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Ron Dellums


Incumbent
Assumed office 
January 8, 2007
Preceded by Jerry Brown

Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from California's 7th, 8th and 9th district
In office
January 3, 1971 – February 6, 1998
Preceded by Jeffery Cohelan
Succeeded by Barbara Lee

Born November 24, 1935 (1935-11-24) (age 74)
Oakland, California
Political party Democratic
Spouse(s) Leola "Roscoe" Higgs
Cynthia Lewis
Children Erik, Piper, Brandy, Pam and Michael
Religion Baptist

Ronald Vernie "Ron" Dellums (born November 24, 1935 in Oakland, California) serves as Oakland's forty-fifth (and third African-American) mayor. From 1971-1998, he was elected to thirteen terms as a Member of the U.S. House of Representatives from Northern California's 9th Congressional District, which has a Cook PVI of D +37.[1]

Dellums was born into a family of labor organizers, and enlisted in the United States Marine Corps before serving on the Berkeley, California, City Council. Dellums was the first African American elected to Congress from Northern California and the first openly Socialist Congressman since World War II.[2] His politics earned him a place on President Nixon's enemies list.

During his career in Congress, he fought the failed MX Missile project and opposed expansion of the US$2.1 billion per plane B-2 Spirit stealth bomber program. When President Ronald Reagan vetoed Dellums' Comprehensive Anti-Apartheid Act of 1986, a Democratic-controlled House and a Republican-controlled Senate overrode Reagan's veto, the first override of a presidential foreign policy veto in the 20th century.[3]

Contents

Early years and family life

A statue of Dellums' Uncle, labor organizer C. L. Dellums at the Oakland Amtrak station.

Dellums was born in Oakland to Verney and Willa Dellums. His father Verney was a longshoreman. His uncle, C. L. Dellums, was one of the organizers and leaders of the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters. He has a younger sister Theresa. His mother Willa died on August 17, 2008, at the age of 89.[4]

He attended Oakland Technical High School and McClymonds High School.[5]

He served in the United States Marine Corps from 1954 to 1956. Dellums later received his A.A. degree from the Oakland City College in 1958, his B.A. from the San Francisco State University in 1960, and his M.S.W. from the University of California, Berkeley in 1962.[6] He became a psychiatric social worker and political activist in the African American community beginning in the 1960s.[6] He also taught at the San Francisco State University and the University of California, Berkeley.[7]

Dellums is a member of Alpha Phi Alpha, the first intercollegiate Greek-letter fraternity established for African Americans.[8] He is a member of the fraternity's World Policy Council, a think tank whose purpose is to expand the fraternity's involvement in politics, and social and current policy to encompass international concerns.[9]

Dellums has been married three times. He married his second wife, attorney Leola "Roscoe" Higgs, in 1961. The two divorced in 1998.[10] He married his third wife, Cynthia Lewis, in 2000.

Dellums has eight children and stepchildren. One son, Michael, was convicted of a drug-related homicide in 1979, and remains in prison, being repeatedly denied parole due to bad behaviour.[11] Dellums has 2 great-grandchildren Jared Henderson, Charli Henderson, five grandchildren and four children: Danielle Henderson, Jacob Holmes Sydney Ross, Dylan Ross, Olivia Dellums, professional actor Erik, Piper, Brandy and Pam.

Political career

Dellums has been in politics for over forty years. He has held positions on the Berkeley City Council, in the US House of Representatives, and is the mayor of Oakland, for the term beginning January 1, 2007.

Berkeley City Council

Dellums was elected to the Berkeley City Council, after prompting from Maudelle Shirek,[12] and served from 1967 to 1970.[13]

U.S. Congress

He was elected to the United States House of Representatives in 1970 after being recruited by anti-Vietnam War activists to run against the incumbent, Jeffery Cohelan, a white liberal close to organized labor who had not opposed the war early enough to win reelection in the district. Dellums defeated Cohelan in the Democratic primary and won the general election, serving without interruption for 27 years.[14]

His politics earned him a place on the so-called Nixon's Enemies List, where his notation stated Dellums "had extensive EMK-Tunney support in his election bid."[15][16]

Vietnam war crimes hearings

Victims of the My Lai Massacre. In January, 1971, just weeks into his first term, Dellums set up an exhibit of Vietnam war crimes in an annex to his Congressional office. The exhibit featured four large posters depicting atrocities committed by American soldiers, embellished with red paint.

The My Lai massacre was followed shortly thereafter by a series of hearings on war crimes in Vietnam, which began April 25, 1971. Dellums had called for formal investigations into the allegations, but Congress chose not to endorse the proceedings. As such, the hearings were ad hoc and only informational in nature. As a condition of room use, press and camera presence were not permitted; however, the proceedings were transcribed.[17] A small number of other anti-Vietnam War congressional representatives also took part in the hearings.

Anti-apartheid campaign

In 1972, Dellums began his campaign to end the apartheid policies of South Africa. Fourteen years later, the U.S. House of Representatives passed Dellums's anti-apartheid legislation, calling for a trade embargo against South Africa and immediate divestment by American corporations. The bill, the Comprehensive Anti-Apartheid Act of 1986, had broad bipartisan support. It called for sanctions against South Africa and stated preconditions for lifting the sanctions, including the release of all political prisoners. Ronald Reagan called for a policy of "constructive engagement" and vetoed the bill; however, his veto was overridden. It was the first override in the 20th century of a presidential foreign policy veto.[3]

Dellums' fight against apartheid in South Africa was the subject of a Disney Channel made-for-TV movie, The Color of Friendship, released in 2000. The role of Congressman Dellums was played by actor Carl Lumbly in the movie.[18]

Cold War conflicts in southern Africa

As part of the Cold War struggle for influence in southern Africa, the United States joined with the apartheid government of South Africa in support of UNITA, led by Jonas Savimbi, against the ultimately victorious Angolan forces of the MPLA supported by the Soviet Union and Cuba. Dellums was criticized for his support of Fidel Castro's involvement with the MPLA in Angola and was called a "Castroite congressman" by the conservative press.[19] He also introduced legislation (which was unsuccessful) in September 1987 to prohibit economic and military assistance to Zaire, citing poor human rights, corruption, and alleged collaboration with South Africa.[20]

Military budgets and arms control

Throughout his career Dellums led campaigns against an array of military projects, arguing that the funds would be better spent on peaceful purposes, especially in American cities. Programs he opposed included the Pershing and MX missiles, and the B-2 bomber (popularly known as the "stealth bomber"). Because of his commitment to the closing of unneeded military bases, Dellums did not oppose the closing of the Alameda Naval Air Station in his own district.[21]

Opposition to the MX (Peacekeeper) missile
The MX "Peacekeeper" missile depicted during a test launch at Vandenberg Air Force Base on the Santa Barbara Coast.

The Peacekeeper missile was a "third-generation" inter-continental ballistic missile (ICBM). One of its advantages over earlier missiles was its greater survivability. One early aspect of the design was for fifty missiles to be placed on trains that would be shuttled between numerous hiding sheds around a railroad loop located in remote Utah. Another advantage was that the Peacekeeper had a greater MIRV capacity than the Minuteman III — each missile had up to ten nuclear warheads, compared with the three aboard the Minuteman III.

Dellums argued that constructing the Peacekeeper would only propel the ongoing arms race and cause the Soviet Union to construct more weapons. He also argued that the issue of survivability of existing missiles was a red herring; the Soviet Union could not expect a first strike to go unpunished — U.S. nuclear-equipped submarines, bombers and cruise missiles would inflict devastating damage even if all American ICBMs were disabled. As part of the campaign, Dellums met with the Mormon church in Utah.

The rail project was eventually canceled and the missiles were placed in hardened silos, as with previous missiles such as the Minuteman III. The last Peacekeeper was decommissioned in 2005 as part of the START II treaty.

Opposition to the B-2 Stealth Bomber

The B-2 Stealth Bomber is a long range strategic bomber, that features "stealth" technology that makes it far less visible to radar. The B-2 was a major technological advance; however, it was designed during the Cold War for military scenarios that some argued were less relevant following the collapse of the Soviet Union. Its total program cost was estimated in 1997 at over US$2.2 billion per airplane.[22]

A B-2 Spirit stealth "heavy bomber" drops more than half its total payload in a live fire exercise over Point Mugu, California.

Although Dellums opposed the B-2 project from the start, Congress approved initial funding for production of 135 bombers in 1987. However, with the winding down of the Cold War, total B-2 production was reduced to 21 aircraft in the early 1990s. But in 1997, seven former Secretaries of Defense signed a letter urging Congress to buy more B-2s, citing the difficulty of assembling a similar engineering team in the future should the B-2 project be terminated.[23] Dellums, citing five independent studies consistent with his position, offered an amendment to that year's defense authorization bill to cap production of the bombers with the existing 21 aircraft. The amendment was narrowly defeated;[24] nonetheless, Congress never approved funding for additional B-2 bombers.

1982 Grenada factfinding

In 1982 Dellums took a trip to Grenada at the invitation of the Prime Minister of the People's Revolutionary Government, Maurice Bishop. Grenada was building an airstrip that U.S. administration officials claimed could be used for Soviet military aircraft. Dellums traveled to Grenada on his own fact-finding mission and described his findings before Congress:

...based on my personal observations, discussion and analysis of the new international airport under construction in Grenada, it is my conclusion that this project is specifically now and has always been for the purpose of economic development and is not for military use.... It is my thought that it is absurd, patronizing and totally unwarranted for the United States Government to charge that this airport poses a military threat to the United States’ national security.

"Dellums v. Bush" (1990)

In 1990, Dellums and forty-five [25] of his congressional colleagues sued then president President George H. W. Bush in D.C. Federal District Court in 1990, in the case Dellums v. Bush , 752 F. Supp. 1141 (1990) attempting to halt a preemptive military buildup in the Middle East in response to Iraq's invasion of Kuwait. The plaintiff members of Congress asserted that military action without a declaration of war would be unlawful under U.S. Const. art. I, § 8, cl. 11 of the United States Constitution. Dellums is notable in that it is one of only a few cases in which the Federal Courts have considered whether the War Powers Clause of the U.S. Constitution is justiciable in the courts. The Court in Dellums indicated that, in that instance, it was, but because Congress had not yet acted as a majority, the lawsuit was premature.

U.S. House Committee positions

Dellums served as chairman of the House Committee on the District of Columbia and the House Armed Services Committee.

Dellums also served on the Foreign Affairs Committee, the Post Office and Civil Service Committee, the Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence, and the Select Committee to Investigate the Intelligence Community.[26]

Dellums co-founded the Congressional Black Caucus in 1971.[27]

Dellums' last Congressional election

Dellums easily won his next eleven elections in the traditionally Democratic 9th District. In his last House election race, in 1996, Dellums bested his opponent, Republican Deborah Wright, by a 77%-18% margin.[28]

In 1997, Dellums announced that he was retiring from Congress in the middle of his term and a special election was called — which created a series of five special elections in 12 months as various East Bay politicians ran for different political office. For more detailed information, see Special election musical chairs.

Dellums' successor, Barbara Lee won the 2000 election by an even larger, 85%-9% margin.[29]

Congressional tribute

Upon his resignation, several members of Congress, including Nancy Pelosi,[30] Jane Harman,[31] William Coyne, Nick Rahall, Ike Skelton, Juanita Millender-McDonald and Tom DeLay gave speeches on the floor of the House in honor of Dellums. Millender-McDonald described Dellums as a "distinguished, principled [and] educated man." Her tribute went on:

Congressman Ron Dellums is revered on both sides of this aisle because of his integrity and his commitment to progressive ideas. He was always on the cutting edge of the issues. California will miss him in the ninth district, but the State has been enriched by Ron Dellums. While he towers above most of us physically, this attribute is matched by his intellect, faith in the process and optimism for peaceful resolution of conflict.[32]

Congressman Danny Davis of Illinois described Dellums:

A creative, piercing, probing, incisive, thought-provoking, inspiring, charismatic, careful, considerate and deliberative mind. The mind to stand up when others sit down. The mind to act when others refuse to act. The mind to stand even when you stand alone, battered, bruised and scorned, but still standing. Standing on principle, standing tall and standing for the people.[33]

Former House Majority Leader Tom DeLay described Dellums as "...one of the most giving, open and stalwart, a real stalwart man when he was Chairman"

We are losing one of its finest Members, a Member that I have great respect for, because he always did his homework, was so articulate and eloquent on this floor. He always got my attention when he stood up and took the microphone. He would stop every Member in their tracks to hear what he had to say, and there are very few Members that have served in this body that can claim the respect that both sides of the aisle had for the gentleman from California. And the incredible reputation that the gentleman from California has brought to this House; he has elevated this House. He has elevated the distinction of this House by serving here, and this House will greatly miss him when he leaves.[34]

Voting record

Dellums' voting records in Congress were "almost without exception straight As" from groups such as the Sierra Club, the National Organization for Women and the AFL-CIO.[21] He received 100% on consumer group Public Citizen's scorecard.[35]

In contrast, he received an 'F' from NumbersUSA, a group dedicated to limiting immigration, and a score of seven out of a possible 100 from the League of Private Property Owners, a property rights organization.[36][37]

Mayor of Oakland

2006 Oakland mayoral election

After Oakland Council President Ignacio De La Fuente, and District 3 City Councilmember Nancy Nadel declared their mayoral candidacies, Dellums was recruited to run for Mayor of Oakland. An informal committee, "Draft Dellums," collected 8,000 signatures and presented them to the former Congressman at a public meeting at Laney College. Crowds of Oaklanders chanted "Run, Ron, Run".[38]

A view of Oakland's Lakeside Apartments District and Downtown from the east shore of Oakland's Lake Merritt.

In October 2005, reportedly after weeks of deliberation and speculation, Dellums announced that he would run for mayor of Oakland. The previous mayor, former California Governor and current California Attorney General Jerry Brown, would have been prohibited by term-limits from running again.

On June 16, 2006, after a careful ballot count, and a dispute over whether votes for unqualified write-in candidates such as George W. Bush and Homer Simpson counted towards the total, Dellums was unofficially declared the winner in the Oakland mayoral race. Dellums garnered a 50.18 percent majority to win the election This was 155 votes more than needed to avoid a runoff. Dellums received 41,992 votes, while his nearest challengers received 27,607 votes, and 10,928 votes respectively.[39]

Transition and citizen task forces

Mayor-Elect Dellums' transition to office involved 800 Oaklanders who joined 41 task forces to make recommendations on issues ranging from public safety to education and affordable housing.[40] Many of these recommendations helped to shape the policy agenda of the Dellums administration. The task forces recommended a land use policy which would emphasize zoning for job-creating business. This policy was adopted in 2007, and the city is being zoned. The task forces recommended a stronger policy on the hiring of local residents, and the City Council appointed a group to pursue this change. The task forces recommended a focus on the green economy, and the Mayor, along with a variety of community organizations created the Green Jobs Corps, an office of sustainability and the East Bay Green Corridor. The Mayor reports that approximately two-thirds of the recommendations had been implemented as of the end of 2009 (www.mayorrondellums.org) The Task Forces and the Inauguration itself, which included hundreds of the city's least affluent residents, were considered examples of grassroots democracy[41]

Public safety initiatives

Crime rates were high when Dellums took office in January 2007 and at his first State of the City Address in January 2008, Dellums called for hiring more police officers. Dellums promised that by year's end, the police department would be fully staffed at 803 officers.[42] On November 14, 2008, 38 Oakland police officers were added to the force after graduating the 165th academy, bringing the department's force to 837 officers, the most in OPD history.[43]

In addition, to follow through on his calls for hiring more officers, Dellums offered Measure NN on the November 2008 ballot, a voter initiative parcel tax to hire 70 additional police officers at a hiring and training cost of $250,000 each. Though 55 percent of Oakland voters supported Measure NN, this failed to meet California's "two thirds" constitutional requirement for the enactment of a new tax.

Dellums called on the City Council and Police Chief Wayne Tucker to increase the number of recruits in the city's police academy, to establish incentives to keep older officers on the force beyond retirement — some of them to train new recruits — and to better prepare Oakland residents and others interested in law enforcement for jobs with the city's Police Department.

Dellums instituted a new community policing program under which Oakland has been divided into three geographic areas — central, east and north-west, the officers in these three areas overseen by three police captains who are purported to be held accountable for getting to know residents and neighborhood issues and reducing crime in his or her district. Dellums' staff successfully negotiated a police officers contract which allowed the police chief to set officers' hours which resulted in a larger number of police on the streets during the hours of greatest crime.

Other plans to reduce violence include training at-risk youth and ex-offenders for jobs, and intensifying police efforts to get weapons off the streets by cracking down on illegal gun dealers and establishing a city program to buy back guns.

On Saturday, March 21, 2009, during the 2009 Oakland police shootings incident, the Oakland Police Department lost three sergeants and one officer. One of the officers left instructions in his emergency packet that if he were killed in the line of duty that Dellums not be permitted to speak at his funeral. Two of the officers' families requested the same, and when Dellums attended the March 28 public memorial service at the Oracle Arena he honored the requests[44][45]

In his State of the City address in 2008 Dellums promised to reduce the crime rate by 10% during 2009; the crime rate actually went down by 13%.[46]

In 2009 Dellums hired the highly regarded Anthony Batts, formerly the Long Beach police chief. Batts had a record of reducing both crime and officer-involved shootings in that Southern California city.

Criticism and recall efforts

Since his election, a local investigative journalist has criticized the secret nature of the task forces Dellums established, despite having repeatedly vowed to restore "transparency" to city government, and has lodged criticism of disarray among the task forces.[47] However, task force members have been among the most vigorous supporters of the Mayor's actions and the most critical of mainstream media's failure to report on his accomplishments[48]

A poll published by a political opinion columnist which was conducted in September 2007 by a private pollster on behalf of an unnamed "business group" attempted to score Dellums performance on several issues. On a scale of 1-10, Dellums scored a 3.7 on improving education, a 3.8 on crime, 4.3 on economic development and a 4.3 on providing housing.[49]

San Francisco Chronicle columnist Chip Johnson, has criticized Dellums for "frittering" away his first year in office, and accused Dellums of making no significant policy initiatives in those areas of concern to average citizens, beyond a public smoking ban.[50]

After the August 2007 public assassination in the Lakeside Apartments District of journalist Chauncey Bailey, a local op-ed columnist criticized Dellums on August 15, 2007, for refusing to disavow a staff-generated letter sent in his name in July 2007 to a Federal Bankruptcy Court in support of the Your Black Muslim Bakery organization during its bankruptcy proceedings that month.[51]

When addressing a town hall-style meeting in 2007, Dellums declared, "I'm giving it everything that I have. If that's not enough, that's cool. Recall me and let me get on with my private life."[52]

"Recall Dellums" websites have been built.[53] An Oakland reporter launched an unsuccessful campaign to recall Dellums and released an open letter addressed to Dellums to local media, which caused conflict of interest concerns as to her journalistic objectivity. There were no recall petitions collected.

Education Initiatives

Noting that reducing teacher turn-over and improving the engagement of teachers with the families of their students would require increasing the number of teachers who came from the local community, Dellums initiated a program to create more teachers who were diverse local residents. He held teacher recruitment summits in City Hall, helped the program (Teach Tomorrow in Oakland) to obtain $2.7 million in federal funding, and spoke to the U.S. Conference of Mayors about the national potential of such programs.[54] The Community Task Forces remained active in these efforts.

In 2009 Dellums launched an anti-drop-out initiative which included sponsoring back to school rallies at City Hall and participating with the school district in truancy reduction efforts. He accepted an invitation from the national organization, America's Promise, to join their efforts at drop-out prevention. As part of this effort, he started Oakland's Promise, recruited several dozen community based organizations to participate, held a Summit with 350 participants, and adopted an Action Plan to cut Oakland's drop-out rate in half.[55]

Commission appointments

The resident task forces requested that the Mayor appoint a resident of the "frontline" communities which are most health-impacted by truck and shipping emissions of the Port of Oakland. His first appointment to the Port Commission was Margaret Gordon, a well-known community activist credited with playing a major role in altering public policy on air quality.

In September 2008, members of the Oakland City Council blocked Mayor Ron Dellums' appointment of Ada Chan to the Oakland Planning Commission in a 3-4-1 vote. Chan has a history of land-use activism in San Francisco. In January 2008, newly-elected at-large City Coucilmember Rebecca Kaplan appointed Chan as her office's Policy Aide.

2010 Oakland mayoral race

As of April 1, 2009, Ron Dellums has not publicly indicated whether or not he will run for a second term as mayor of Oakland in the June 2010 election.[56]

Income taxes

From 2005-2007, Dellums and his wife failed to pay over $239,000 in Federal Income Taxes.

Idea of the Model City and Successful Stimulus Funding

As Mayor, Dellums proposed the idea of Oakland as a "Model City. He aruged that Oakland is "big enough to be significant and small enough to get your arms around" and that the federal government needs a city like Oakland on which to try out new urban policy inventions. He campaigned for federal stimulus funding, using both his extensive Washington contacts and the idea of the Model City. By the end of 2009 his efforts had produced 65 million in stimulus funding, including the largest police grant of any city in the country and the second largest amount in competitive funding after Chicago.[57]

Legislative lobbyist

Dellums has worked as a lobbyist, which has drawn criticism described in the East Bay Express, a local newspaper.[21] Shortly after leaving office, Dellums began consulting for an international health-care company, Healthcare Management International which invests in health insurance programs in developing countries.

Dellums worked in Washington, D.C., as a lobbyist for clients such as the East Bay Peralta Community College District and AC Transit, the public transit district charged with offering mass transit throughout the East Bay. Other legislative lobbying work:

  • Dellums' firm lobbied for Rolls Royce, a company that manufactures military aircraft engines.
  • Dellums' company lobbied for the San Francisco International Airport during its attempts to build additional runway capacity, which has been vigorously opposed by environmental groups.
  • His company has been engaged in community relations work for the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory: the lab generates and stores radioactive waste and has long had a contentious relationship with its residential neighbors and the Berkeley city council.
  • Bristol-Myers Squibb, a multinational pharmaceutical corporation.
  • Dellums lobbied for the Haitian government in 2001–2002[58] and has worked to support Jean-Bertrand Aristide, the first democratically-elected former President of Haiti who was allegedly kidnapped at gunpoint in 2004 by the United States military-intelligence apparatus.[59][60]

When running for mayor of Oakland, Dellums listed his most recent profession as "retired Congressman" in election filing forms.[61] When assistant City Clerk Marjo Keller informed the Dellums campaign that this description was unacceptable, the campaign elected to leave the occupation field blank.

Editorialist Doug Ireland wrote a column titled "Dellums for Dollars" criticizing Dellums' lobbying, and said of Dellums, "Ron has gone bad, I'm afraid. He talks the talk, but he doesn't walk the walk anymore."[21]

Speaking in defense of Dellums, Alameda County Supervisor Keith Carson said that, if asked, Dellums would likely say "just because I'm advocating for a company that may be paying me consulting fees, I'm not selling out my beliefs."[21]

Partisan affiliations

Though he ran as a Democrat, and caucused as a Democrat in Congress, Dellums describes himself as a Socialist. In the 1970s, Dellums was a member of the Democratic Socialist Organizing Committee (DSOC), an offshoot of the Socialist Party of America. He later became vice-chair of the Democratic Socialists of America (DSA),[10] which was formed by a merger between the DSOC and the New American Movement, and which works within and outside the Democratic Party. As of 2006, Dellums is no longer a vice-chair of the DSA.

While running for mayor of Oakland, Dellums was officially registered as a member of the Democratic party.[13][62] All city offices in Oakland are officially non-partisan.

On October 1, 2007, Dellums endorsed Hillary Clinton in the 2008 Democratic presidential primary at a press conference held at Laney College in Oakland. He was named national chair of Clinton's Urban Policy Committee.[63][64]

Dismissal of drug use allegations

An eight month investigation vindicated Dellums of allegations that he had used cocaine and marijuana, finding there was no basis for the allegations. The investigation of Dellums and two other congressmen, Texas Democrat Charlie Wilson and California Republican Barry Goldwater, Jr., began in 1983, based on a complaint from a House doorkeeper,[16] who pled guilty to drug charges on Capitol Hill himself in March 1983.[65]

External links

See also

References

  1. ^ "Will Gerrymandered Districts Stem the Wave of Voter Unrest?". Campaign Legal Center Blog. http://www.clcblog.org/blog_item-85.html. Retrieved 2007-10-19.  
  2. ^ Maurice Isserman. "A Brief History of the American Left". Democratic Socialists of America. http://www.dsausa.org/about/history.html.  
  3. ^ a b Lynn Norment (August, 1994). "How African-Americans helped free South Africa". Nelson Mandela and the New South Africa (Ebony). http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1077/is_n10_v49/ai_15687226.  
  4. ^ San Francisco Chronicle, August 20, 2008, p. B9.
  5. ^ "Mayor-elect Ron Dellums: Oakland ‘can be a great city’". People's Weekly World. June 24, 2006. http://www.pww.org/article/articleview/9392/1/266/.  
  6. ^ a b Jim Herron Zamora; Janine DeFao (October 8, 2005). "Dellums enters Oakland mayor race as favorite". San Francisco Chronicle. http://sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/c/a/2005/10/08/MNGSVF4LG21.DTL.  
  7. ^ "Ron Dellums, an Active Presence from California". The African American Registry. http://www.aaregistry.com/african_american_history/2670/Ron_Dellums_an_active_presence_from_California.  
  8. ^ "Alpha chapter of Alpha Phi Alpha". http://www.rso.cornell.edu/alpha/prominent/government.html. Retrieved 2006-10-24.  
  9. ^ "Alpha Phi Alpha's World Policy Council". http://www.alphaphialpha.net/news/feature_articles.html#wpc. Retrieved 2006-10-24.  
  10. ^ a b Democratic Socialists of America
  11. ^ [1]
  12. ^ Burress, Charles (2000-11-17). "The Idealist's Idealist - Maudelle Shirek". San Francisco Chronicle. http://www.mindfully.org/Reform/Maudelle-Shirek-Idealist-Berkeley.htm.  
  13. ^ a b "Dellums, Ronald Vernie". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. http://bioguide.congress.gov/scripts/biodisplay.pl?index=D000222.  
  14. ^ "Jeffrey Cohelan Collection". The Carl Albert Congressional Research and Studies Center. http://ou.edu/special/albertctr/archives/cohelan.htm.  
  15. ^ "List of White House 'Enemies' and Memo Submitted by Dean to the Ervin Committee". Watergate and the White House, vol. 1 (Facts on File): pp. 96–97. http://web.archive.org/web/20030621235432/www.artsci.wustl.edu/~polisci/calvert/PolSci3103/watergate/enemy.htm.  
  16. ^ a b Megan Rosenfeld (February 7, 1998). "A 21-Gun Send-Off". The Washington Post. p. A06. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/politics/campaigns/keyraces98/stories/cahouse020798.htm.  
  17. ^ "Vietnam War Crimes Hearings". http://members.aol.com/warlibrary/vwch1.htm.  
  18. ^ The Color of Friendship Summary, Cast & Crew - Starpulse.com
  19. ^ Jay Nordlinger (March 6, 2000). "In Castro's Corner — African Americans' alleged affinity for Cuba". National Review. http://www.highbeam.com/library/docFree.asp?DOCID=1G1:65913443.  
  20. ^ Jeffrey M. Elliot and Mervyn M. Dymally, Voices of Zaire: Rhetoric or Reality, p. 16.
  21. ^ a b c d e Will Harper (April 3, 2002). "The Radical Insider". East Bay Express. http://eastbayexpress.com/Issues/2002-04-03/feature_full.html.  
  22. ^ "B-2 Spirit". Federation of American Scientists. November 30, 1999. http://www.fas.org/nuke/guide/usa/bomber/b-2.htm.  
  23. ^ "The B-2 Bomber". opensecrets.org. http://www.opensecrets.org/pubs/cashingin_defense/defense3.html.  
  24. ^ Debate on Dellums Amendment to 1998 Defense Authorization Act June 23, 1997.
  25. ^ MIDEAST TENSIONS; 45 in House Sue to Bar Bush From Acting Alone By MARTIN TOLCHIN, Special to The New York Times Published: Wednesday, November 21, 1990
  26. ^ Search Results - THOMAS (Library of Congress)
  27. ^ http://utopia.utexas.edu/avoice/about/cbc.html
  28. ^ "November 1996 General Election: California 9th Congressional District". RAND Corporation. http://ca.rand.org/stats/politics/sov/1996gen/rep091196.html.  
  29. ^ http://www.evote.com/elections2000/results/NewStates/CA.asp
  30. ^ Nancy Pelosi (February 3, 1998). "Tribute to Congressman Ron Dellums". http://www.house.gov/pelosi/fldellum.htm.  
  31. ^ Jane Harman (February 3, 1998). "Tribute to the Honorable Ronald V. Dellums". http://www.house.gov/harman/issues/statements/105/020398ST_TributeDellum.htm.  
  32. ^ Search Results - THOMAS (Library of Congress)
  33. ^ Search Results - THOMAS (Library of Congress)
  34. ^ Search Results - THOMAS (Library of Congress)
  35. ^ http://www.gsenet.org/library/10gov/lcv104th.php
  36. ^ "Immigration Profile of Rep. Ronald Dellums". Numbers USA. August 6, 2006. http://profiles.numbersusa.com/improfile.php3?DistSend=CA&VIPID=62.  
  37. ^ "Wise Use",- LEAGUE OF PRIVATE PROPERTY VOTERS own words: a scam?
  38. ^ Heather MacDonald, "Ex-rep. thrills backers by entering Oakland mayoral race" Oakland Tribune, October 8, 2005.
  39. ^ Christopher Heredia, Janine DeFao (June 18, 2006). "De La Fuente offers support to Dellums as mayoral winner". San Francisco Chronicle. http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/c/a/2006/06/18/BAGOVJG8KS1.DTL.  
  40. ^ MacDonald, Heather (2007-02-27). "Dellums Makes 4 Additions to His Staff". Oakland Tribune.  
  41. ^ Mayfield, Kimberly (January 4, 2007) "Grassroots Democracy Sprouts in Oakland" San Francisco Chronicle
  42. ^ Chris Heredia (January 15, 2008). "Dellums calls for hiring more cops in Oakland". San Francisco Chronicle. http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/c/a/2008/01/14/BA0SUF8P1.DTL. Retrieved December 13, 2008.  
  43. ^ Kelly Rayburn (21 November 2008). "No money to train police recruits, Dellums says". Oakland Tribune. http://www.insidebayarea.com/ci_11045870?source=most_emailed. Retrieved 13 December 2008.  
  44. ^ Phillip Matier,Andrew Ross (March 29, 2009), Mayor Dellums persona non grata by Oakland police, San Francisco Chronicle, http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/c/a/2009/03/28/BAK616O8CQ.DTL#ixzz0X9VvkuGR  
  45. ^ Thousands Attend Funeral For 4 Oakland Officers AP, March 28, 2009.
  46. ^ V. Smoothe, Oakland Crime Stats November 2009. A Better Oakland. http://www.abetteroakland.com/oakland-crime-stats-november-2009/2009-11-16
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  50. ^ Johnson, Chip. "Dellums, Oakland City Council fritter away the year". San Francisco Chronicle. http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/c/a/2007/11/02/BA5LT52C6.DTL. Retrieved 2007-11-18.  
  51. ^ East Bay Express | News | Dellums' Scarlet Letter
  52. ^ abc7news.com: Ron Dellums Attends Town Hall Meeting 9/18/07
  53. ^ Gammon, Robert. "A Misdirected Missive". East Bay Express. http://www.eastbayexpress.com/news/a_misdirected_missive/Content?oid=518223. Retrieved 2007-12-23.  
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  57. ^ http://oaklandnorth.net/2009/12/10/mayor-and-staff-bask-in-the-glow-of-the-stimulus/
  58. ^ Phillip Matier, Andrew Ross (March 27, 2006). "In Oakland, Dellums draws fire in mayor's race". San Francisco Chronicle. http://sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/c/a/2006/03/27/BAGEIHUH0K1.DTL.  
  59. ^ "Aristide and His Bodyguard Describe the U.S. Role In His Ouster". Democracy Now!. 2004-03-16. http://www.democracynow.org/article.pl?sid=04/03/16/1712217. Retrieved 2005-12-26.  
  60. ^ "Aristide Back in Caribbean Heat". Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/ac2/wp-dyn/A61549-2004Mar15. Retrieved 2006-07-21.  
  61. ^ Jim Herron Zamora (March 10, 2006). "Dellums to leave occupation line blank on ballot". San Francisco Chronicle. http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/c/a/2006/03/10/MNGV9HM73A4.DTL.  
  62. ^ California election results online http://www.ss.ca.gov/elections/elections_elections.htm
  63. ^ HillaryClinton.com - Media Release
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  65. ^ St. Petersburg Times Staff (March 16, 1983). "Panel investigating reports that lawmaker bought drugs". St. Petersburg Times. http://news.google.com/newspapers?id=fx4MAAAAIBAJ&sjid=xl0DAAAAIBAJ&pg=5604,80692&dq=dellums+doorkeeper.  
United States House of Representatives
Preceded by
Jeffery Cohelan
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from California's 7th congressional district

1971–1975
Succeeded by
George Miller
Preceded by
Pete Stark
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from California's 8th congressional district

1975–1993
Succeeded by
Nancy Pelosi
Preceded by
Pete Stark
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from California's 9th congressional district

1993–1998
Succeeded by
Barbara Lee
Political offices
Preceded by
Charles Diggs
Michigan
Chairman of the House District of Columbia Committee
1979–1993
Succeeded by
Pete Stark
California
Preceded by
Les Aspin
Wisconsin
Chairman of the House Armed Services Committee
1993–1995
Succeeded by
Floyd Spence
South Carolina
Preceded by
Jerry Brown
Mayor of Oakland, California
2007–
Succeeded by
Incumbent







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