Romeo and Juliet on screen: Wikis

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Juliet in the balcony scene of S4C's Shakespeare: The Animated Tales version of Romeo and Juliet.
See also: Shakespeare on screen, Romeo and Juliet (films).

William Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet may be the most-screened play of all time. The most notable theatrical releases were George Cukor's multi-Oscar-nominated 1936 production, Franco Zeffirelli's 1968 version, and Baz Luhrmann's 1996 MTV-inspired Romeo + Juliet. The latter two were both, in their time, the highest-grossing Shakespeare film ever. Cukor featured Norma Shearer and Leslie Howard, with a combined age over 75, as the teenage lovers. Zeffirelli populated his film with beautiful young people, and Baz Luhrmann produced a heavily-cut fast-paced version aimed at teenage audiences.[1]

Several reworkings of the story have also been filmed, most notably West Side Story, Prokofiev's ballet and Romanoff and Juliet. Several theatrical films, such as Shakespeare in Love and Romeo Must Die, consciously use elements of Shakespeare's plot.

Contents

Significant feature releases

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George Cukor (1936)

Norma Shearer as Juliet in the balcony scene of George Cukor's 1936 Romeo and Juliet.

Producer Irving Thalberg pushed MGM for five years to make a Romeo and Juliet, in the face of the studio's opposition: which stemmed from Louis B. Mayer's belief that the masses considered the Bard over their heads, and from the austerity forced on the studios by the depression. It was only when Jack Warner announced his intention to film Max Reinhardt's A Midsummer Night's Dream that Mayer, not to be outdone, gave Thalberg the go-ahead.[2] Thalberg's stated intention was "to make the production what Shakespeare would have wanted had he possessed the facilities of cinema."[3] He went to great lengths to establish authenticity and the film's intellectual credentials: researchers were sent to Verona to take photographs for the designers; the paintings of Botticelli, Bellini, Carpaccio and Gozzoli were studied to provide visual inspiration; and two academic advisers (John Tucker Murray of Harvard and William Strunk, Jr. of Cornell) were flown to the set, with instructions to criticise the production freely.[4] The film includes two songs drawn from other plays by Shakespeare: "Come Away Death" from Twelfth Night and "Honour, Riches, Marriage, Blessing" from The Tempest.[5] Thalberg had only one choice for director: George Cukor, who was known as "the women's director". Thalberg's vision was that the performance of Norma Shearer, his wife, would dominate the picture.[4]

"Romeo and Juliet ... remains what it has always been: The best version ever written of Hollywood's favorite theme, Boy Meets Girl"

Time Magazine[6]

Scholar Stephen Orgel describes Cukor's film as "largely miscast ... with a preposterously mature pair of lovers in Leslie Howard and Norma Shearer, and an elderly John Barrymore as a stagey Mercutio decades out of date."[7] Barrymore was in his late fifties, and played Mercutio as a flirtatious tease.[8] Romeo wears gloves in the balcony scene, and Juliet has a pet fawn.[9] Tybalt is usually portrayed as a hot-headed troublemaker, but Basil Rathbone played him as stuffy and pompous.[10]

Thalberg cast screen actors, rather than stage actors, but shipped-in East Coast drama coaches (such as the acclaimed Frances Robinson Duff to coach Norma Shearer - who had never acted on stage) with the unfortunate consequence that actors previously adored for their naturalism gave stilted performances.[4] The shoot extended to six months, and the budget reached $2 million: at that time, MGM's most expensive movie.[11]

Like most Shakespearean filmmakers, Cukor and his screenwriter Talbot Jennings cut much of the original script: playing around 45% of it.[12] Many of these cuts are common ones in the theatre, such as the second chorus[13] and the comic scene of Peter with the musicians.[12][14] Others are filmic: designed to replace words with action, or rearranging scenes in order to introduce groups of characters in longer narrative sequences.[12] However, Jennings retains more of Shakespeare's poetry for the young lovers than any of his big-sceen successors.[12] Several scenes are interpolated, including three sequences featuring Friar John in Mantua.[12] In contrast, the role of Friar Laurence (an important character in the play) is much reduced.[15] A number of scenes are expanded as opportunities for visual spectacle, including the opening brawl (set against the backdrop of a religious procession), the wedding and Juliet's funeral.[12] The party scene,[16] choreographed by Agnes de Mille, includes Rosaline (an unseen character in Shakespeare's script) who rebuffs Romeo.[12] The role of Peter is enlarged, and played by Andy Devine as a faint-hearted bully. He speaks lines which Shakespeare gave to other Capulet servants, making him the instigator of the opening brawl.[12][17]

Clusters of images are used to define the central characters: Romeo is first sighted leaning against a ruined building in an arcadian scene, complete with a pipe-playing shepherd and his sheepdog; the livelier Juliet is associated with Capulet's formal garden, with its decorative fish pond.[8]

Neither critics nor the public responded enthusiastically. Graham Greene wrote that he was "less than ever convinced that there is an aesthetic justification for filming Shakespeare at all... the effect of even the best scenes is to distract."[18] Cinemagoers considered the film too "arty", staying away as they had from Warner's A Midsummer Night Dream a year before: leading to Hollywood abandoning the Bard for over a decade.[19] The film nevertheless received four oscar nominations.[9] Subsequent film versions would make use of less experienced, but more photogenic, actors in the central roles.[8] Cukor, interviewed in 1970, said of his film: "It's one picture that if I had to do over again, I'd know how. I'd get the garlic and the Mediterranean into it." [20]

Franco Zeffirelli (1968)

Olivia Hussey as Juliet in the balcony scene of Franco Zeffirelli's 1968 film Romeo and Juliet.

Stephen Orgel describes Franco Zeffirelli's 1968 Romeo and Juliet as being "full of beautiful young people, and the camera, and the lush technicolour, make the most of their sexual energy and good looks."[7] Sarah Munson Deats - referring to recent opposition to the Vietnam War - says that the film was "particularly intended to attract the counter-culture youth, a generation of young people, like Romeo and Juliet, estranged from their parents, torn by the conflict between their youthful cult of passion and the military tradition of their elders."[21] Filming at the time of the "British Invasion", Zeffirelli was able to use an English cast to appeal to American audiences.[22] Zeffirelli said of his film:

The teenagers of the play should be a lot like kids today... They don't want to get involved in their parents' hates and wars. Romeo was a sensitive, naive pacifist and Juliet strong, wise for a fourteen-year-old. That is why I chose inexperienced actors. I don't expect a performance from Olivia or Lenny. I want them to use their own experience to illuminate Shakespeare's characters.[23]

In truth, Zeffirelli's young leads were already experienced actors: Leonard Whiting (then seventeen) had been the youngest member of the National Theatre, and had played The Artful Dodger in Oliver! on stage. Olivia Hussey (aged fifteen) had studied for four years at the Italia Conti Drama School, and had starred opposite Vanessa Redgrave in The Prime of Miss Jean Brodie in the West End.[24]

Zeffirelli filmed his Romeo and Juliet shortly after completing work on his 1967 film The Taming of the Shrew, and had learned from his experience on that project that it was better not to include speeches made redundant by his vivid images.[25] He played around 35% of Shakespeare's script, enhancing the focus on the two central characters and making them more sympathetic, while simplifying their roles to make them less tricky for his young leads to play.[26] He tellingly juxtaposes the betrothal of Juliet and Paris with the Capulets' crumbling marriage.[26] Yet the film is often noted for its zest for life and for love: the former epitomised by John McEnery's Mercutio, the latter by Leonard Whiting's Romeo.[26] In contrast to Renato Castellani's 1954 version, Zeffirelli highlighted Romeo's positive relationships with the Friar, Balthazar and Mercutio. The way in which Mercutio physically collapses onto Romeo after the Queen Mab speech, and again when mortally wounded, has been credited with introducing homosexual overtones into the public perception of their relationship.[26]

Zefirelli's handling of the duel scene has been particularly praised,[27] and his device later adopted by Baz Luhrmann. Taking his cue from Benvolio's speech ending "For now these hot days is the mad blood stirring"[28] Zefirelli depicts the dry, oppressive heat of the little town where (in Anthony West's words) "men seek to kill each other to relieve their exasperation at having nothing better to do".[29] The duel is presented as bravado getting out-of-control: the youths baiting one another, half-teasingly. Critic Robert Hatch described Tybalt and Mercutio as like "a couple of neighborhood warlords, vaunting their courage with grandstand high jinks, trying for a victory by humiliation, and giving no strong impression of a taste to kill."[30] The scene increases sympathy for Michael York's Tybalt (often played as a bloodthirsty bully on the stage) by making him shocked and guilty at the lethal wound he has inflicted.[31]

Like most screen directors of the play, Zeffirelli cut the duel with Paris,[32] which helps to keep Romeo sympathetic to the audience.[33] More controversially, he cut all references to Romeo's first love Rosaline, thereby preventing any comparison with his more mature love for Juliet.[34]

A particular difficulty for any screen-writer arises towards the end of the fourth act, where Shakespeare's play requires considerable compression to be effective on the big screen, without giving the impression of "cutting to the chase".[35] In Zeffirelli's version, Juliet's return home from the Friar's cell, her submission to her father and the preparation for the wedding are drastically abbreviated, and the tomb scene is also cut short: Paris does not appear at all, and Benvolio (in the Balthazar role) is sent away but is not threatened.[36]

The film courted controversy by including a nude wedding-night scene[37] while Olivia Hussey was only fifteen.[38] Nino Rota's Love Theme from the film, with the original lyrics (which had been drawn from several Shakespeare plays) replaced to become the song "A Time For Us", became a modest international chart hit.[39]

Baz Luhrmann (1996)

Claire Danes as Juliet in the balcony scene of Baz Luhrmann's 1996 film Romeo + Juliet.

Australian director Baz Luhrmann's 1996 Romeo + Juliet and its accompanying soundtrack successfully targeted the "MTV Generation": a young audience of similar age to the story's characters.[40] Far darker than Zeffirelli's version, the film is set in the "crass, violent and superficial society" of Verona Beach and Sycamore Grove.[41] The visual conventions of the film were (in Stephen Orgel's words) "largely those of porn films".[7] Luhrmann studied Zeffirelli's heavily-cut script, and retained Shakespeare's language, however he brought the setting right up-to-date. The Montagues and Capulets are mobsters in a modern Miami-like city (although actually filmed in Mexico City and Veracruz).[42] Luhrmann said of his film:

Shakespeare's plays touched everyone from the street sweeper to the Queen of England. He was a rambunctious, sexy, violent, entertaining storyteller. We're trying to make this movie rambunctious, sexy, violent and entertaining the way Shakespeare might have if he had been a filmmaker. We have not shied away from clashing low comedy with high tragedy, which is the style of the play, for it's the low comedy that allows you to embrace the very high emotions of the tragedy.[43]

Luhrmann was impressed with the verse-speaking of his Romeo, Leonardo DiCaprio, saying "the words just came out of his mouth as if it was the most natural language possible".[44] Others were less kind: Daniel Rosenthal comments that "DiCaprio's throwaway, sometimes inaudible delivery is, for those not inclined to swoon uncritically at his beauty, the movie's weakest link." [45] Juliet, the sixteen year-old Claire Danes, was praised for portraying a poise and wisdom beyond her years, and as the first screen Juliet whose speech sounded spontaneous.[46] Miriam Margolyes played the nurse for laughs as a plump Hispanic, forever crying "Hooliet! Hooliet!"[45] Pete Postlethwaite, with his Celtic Cross tattoo, captures the "charming ambiguity" of the Friar.[47] Paul Sorvino - a veteran of numerous Mafia-movies - plays a typical gangland patriarch.[48]

Baz Luhrmann's Romeo + Juliet isn't "just an abridgement... It's a specimen of clip art"

Commonweal[49]

A framing device portrays the events of the play as newscasts and newspaper headlines.[50] The film's action sequences were reminiscent of the films of Sam Peckinpah and John Woo, and its characters wear designer clothes and (in Douglas Brode's words) "a lingerie collection worthy of Madonna".[51] As Peter Travers commented in Rolling Stone, the intention was to "make Romeo and Juliet accessible to the elusive Gen-X audience without leaving the play bowdlerised and broken".[52] Some aspects of the modernisation have been praised as effective (a newscaster speaking the prologue, for example, or the replacement of Friar John with a courier message which gets misdelivered); others have been criticised as ridiculous: including a police chief banishing Romeo for a street killing rather than ordering his arrest.[53] Luhrmann highlighted the religious aspects of the play, surrounding his two central characters with religious icons, and staging his finale in a cathedral. That final scene was regarded by some critics as Luhrmann's masterstroke: adapting a device first used in restoration adaptations of the play,[54] Juliet begins to wake before Romeo takes the poison, but he does not notice her movements until he has done so, then he dies aware that she has survived. The scene uses cuts and extreme close-ups to generate a tension impossible to achieve in the theatre.[55] The mood is undermined a moment later as Juliet blows her brains out with a pistol.[56] The role of the watch is cut completely, permitting Friar Laurence to be with Juliet and to be taken by surprise by her sudden suicide.[57]

The film's prominent use of tracks from popular bands including Radiohead and The Cardigans (and especially promiently Mercutio's wild transvestite dancing to the disco anthem Young Hearts Run Free) led to two hit soundtrack albums.[45]

Mixed reviews greeted the endeavor, including Luhrmann's decision to delete the reconciliation of the feuding families, thus undermining the play's original ending and its lesson concerning the price of peace.[58] Todd McCarthy, in Variety, summed up: "as irritating and glib as some of it may be, there is indisputably a strong vision here that has been worked out in considerable detail."[59] As Zeffirelli's version had done before it, Baz Luhrmann's film broke the record for the highest-grossing Shakespeare film of all time, taking $144m worldwide.[60]

Other performances

Susan Shentall as Juliet in the balcony scene of Renato Castellani's 1954 Romeo and Juliet.

Film scholar Douglas Brode claims that Romeo and Juliet is the most-filmed play of all time.[61] In the silent era it was filmed by Georges Méliès, which inspired a burlesque by Thomas Edison: both of which are now lost. Vitagraph produced a ten-minute version in 1908 which has survived, featuring Florence Lawrence.[61] Gerolamo Lo Savio shot an ambitious version on location in Verona for Film d'Arte Italiana.[62] Edwin and Gertrude Thanhouser produced a spectacular version in the USA.[63] In 1916, Metro and Fox produced versions of the play as star-vehicles, the former featuring Francis X. Bushman as Romeo, and the latter featuring Theda Bara (usually famous for "vamp" roles) as the innocent Juliet.[63] The play was first heard on film in The Hollywood Revue of 1929, in which John Gilbert recited the balcony scene opposite Norma Shearer as Juliet, who would later play the same role in George Cukor's feature version.[63]

Renato Castellani won the Grand Prix at the Venice Film Festival for his 1954 film of Romeo and Juliet.[8] His film contains interpolated scenes intended to establish the class system and Catholicism of Renaissance Verona, and the nature of the feud. Some of Castellani's changes have been criticised as ineffective: interpolated dialogue is often banal, and the Prince's appearances are reimagined as formal hearings: undermining the spontaneity of Benvolio's defence of Romeo's behaviour in the duel scene.[64] The major supporting roles are vastly reduced, including that of the nurse; Mercutio becomes (in the words of Daniel Rosenthal) "the tiniest of cameos" and Friar Laurence "an irritating ditherer".[65] Castellani's most prominent changes related to Romeo's character, cutting back or removing scenes involving his parents, Benvolio and Mercutio in order to highlight Romeo's isolation, and inserting a parting scene in which Montague coldly pulls his banished son out of Lady Montague's farewell embrace.[64] Another criticism made by film scholar Patricia Tatspaugh is that the realism of the settings, so carefully established throughout the film, "goes seriously off the rails when it come to the Capulets' vault".[64] Castellani uses competing visual images in relation to the central characters: ominous grilles (and their shadows) contrasted with frequent optimistic shots of blue sky.[40] A well-known stage Romeo, John Gielgud, played Castellani's chorus (and would reprise the role in the 1978 BBC Shakespeare version). Laurence Harvey, as Romeo, was already an experienced screen actor, who would shortly take over roles intended for the late James Dean in Walk on the Wild Side and Summer and Smoke.[66] By contrast, Susan Shentall, as Juliet, was a secretarial student who was discovered by the director in a London pub, and was cast for her "pale sweet skin and honey-blonde hair".[67] She failed to rise to the demands of the role, and would marry shortly after the shoot, never returning to screen acting.[68] Other parts were played by inexperienced actors, also: Mercutio was played by an architect, Montague by a gondolier from Venice, and the Prince by a novelist.[69] Critics responded to the film as a piece of cinema (its visuals were especially admired in Italy, where it was filmed) but not as a performance of Shakespeare's play: Robert Hatch in The Nation said "We had come to see a play... perhaps we should not complain that we were shown a sumptuous travelogue", and Time's reviewer added that "Castellani's Romeo and Juliet is a fine film poem... Unfortunately it is not Shakespeare's poem!"[70]

In 1992, Leon Garfield abridged the play to 25 minutes for the S4C/Soyuzmultfilm Shakespeare: The Animated Tales series. Such drastic abridgement inevitably led to emphasising plot over character, and the Romeo and Juliet episode has been described as "almost absurdly frenetic". This episode was directed by Efim Gamburg, using cel animation.[71]

Adaptations

Natalie Wood as Maria on the fire escape (the equivalent to Shakespeare's balcony) in the 1961 film musical West Side Story.

The name of Romeo and Juliet has become synonymous with young love. Tony Howard concludes that "we inherit so many of our images of romance, generational discord and social hatred from the play that it's impossible to list all its cinematic reincarnations",[72] citing works as disparate as the Polish 1937 Romeo i Julieta, the Swiss 1941 Romeo und Julia auf dem Dorf, the French 1949 Les Amants de Vérone and the Czech 1960 Romeo, Juliet a Tma.[73] As a result of this ubiquity, any film about young love and its challenges will court comparison with Romeo and Juliet, as Roseanna McCoy did in 1949, and two James Dean films - East of Eden and Rebel Without a Cause - did in the 1950s.[74]

In 1960, Peter Ustinov's stage parody of Romeo and Juliet, Romanoff and Juliet was filmed - dramatising true love interfering with the cold-war superpowers' attempts to control the fictional state of Concordia.[73]

The success of the 1957 stage musical West Side Story was instrumental in making Shakespeare a presence in modern popular and youth culture.[75] The book was written by Arthur Laurents, with music by Leonard Bernstein, lyrics by Stephen Sondheim, and choreography by Jerome Robbins.[75] Widely admired, and the winner of ten Oscars, the 1961 film of the show - set among New York gangs - does not aim for a realistic portrayal of New York gang cluture: in the opening sequence the Jets and the Sharks trade dance-steps instead of blows.[76] The Jets are a gang of white youths, equivalent to Shakespeare's Montagues; the Sharks, equivalent to the Capulets, are Puerto Rican.[77] Unlike Shakespeare who included relationships between his young lovers and the older generation (the parents, and parent-substitutes such as the Nurse and Friar Laurence) West Side Story keeps its focus firmly on the youth, with only peripheral roles for Doc, the soda-shop owner, and police officers Schrank and Krupke.[78] Tony (played by Richard Beymer, singing dubbed by Jimmy Bryant) is the play's Romeo and Maria (Natalie Wood, dubbed by Marni Nixon) is its Juliet. Maria's fiery brother Bernardo (George Chakiris) combines the Lord Capulet and Tybalt roles.[78] The film's ending has been praised for achieving the tragedy of Shakespeare's play without recourse to magic potions or fateful bad timing.[76]

"Tromeo and Juliet takes every major character and incident from Romeo and Juliet and systematically drains them of humanity in a tedious, appallingly acted feast of mutilation and softcore sex."

Daniel Rosenthal[79]

Daniel Rosenthal describes Troma Studios' 1996 Tromeo and Juliet as "the nadir of screen Shakespeare".[79] This Manhattan-set "trash" adaptation features Lemmy (of Motörhead) as its chorus. Tony Howard summarises it as a film "in which Juliet and the Nurse have lesbian sex, Romeo masturbates, various body parts are removed, the feud is between rival porn czars and incest rules".[80] Despite this, Tromeo and Juliet played at the 1997 Cannes Film Festival, won numerous awards at independent horror and fantasy film festivals and received positive reviews from The New York Times, USA Today, Entertainment Weekly and Variety Magazine.[81][82][83][84]

Cheah Chee-Kong's 2000 Singaporean film Chicken Rice War (Jiyuan Qiaohe) adapts Romeo and Juliet as a lowbrow romantic comedy set amidst the rivalry between two adjacent rice stalls.[85] The central characters (Fenson Pierre Png and Audrey Lum May Yee) are cast as Romeo and Juliet in a production of Shakespeare's play, staged in a car park, which their families manage to ruin through their rivalry. The comic mood is underpinned by cheerful songs from Tanya Chua.[86] The film won the Discovery Award at the 2001 Toronto International Film Festival.[87]

In 2005, Romeo and Juliet became a high-profile six-minute H&M advertising campaign, directed by David LaChapelle, featuring Tamyra Gray as Juliet and Gus Carr as Romeo, to a musical background sung by Mary J. Blige.[88] The play has also been used to advertise Polo mints and Rolo.[89] In 2006, Nate Parker debuted as a male lead in Rome and Jewel, a hip-hop take on Romeo and Juliet.[90]

In the 2005 anime Basilisk the story about two rival ninja clans fighting each other but one of their members love each other is similar to that of Romeo and Juliet.

The most recent screen adaptation to garner worldwide attention is Disney's High School Musical (2006), which began as a made-for-tv Disney movie and was subsequently turned into a live stage musical and touring concert. According to executive producer Bill Borden, "Our story line is maybe not the most original or creative, but it's Shakespearean", describing the plot as a modern version of Romeo and Juliet. "We took from the best."[91] In the show, the two young love interests, Troy and Gabriella, are from rival cliques.[92] They resist the wishes of their families and their peers to be together, and try-out for the winter musical that is dividing the school.[93] In David Simpatico's stage version, the title of the musical (Twinkletown in the movie) was changed to Juliet and Romeo.

Films featuring performances, or composition

Gwyneth Paltrow as Viola DeLesseps (Shakespeare's Juliet in the film's plot) in the balcony scene of John Madden's 1999 film Shakespeare in Love.

Another way in which film-makers and authors use Shakespearean texts is to feature characters who are actors performing those texts, within a wider non-Shakespearean story. Hamlet and Romeo and Juliet are the two plays which have most often been used in this way.[94] Usually, Shakespeare's story has some parallel or resonance with the main plot. Films featuring characters performing scenes from Romeo and Juliet include the 1912 and 1982 film versions of Charles Dickens' Nicholas Nickleby, Cured Hams (1927), Drama De Luxe (1927), Broadway Fever (1928), Les Amants de Vérone (1949), Marjorie Morningstar (1958), Carry on Teacher (1959) Shakespeare Wallah (1965) and, significantly, Shakespeare in Love (1998).[95]

The 1941 film Playmates features bandleader Kay Kyser and Shakespearean actor John Barrymore playing themselves in a plot which involves Kyser producing an adaptation featuring "swing musician Romeo Smith and opera singer Juliet Jones, with Juliet's father, a devotee of classical music, as obstacle to their romance."[96]

André Cayatte's Les Amants de Vérone (France, 1949) features Georgia (Anouk Aimée), the daughter of the declining Maglia family (roughly the equivalent of Shakespeare's Capulets) who meets her Romeo in working-class Angelo (Serge Reggiani) while working as stand-ins for the actors playing Romeo and Juliet in a film of the play.[97] The film is a melodramatic reworking of the Romeo and Juliet story, centering on the beauty and passion of the protagonists, and ending with their tragic deaths.[98]

The conceit of dramatising Shakespeare writing Romeo and Juliet has been used several times. The oddball 1944 B-movie Time Flies features the comedy duo Susie and Bill Barton, who, time travelling, encounter a Shakespeare struggling for words for his balcony scene, which Susie (Evelyn Dall) supplies from memory, while Bill interrupts with quips.[99][100] John Madden's 1998 Shakespeare in Love depicts Shakespeare's process in composing Romeo and Juliet against the backdrop of his own doomed love affair. Writers Marc Norman and Tom Stoppard exploited another commonplace of Shakespeare-related films, which scholar Tony Howard describes as the "playing Shakespeare is a gateway to self-fulfilment" plot.[101] As he explains it, "an ill-matched crew of Elizabethan theatre people are transformed and united by the process of creating Romeo and Juliet".[101] The film's climax includes Judi Dench's Elizabeth I declaring that Shakespeare's play "can show us the very truth and nature of love."[102]

Seminal screen performances

For comprehensive list, see Romeo and Juliet (films).

Rebecca Saire as Juliet in the balcony scene of the BBC Television Shakespeare version of Romeo and Juliet.

Films/books inspired by the play

Juliet in the equivalent to Shakespeare's balcony scene from Phil Nibbelink's 2006 animated film Romeo & Juliet: Sealed with a Kiss.
  • Romie-0 and Julie-8 (Canada, 1979) is a made-for-television animated film in which the two leads are depicted as robots who fall in love.
    • Clive A. Smith, director
    • Greg Swanson as the voice of Romie-0
    • Donann Cavin as the voice of Julie-8
  • Amar te duele (2002) is a Mexican film variation on the Romeo and Juliet theme about a couple that are from different social classes.
    • Marta Higareda as Renata (the Juliet character)
    • Luis Fernando Peña as Ulises (the Romeo character)
  • حبك نار (Hobak Nar or Your love is fire) (Egypt, 2004) is an Egyptian film, setting the tragedy in modern Cairo.
  • Romeo & Juliet: Sealed with a Kiss (USA, 2006) is an animated adaptation of the story told with seals and features a kid-friendly happy ending.
  • A "The Berenstain Bears" book written by Stan and Jan Berenstain was also inspired by Romeo and Juliet, with its background showing the rivalry between Grizzlies and Bears at school, almost reflecting the enormous rivalry between the Capulets and the Montagues. Teacher Bob then gets fed up with all the quarreling, and is almost similar to Prince Escales because he asks the Bears and Grizzlies to act a Romeo and Juliet play to teach them a lesson about what might happen if they continued to fight so much.

Significant parallels

References

All references to Romeo and Juliet, unless otherwise specified, are taken from Gibbons, Brian Romeo and Juliet Arden Shakespeare second series (London, Methuen, 1980, ISBN 0-416-17850-2). Under its referencing system, which uses Roman numerals, II.ii.33 means act 2, scene 2, line 33. A zero instead of a scene number refers to the prologue to either of the first two acts.

  1. ^ Orgel, Stephen "Shakespeare Illustrated" in Shaughnessy, Robert (ed.) "The Cambridge Companion to Shakespeare and Popular Culture" (Cambridge University Press, 2007, ISBN 978-0-521-60580-9) p.91
  2. ^ Brode, Douglas "Shakespeare in the Movies: From the Silent Era to Today" (2001, Berkeley Boulevard, New York, ISBN 0-425-18176-6) p.43
  3. ^ Thalberg, Irving - quoted by Brode, p.44
  4. ^ a b c Brode, p.44
  5. ^ Tatspaugh, Patricia "The Tragedy of Love on Film" in Jackson, Russell "The Cambridge Companion to Shakespeare on Film" (Cambridge University Press, 2000, ISBN 0-521-63975-1) p.137
  6. ^ Time's review of Cukor's Romeo and Juliet, cited by Brode, p.45
  7. ^ a b c Orgel, p.91
  8. ^ a b c d Tatspaugh, p.138
  9. ^ a b Tatspaugh, p.136
  10. ^ Brode, p.47
  11. ^ Brode, p.45
  12. ^ a b c d e f g h Tatspaugh, p.137
  13. ^ Romeo and Juliet II.0.1-14
  14. ^ Romeo and Juliet IV.v.96-141
  15. ^ Brode, p.46
  16. ^ Romeo and Juliet I.v
  17. ^ Romeo and Juliet I.i
  18. ^ Greene, Graham reviewing George Cukor's 1936 Romeo and Juliet in The Spectator. Extracted from Greene, Graham and Taylor, John Russell (ed.) "The Pleasure Dome. Collected Film Criticism 1935-40" (Oxford, 1980) cited by Jackson, Russell "From Play-Script to Screenplay" in Jackson, Russell (ed.) "The Cambridge Companion to Shakespeare on Film (15-34) at p.21
  19. ^ Brode, p.48
  20. ^ Tatspaugh, p.136, citing George Cukor. A fuller version of the quotation, used here, appears in Rosenthal, Daniel "BFI Screen Guides: 100 Shakespeare Films" (British Film Institute, London, 2007, ISBN 978-1-84457-170-3) p.209 (Note that these sources conflict on the date of this interview: Rosenthal says 1971.)
  21. ^ Deats, Sarah Munson "Zeffirelli's Romeo and Juliet; Shakespeare for the Sixties" in "Studies in Popular Culture" 6 (1983), p.62, cited by Tatspaugh, p.140
  22. ^ Brode, p.51
  23. ^ Franco Zeffirelli, quoted by Brode, p.51
  24. ^ Brode, p.51-2; Rosenthal, p.218
  25. ^ Brode, p.52
  26. ^ a b c d Tatspaugh, p.141
  27. ^ For example, by Anthony West of Vogue and Mollie Panter-Downes of The New Yorker, cited by Brode, pp.52–53
  28. ^ Romeo and Juliet III.i.1-4
  29. ^ Anthony West in Vogue, cited by Brode, p.53
  30. ^ Robert Hatch in The Nation, cited by Brode, p.53
  31. ^ Brode, p.53
  32. ^ Romeo and Juliet V.iii.49-73
  33. ^ Brode, pp.54–55
  34. ^ Brode, p.55
  35. ^ Jackson, Russell "From play-script to screenplay" in Jackson, Russell "The Cambridge Companion to Shakespeare on Film" (Cambridge University Press, 2000, ISBN 0-521-63975-1) p.30
  36. ^ Jackson, p.30
  37. ^ Romeo and Juliet III.v
  38. ^ Rosenthal, p.220
  39. ^ Buhler, Stephen M. "Musical Shakespeares" in Shaughnessy, Robert (ed.) "The Cambridge Companion to Shakespeare and Popular Culture" (Cambridge University Press, 2007, ISBN 978-0-521-60580-9) p.156-7
  40. ^ a b Tatspaugh, p.140
  41. ^ Tatspaugh, p.142
  42. ^ Brode, pp.55–6
  43. ^ Luhrmann, Baz "A note from Baz Luhrmann" in Shakespeare, William, Luhrmann, Baz, Pearce, Craig and Bettenbender, John The Contemporary Film - The Classic Play - Romeo & Juliet (Bantam Doubleday Dell, New York, 1996, ISBN 0-440-22712-7), no page number.
  44. ^ Luhrmann
  45. ^ a b c Rosenthal, p.224
  46. ^ Luhrmann; Rosenthal, p.224
  47. ^ Rosenthal, p.224; Brode, p.57
  48. ^ Brode, p.57
  49. ^ Richard Alleva's Commonweal review of Luhrmann's Romeo + Juliet, cited by Brode, p.56
  50. ^ Tatspaugh, p.143
  51. ^ Brode, p.56
  52. ^ Peter Travers' review in Rolling Stone, cited by Brode, p.56
  53. ^ Brode, pp.56–7
  54. ^ Specifically, this derives from Thomas Otway's adaptation set in ancient Rome: The History and Fall of Caius Marius
  55. ^ Brode, pp.57–8
  56. ^ Brode, p.58
  57. ^ Jackson, p.31
  58. ^ Dowling, Crystal Misshapen chaos of well-seeming form: Baz Luhrmann's Romeo + Juliet accessed 23 March 2008
  59. ^ McCarthy, Todd review in Variety, cited by Brode, p.58
  60. ^ Rosenthal, p.225
  61. ^ a b Brode, p.42
  62. ^ Brode, pp.42–43
  63. ^ a b c Brode, p.43
  64. ^ a b c Tatspaugh, p.139
  65. ^ Rosenthal, pp.213–4
  66. ^ Brode, pp.48–9
  67. ^ Brode, p.51, quoting Renato Castellani.
  68. ^ Brode, p.51, Rosenthal, p.213
  69. ^ Rosenthal, p.214
  70. ^ Brode, pp.50–1
  71. ^ Rosenthal, pp.280–281
  72. ^ Howard, Tony "Shakespeare's Cinematic Offshoots" in Shaughnessy, Robert (ed.) "The Cambridge Companion to Shakespeare and Popular Culture" (Cambridge University Press, 2007, ISBN 978-0-521-60580-9) p.297
  73. ^ a b Howard, p.297
  74. ^ Brode, pp.58–9
  75. ^ a b Buhler, p.154
  76. ^ a b Rosenthal, pp.216–7
  77. ^ Rosenthal, pp.215–6
  78. ^ a b Rosenthal, p.216
  79. ^ a b Rosenthal, p.221
  80. ^ Howard, p.298
  81. ^ Holden, Stephen. Movie Review - Tromeo and Juliet. New York Times. February 28, 1997
  82. ^ Young, Deborah. 'Tromeo Triumphs in Rome' Variety Magazine. June 23, 1997.
  83. ^ Editorial Reviews for 'Tromeo and Juliet' Amazon.com. Retrieved November 24, 2009.
  84. ^ Taylor, J.R. 'Tromeo and Juliet' Entertainment Weekly. June 6, 1997.
  85. ^ Rosenthal, p.229
  86. ^ Rosenthal, pp.229–30
  87. ^ Rosenthal, p.230
  88. ^ Burnett, Mark Thornton and Wray, Ramona Introduction in Burnett, Mark Thornton and Wray, Ramona (eds.) Screening Shakespeare in the Twenty-First Century (Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh, 2006, ISBN 978-0-7486-2351-8) pp.2–7. This source gives the link www.hm.com/uk, which no longer features a playable version of the short film. An image can be seen here
  89. ^ McKernan, p,20
  90. ^ Kehr, Dave (2008-09-05). "November Releases". The New York Times. The New York Times Company. http://www.nytimes.com/2008/09/07/movies/moviesspecial/07nove.html?. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  91. ^ Gold, Matea. "Disney scores kid points with 'High School Musical' " Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 19 August 2007.
  92. ^ "Disney's teenage musical 'phenomenon' premieres in London". Daily Mail. September 11, 2006. http://www.dailymail.co.uk/pages/live/articles/showbiz/showbiznews.html?in_article_id=404621&in_page_id=1773. Retrieved 2007-08-19. 
  93. ^ Gold
  94. ^ McKernan, Luke and Terris, Olwen (eds.) "Walking Shadows: Shakespeare in the National Film and Television Archive" (British Film Institute, 1994, ISBN 0-85170-486-7) list 45 instances of uses of Hamlet, not including films of the play itself, at pp.45–66. They list 39 such instances for Romeo and Juliet at pp.141–156. The next closest is Othello, with 23 instances, at pp.119–131.
  95. ^ McKernan and Terris, pp.141–156
  96. ^ Sanders, Julie "Shakespeare and Music: Afterlives and Borrowings" (Polity Press, 2007, ISBN 978-07456-3297-1) p.24
  97. ^ Rosenthal, p.211
  98. ^ Rosenthal, pp.211–2
  99. ^ Lanier, Douglas "Shakespeare: myth and biographical fiction" in Shaughnessy, Robert (ed.) "The Cambridge Companion to Shakespeare and Popular Culture" (Cambridge University Press, 2007, ISBN 978-0-521-60580-9) p.96
  100. ^ McKernan and Terris, p.146
  101. ^ a b Howard, p.310.
  102. ^ Howard, p.310; Rosenthal, p.228
  103. ^ Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences database for 1936 Oscars, accessed 15 April 2008.

Further reading

  • Buchanan, Judith. Shakespeare on Film (Harlow: Longman-Pearson, 2005), pp. 230–236 (on Luhrmann).
  • Buchanan, Judith. Shakespeare on Silent Film: An Excellent Dumb Discourse (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009), pp. 201–216 (on silent American Romeo and Juliet films).
  • Martin, Jennifer L. "Tights vs. Tattoos: Filmic Interpretations of 'Romeo and Juliet'." The English Journal. 92.1 Shakespeare for a New Age (Sep 2002) pp. 41–46 doi:10.2307/821945.
  • Lehmann, Courtney. "Strictly Shakespeare? Dead Letters, Ghostly Fathers, and the Cultural Pathology of Authorship in Baz Luhrmann's 'William Shakespeare's Romeo + Juliet'." Shakespeare Quarterly. 52.2 (Summer 2001) pp. 189–221.

External links


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