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Rome, Georgia, USA
—  City  —
View of Rome from the historic Myrtle Hill Cemetery
Location in Floyd County and the state of Georgia
Coordinates: 34°15′36″N 85°11′6″W / 34.26°N 85.185°W / 34.26; -85.185Coordinates: 34°15′36″N 85°11′6″W / 34.26°N 85.185°W / 34.26; -85.185
Country United States
State Georgia
County Floyd
 - Mayor Wright Bagby
 - City Manager John Bennett
 - Total 29.8 sq mi (77.3 km2)
 - Land 29.4 sq mi (76.1 km2)
 - Water 0.5 sq mi (1.2 km2)
Elevation 614 ft (187 m)
Population (2000)
 - Total 34,980
 Density 1,190.5/sq mi (459.7/km2)
Time zone EST (UTC-5)
 - Summer (DST) EDT (UTC-4)
Area code(s) 706
FIPS code 13-66668[1]
GNIS feature ID 0356504[2]

Located in the foothills of the Appalachian Mountains, Rome is the largest city and the county seat of Floyd County, Georgia, United States. It is the principal city of the Rome, Georgia Metropolitan Statistical Area which encompasses all of Floyd County. At the 2000 census, the city had a total population of 34,980,[1] and was the largest city in Northwest Georgia.

Though no Interstate highway passes through Rome, it is the largest city near the center of the triangular area defined by the Interstate highways between Atlanta, Birmingham and Chattanooga, which contributes to its importance as a regional center in several areas, such as medical care and education.

Rome's name is a commemoration of the Italian city of Rome. Rome, Georgia, was built on seven hills with a river running between them, a feature that was an inspiration for the name. This connection is emphasized by a replica of the statue of Romulus and Remus nursing from a mother wolf, a symbol of the original Rome, which was a 1929 gift from Italian dictator Benito Mussolini.[3]



Location of Rome and major highways
Rome's 7 Hills and 3 Rivers

Rome is located at 34°15'36" North, 85°11'6" West (34.259893, -85.185037)[4] in Floyd County. The city is at the confluence of the Etowah River and the Oostanaula River — the two rivers that form the Coosa River. The closest confluence of latitude and longitude is 34°N 85°W, about 20 miles South-Southeast of Rome.[5] According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 29.8 square miles (77.3 km²), of which, 29.4 square miles (76.1 km²) of it is land and 0.5 square miles (1.2 km²) of it is water. The total area is 1.54% water.

The seven hills that inspired the name of Rome are Blossom Hill, Jackson Hill, Lumpkin Hill, Mount Aventine Hill, Myrtle Hill, Shorter Hill (now known as Old Shorter Hill), and Neely Hill (also known as Tower Hill and Clock Tower Hill). Some of the hills have been partially graded since Rome was founded.


Native American era

Life in the area of Rome before the Spaniard expeditions in the 1500s is largely unknown, due to the native inhabitants' lack of written records.

Native American territories in the Southeastern area of North America in 1715. State outlines are from later times.

There is some debate over whether Hernando de Soto was the first Spanish conquistador to encounter Native Americans in the area now known as Rome, but it is usually agreed that he passed through the region with his expedition in 1540.[6] In 1560, Tristán de Luna sent a detachment of 140 soldiers and two Dominican friars north along de Soto's route, and it is this group that established true relations with the Coosa chiefdom as they assisted the Coosa in a raid against the rebellious province of Napochín, in what is now known as Tennessee.[7] Exposed to unfamiliar European diseases, within 20 years these Mound Builders were gone, replaced by the Creek.[8]

The Abihka tribe of Creek in the area of Rome later became part of the Upper Creek, and merged with other tribes to become the Ulibahalis, who later migrated westerward into Alabama in the general region of Gadsden,[9][10] and were replaced by the Cherokee in the mid-1700s.

There was a Cherokee village named Hightower on the site of Rome, but its people later moved to Cartersville, Georgia, taking the name with them. The Cherokee also referred to the area that would become Rome as "Head of Coosa", and it eventually became home to several Cherokee leaders, including Chiefs Major Ridge and John Ross.[11] Ridge's home here was known for years as Chieftains House, and is now Chieftains Museum.

In the 1700s, a high demand in Europe for American deer skins had led to a brisk trade between Indian hunters and white traders, and as a result, a few white traders and some settlers (primarily from the British Colonies of Georgia and Carolina) were accepted by the Head of Coosa Cherokee. These were later joined by missionaries, and then more settlers. After the American War of Independence, most new settlers came from the area of the State of Georgia East of the Proclamation Line of 1763.

1802 map of Georgia-Yazoo lands. The triangular section labeled "Assigned to Georgia 1802" was Cherokee land claimed as part of the Compact of 1802 between Georgia and the United States.

In 1793, in response to a Cherokee raid into Tennessee, John Sevier, the Governor of Tennessee, led a retaliatory raid against the Cherokee here in the Battle of Hightower, in the vicinity of Myrtle Hill. In 1802, the United States and Georgia executed the Compact of 1802, in which Georgia sold its claimed Western lands to the United States and the United States agreed to ignore Cherokee land titles and remove all Cherokee from Georgia. The commitment to evict the Cherokee was not immediately enforced, and Chiefs John Ross and Major Ridge led efforts to stop their removal, including several Federal lawsuits.

During the 1813 Creek Civil War, most Cherokee took the side of the Upper Creek Indians against the Red Stick Creek Indians. Before they moved to Head of Coosa, Chief Ridge commanded a company of Cherokee warriors as a unit of the Tennessee militia, with Chief Ross as adjutant. This unit was under the overall command of Andrew Jackson, and supported the Upper Creek.

1822 map of Cherokee lands in Georgia

In 1829, gold was discovered near Dahlonega, Georgia, starting the first gold rush in the United States. The Indian Removal Act of 1830, which fulfilled the Compact of 1802, was a direct result of this, and Georgia's General Assembly passed legislation in 1831 that claimed all Cherokee land in Northwest Georgia. This entire territory was called Cherokee County until additional legislation in 1832 divided the territory into the nine counties that exist today.[12][13]

City founding period

In 1834, the city of Rome was founded by Col. Daniel R. Mitchell, Col. Zacharia Hargrove, Maj. Philip Hemphill, Col. William Smith, and Mr. John Lumpkin (nephew of Governor Lumpkin), who determined the name for the new city by holding a drawing. Each put his choice in a hat, with Col. Mitchell submitting the name of Rome in reference to the area's hills and rivers. Mitchell's submission was selected, and the Georgia Legislature made Rome an official city in 1835. The County Seat was subsequently moved east from the village of Livingston to Rome.[14]

With the entire area still occupied primarily by Cherokee, the city served the agrarian needs of the new cotton-based economy that had begun to replace deer-skin trading after the invention of the cotton gin. The first steamboat navigated the Coosa River to Rome in 1836, reducing the time-to-market for the cotton trade and speeding travel between Rome and the Gulf Coast.

By 1838, the Cherokee had run out of legal options, and were the last of the major tribes to be forcibly moved to the Indian Territories (in modern-day Oklahoma) on the Trail of Tears. After the removal of the Cherokee, their homes and businesses were taken over by whites, and the Roman economy continued to grow. In 1849, an 18 mile rail spur to the Western and Atlantic Railroad in Kingston was completed roughly along the current path of Georgia Highway 293, significantly improving transportation to the east.[15]

Civil war period

Rome in 1864, during the occupation by Union forces.

In April 1863, during the U.S. Civil War, the city was defended by Confederate General Nathan Bedford Forrest against Union Colonel Abel Streight's "lightning mule" raid from the area east of modern day Cedar Bluff, Alabama.[16] General Forrest tricked Colonel Streight into surrendering just a few miles shy of Rome. Realizing their vulnerability, Rome's city council allocated $3,000 to build three fortifications. Although these became operational by October 1863, efforts to strengthen the forts continued as the war progressed. These forts were named after Romans who had been killed in action: Fort Attaway was on the western bank of the Oostanaula River, Fort Norton was on the eastern bank of the Oostanaula, and Fort Stovall was on the southern bank of the Etowah River. At least one other fort was later built on the northern side of the Coosa River.[17][18]

Vandever and his officers in Rome. (1864, on East 4th Ave)

In May 1864, Union General Jefferson C. Davis, under the command of Major General William Tecumseh Sherman, attacked and captured Rome when the outflanked Confederate defenders retreated under command of Major General Samuel Gibbs French.[19][20] Union General William Vandever was stationed in Rome, and is depicted with his staff in a picture taken there.[21] Due to Rome's forts and iron works, which included the manufacture of cannons, Rome was a significant target during Sherman's destructive march through Georgia.[22] Davis's forces occupied Rome for several months, making repairs to the damaged forts and briefly quartering General Sherman. Foreshadowing Sherman's infamous Special Field Orders, No. 120, Union forces destroyed Rome's forts, iron works, the rail line to Kingston, and any other material that could be useful to the South's war effort as they withdrew from Rome to participate in the Atlanta Campaign.[23]

Reconstruction period

By the Oostanaula River, the Historic Floyd County Courthouse with its spire (left) and the Clock Tower (right).

In 1871, Rome constructed a water tank on Neely Hill, which overlooks the downtown district. This later became a clock tower, and has served as the town's iconic landmark ever since, appearing in the city's crest and local business logos. As a result, Neely Hill is also referred to as Clock Tower Hill.

With two rivers merging to form a third, Rome has occasionally been subjected to serious flooding. The first severe flood after Rome became a city was the flood of 1886, which inundated the city and allowed a steamboat to travel down Broad Street.[24] In 1891, upon recommendation of the United States Army Corps of Engineers, the Georgia State Legislature amended Rome's charter to create a commission to oversee the construction of river levees to protect the town against future floods.[25] In the late 1890s, additional flood control measures were instituted, including raising the height of Broad Street by about 15 feet. As a result, many of the below-ground basements of Rome's historic buildings were originally ground level entrances.[26]

Twentieth century

Capitoline Wolf

In 1928, the American Cotillion Company began construction of a rayon plant in Rome as a joint effort with the Italian Chatillon Corporation. Italian premier Benito Mussolini sent a block of marble from the ancient Roman Forum, inscribed "From Old Rome to New Rome", to be used as the cornerstone of the new rayon plant. After the rayon plant was completed in 1929, Mussolini honored Rome with a bronze replica of the sculpture of Romulus and Remus nursing from the Capitoline Wolf. The statue was placed in front of City Hall on a base of white marble from Tate, Georgia, with a brass plaque inscribed

"This statue of the Capitoline Wolf, as a forecast of prosperity and glory, has been sent from Ancient Rome to New Rome during the consulship of Benito Mussolini in the year 1929."

In 1940, anti-Italian sentiment due to World War II became so strong that the Rome city commission moved the statue into storage to prevent vandalism and replaced it with an American flag. In 1952, the statue was restored to its former location in front of City Hall.[27]

Great Depression

In Rome, Ga. the effect of The Great Depression was not as bad as the larger cities across America. Since Rome was an agricultural town, people did not have to worry as much about food, but jobs were becoming very few around 1932, three years after the stock market crash of 1929.[citation needed]

An important segway into the Great Depression was the "Cotton Bust" which had hit Rome in mid 1920s, and caused many farmers to move away, sell their land or convert to other agricultural crops, such as corn. The "Cotton Bust" was the effect of the Boll Weevil, a tiny bug which was introduced to Georgia in 1915.[28] Before the Boll Weevil came to Georgia, cotton was an abundant and cheap resource, but when the boil weevil came to Rome and North Georgia it destroyed many fields of cotton and put a damper on Rome's economy. While the Great Depression had its affect on Rome, the area was not as devastated as many of the big cities; however, it did put many families through hard financial times. Jobs were scarce and prices of food and basic commodities went up. Even the "postal employees took a fifteen per cent cut in pay, and volunteered a further ten per cent reduction in work time in order to save the jobs of substitute employees who otherwise would have been thrown out of work."[29]

Referring to the book "History of Rome and Floyd County" the Relief Follies and cotton style show was created to help the struggling families during this time. Romans bought tickets to a show put on by local performers and the fares went directly to grocers who made boxes of food to sell at a discount price to the needy families.[30] To lower the number of unemployed during this time, S.H. Smith, Sr. tore down the Armstrong hotel. Afterwards, he employed many people to help build the towering Greystone Hotel at the corner of Broad St. and East Second St. in 1927. "The Rome News-Tribune on November 30, 1933, reported a heartening increase in local building permits for a total of $95,800; of this amount, $85,000 was invested by S.H. Smith, Sr., in the construction of the Greystone Hotel. The Greystone Apartments were added in 1936."[31]

Places of interest

Sites on the National Register of Historic Places

Rome has many historic homes and businesses, many of which are on the National Register of Historic Places:

Site[32] Year Built Address Year Registered
Dr. Robert Battey House 1850 725 East 2nd Ave. 1982
Berry Schools North of Rome on U.S. Hwy 27 1978
Between the Rivers Historic District Roughly bounded by the Etowah and Oostanaula Rivers, 7th Ave., and West 4th St. 1983
Ext. 1989
Chieftains 1792 80 Chatillon Rd. 1971
Double-Cola Bottling Company 419 East Second Ave. 2006
East Rome Historic District Roughly bounded by Walnut Ave., McCall Blvd., East 8th and 10th Sts. 1985
Etowah Indian Mounds North bank of Etowah River 1966
Floyd County Courthouse 5th Ave. and Tribune St. 1980
Jackson Hill Historic District Jackson Hill, between GA Hwy 53 and the Oostanaula River 1997
Lower Avenue A Historic District Avenue A between North 5th St. and Turner-McCall Blvd. 1983
Main High School 41 Washington Dr. 2002
Mayo's Bar Lock and Dam On the Coosa River, 8 miles SW of Rome 1989
Mt. Aventine Historic District Address Restricted 1983
Myrtle Hill Cemetery 1857 Bounded by S. Broad, and Myrtle Sts., Pennington, and Branham Aves. 1983
Oakdene Place Roughly bounded by the Etowah River, Queen, and East 6th Sts. 1983
Rome Clock Tower 1871 Corner of East 2nd Street and East 5th Avenue 1980
South Broad Street Historic District South Broad St. and Etowah Terrace 1983
Sullivan—Hillyer House 309 East 2nd Ave. 2002
Thankful Baptist Church 935 Spiderwebb Dr. 1985
U.S. Post Office and Courthouse West 4th Ave. and East 1st St. 1975
Upper Avenue A Historic District Roughly bounded by Oostanaula River, Turner-McCall Blvd., Avenue B and W. 11th St. 1983


Rome has long had the strength of economic diversity,[33] founded in manufacturing, education, healthcare, technology, tourism, and other industries.

In 1954, General Electric established a factory to build medium transformers. In the 1960s, Rome contributed to the American effort in the Vietnam War when the Rome Plow Company produced Rome plows, which were large armored vehicles used by the U.S. Military to clear jungles. In the latter part of the 20th century, many carpet mills prospered in the areas surrounding Rome.

From the late 40's through the early 70's Rome was the home site for a nationally known house of prostitution named Peggy's.[34]

Recent additions to Rome's manufacturing industry include Brugg Cable and Telecom,[35] Suzuki Manufacturing of America,[36] and automobile parts makers Neaton Rome[37] and F&P Georgia. The most prominent of the new additions is the North American headquarters of Pirelli Tire.[38]

Rome is also well known in the region for its medical facilities, particularly Floyd Medical Center[39], Redmond Regional Medical Center[40], and the Harbin Clinic[41].

National companies that are part of Rome's technology industry include Universal Tax Systems[42] and Peach State Labs.[43]

In the world of professional sports, the city is home to the Rome Braves, a Class A affiliate of the Atlanta Braves. The Rome Braves compete in the South Atlantic League. Additionally, Rome has hosted stages of the Tour de Georgia in 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, and 2007.


At the 2000 census[1], there were 34,980 people, 13,320 households and 8,431 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,190.5 per square mile (459.7/km²). There were 14,508 housing units at an average density of 493.7/sq mi (190.7/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 63.12% White, 27.66% African American, 1.42% Asian, 0.39% Native American, 0.16% Pacific Islander, 5.61% from other races, and 1.64% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 10.35% of the population.

There were 13,320 households of which 29.1% had children under the age of 18 living in them, 41.2% were married couples living together, 17.0% had a female householder with no husband present, wend 36.7% are non-families. 30.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.1% have someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.47 and the average family size was 3.07.

The age distribution was 24.2% under the age of 18, 12.1% from 18 to 24, 27.7% from 25 to 44, 20.1% from 45 to 64, and 15.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females there were 90.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 86.2 males.

The median household income was $30,930, and the median family income was $37,775. Males had a median income of $30,179 versus $22,421 for females. The per capita income for the city was $17,327. About 15.3% of families and 20.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 29.1% of those under the age of 18 and 16.3% of those 65 and older.


Reflecting its function as a regional center, Rome is home to four colleges:

College Public/
Type Notes
Berry College Private Liberal Arts World's largest contiguous college campus
Coosa Valley Technical College Public Technical Founded in 1962
Georgia Highlands College Public GA Community College Formerly Floyd Junior College
Shorter College Private Liberal Arts Founded in 1873

Rome's public school system administers Rome High School and a variety of elementary and middle schools. In addition, Rome is home to Darlington, an independent preparatory school in operation for over 100 years, on a campus of over 500 acres.


Movie production


Rome Georgia Classifieds

Radio stations

Call Letters Frequency Nickname Format
WGPB 97.7 FM NPR Public Radio
WLAQ 1410 AM n/a Talk
WQTU 102.3 FM Q102 Hot AC
WRGA/WSRM 1470 AM/93.5 FM n/a News/Talk
WROM 710 AM n/a Gospel Music
WTSH 107.1 FM South 107 Country
WATG 95.7 FM 95.7 The Ridge Classic Hits

Notable residents


References and notes

  1. ^ a b c "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2008-01-31. 
  2. ^ "US Board on Geographic Names". United States Geological Survey. 2007-10-25. Retrieved 2008-01-31. 
  3. ^ UGA article on statue of Romulus and Remus
  4. ^ "US Gazetteer files: 2000 and 1990". United States Census Bureau. 2005-05-03. Retrieved 2008-01-31. 
  5. ^ Closest confluence of Latitude and Longitude
  6. ^ Article on De Soto's trail through North Georgia.
  7. ^ Our Georgia History: Article on Tristan de Luna's trail through North Georgia.
  8. ^ New Georgia Encyclopedia: Article on De Soto and De Luna's explorations in Georgia.
  9. ^ Waselkov, Gregory A. and Marvin T. Smith "Upper Creek Archaeology" in McEwan, Bonnie G., ed. Indians of the Greater Southeast: Historical Archaeology and Ethnohistory (Gainsville: University of Florida Press, 2000) p. 244-245
  10. ^ Ethridge, Robbie Franklyn "Creek Country: The Creek Indians and Their World" (Chapel Hill, North Carolina: UNC Press) p. 27
  11. ^ Rome City Commission Archives March 3, 2008
  12. ^ Historical Atlas of Georgia Counties: Cherokee Territory/County
  13. ^ Act Dividing Original Cherokee County
  14. ^ Article discussing the founding of Rome.
  15. ^ Roadside Georgia: Article mentioning Rome's first rail spur.
  16. ^ About North Georgia: Article about the raid of the Lightning Mule Brigade
  17. ^ Article on the history of Rome's forts.
  18. ^ Roadside Georgia: Article briefly discussing 3 forts built in Rome during the Civil War.
  19. ^ The Life of Ulysses S. Grant, by Charles A. Dana and J. H. Wilson, Gurdon Bill & Company, 1868, Page 275.
  20. ^ FindAGrave entry for General French
  21. ^ Eicher & Eicher, Civil War High Commands, p. 542.
  22. ^ Article on Noble Brothers Foundry
  23. ^ Fort Attaway Preservation Society
  24. ^ Roadside Georgia: Article mentioning the flood of 1886.
  25. ^ Acts Passed by the General Assembly of Georgia, Volume II. Atlanta Georgia, Geo. W. Harrison, State Printer (Franklin Publishing House) 1892: Creating Levee Commission for Rome, Etc. No. 625 (pages 585-590).
  26. ^ Article mentioning the raising of Broad Street.
  27. ^ UGA article on the gift of the Romulus and Remus statue
  28. ^ <>
  29. ^ <Battey, George Magruder, 1887-1965 - A history of Rome and Floyd County, state of Georgia .. (Volume 1) Page 412>
  30. ^ <Battey, George Magruder, 1887-1965 - A history of Rome and Floyd County, state of Georgia .. (Volume 1) Page 409>
  31. ^ <Battey, George Magruder, 1887-1965 - A history of Rome and Floyd County, state of Georgia .. (Volume 1) Page 412 and 415>
  32. ^ National Register of Historic Places National Park Service
  33. ^ New Georgia Encyclopedia article
  34. ^ Peggy's in Rome, GA
  35. ^ Brugg Cable & Telecom
  36. ^ Suzuki Manufacturing
  37. ^ Neaton Manufacturing
  38. ^ Pirelli Tire Manufacturing
  39. ^ Floyd Medical Center
  40. ^ Redmond Regional Medical Center
  41. ^ The Harbin Clinic
  42. ^ Universal Tax Systems
  43. ^ Peach State Labs
  44. ^ "Movie wants to film in Rome if school board grants use of the old Coosa Middle School". Rome News-Tribune, March 3, 2007
  45. ^ "‘Dance of the Dead’ movie filmed in Rome to be released on DVD". Rome News-Tribune, August 21, 2008

External links

Further reading

  • Roger Aycock, All Roads to Rome, Georgia: W.H. Wolfe Associates, 1981. [1]
  • Jerry R. Desmond, Georgia's Rome: A Brief History, Charleston: The History Press, 2008. [2]
  • George Magruder Battey Jr., A History of Rome and Floyd County, Georgia 1540-1922, Georgia: Cherokee Publishing Company, 2000. [3]
  • Sesquicentennial Committee of the City of Rome, Rome and Floyd County: An Illustrated History, The Delmar Co 1986.[4]
  • Morrell Johnson Darko, The Rivers Meet: A History of African-Americans in Rome, Georgia, Darko, 2003. [5]
  • Orlena M. Warner, When in Rome..., Georgia: Steven Warner, 1972. A collection of poems. [6]

1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

ROME, a city and the county-seat of Floyd county, in the N.W. part of Georgia, U.S.A., at the junction of the Etowah and Oostanaula rivers, which here form the Coosa. Pop. (1900) 7291, of whom 2830 were negroes; (1910) 12,099. It is served by the Central of Georgia, the Western & Atlantic (leased by the Nashville, Chattanooga & St Louis), the Southern and the Rome & Northern railways, and the Coosa river is navigable from this point to the falls of the river in Alabama. The city is the seat of Shorter College (for women), which was established in 1873 as the Cherokee Female College, and received its present name in 1877, when it was rebuilt and endowed by Colonel Alfred Shorter; and of the Berry Industrial School (1902), for mountain boys. Rome is situated in a rich agricultural region producing cotton, cereals, vegetables and fruits, for which it is a trading centre, and is a shipping point for bauxite, mined in the vicinity. Other mineral products of this region are iron, limestone, cement rock, fire-brick clay, coal, slate and marble. Rome's principal manufactures are cotton, cotton-seed oil, lumber, foundry and machine-shop products, bricks and agricultural implements. Its site was originally within the territory of the Cherokee, and on the other side of the Oostanaula river there is said to have been at one time an Indian village, which, like several other Creek villages, was called Chiaha (or Chehaw). Here, in October 1793, in his Etowah campaign, John Sevier, with militia from Tennessee, crushed a party of marauding Indians; the battle is commemorated by a monument in Myrtle Hill cemetery. Floyd county was erected in 1833. The first settlement of Rome was made in 1834, and immediately afterwards it became the county-seat. Rome was first chartered as a city in 1847. In 1863 there were brilliant cavalry manoeuvres in its vicinity, which resulted in the capture (May 3) of Colonel Abel D. Streight (Federal) with 1800 men by General Nathan B. Forrest (Confederate), with a force one-third the size of that of his opponent. On the 19th of May 1864 the city was captured by a detachment of the Federal Army of General William T. Sherman, then conducting his Atlanta campaign. In 1848-75 Rome was the home of Charles Henry Smith (1826-1903), a popular humorist, who wrote under the name "Bill Arp." In 1906 East Rome (pop. 671 in 1900) and North Rome (pop. 960 in 1900), which was formerly called Forestville, were annexed to the city.

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