times and during events, especially the A line) as it is relatively short. As of 2005, its total length is 38 km. The two existing lines, A & B, only intersect at Roma Termini station.

A new branch of the B line (B1) is under construction with an estimated cost of 482.900.000 Euro. It is scheduled to open in 2010. B1 will connect to line B at Piazza Bologna and will have 4 stations over a distance of 3.9 km.

A third line, line C, is under construction with an estimated cost of 3.000.000.000 Euro and will have 30 stations over a distance of 25.5 km. It will partly replace the existing tram line, Termini-Pantano. It will feature full automated, driverless trains. The first section will open in 2011 and the final sections in 2015. Archaeological findings frequently delay underground construction work.

A fourth line, line D, is under development. It will have 22 stations over a distance of 20 km. The first section will open in 2015 and the final sections before 2035.

Overground

Roman tram in Largo di Torre Argentina

The Rome Metro is part of an extensive transport network made of a tramway network, suburban and urban lines in and around the city of Rome, plus an "express line" to Fiumicino Airport. Whereas most FS-Regionale lines (Regional State Railways) do provide mostly a suburban service with more than 20 stations scattered throughout the city, the Roma-Lido (starting at Ostiense station), the Roma-Pantano (starting nearby Termini) and the Roma-Nord (starting at Flaminio station) lines offer a metro-like service. There is also an overground rail system with seven lines which link the hinterland of the Roman Area. One of this leads to the second Airport of the city, Ciampino. Rome also has a comprehensive bus and light rail system. The English web site of the ATAC public transportation company allows a route to be calculated using the buses, light rail and subways. [1] The Metrebus integrated fare system allows holders of tickets and integrated passes to travel on all companies vehicles, within the validity time of the ticket purchased. [2]

Map of Rome Tramway

Motor Traffic Limited Zone (ZTL)

Chronic congestion caused by cars during the 1970s and 1980s led to the banning of unauthorized traffic from the central part of city during workdays from 6 a.m. to 6 pm. This area is officially called (Italian) Zona a Traffico Limitato (ZTL). Heavy traffic due to night-life crowds during weekends led in recent years to the creation of other ZTLs in the Trastevere and S. Lorenzo districts during the night, and to experimentation with a new night ZTL also in the city center (plans to create a night ZTL in the Testaccio district as well are underway). In recent years, parking spaces along the streets in wide areas of the city have been converted to pay parking, as new underground parking spread throughout the city. In spite of all these measures, Rome's traffic remains an unsolved problem.

International relations

Historic Centre of Rome, the Properties of the Holy See in that City Enjoying Extraterritorial Rights and San Paolo Fuori le Mura*
UNESCO World Heritage Site

Rome - Castel Sant'Angelo
State Party Template:Country data Italy and Holy See
Type Cultural
Criteria i, ii, iii, iv, vi
Reference 91
Region Europe and North America
Inscription History
Inscription 1980  (4th Session)
Extensions 1990
* Name as inscribed on World Heritage List.
Region as classified by UNESCO.

Rome has one sister city and a number of partner cities:

Twin city:

  • Template:Country data FRA Paris, France is Rome's only sister city[13](Seule Paris est digne de Rome; seule Rome est digne de Paris / Solo Parigi è degna di Roma; solo Roma è degna di Parigi / Only Paris is worthy of Rome; only Rome is worthy of Paris).

Partner cities:

See also

Notes

  1. ^ http://demo.istat.it December 2006
  2. ^ s.v. "Urbe", [[UNESCO|]] World Heritage Centre
  3. ^ Weatherbase: Historical Weather for Rome, Italy (English). Weatherbase (2007). Retrieved on 2007-04-07.
  4. ^ Personal profile on the official website of the Comune di Roma.
  5. ^ http://www.infrastrutturetrasporti.it/page/standard/site.php?p=cm&o=vh&id=146 - Roma Capitale on the official website of the Italian [[Camera dei Deputati|]]
  6. ^ http://www.comune.roma.it/was/wps/portal/!ut/p/_s.7_0_A/7_0_21L?menuPage=/Area_di_navigazione/Sezioni_del_portale/Municipi/ - List of Municipi and definition of their territories on the official website of the Comune di Roma
  7. ^ populationhttp://demo.istat.it/strasa2006/index.html
  8. ^ Italian in Florence - Links - Information on Rome.
  9. ^ Italian in Florence - Links - Information on Rome.
  10. ^ Italian in Florence - Links - Information on Rome.
  11. ^ http://www.difesa.it/SMD/COI/La+sede.htm - Entry about the [[Ministero della Difesa|]]
  12. ^ http://eurostar-av.trenitalia.com/it/progetto/stazioni_rinnovate/roma_tiburtina.html - Entry on Roma Tiburtina station on the official website of the Italian high-speed rail service (in Italian)
  13. ^ www.v1.paris.fr/EN/city_government/international/special_partners.asp.
  14. ^ http://www.liberazione.it/giornale/051129/LB12D6D0.asp - Short newspaper article on the Rome / Achacachi twinning

References

Further references and bibliography can be found in the more detailed articles linked to in this article.
  • Lucentini, Mario (2002). La Grande Guida di Roma. Rome: Newton & Compton Editori. ISBN 88-8289-053-8. (Italian)
  • Spoto, Salvatore (1999). Roma Esoterica. Rome: Newton & Compton Editori. ISBN 88-8289-265-4. (Italian)
  • Richard Brilliant (2006). Roman Art. An American's View. Rome: Di Renzo Editore. ISBN 88-8323-085-X. 

Documentaries

  • The Holy Cities: Rome produced by Danae Film Production, distributed by HDH Communications; 2006.

External links

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations by or about:
WikibooksImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif has more on the topic of
RomeImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif
Official
Travel guides, maps, and models

{{{2}}} travel guide from Wikitravel


Template:Navbox Province of Italy

CoordinatesImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif: 41°54′N, 12°30′ELatitude: 41°53′60″N
Longitude: 12°30′0″E


<span class="FA" id="genealogy_wikia_de" style="display:none;" />


<span class="FA" id="genealogy_wikia_it" style="display:none;" />


<span class="FA" id="genealogy_wikia_pt" style="display:none;" />roa-rup:Roma

This page uses content from the English language Wikipedia. The original content was at Rome. The list of authors can be seen in the page history. As with this Familypedia wiki, the content of Wikipedia is available under the Creative Commons License.
Facts about RomeRDF feed
Coord 41°53′60″N, 12°30′0″E  +info.pngGoogle Earth
Coord possibly 41°54′N; 12°30′E  +
Localities of nation Lazio  +
Localities of nation-subdivision1 Province of Rome  +
Short name Comune di Roma  +

This article uses material from the "Rome" article on the Genealogy wiki at Wikia and is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike License.

Simple English

Comune di Roma
File:Flag of
Flag
File:Coat of arms of
Seal
Nickname(s): The Eternal City
Motto: Senātus Populusque Rōmānus (SPQR)  (Latin)
Coordinates: 41°54′N 12°30′E / 41.9°N 12.5°E / 41.9; 12.5
Region Lazio
Province Rome (RM)
Founded April 21, 753 BC/BCE
Government
 - Mayor Giovanni Alemanno
Area
 - City 1,285 km2 (496.1 sq mi)
 - Urban 5,352 km2 (2,066 sq mi)
Elevation +20 m (66 ft)
Population (December 2006)[1]
 - City 2,705,603 (1st)
 Density 2,105.5/km2 (4,664.8/sq mi)
 Urban 4,013,057
 Metro 5,493,308
Time zone CET (UTC+1)
 - Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)
Postal codes 00121 to 00199
Area code(s) 06
Patron saints Saint Peter and Saint Paul
Website comune.roma.it
File:Via del
Via del Corso, the main street of the city

Rome (Italian Roma) is the capital city of Italy and the Italian region Latium. It is located on the Tiber river and has 2.8 million people. An estimate by the OECD put the number of people of the city area of Rome at 3.47 million.[2] The enclave Vatican City is in the north-west.

Contents

History

According to legend, Rome was started on April 21, 753 BC/BCE by Romulus. He killed his twin brother named Remus, with whom he had been raised by a wolf, and became the first king of Rome. After Romulus, which among other things created the Senate, there were, according to legend, seven kings: Numa Pompilius, Tullo Ostilio, Anco Marzio, Tarquinius Priscus, Servius Tullius and Tarquinius Superbus. At the end of the age of monarchy, began the Republican era, during which Rome, by way of increasing expansion, he faced several conflicts: in the 390 BC, after the struggles with neighbouring peoples, the town was invaded by Galli and between the third and second century AD, fought against the rival Carthage, which then was captured and destroyed by the Roman army. But only with Julius Caesar in the first century BC, the city began to grow significantly, especially toward the Campo Marzio, at the north of Capitol, and its domain was extended to the Britannia. Caesar was never crowned emperor, a title which, however, fell to his adopted son Octavian who took the throne under the name of Augustus. Augusto "find a city of bricks and left it of marble" and its predecessors were no less: there was no emperor who enriched its city with new monuments, temples and triumphal arches. With the decline of 'Roman Empire, the city declined in importance and fell into ruin. Pope Gregory I created major reforms for the people. The economy of the former capital was a turning point: we can say that from that moment on, the city was ruled by the pope and, soon, also became the capital of a state, the Papal States, which remained active until the ' nineteenth century. Even popes, like the emperors, became richer, over the centuries, the city of monuments and churches, so that was called the "capital of Christendom, since here stood and still stands the Basilica di San Giovanni Lateran, the most important church of the World. The power of the Pope lessened along with its state. In fact, on 20 September 1870, Garibaldi's army, which had the task of uniting all of Italy under the crown of Savoy, entered the city through a breach opened in the walls at Porta Pia and, the same year, just Rome became the capital of the state newborn.

Rome today

Rome is a major European political and cultural center, containing the headquarters of FAO. It is home of the pope and was one of the most powerful cities of antiquity (the old world). It currently contains numerous museums, basilicas and palaces, such as the Colosseum.

Geography

Rome stands on a predominantly hilly, with an area of 1285.31 kilometers ². The city is crossed by two rivers: the Tiber, which runs from east to west, and l 'Aniene, which runs from north-east to north, it flows within the city, in Tiber. Rome was built on the Sun hill, later named Palatine. It grew and is now built on seven principal hills:

  • Palatine
  • Aventine
  • Capitoline
  • Quirinal
  • Viminal
  • Esquiline
  • Caelian

Education

Rome is an educational place in Italy. The children in Rome have to start school from the age of six until 14. This takes them to the end of Junior High School. Rome has the biggest university in Italy and it is named University of Rome. It was created in 1303. About 200,000 students go to study at this University.

Transport

Rome has an airport, which is named the Leonardo Da Vinci International Airport (IATA: FCO). In Rome, there are also two underground lines (called "Underground A" and "Underground B") and many bus paths.

Important buildings in Rome

Ancient buildings

  • Roman Forum
  • Colosseum
  • The Temple of Antonius and Faustina (141 AD/CE)
  • The Temple of Julius Caesar (29 BC/BCE)
  • The Temple of Vesta (7th Century BC/BCE)
  • The Temple of Castor and Pollux (484 BC/BCE)
  • The Arch of Augustus (29-19 BC/BCE)
  • The Forum of Caesar (54 BC/BCE)
  • The Forum of Augustus (2 BC/BCE)
  • The Temple of Venus and Rome (135 AD/CE)
  • The Circus Maximus
  • The Baths of Caracalla (212-216 AD/CE)
  • Pantheon

Other pages

Ancient Rome

References

Other websites

File:Rome panorama
A panoramic view of Rome from an aeroplane.

krc:Римfrr:Romrue:Рім








Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address
Message