Ronald Kray: Wikis

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Kray Twins:
Ronald & Reginald Kray

The Kray twins, Reginald (left) and Ronald, photographed by David Bailey
Born 24 October 1933
Hoxton, East London, England
Died Ronnie: 17 March 1995 (aged 61) Wexham park Hospital England
Reggie: 1 October 2000 (aged 66) Norwich, England
Alias(es) Ronnie & Reggie
Charge(s) Murders of George Cornell and Jack "The Hat" McVitie
Penalty In 1968 both were sentenced to life imprisonment, with a non-parole period of thirty years.
Status Both deceased
Occupation Club owners
Spouse Reggie married Frances Shea in 1965
Parents Charles Kray and Violet Lee

Reginald "Reggie" Kray (24 October 1933 – 1 October 2000) and his twin brother Ronald "Ronnie" Kray (died 17 March 1995) were the foremost perpetrators of organised crime in London's East End during the 1950s and 1960s. Ronald, commonly referred to as Ron or Ronnie, suffered from paranoid schizophrenia.[1] The Krays were involved in armed robberies, arson, protection rackets, violent assaults including torture and the murders of Jack "The Hat" McVitie and George Cornell. As West End nightclub owners they mixed with prominent entertainers including Diana Dors, Frank Sinatra, Judy Garland and politicians, The Krays were highly respected. In the 1960s they became celebrities in their own right, being photographed by David Bailey and interviewed on television.

They were arrested on 9 May 1968 and convicted in 1969 by the efforts of a squad of detectives led by Detective Superintendent Leonard "Nipper" Read, and were both sentenced to life imprisonment.

Ronnie remained in prison until his death on 17 March 1995, but Reggie was released from prison on compassionate grounds in August 2000, a few weeks before his death from cancer.

Contents

Early life

Ronnie and Reggie Kray were born on 24 October 1933 in Hoxton, East London, to Charles David "Charlie" Kray, Sr, (1906 - March 1983), a scrap gold dealer, and Violet Lee (5 August 1909 - 4 August 1982).[2] Reggie was born 10 minutes before Ronnie. Charlie and Violet already had a six-year old son, also called Charlie, who was born 9 July 1927.[3] A sister, Violet, born 1929, died in infancy. When the twins were three years old they were struck down with diphtheria and recovered. Ron almost died from a head injury suffered in a fight with his brother in 1942.

In 1939, having previously lived in Stene Street, Hoxton, the Kray family moved to 178 Vallance Road, Bethnal Green. At the start of the Second World War, Charlie Kray Senior was called up into the army, but went into hiding travelling the country as a trader and avoiding the law.

The twins first attended Wood Close School in Brick Lane and then Daniel Street School.[4] There they were said to have shown none of their future criminal tendencies. A teacher said of them: "Salt of the earth, the twins; never the slightest trouble to anyone who knew how to handle them." "If there was anything to be done in school, they'd be utterly co-operative… they'd always be the first to help. Nothing was too much trouble."[5]

The influence of their grandfather, Jimmy "Cannonball" Lee, led both boys into amateur boxing, which was at that time a popular pursuit for working-class boys in the East End. An element of rivalry between them spurred them on, and they achieved some success. They are said never to have lost a bout before turning professional at the age 19.

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National Service

The Kray twins became famous locally for their gang and the mayhem they caused. They narrowly avoided prison several times and in early 1952 they were called up for National Service with the Royal Fusiliers. They deserted several times, each time being recaptured.

While absent without leave, the twins assaulted a police officer who had spotted them and was trying to arrest them. They were initially held at the Tower of London (they were among the very last prisoners ever kept there) before being sent to Shepton Mallet military prison in Somerset and jailed for a month awaiting courts-martial. They ended up being jailed in the Home Counties Brigade Depot "nick" in Canterbury, Kent. Their behaviour there was so bad that in the end they were given a dishonourable discharge from the service; for the last few weeks of their imprisonment, when their fate was a certainty anyway, they tried to dominate the exercise area immediately outside their one man cells. They threw tantrums, upended their latrine bucket over a sergeant, similarly dumped a dixie (a large camp kettle[6]) full of hot tea on a guard, handcuffed another guard to the prison bars with a pair of stolen cuffs, and burned their bedding. Eventually they were discharged, but not before escaping from the guardhouse and being recaptured by the army one last time. The escape was executed when they were moved from a one man cell to a communal cell and assaulted the guardman with a china vase. Still, once recaptured and while awaiting transfer to civilian authority for crimes committed during their most recent period at large, they spent their last night in Canterbury drinking cider, eating crisps, and smoking cigarillos courtesy of the young national servicemen who were acting as their guards (and who were quite ready to tangle with them again if the farewell "do" should result in another escape attempt). The twins did not take kindly to the military and after an altercation with one of their training sergeants, they beat him up and absconded back to Vallance Road. The police arrested them the next day and they were returned to their regiment (Royal Fusiliers) for punishment.

It was during this period that Ron started to show the first signs of mental illness. He would refuse to eat, shave only one side of his face and suffer wild mood swings, sitting still for hours before erupting into a violent frenzy. On one occasion, Ron climbed into the prison rafters and, according to one guard, refused to come down for some six hours in spite of brother Reggie's pleas. It is not clear whether at this stage it was another prank to annoy their guards, or if Ron had become unbalanced. Guards at the Canterbury military holding prison were convinced he was dangerously psychotic.

Criminal careers

Nightclub owners

Their criminal record and dishonourable discharge ended their boxing careers. As a result, the twins turned to crime. They bought a run down local snooker club in Bethnal Green, where they started several protection rackets. By the end of the 1950s, the Krays were involved in hijacking, armed robbery and arson, through which they acquired a few clubs and other properties. In 1960 Reggie Kray was incarcerated for 18 months on charges of running a protection racket and related threats, and while he was in prison, Peter Rachman, the head of a violent landlord operation, gave Ronnie the Esmeralda's Barn, a nightclub in Knightsbridge. This increased the Krays' influence in the West End of London, with celebrities and famous people rather than East End criminals. They were assisted by banker Alan Cooper who wanted protection from the Krays' rivals, the Richardsons, who were based in South London.[7]

Celebrity status

In the 1960s, they were widely seen as prosperous and charming celebrity nightclub owners and were part of the Swinging London scene. A large part of their fame was due to their non-criminal activities as popular figures on the celebrity circuit, being photographed by David Bailey on more than one occasion; and socialised with lords, MPs, socialites and show business characters such as the actors George Raft, Judy Garland, Diana Dors, Barbara Windsor and singer Frank Sinatra.

Ronnie Kray: "They were the best years of our lives. They called them the swinging sixties. The Beatles and the Rolling Stones were rulers of pop music, Carnaby Street ruled the fashion world...and me and my brother ruled London. We were fucking untouchable". From Ronnie Kray's autobiographical book My Story[8]

Lord Boothby and Tom Driberg

The Krays also came into the public eye when an exposé in the tabloid newspaper Sunday Mirror alleged that Ron had had a sexual relationship with Lord Boothby, a UK Conservative Party politician.[9] Although no names were printed, Boothby threatened to sue, the newspaper backed down, sacked its editor, apologised, and paid Boothby £40,000 in an out of court settlement.[10] As a result, other newspapers were less willing to uncover the Krays' connections and criminal activities.

The police investigated the Krays on several occasions, but the twins' reputation for violence meant witnesses were afraid to come forward to testify. There was also a political problem for both main parties. It was neither in the interests of the Conservative Party to press the police to end the Krays' power lest the Boothby connection was again publicised and demonstrated, or those of the Labour Party because their MP Tom Driberg was also rumoured to have had a relationship with Ronnie.[11]

Frank Mitchell

The once notorious Blind Beggar pub in Whitechapel Road in quieter times. (November 2005)

On 12 December 1966 the Krays assisted Frank Mitchell (nicknamed "The Mad Axeman")[12] in escaping from Dartmoor Prison. Ronnie Kray had befriended Mitchell while they served time together in Wandsworth prison. Mitchell felt the authorities should review his case for parole, so Ronnie felt he would be doing him a favour by getting him out of Dartmoor, highlighting his case in the media and forcing the authorities to act. Once Mitchell was out of Dartmoor, the Krays held him at a friend's flat in Barking Road. However, as a large man with a mental disorder, he was difficult to deal with and the only course of action was to get rid of him. His body has never been found and the Krays were acquitted of his murder.[12] Freddie Foreman, a former member of The Firm, in his autobiography Respect claimed that Mitchell was shot and the body disposed of in the sea.

George Cornell

Ronnie Kray shot and killed George Cornell in the Blind Beggar in Whitechapel on 9 March 1966. There had been a confrontation at Christmas 1965 between the Krays and the Richardsons at the Astor Club, when Cornell, an associate of the Richardsons, referred to Ronnie Kray as a "fat poof". However, Ronnie Kray denies this and says that the reason for the killing was because he gave him and Reggie threats. The result was a gang war between the two, and Kray associate Richard Hart was murdered at Mr. Smith's Club in Catford on 8 March 1966. Ronnie Kray avenged Hart's death by shooting George Cornell in the Blind Beggar pub in Whitechapel Road. Mad Frankie Fraser was taken to court for Hart's murder but was proven not guilty. A member of the Richardsons claimed that he saw him kicking Hart. George Cornell was the only one to escape from the brawl in top condition so it is likely that Ronnie thought that he was involved in the murder. Due to intimidation, witnesses would not co-operate with the police.[13]

Jack "the Hat" McVitie

The Krays' criminal activities continued hidden behind their celebrity status and "legitimate" businesses. In October 1967, four months after the suicide of his wife Frances, Reggie was alleged to have been encouraged by his brother to kill Jack "the Hat" McVitie, a minor member of the Kray gang who had failed to fulfil a £1,500 contract paid to him in advance by the Krays to kill Leslie Payne. McVitie was lured to a basement flat in Evering Road, Stoke Newington on the pretence of a party. As he entered, Reggie Kray pointed a handgun at his head and pulled the trigger twice, but the gun failed to discharge. Ronnie Kray then held McVitie in a bearhug and Reggie Kray was handed a carving knife. He stabbed McVitie in the face and stomach, driving it deep into his neck, twisting the blade, continuing as McVitie lay on the floor dying.[14] Several other members of The Firm including the Lambrianou brothers (Tony and Chris) were convicted of this. In Tony's biography he claims that when Reggie was stabbing Jack his liver came out and he had to flush it down the toilet. McVitie's body has never been recovered.

Arrest and trial

When Inspector Leonard "Nipper" Read of Scotland Yard was promoted to the Murder Squad, his first assignment was to bring down the Kray twins. It was not his first involvement with Reg and Ron; during the first half of 1964 Read had been investigating their activities, but publicity and official denials surrounding allegations of Ron's relationship with Boothby had made the evidence he collected useless. Read tackled the problem of convicting the twins with renewed activity in 1967, but frequently came up against the East End "wall of silence", which discouraged anyone from providing information to the police.[citation needed]

Nevertheless, by the end of 1967 Read had built up evidence against the Krays. There were witness statements incriminating them, as well as other evidence, but none added up to a convincing case on any one charge. Fifty percent of ticket profits from Broadway shows at the time were given to a charity supporting the Krays in their ambition to be released and feature in their own show, "A Banana is better than a gun".[citation needed]

Early in 1968 the twins had sent a man named Elvey to Glasgow to buy explosives for rigging a car bomb. Police detained him in Scotland and he confessed he had been involved in three botched murder attempts. However, this evidence was weakened by the involvement of a man named Cooper, who claimed to be an agent for the United States Treasury Department investigating links between the American mafia and the Kray gang. The botched murders were his work, in an attempt to pin something on the Krays. Read tried using Cooper as a trap for Ron and Reg, but they stayed away from him.[citation needed]

Conviction and imprisonment

Eventually, a Scotland Yard conference decided to arrest the Krays on the evidence already collected, in the hope that other witnesses would be forthcoming once the Krays were in custody. On 8 May 1968,[15] the Krays and 15 yet other members of their "firm" were arrested. Many witnesses came forward now that the Krays' reign of intimidation was over, and it was relatively easy to gain a conviction. The Krays and 14 other were convicted with one member of the firm being acquitted. One of the firm members that provided a lot of the information of the police was arrested yet only for a short period. Out of the 17 official firm members, 16 were arrested and convicted. The twins' defence, under their counsel John Platts-Mills, QC, consisted of flat denials of all charges and the discrediting of witnesses by pointing out their criminal past. The judge, Mr Justice Melford Stevenson said: "In my view, society has earned a rest from your activities."[16] Both were sentenced to life imprisonment, with a non-parole period of 30 years for the murders of Cornell and McVitie, the longest sentences ever passed at the Old Bailey (Central Criminal Court, London) for murder.[17] Their brother Charlie was jailed for 10 years for his part in the murders.

Imprisonment

On 11 August 1982, under tight security, Ronnie and Reggie Kray were allowed to attend the funeral of their mother Violet, who had died of cancer the week before, but they were not allowed to attend the graveside service at Chingford Mount cemetery in East London where their mother was interred in the Kray family plot. The service was attended by celebrities including Diana Dors and underworld figures known to the Krays.[18] The twins did not ask to attend their father's funeral when he died seven months later in March 1983: this was to avoid the publicity that had surrounded their mother's funeral.

Ronnie was eventually once more certified insane and lived the remainder of his life in Broadmoor Hospital, Crowthorne, dying on 17 March 1995 of a massive heart attack, aged 61. His funeral on 29 March 1995 was a huge event with people lining the streets.

Reggie Kray was a Category A prisoner, denied almost all liberties and not allowed to mix with other prisoners. However, in his later years, he was downgraded to Category C and transferred to Norfolk's Wayland Prison.

During incarceration, he became a born again Christian. After serving more than the recommended 30 years he was sentenced to in March 1969, he was finally freed from Wayland on 26 August 2000, at the age of almost 67. He was released on compassionate grounds as a result of having inoperable cancer. The final weeks of his life were spent with his wife Roberta, whom he had married while in Maidstone prison in July 1997, in a suite at the Townhouse Hotel at Norwich, having left Norwich hospital on 22 September 2000. On 1 October 2000, Reggie Kray died in his sleep. Ten days later, he was buried alongside his brother Ronnie, in Chingford cemetery.

Elder brother Charlie Kray was released in 1975 after serving seven years, but returned to prison in 1997 for conspiracy to smuggle cocaine worth £69m in an undercover drugs sting. He died of natural causes on 4 April 2000, six months before Reggie's death.[19].

Personal lives

Ronnie was bisexual[20]. Despite cultural attitudes towards homosexuality at the time, he was open about his bisexuality within the Firm, where it was accepted. Reggie reportedly affirmed and denied Ronnie's claim that he was bisexual on different occasions. He once had a one night stand with Barbara Windsor[21][22], whose Eastenders character Peggy Mitchell was reputed to be based on Violet Kray (e.g. her matriarchy over two thuggish twins).

Controversies

Some believe the Krays' sentences were harsher than deserved and that they were being made an example.[23] The Kray twins were tried as separate, responsible adults, although it was argued that Ronnie dominated his brother. He was also a paranoid schizophrenic.[1]

There was a long-running campaign, with some minor celebrity support, to have the twins released from prison, but successive Home Secretaries vetoed the idea, largely on the grounds that the Krays' prison records were both marred by violence towards other inmates. The campaign gathered momentum after the release of a film based on their lives called The Krays in 1990. Produced by Ray Burdis , it starred ex members of Spandau Ballet brothers Martin Kemp, who played the role of Reggie, and Gary Kemp, who played Ronnie.

Some argue that Reggie's several attempted murders, and the murder of Jack McVitie, were carried out as a result of Ronnie's prompting, and to show that he was equal to Ronnie's earlier murders. Reggie wrote: "I seem to have walked a double path most of my life. Perhaps an extra step in one of those directions might have seen me celebrated rather than notorious."[24] Others, however, point to Reggie's violent prison record when he was being detained separately from Ronnie and argue that in reality, the twins' temperaments were little different.

Reggie's marriage to Frances Shea in 1965 lasted eight weeks, although the marriage was never formally ended. An inquest came to the conclusion that she committed suicide in 1967,[25] but in 2002 an ex lover of Reggie Kray came forward to allege that Frances was actually murdered by a jealous Ronnie. Bradley Allardyce spent three years in Maidstone prison with Reggie and explained, "I was sitting in my cell with Reg and it was one of those nights where we turned the lights down low and put some nice music on and sometimes he would reminisce. He would get really deep and open up to me. He suddenly broke down and said 'I'm going to tell you something I've only ever told two people and something I've carried around with me' - something that had been a black hole since the day he found out. He put his head on my shoulder and told me Ronnie killed Frances. He told Reggie what he had done two days after."[26]

When Ronnie spent three years in prison, Reggie is said to have turned the "firm" around, putting it on a sound financial footing, and removing many of the more violent and less appealing aspects, if not actually turning it legal. Some speculate that without his brother, Reggie could have turned the "firm" into one of the largest and most successful criminal organisations in Europe; however, the Kray business was always built on their reputation for savage violence, and it was Ronnie who was principally responsible. The twins were never able to cope well apart.[citation needed]

In popular culture

In film

  • Performance (1970), directed by Nicolas Roeg, featured a London gangster named Harry Flowers (played by Johnny Shannon) who surrounded himself with muscle magazines and rent boys; the character and his milieu were inspired by Ronnie Kray.
  • Villain (1971) starred Richard Burton as sadistic, homosexual London gang leader Vic Dakin, a character modeled on Ronnie Kray.
  • The Long Good Friday (1980) used the Kray Twins as inspiration for the protagonist Harold Shand. Bob Hoskins, who played Shand, reportedly received a letter from the Krays in prison congratulating him on his presentation of a London Gangster in the film.
  • Hell to Pay (directed by Roberto Gomez Martin and based on gangster life in London) uses an oil-on-canvas work done by Ronnie Kray in prison depicting the crucifixion, after he gave the painting as a present to former gangster and now actor in the movie Dave Courtney.
  • Nadiya Kollappetta Rathri (2007), a Malayalam film starring Suresh Gopi directed by K. Madhu. The person who attempts a killing in the film draws inspiration from the story of the Kray brothers.[27]

In video games

  • In The Getaway, a gangster named Charlie Jolson says that he used to run London "with real men like Ronnie and Reggie".
  • In the The Getaway: Black Monday Danny introduces Arthur, the cleaner of the operation, saying "He used to work for the Krays ya know."

In television

  • The time-travelling hero of Goodnight Sweetheart has several passing encounters with the Kray twins as children in East-End London of the 1940s.
  • Association with (or former association with) the Krays is also seen as a sign of prestige in many social circles, or an indication of Cockney authenticity. This attitude was spoofed in the British television series The Young Ones with Robbie Coltrane as a bouncer claiming "...and I was at Violet's funeral", a reference to the twins' mother.
  • The long-running TV drama EastEnders has featured a gangland organisation called The Firm.
  • EastEnders characters, Ronnie and Roxy Mitchell are modelled on The Krays, hence their names. As Reggie is a male name, it was changed to Roxy for the EastEnders role of one of the Mitchell sisters.
  • They were also the inspiration behind the Monty Python "Piranha Brothers" sketch. This sketch was rooted in fact; even the tale of nailing someone to the floor is based on the murder of Jack "the Hat" McVitie, who was pinned to the floor with a long knife. Inspector Leonard "Nipper" Read became "Superintendent Harry 'Snapper' Organs".
  • The British TV series Waking the Dead featured a two-parter called "Deathwatch" in which the cold-case detectives investigated a murder related to a pair of East-End gangster brothers from the early 60s called the Suttons who were clearly based on the Krays: one was described as psychotic and the photos used to depict them were similar to those of the Krays.
  • In 1991, a children's TV puppet show called The Winjin Pom featured two crow siblings called Ronnie and Reggie (the "Crows") who were always after the goodies to steal their magical camper van named after the show title, but always failed.
  • Kate Kray — the widow of Ronnie Kray — showed the glamorous yet restricted lives of women who married gangsters in the documentary Gangsters' Wives.
  • The Comic Strip team did their take on the Krays with Alexei Sayle in the role of both twins as the Moss Brothers, Carl and Sterling, in Didn't You Kill My Brother?
  • The comedy duo Hale and Pace portrayed two characters like the Krays. They wore smart suits and walked on stage with the line "We are da management." Both of their characters were named Ron.
  • In episode 3 of the second series of the BBC programme Monkey Dust, a minor character who frequently marries criminals has her surnames read out in a marriage ceremony to Ivan Dobsky. Two of these surnames are "Kray" (among surnames of other infamous criminals).
  • In the TV series Top Gear, during a challenge to decide the best van, each presenter was timed to see how long they would take to be caught by a police car driven by the The Stig. Here James May was called James Kray in light of the comical criminal challenge.

In literature

  • There are many books about their reign including several by themselves: among the most critically acclaimed :
  • A Way of Life: Over Thirty Years of Blood, Sweat and Tears by Reggie Kray - published 2001 ISBN 0330485-11-3
  • My Story by Ron Kray - published 1994 ISBN 0330335-07-3
  • Born Fighter by Reg Kray - published 1991 ISBN 0099878-10-0
  • Our Story by Reg & Ron Kray - published 1989 ISBN 0330308-18-1
  • The Profession of Violence: Rise and Fall of the Kray Twins by John Pearson - First published 1972, Weidenfeld and Nicolson
  • The Cult of Violence: The Untold Story of the Krays by John Pearson - published 2002 ISBN 0752847-94-5
  • In J.K. Rowling's Harry Potter series, the main villain, Lord Voldemort is so feared that most wizards and witches refer to him as 'You-Know-Who' or 'He-Who-Must-Not-Be-Named'. According to Rowling, this was inspired by the Kray twins' very names being taboo.[28]
  • The Kray twins are mentioned frequently in the first novel by Jake Arnott, The Long Firm (1999), where the main character Harry Starks is a fictional homosexual East End gangster in the 1960s who has a criminal career similar to the Krays.
  • The Kray twins are mentioned in the second part of Tu rostro mañana, a novel by Javier Marías. One of the characters refers to them in order to explain why he carries a sword in his overcoat.
  • Carol Ann Duffy has written a poem entitled "The Kray Sisters", in which she changes the story of the Kray twins into a women's format. There are clear links to the original story, with characters in the poem such as "Cannonball Vi", a clear mix of the twins' grandfather and mother.
  • Peter Straughan's play 'Bones' has a character who claims to be Reggie Kray and begins to heavily influence the actions of the other characters.
  • The Balvak Twins, who, like the Krays, run organized crime in the West End, are recurring antagonists for Detective Sergeant Suzie Mountford in a series of police procedural novels by John Gardner. However, the Balvaks' activities take place during World War II rather than the 1960s.

In music

A number of artists mention the Kray twins in songs:

References

Notes:

  1. ^ a b "Ronald and Reginald Kray". The Biography Channel. http://www.thebiographychannel.co.uk/biography_story/1385:1460/2/Ronald_and_Reginald_Kray.htm. Retrieved 2007-08-08. 
  2. ^ Ancestry of the Kray twins
  3. ^ Charlie Kray's grave
  4. ^ Kray, Reg. Born Fighter. pp. 8. 
  5. ^ "Prisons on the Isle of Wight". isleofwighttouristguide.com. http://www.isleofwighttouristguide.com/Articles/Article_16.asphttp://www.thebiographychannel.co.uk/biography_story/1385:1460/2/Ronald_and_Reginald_Kray.htm. Retrieved 2007-08-08. 
  6. ^ http://wordnetweb.princeton.edu/perl/webwn?s=dixie
  7. ^ Metropolitan Police, The Krays, accessed 28/10/07
  8. ^ The Krays, accessed 28/10/07
  9. ^ David Barrett "Letters shed new light on Kray twins scandal", Sunday Telegraph, 26 July 2009
  10. ^ BBC News Obituary of Reggie Kray
  11. ^ "Lords of The Underground", Channel 4 TV, 23 June 1997 + The Spectator, 28 June 1997
  12. ^ a b The Krays jailed in 1969 Metropolitan Police, accessed 28 October 2007
  13. ^ Metropolitan Police, The Krays, accessed 28/10/07
  14. ^ Read, Leonard. Nipper Read, The Man Who Nicked The Krays. Time Warner Paperbacks 2001. p.291-292. ISBN 0-7515-3175-8
  15. ^ http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/may/8/newsid_2518000/2518695.stm
  16. ^ BBC News | UK | Kray decision attacked
  17. ^ [1]
  18. ^ 1982: Krays let out for mother's funeral accessed 28/10/07
  19. ^ Gangster Charlie Kray dies BBC; accessed 28 October 2007
  20. ^ Kray, Ron. My Story. p. 94. 
  21. ^ http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk/2001/mar/25/ameliahill.theobserver
  22. ^ http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk/england/1756592.stm
  23. ^ Read. p437
  24. ^ Reggie Kray: Notorious gangster BBC, accessed 05/11/07
  25. ^ "Frances Kray (née Shea) (died 1967), Wife of Reginald ('Reggie') Kray". National Portrait Gallery. http://www.npg.org.uk/live/search/person.asp?LinkID=mp68610. Retrieved 2007-08-09. 
  26. ^ BBC News | ENGLAND | Kray 'murdered brother's wife'
  27. ^ http://www.imdb.com/title/tt1028558/
  28. ^ Anelli, Melissa and Emerson Spartz. The Leaky Cauldron and MuggleNet interview Joanne Kathleen Rowling: Part Two. The Leaky Cauldron, 16 July 2005.
  29. ^ Kray, Reggie. Born Fighter. London: Arrow, 1991. ISBN 0099878100

References:

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