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Ronald Reagan


In office
January 20, 1981 – January 20, 1989
Vice President George H. W. Bush
Preceded by Jimmy Carter
Succeeded by George H. W. Bush

In office
January 3, 1967 – January 7, 1975
Lieutenant Robert Finch
(1967–1969)
Ed Reinecke
(1969–1974)
John L. Harmer
(1974–1975)
Preceded by Edmund G. "Pat" Brown, Sr.
Succeeded by Edmund G. "Jerry" Brown, Jr.

Born February 6, 1911(1911-02-06)
Tampico, Illinois
Died June 5, 2004 (aged 93)
Bel Air, Los Angeles, California
Resting place Reagan Presidential Library
Simi Valley, California
Nationality American
Political party Republican (1962-2004)
Democratic (until 1962)
Spouse(s) (1) Jane Wyman (married 1940, divorced 1948)
(2) Nancy Davis (married 1952)
Children Maureen Reagan
Christine Reagan
Michael Reagan (adopted)
Patti Davis
Ron Reagan
Alma mater Eureka College
Occupation Actor
Religion Baptized Disciples of Christ, later attended Presbyterian churches.
Signature
Military service
Service/branch United States Army
United States Army Air Force
Rank Captain
Ronald Reagan as a teenager in Dixon, Illinois
.Ronald Wilson Reagan (February 6, 1911 – June 5, 2004) was the 40th President of the United States (1981–1989) and the 33rd Governor of California (1967–1975).^ Mr President...welcome to the United States.
  • Footage Farm: Ronald Reagan 25 January 2010 0:24 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Governor Ronald Reagan press conference.
  • Footage Farm: Ronald Reagan 25 January 2010 0:24 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Reagan went on to become a film actor, governor of California (1967-1975) and the 40th president of the United States (1981-1989) and was credited with ending the Cold War.
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.Born in Tampico, Illinois, Reagan moved to Los Angeles, California in the 1930s.^ View from Reagans House of Los Angeles area.
  • Footage Farm: Ronald Reagan 25 January 2010 0:24 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (SFEC, 11/3/96, DB p.54) 1952 Mar 4, Ronald Reagan and Nancy Davis were married in the San Fernando Valley, north of Los Angeles.
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^ Remarks and a Question-and-Answer Session at a Briefing on Federalism for State and Local Officials in Los Angeles, California .

.He began a career as an actor, first in commercial radio, then in motion pictures and later television.^ Woodrow Wilson, the first motion picture shown in the White House.
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He appeared in 52 movie productions and gained enough success to become a household name. .Though largely a B film actor, three of his most notable roles were in Brother Rat, Knute Rockne, All American and Kings Row.^ Most of all, I believe that I am not the only American who feels this way.
  • The Superficial - Barack Obama is the President of the United States 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC thesuperficial.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Motion Picture Industry Stages Tribute To Rockne EXT Palace movie theatre, South Bend Indiana, at night - neon lights - marquee World Premiere - Knute Rockne All American - crowds waiting.
  • Footage Farm: Ronald Reagan 25 January 2010 0:24 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If the mind of the Americans were free from all trammels, they would very shortly become the most daring innovators and the most implacable disputants in the world.
  • Democracy in America, Part I. by Alexis de Tocqueville 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

.Reagan served as president of the Screen Actors Guild, and later spokesman for General Electric (GE); his start in politics occurred during his work for GE. Originally a member of the Democratic Party, he switched to the Republican Party in 1962. After delivering a rousing speech in support of Barry Goldwater's presidential candidacy in 1964, he was persuaded to seek the California governorship, winning two years later and again in 1970.^ Sixty two veterans - members of the original landing party.
  • Footage Farm: Ronald Reagan 25 January 2010 0:24 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ MS Reagan delivering speech.
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^ President Reagan Speech at UN - excerpts.
  • Footage Farm: Ronald Reagan 25 January 2010 0:24 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.He was defeated in his run for the Republican presidential nomination in 1968 as well as 1976, but won both the nomination and election in 1980.^ A black colored sock puppet could have run in this election and won.
  • The Superficial - Barack Obama is the President of the United States 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC thesuperficial.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Nomination papers for presidential elector are to be filed on the last Tuesday in August in which a presidential election is to be held (Sec.
  • http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS5356 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC purl.access.gpo.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Nomination papers for presidential elector are to be filed on or before the last Tuesday in August of the year in which a presidential election is to be held (Sec.
  • http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS5356 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC purl.access.gpo.gov [Source type: Original source]

.As president, Reagan implemented sweeping new political and economic initiatives.^ President Reagan at Strategic Defence Initiative Symposium - Rushes President Reagan walking with others (FBI ?
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^ President Reagan at Strategic Defence Initiative Symposium President Reagan at SDI conference The First Five Years ( Star Wars ) speaking in front of black background.
  • Footage Farm: Ronald Reagan 25 January 2010 0:24 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Minor and new parties Candidates for President and Vice President may be nominated by a national convention or other like assembly of any political party (Sec.
  • http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS5356 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC purl.access.gpo.gov [Source type: Original source]

.His supply-side economic policies, dubbed "Reaganomics", advocated reduced business regulation, controlling inflation, reducing growth in government spending, and spurring economic growth through tax cuts.^ We knew that economic freedom meant paying less of the American family s earnings into the Government, and so we cut personal income tax rates...
  • Footage Farm: Ronald Reagan 25 January 2010 0:24 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Check out the market today on the news of this new regime focused on a tax and spend economics and the pending $500 Billion "stimulus package".
  • The Superficial - Barack Obama is the President of the United States 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC thesuperficial.com [Source type: Original source]

^ McCain’s spending and tax-cut proposals would add hundreds of billions to the federal deficit, according to the Committee for a Responsible Federal Budget.
  • The Superficial - Barack Obama is the President of the United States 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC thesuperficial.com [Source type: Original source]

.In his first term he survived an assassination attempt, took a hard line against labor unions, and ordered military actions in Grenada.^ He was assassinated in his first term.
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^ Blair said he would back a US military action against Iraq.
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^ (HN, 10/23/98 1861 Oct 24, Western Union completed the first transcontinental telegraph line.
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.He was reelected in a landslide in 1984, proclaiming it was "Morning in America". His second term was primarily marked by foreign matters, namely the ending of the Cold War, the bombing of Libya, and the revelation of the Iran-Contra affair.^ President Woodrow Wilson was elected for a second term largely because he had successfully kept America out of the war that was raging in Europe since 1914.
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^ Mar 4, President Reagan addressed the nation on the Iran-Contra affair.
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^ No matter what his plans for America were, he could have very well died of old age during his term and Palin would be our president.
  • The Superficial - Barack Obama is the President of the United States 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC thesuperficial.com [Source type: Original source]

.Publicly describing the Soviet Union as an "evil empire", he supported anti-Communist movements worldwide and spent his first term forgoing the strategy of détente by ordering a massive military buildup in an arms race with the USSR. Reagan negotiated with Soviet General Secretary Mikhail Gorbachev, culminating in the INF Treaty and the decrease of both countries' nuclear arsenals.^ Have you brought a surprise for President Reagan in terms of the arms negotiations?
  • Footage Farm: Ronald Reagan 25 January 2010 0:24 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ [Gorbachev & Reagan Sign INF Treaty] 08-10Dec87?
  • Footage Farm: Ronald Reagan 25 January 2010 0:24 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (AP, 4/1/98) 1987 Apr 10, President Reagan and Soviet leader Mikhail S. Gorbachev delivered speeches on nuclear arms, with the president challenging the Soviets to join the United States in working harder for arms reductions, and Gorbachev proposing talks on short-range weapons.
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.Reagan left office in 1989. In 1994, the former president disclosed that he had been diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease earlier in the year; he died ten years later at the age of 93. He ranks highly among former U.S. presidents in terms of approval rating and in presidential surveys.^ (AP, 1/18/99) 1994 Nov 5, Former President Reagan disclosed he had Alzheimer's disease.
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^ The House of Representatives is named by the people, the Senate by the legislators of each State; the former is directly elected, the latter is elected by an elected body; the term for which the representatives are chosen is only two years, that of the senators is six.
  • Democracy in America, Part I. by Alexis de Tocqueville 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The presidential primary election shall be held on the second Tuesday in March or on a Tuesday selected by the Secretary of State which is 7 days or more immediately preceding the date on which any other State shall hold a similar election, whichever is earlier, of each year when a President of the United States is to be elected.
  • http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS5356 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC purl.access.gpo.gov [Source type: Original source]

[1]

Early life

.Ronald Reagan was born in an apartment on the second floor of a commercial building in Tampico, Illinois, on February 6, 1911, to John Edward "Jack" Reagan and Nelle Wilson Reagan.^ (HN, 1/25/99) 1984 Jan 29, President Ronald Reagan announced that he would run for a second term.
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^ (SSFC, 1/11/04, p.M6) 1981-1988 Ronald Reagan (b.1911) served as the 40th president of the US. In 2001 Steven V. Hayward authored "The Age of Reagan."
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^ (SSFC, 6/9/02, p.F6) 1966 Jan 9, Ronald Reagan appeared on Meet the Press and was asked why he had not disavowed the John Birch Society.
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[2] Reagan's father was of Irish Catholic ancestry,[3] while his mother had Scots-English ancestors.[4] .Reagan had one older brother, Neil "Moon" Reagan (1908–1996), who became an advertising executive.^ Reagan placed Berkeley under martial law and dispatched tear gas-spraying helicopters and riot police who shot and killed one man.
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^ (HN, 10/21/98) 1983 Nov 11, President Reagan became the first U.S. chief executive to address the Diet, Japan's national legislature.
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^ Am I the only one who thinks McCain looks like the older and fatter twin of Steve Martin?
  • The Superficial - Barack Obama is the President of the United States 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC thesuperficial.com [Source type: Original source]

[5] As a boy, Reagan's father nicknamed his son "Dutch", due to his "fat little Dutchman"-like appearance, and his "Dutchboy" haircut;[6] the nickname stuck with him throughout his youth.[6] .Reagan's family briefly lived in several towns and cities in Illinois, including Monmouth, Galesburg and Chicago, until 1919, when they returned to Tampico and lived above the H.C. Pitney Variety Store.^ Another golden turd nugget from Heather: "How about the fact that some of his family is living illegaly in the US. They ARE NOT EVEN American's.
  • The Superficial - Barack Obama is the President of the United States 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC thesuperficial.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The United States have no metropolis, but they already contain several very large cities.
  • Democracy in America, Part I. by Alexis de Tocqueville 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ How about the fact that some of his family is living illegaly in the US. They ARE NOT EVEN American's.
  • The Superficial - Barack Obama is the President of the United States 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC thesuperficial.com [Source type: Original source]

[2] After his election as president, residing in the upstairs White House private quarters, Reagan would quip that he was "living above the store again".[7]
.According to Paul Kengor, author of God and Ronald Reagan, Reagan had a particularly strong faith in the goodness of people, which stemmed from the optimistic faith of his mother, Nelle,[8] and the Disciples of Christ faith,[8] which he was baptized into in 1922.[9] For the time, Reagan was unusual in his opposition to racial discrimination, and recalled a time in Dixon when the local inn would not allow black people to stay there.^ BTW - there are black people there too!
  • The Superficial - Barack Obama is the President of the United States 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC thesuperficial.com [Source type: Original source]

^ There are Republican black people.
  • The Superficial - Barack Obama is the President of the United States 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC thesuperficial.com [Source type: Original source]

^ There are some extremely well-educated black people in our country who are Republican (that is not to say all black republicans are "extremely well-educated").
  • The Superficial - Barack Obama is the President of the United States 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC thesuperficial.com [Source type: Original source]

.Reagan brought them back to his house, where his mother invited them to stay the night and have breakfast the next morning.^ Reagan & aides back into White House.
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^ Gorbachev talking w/ Reagan beside the car; Reagan into car & Gorbachev back towards house.
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^ President Reagan speaking: The next few months will be no time for complacency, no time to sit back & congratulate ourselves.
  • Footage Farm: Ronald Reagan 25 January 2010 0:24 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[10]
.Following the closure of the Pitney Store in late 1920, the Reagans moved to Dixon;[11] the midwestern "small universe" had a lasting impression on Reagan.^ The exception at last becomes the rule, concession follows concession, and no stop can be made short of universal suffrage.
  • Democracy in America, Part I. by Alexis de Tocqueville 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ (HN, 1/4/99) 1920-1928 The Reagan family settled in Dixon, Ill., and Ronald Reagan attended Dixon Northside High School.
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[12] .He attended Dixon High School,[13] where he developed interests in acting, sports, and storytelling.^ (HN, 1/4/99) 1920-1928 The Reagan family settled in Dixon, Ill., and Ronald Reagan attended Dixon Northside High School.
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^ Article&id=2630) 1954 May 13, President Eisenhower signed into law the St. Lawrence Seaway Development Act.
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^ High School Sports (5) .
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[14] His first job was as a lifeguard at the Rock River in Lowell Park, near Dixon, in 1926. Reagan saved 77 lives, noting that he notched a mark on a wooden log for every life he saved.[14] .After high school, Reagan attended Eureka College, where he was a member of the Tau Kappa Epsilon fraternity, majored in economics and sociology, and was very active in sports, including football.^ That is to say, the majority of the people; for the opposite party, called the Union party, always formed a very strong and active minority.
  • Democracy in America, Part I. by Alexis de Tocqueville 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ (SSFC, 6/6/04, A12) 1932 Ronald Reagan graduated from Eureka College in Eureka, Ill.
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^ Reagan reminisces about his time at Eureka and the changes in America in the fifty years since he left the college.
  • Footage Farm: Ronald Reagan 25 January 2010 0:24 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[15]

Entertainment career

Radio and film

Reagan starred in Cowboy from Brooklyn in 1938.
.After graduating from Eureka in 1932, Reagan drove himself to Iowa, where he auditioned for a job at many small-town radio stations.^ (SSFC, 6/6/04, A12) 1932-1937 Ronald Reagan worked as a radio sports broadcaster in Iowa.
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^ (SSFC, 6/6/04, A12) 1932 Ronald Reagan graduated from Eureka College in Eureka, Ill.
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^ Remarks at the WOC Radio Station Dedication Ceremony in Davenport, Iowa .

[16] The University of Iowa hired him to broadcast home football games for the Hawkeyes. He was paid $10 per game.[16] .Soon after, a staff announcer's job opened at radio station WOC in Davenport, and Reagan was hired, now earning $100 per month.^ Chief of Staff Donald Reagan: Now before we get started can I say something about this?
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^ Remarks at the WOC Radio Station Dedication Ceremony in Davenport, Iowa .

^ Interview With Mark Minnick of WOC Radio in Davenport, Iowa .

[16] .Aided by his persuasive voice,[16] he moved to WHO radio in Des Moines as an announcer for Chicago Cubs baseball games.^ CU sign: Radio Free Europe This Voice of Freedom made possible by the contributions of 16,000,000 American Citizens to the 1950 Crusade For Freedom.
  • Footage Farm: Ronald Reagan 25 January 2010 0:24 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Interview With Jim Zabel of WHO Radio in Des Moines, Iowa .

[17] His specialty was creating play-by-play accounts of games that the station received by wire.[16]
While traveling with the Cubs in California, Reagan took a screen test in 1937 that led to a seven-year contract with Warner Brothers studios.[18] .He spent the majority of his Hollywood career in the "B film" division, where, Reagan joked, the producers "didn't want them good, they wanted them Thursday".[16] While often overshadowed by more famous actors, Reagan's films did receive many good reviews.^ Whence I naturally infer that they must often spend the money of the people to no purpose, or consume more of it than is really necessary to their undertakings.
  • Democracy in America, Part I. by Alexis de Tocqueville 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ I do not mean to say that the small proprietor cultivates his land better, but he cultivates it with more ardor and care; so that he makes up by his labor for his want of skill.
  • Democracy in America, Part I. by Alexis de Tocqueville 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Reagan says they both want friendship between our two countries .
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[16]
Reagan in Kings Row, which gave a brief boost to his career, in 1942
.His first screen credit was the starring role in the 1937 movie Love Is on the Air, and by the end of 1939 he had already appeared in 19 films,[19] including Dark Victory.^ (SSFC, 6/6/04, A12) 1937 The film “Love Is on the Air” featured Ronald Reagan in his 1st film.
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^ (SFC, 9/3/02, p.A20) 1939 The film "Dark Victory" starred Ronald Reagan and Bette Davis as a spoiled socialite with an incurable brain tumor.
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.Before the film Santa Fe Trail in 1940, he played the role of George "The Gipper" Gipp in the film Knute Rockne, All American; from it, he acquired the lifelong nickname "the Gipper".[20] Reagan's favorite acting role was in 1942's Kings Row,[21] in which he recites the line, "Where's the rest of me?", later used as the title of his 1965 autobiography.^ (SSFC, 6/6/04, A14) 1940 Ronald Reagan and Pat O’Brian starred in the film "Knute Rockne, All American."
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^ (HN, 3/20/98) 1965 Apr 6, President Lyndon B. Johnson authorized the use of ground troops in combat operations.
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^ Many important observations suggest themselves upon the social condition of the Anglo-Americans, but there is one which takes precedence of all the rest.
  • Democracy in America, Part I. by Alexis de Tocqueville 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

.Many film critics considered Kings Row to be his best movie,[22] though the film was condemned by New York Times critic Bosley Crowther.^ I haven't seen all of it, I've only been to New York, Boston and L. A., but what I saw was great and you know the best thing?
  • The Superficial - Barack Obama is the President of the United States 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC thesuperficial.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Panic spread to Europe as London and Paris markets crashed and the New York Stock Exchange closed for the first time for 10 days.
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^ New York City, San Francisco, Vegas, Miami, Austin, Seattle, Boston and Chicago (plus many more) are all worth a visit.
  • The Superficial - Barack Obama is the President of the United States 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC thesuperficial.com [Source type: Original source]

[23][24]
.Reagan called Kings Row the film that "made me a star".[25] However, he was unable to capitalize on his success because he enlisted in the U.S. Army two months after its release.^ The Iranian film: "Sandstorm," which depicted the event, was made in 1996 for release in Feb, 1997.
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^ (SFEC, 11/3/96, DB p.54) 1958 Jun 20, FBI headquarters learned of Ronald Reagan’s desire to star in the film "The FBI Story."
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^ (SSFC, 6/6/04, A14) 1947 The comedy film "The Voice of the Turtle" starred Ronald Reagan and Eleanor Parker.
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He never regained star status.[25] .After returning from World War II service, Reagan acted in Tennessee's Partner, This Is the Army, The Hasty Heart, Bedtime for Bonzo, Cattle Queen of Montana, Hellcats of the Navy and The Killers.^ Harold Ezell served as the western chief of the immigration service under Ronald Reagan and implemented the act.
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^ (SSFC, 6/6/04, A14) 1950 The film "The Hasty Heart" starred Ronald Reagan (SFEC, 11/3/96, DB p.54)(SFEC, 6/29/97, DB p.33) 1951 The film "Bedtime for Bonzo" starred Ronald Reagan.
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^ Queen Elizabeth II & President Reagan ride horses; pose for cameras.
  • Footage Farm: Ronald Reagan 25 January 2010 0:24 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[26]

Military service

After completing fourteen home-study Army Extension Courses, Reagan enlisted in the Army Enlisted Reserve[27] on April 29, 1937, as a private assigned to Troop B, 322nd Cavalry at Des Moines, Iowa.[28] .He was appointed Second Lieutenant in the Officers Reserve Corps of the Cavalry on May 25, 1937, and on June 18 was assigned to the 323rd Cavalry.^ In its nine years of existence, the New Deal’s Civilian Conservation Corps had a total of 2.9 million men aged 18 to 25 enrolled.
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^ (AP, 7/10/97) 1991 Jul 10, President Bush announced he was appointing Alan Greenspan to a second term as Federal Reserve chairman.
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^ He may make, but he cannot conclude, a treaty; he may designate, but he cannot appoint, a public officer.
  • Democracy in America, Part I. by Alexis de Tocqueville 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

[29] His service number was 0 357 403.
.Reagan was ordered to active duty for the first time on April 18, 1942. Due to his nearsightedness, he was classified for limited service only, which excluded him from serving overseas.^ (HN, 2/22/99) 1942 Mar 19, FDR ordered men between 45 and 64 to register for non military duty.
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^ When Johnson failed to receive a majority of the popular vote, the election was thrown into the Senate for the first and only time.
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^ (AP, 11/6/97)(HN, 11/6/98) 1861-1865 Jefferson Davis served as the first and only president of the Confederacy.
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[30] .His first assignment was at the San Francisco Port of Embarkation at Fort Mason, California, as a liaison officer of the Port and Transportation Office.^ Frost, born in San Francisco on March 26, 1874, was the first poet to participate in a presidential inauguration.
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^ Toasts of the President and Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom at a Dinner Honoring the Queen in San Francisco, California .

^ Remarks and a Question-and-Answer Session With Members of the Commonwealth Club of California in San Francisco .

[31] .Upon the approval of the Army Air Force (AAF), he applied for a transfer from the Cavalry to the AAF on May 15, 1942, and was assigned to AAF Public Relations and subsequently to the 1st Motion Picture Unit (officially, the "18th AAF Base Unit") in Culver City, California.^ Taylor used his forces to capture the Mexican town of Monterey [in California] and then moved south to defeat Santa Anna’s armies at the Battle of Buena Vista.
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^ If a citizen refuses to perform the work which has been assigned to him upon a road, the road surveyor may prosecute him, and he receives half the penalty for himself.
  • Democracy in America, Part I. by Alexis de Tocqueville 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Various state laws referred to in this document may have been amended subsequent to publication; similarly, political party constitutions, rules and delegates selection plans may also have been amended.
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[31] .On January 14, 1943 he was promoted to First Lieutenant and was sent to the Provisional Task Force Show Unit of This Is The Army at Burbank, California.^ Taylor used his forces to capture the Mexican town of Monterey [in California] and then moved south to defeat Santa Anna’s armies at the Battle of Buena Vista.
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^ They were later identified as those of Air Force First Lieutenant Michael J. Blassie, and were sent to St. Louis for hometown burial.
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^ At the first settlement of the colonies they might have found it possible, by uniting their forces, to deliver themselves from the small bodies of strangers who landed on their continent.
  • Democracy in America, Part I. by Alexis de Tocqueville 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

[31] He returned to the 1st Motion Picture Unit after completing this duty and was promoted to Captain on July 22, 1943.[28]
.In January 1944, Captain Reagan was ordered to temporary duty in New York City to participate in the opening of the sixth War Loan Drive.^ Washington left to intercept the British force on its way to New York City.
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^ (AP, 2/28/98)(HNQ, 11/29/98) 1844 Jun 26, Julia Gardiner and President John Tyler were married in New York City.
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^ [The population of the city of New York had risen, in 1870, to 942,292, and that of Philadelphia to 674,022.
  • Democracy in America, Part I. by Alexis de Tocqueville 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

.He was re-assigned to the 18th AAF Base Unit on November 14, 1944, where he remained until the end of World War II.[28] He was recommended for promotion to Major on February 2, 1945, but this recommendation was disapproved on July 17 of that year.^ (MC, 12/5/01) 1946 Dec 31, President Truman officially proclaimed the end of hostilities in World War II. (HN, 12/31/98)(AP, 12/31/97) 1947 Jan 8, Gen.
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^ (AP, 4/19/97) 1951 Jul 9, President Truman asked Congress to formally end the state of war between the United States and Germany.
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^ (HNQ, 6/23/98) 1783 Sep 3, The Treaty of Paris between the United States and Great Britain officially ended the Revolutionary War.
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[32] He returned to Fort MacArthur, California, where he was separated from active duty on December 9, 1945.[32] By the end of the war, his units had produced some 400 training films for the AAF.[28]

SAG president and television

Television star Ronald Reagan as the host of General Electric Theater.
.Reagan was first elected to the Board of Directors of the Screen Actors Guild in 1941, serving as an alternate.^ Theodore Streibert served as its first director.
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^ (SSFC, 6/6/04, A14) 1947 Apr 10, Ronald Reagan and his wife Jane Wyman provided names to the FBI of Screen Actors Guild (SAG) members believed to be communist sympathizers.
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^ (SSFC, 6/9/02, p.F2) 1947 Ronald Reagan became president of the Screen Actors Guild and held the post for 5 years.
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.Following World War II, he resumed service and became 3rd Vice president in 1946.[33] The adoption of conflict-of-interest bylaws in 1947 led the SAG president and six board members to resign; Reagan was nominated in a special election for the position of president and subsequently elected.^ Each person so listed shall execute the following statement which shall be attached to the certificate or petition when the same is filed with the State Board of Election Commissioners: ``I do hereby consent and do hereby agree to serve as elector for President and Vice President of the United States, if elected to that position, and do hereby agree that, if so elected, I shall cast my ballot as such for ______ for President and ______ for Vice President of the United States'' (inserting in said blank spaces the representative names of the persons named as nominees for said respective offices in the certificate to which this statement is attached) (Sec.
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^ Reagan went onto win the nomination and the presidency.
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^ Candidates for the offices of President or Vice President of the United States as write-in candidates shall file a list of presidential electors and a declaration of candidacy with the election board no later than 4:30 p.m.
  • http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS5356 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC purl.access.gpo.gov [Source type: Original source]

[33] .He would subsequently be chosen by the membership to seven additional one-year terms, from 1947 to 1952 and in 1959.[33] Reagan led SAG through eventful years that were marked by labor-management disputes, the Taft-Hartley Act, House Committee on Un-American Activities (HUAC) hearings and the Hollywood blacklist era.^ HUAC Committee / Meeting of Guilds House Committee on un-American activities.
  • Footage Farm: Ronald Reagan 25 January 2010 0:24 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The House of Representatives is named by the people, the Senate by the legislators of each State; the former is directly elected, the latter is elected by an elected body; the term for which the representatives are chosen is only two years, that of the senators is six.
  • Democracy in America, Part I. by Alexis de Tocqueville 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ U.S. House of Representatives Each state is awarded one (1) additional delegate at large if, at any time between 1996-1999 inclusive, Republicans represented at least one- half (\1/2\) of the state's U.S. House of Representatives delegation.
  • http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS5356 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC purl.access.gpo.gov [Source type: Original source]

[33]
.Amid the Red Scare in the late 1940s, Reagan provided the FBI with names of actors whom he believed to be communist sympathizers within the motion picture industry.^ [Actors Dedicate Motion Picture Country Hospital] (1947) Calabasas, California Claude Jarman Jr & Greer Garson pose with patient outside home.
  • Footage Farm: Ronald Reagan 25 January 2010 0:24 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Motion picture film CUs of Reagan & Bush at Republican Convention.
  • Footage Farm: Ronald Reagan 25 January 2010 0:24 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Motion Pictures: Industry Council Again Affirms Stand on Reds MPIC meeting reaffirms film industry oppostion to Communism, letter to HUAC, Reagan present as Screen Actor s Guild rep.
  • Footage Farm: Ronald Reagan 25 January 2010 0:24 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[34] .Reagan testified before the House Un-American Activities Committee on the subject as well.^ HUAC Committee / Meeting of Guilds House Committee on un-American activities.
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^ He defended his investigation under withering questions from Democrats, during a daylong appearance before the House Judiciary Committee.
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^ Clinton testified via video via closed-circuit TV from the White House before a grand jury concerning his relations with Monica Lewinsky.
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[35] A fervent anti-communist, he reaffirmed his commitment to democratic principles, stating, "I never as a citizen want to see our country become urged, by either fear or resentment of this group, that we ever compromise with any of our democratic principles through that fear or resentment."[35]
.Though an early critic of television, Reagan landed fewer film roles in the late 1950s and decided to join the medium.^ (SSFC, 6/9/02, p.F3) 1958 The film "Crash Landing" was the last movie for Nancy Reagan.
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[16] .He was hired as the host of General Electric Theater, a series of weekly dramas that became very popular.^ The public was excited by the statements which they put forward, and the regeneration of criminals became a very popular undertaking.
  • Democracy in America, Part I. by Alexis de Tocqueville 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ (SFEC, 11/3/96, DB p.54) 1954 Sep 26, Ronald Reagan made his 1st appearance as host of the "General Electric Theater," and continued on for 8 years.
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[16] .His contract required him to tour GE plants ten weeks out of the year, often demanding of him fourteen speeches per day.^ For ten or twelve years they were at the head of affairs, and they were able to apply some, though not all, of their principles; for the hostile current was becoming from day to day too violent to be checked or stemmed.
  • Democracy in America, Part I. by Alexis de Tocqueville 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ (SSFC, 6/9/02, p.F7) 1946 Ronald Reagan signed a new 7-year contract with Warner Brothers for $3,500 a week.
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[16] .He earned approximately $125,000 per year (about $1 million in 2008 dollars) in this role.^ In twelve years the Colonization Society has transported 2,500 negroes to Africa; in the same space of time about 700,000 blacks were born in the United States.
  • Democracy in America, Part I. by Alexis de Tocqueville 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ This was in addition to the current $100 million per year for the next 5 years.
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^ If you don't make more than $200,000 a year, shut up about your taxes being raised.
  • The Superficial - Barack Obama is the President of the United States 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC thesuperficial.com [Source type: Original source]

.His final work as a professional actor was as host and performer from 1964 to 1965 on the television series Death Valley Days.^ (SFC, 2/20/98, p.C13) 1964 Ronald Reagan hosted Death Valley Days and appeared in some episodes through 1965.
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[26]

Marriages and children

.In 1938, Reagan co-starred in the film Brother Rat with actress Jane Wyman (1917 – 2007).^ (SSFC, 6/6/04, A14) 1938 The film "Boy Meets Girl" featured Joy Hodges, as a mentor to Ronald Reagan.
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^ (SFEC, 11/3/96, DB p.54) 1958 Jun 20, FBI headquarters learned of Ronald Reagan’s desire to star in the film "The FBI Story."
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^ (SSFC, 6/6/04, A14) 1947 The comedy film "The Voice of the Turtle" starred Ronald Reagan and Eleanor Parker.
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.They were engaged at the Chicago Theatre,[36] and married on January 26, 1940, at the Wee Kirk o' the Heather church in Glendale, California.^ (SFEC, 6/13/99, DB p.37)(SSFC, 3/11/01, DB p.53) 1940 Ronald Reagan married actress Jane Wyman (26).
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[37] .Together they had two children, Maureen (1941 – 2001) and Christine (born June 26, 1947; died June 27, 1947), and adopted a third, Michael (born 1945).^ They had no children together.
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^ These two tendencies, apparently so discrepant, are far from conflicting; they advance together, and mutually support each other.
  • Democracy in America, Part I. by Alexis de Tocqueville 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The third expedient was therefore adopted, and it was agreed that the votes should be transmitted sealed to the President of the Senate, and that they should be opened and counted in the presence of the Senate and the House of Representatives.
  • Democracy in America, Part I. by Alexis de Tocqueville 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

[38] .Following arguments about Reagan's political ambitions, Wyman filed for divorce in 1948,[39] citing a distraction due to her husband's Screen Actors Guild union duties; the divorce was finalized in 1949[20] making him the only U.S. president to have been divorced.^ Jul 12, Doctors discovered what turned out to be a cancerous growth in President Reagan’s large intestine, prompting surgery the following day.
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^ At a presidential preference primary, qualified electors may vote for candidates for nomination for President of the United States from among the candidates of one political party only.
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^ (SSFC, 6/6/04, A14) 1947 Apr 10, Ronald Reagan and his wife Jane Wyman provided names to the FBI of Screen Actors Guild (SAG) members believed to be communist sympathizers.
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[40]
Ronald and Nancy Reagan aboard a boat in California in 1964
.Reagan met actress Nancy Davis (born 1921)[41] in 1949 after she contacted him in his capacity as president of the Screen Actors Guild to help her with issues regarding her name appearing on a communist blacklist in Hollywood (she had been mistaken for another Nancy Davis).^ White House - State dinner, President Reagan and Nancy in evening dress greets Indira Gandhi, pose for cameras.
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^ [President Reagan & Nancy Light National Christmas Tree] 06Dec88 Nancy wearing festive red and carrying dog with President Ronald Reagan standing next to Christmas tree.
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^ Nancy and President Ronald Reagan introduced and exit White House to Hail to the Chief.
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She described their meeting by saying, "I don't know if it was exactly love at first sight, but it was pretty close."[42] .They were engaged at Chasen's restaurant in Los Angeles and were married on March 4, 1952, at the Little Brown Church in the San Fernando Valley.^ (SFEC, 11/3/96, DB p.54) 1952 Mar 4, Ronald Reagan and Nancy Davis were married in the San Fernando Valley, north of Los Angeles.
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^ Demonstrators in Los Angeles marching to City Hall w/ banners.
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^ Shirley Temple reading statement re dedication of Motion Picture Country Hospital in Calabasas, San Fernando Valley.
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[43] Actor William Holden served as best man at the ceremony. .They had two children: Patti (born 1952) and Ron (born 1958).^ The Indians had their families with them; and they brought in their train the wounded and sick, with children newly born, and old men upon the verge of death.
  • Democracy in America, Part I. by Alexis de Tocqueville 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

Observers described the Reagans' relationship as close, real, and intimate.[44] .During his presidency they were reported as frequently displaying their affection for one another; one press secretary said, "They never took each other for granted.^ He admits that they may serve to make men live in peace with one another, and to prepare them gently for the hour of death.
  • Democracy in America, Part I. by Alexis de Tocqueville 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Eugene Foster, author of the DNA report, later said the DNA tests showed that any one of 8 Jefferson males could have fathered Eston.
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^ It is the result (and this should be constantly present to the mind of two distinct elements), which in other places have been in frequent hostility, but which in America have been admirably incorporated and combined with one another.
  • Democracy in America, Part I. by Alexis de Tocqueville 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

.They never stopped courting."^ I have shown in what manner the courts of justice serve to repress the excesses of democracy, and how they check and direct the impulses of the majority without stopping its activity.
  • Democracy in America, Part I. by Alexis de Tocqueville 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

[42][45] He often called her "Mommy;" she called him "Ronnie".[45] He once wrote to her, "whatever I treasure and enjoy ... all would be without meaning if I didn’t have you."[46] When he was in the hospital in 1981, she slept with one of his shirts to be comforted by his scent.[47] .In a letter to U.S. citizens written in 1994, Reagan wrote "I have recently been told that I am one of the millions of Americans who will be afflicted with Alzheimer's disease....^ (AP, 4/30/97) 1987 May 10, President Reagan visited Tuskegee University, one of the nation's oldest black educational institutions, where he told graduating seniors his administration "won't be satisfied until every American who wants a job has a job and is earning a decent living."
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^ Reagan placed Berkeley under martial law and dispatched tear gas-spraying helicopters and riot police who shot and killed one man.
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^ And one last thing: Who the hell has told you that the rest of the planet neads USA for saviours?
  • The Superficial - Barack Obama is the President of the United States 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC thesuperficial.com [Source type: Original source]

.I only wish there was some way I could spare Nancy from this painful experience",[42] and in 1998, while Reagan was stricken by Alzheimer's, Nancy told Vanity Fair, "Our relationship is very special.^ There are some extremely well-educated black people in our country who are Republican (that is not to say all black republicans are "extremely well-educated").
  • The Superficial - Barack Obama is the President of the United States 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC thesuperficial.com [Source type: Original source]

^ No matter what his plans for America were, he could have very well died of old age during his term and Palin would be our president.
  • The Superficial - Barack Obama is the President of the United States 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC thesuperficial.com [Source type: Original source]

^ And some of our cities are very beautiful and/or are particularly fun places to be.
  • The Superficial - Barack Obama is the President of the United States 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC thesuperficial.com [Source type: Original source]

We were very much in love and still are. .When I say my life began with Ronnie, well, it's true.^ Well I'm glad to say My Grandfather is still alive and well with a total debt of 0 dollars.
  • The Superficial - Barack Obama is the President of the United States 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC thesuperficial.com [Source type: Original source]

It did. .I can't imagine life without him."^ If he were free, and obliged to provide for his own subsistence, would it be possible for him to remain without these things and to support life?
  • Democracy in America, Part I. by Alexis de Tocqueville 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

[42]

Early political career

.Reagan began as a liberal Democrat, admirer of Franklin D. Roosevelt, and active supporter of New Deal policies, but in the early 1950s he shifted to the right and endorsed the presidential candidacies of Dwight D. Eisenhower in 1952 and 1956 as well as Richard Nixon in 1960 while remaining a Democrat.^ (AP, 9/12/00) 1960 Oct 7, Democratic presidential candidate John F. Kennedy and Republican opponent Richard M. Nixon held the second of their broadcast debates, in Washington, DC. (AP, 10/7/08) 1960 Nov 8, Massachusetts Sen.
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^ Franklin Delano Roosevelt began recording presidential meetings to ensure that he was quoted accurately.
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^ John F. Kennedy of Massachusetts announced his candidacy for the Democratic presidential nomination.
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[48] His many GE speeches--which he wrote himself--were non-partisan but carried a conservative, pro-business message; he was influenced by Lemuel Boulware, a senior GE executive. .Boulware, known for his tough stance against unions and his innovative strategies to win over workers, championed the core tenets of modern American conservatism-free-market fundamentalism, anticommunism, lower taxes, and limited government.^ We knew that economic freedom meant paying less of the American family s earnings into the Government, and so we cut personal income tax rates...
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^ In the American republics the activity of the central Government has never as yet been extended beyond a limited number of objects sufficiently prominent to call forth its attention.
  • Democracy in America, Part I. by Alexis de Tocqueville 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The reader has seen in the remarks I have made on the Constitution of the United States that the Americans have displayed singular ingenuity in combining the restriction of the power of the Union within the narrow limits of a federal government with the semblance and, to a certain extent, with the force of a national government.
  • Democracy in America, Part I. by Alexis de Tocqueville 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

[49] .Eventually, the ratings for reagan's show fell off and dropped Reagan in 1962.[50] Reagan formally switched to the Republican Party in 1962, complaining, "I didn't leave the Democratic Party.^ Reagan switched to the Republican Party.
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^ (AP, 7/16/97)(SFEM,11/2/97, p.12) 1980 Jul 17, Ronald Reagan formally accepted the Republican nomination for president.
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^ The Democratic, Republican, American Independent, and Peace and Freedom Parties have procedures and rules as to delegate selection codified in detail in the California Election Code, Division 6, Sec.
  • http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS5356 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC purl.access.gpo.gov [Source type: Original source]

The party left me."[51]
.Reagan opposed certain civil rights legislation, although he later reversed his opposition to voting rights and fair housing laws.^ President Eisenhower signed into law the first civil rights bill to pass Congress since Reconstruction.
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^ The Americans, who have made such copious innovations in their political legislation, have introduced very sparing alterations in their civil laws, and that with great difficulty, although those laws are frequently repugnant to their social condition.
  • Democracy in America, Part I. by Alexis de Tocqueville 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ (AP, 3/17/98) 1988 Mar 22, Both houses of Congress overrode President Reagan's veto of a sweeping civil rights bill.
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He strongly denied having racist motives.[52] .When legislation that would become Medicare was introduced in 1961, Reagan created a recording for the American Medical Association warning that such legislation would mean the end of freedom in America.^ President Reagan takes podium, Communist representative heckles, asks questions re American military in Central America.
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^ Reagan signed a law creating a medical malpractice data base.
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^ The term ``political party'' means an association, committee, or organization which nominates a candidate for election to any Federal office whose name appears on the election ballot as the candidate of such association, committee, or organization.
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.Reagan said that if his listeners did not write letters to prevent it, "we will awake to find that we have so­cialism.^ In 2005 Paul Lettow authored “Ronald Reagan and His Quest to Abolish Nuclear Weapons.” It focused on what Reagan said and did.
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.And if you don't do this, and if I don't do it, one of these days, you and I are going to spend our sunset years telling our children, and our children's children, what it once was like in America when men were free."^ I'm not going to debate any of these issues with you.
  • The Superficial - Barack Obama is the President of the United States 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC thesuperficial.com [Source type: Original source]

^ You don't like democrats?
  • The Superficial - Barack Obama is the President of the United States 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC thesuperficial.com [Source type: Original source]

^ You don't like blacks?
  • The Superficial - Barack Obama is the President of the United States 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC thesuperficial.com [Source type: Original source]

[53][54][55]
.Reagan endorsed the campaign of conservative presidential contender Barry Goldwater in 1964. Speaking for Goldwater, Reagan stressed his belief in the importance of smaller government.^ Reagan feels lack of government to speak for Iranians.
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^ POTUS; Campaign Politics; 1980s; 1984; Republican Campaigning; Weather; Cheering; Presidential Politics; Note: Credit must be given to: The Ronald Reagan Presidential Library.
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^ Campaign Politics; 1980s; 1980; Republican Campaign Commercial; Presidential Politics; Note: Credit must be given to: The Ronald Reagan Presidential Library.
  • Footage Farm: Ronald Reagan 25 January 2010 0:24 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.He revealed his ideological motivation in a famed speech delivered on October 27, 1964: "The Founding Fathers knew a government can't control the economy without controlling people.^ Of course, an immense multitude of persons are to be found who entertain the same number of ideas on religion, history, science, political economy, legislation, and government.
  • Democracy in America, Part I. by Alexis de Tocqueville 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The external relations of a people may be compared to those of private individuals, and they cannot be advantageously maintained without the agency of a single head of a Government.
  • Democracy in America, Part I. by Alexis de Tocqueville 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ So we have found them, in practice, the true protectors of the purity of the ballot, without which all free government will degenerate into absolutism.
  • Democracy in America, Part I. by Alexis de Tocqueville 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

.And they knew when a government sets out to do that, it must use force and coercion to achieve its purpose.^ I have examined the precautions used by the Americans to direct it, as well as those which they have not adopted, and I have undertaken to point out the causes which enable it to govern society.
  • Democracy in America, Part I. by Alexis de Tocqueville 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The great end of justice is to substitute the notion of right for that of violence, and to place a legal barrier between the power of the government and the use of physical force.
  • Democracy in America, Part I. by Alexis de Tocqueville 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ A certain degree of power must be granted to public officers, for they would be of no use without it.
  • Democracy in America, Part I. by Alexis de Tocqueville 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

So we have come to a time for choosing."[56] .This "Time for Choosing" speech raised $1 million for Goldwater's campaign[16] and is considered the event that launched Reagan's political career.^ (AP, 8/12/98) 1993 Aug 16, President Clinton opened his campaign for health care reform with a speech to the nation's governors in Tulsa, Okla.
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^ POTUS; Campaign Politics; 1980s; 1984; Republican Campaigning; Weather; Cheering; Presidential Politics; Note: Credit must be given to: The Ronald Reagan Presidential Library.
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^ Campaign Politics; 1980s; 1980; Republican Campaign Commercial; Presidential Politics; Note: Credit must be given to: The Ronald Reagan Presidential Library.
  • Footage Farm: Ronald Reagan 25 January 2010 0:24 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[57]

Governor of California, 1967–1975

Ronald and Nancy Reagan celebrate Reagan's gubernatorial victory at the Biltmore Hotel in Los Angeles.
.California Republicans were impressed with Reagan's political views and charisma after his "Time for Choosing" speech,[58] and nominated him for Governor of California in 1966. In Reagan's campaign, he emphasized two main themes: "to send the welfare bums back to work", and regarding burgeoning anti-war and anti-establishment student protests at the University of California at Berkeley, "to clean up the mess at Berkeley".[59] He was elected, defeating two-term governor Edmund G. "Pat" Brown, and was sworn in on January 3, 1967. His swearing-in occurred at 9 minutes past midnight.^ Obama has a lot of work ahead of him to clean up Bush's mess.
  • The Superficial - Barack Obama is the President of the United States 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC thesuperficial.com [Source type: Original source]

^ (SSFC, 6/9/02, p.F6) 1966 Nov 8, Ronald Reagan defeated Pat Brown by over a million votes to become governor of California.
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^ President Woodrow Wilson was elected for a second term largely because he had successfully kept America out of the war that was raging in Europe since 1914.
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.Reagan explained in 1988 that this time was chosen because his predecessor, Edmund G. Brown, "had been filling up the ranks of appointments and judges" in the days before his term ended.^ A nominating petition shall be submitted to the registrars of voters in the parishes where the signers reside not less than thirty days before the end of the qualifying period.
  • http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS5356 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC purl.access.gpo.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Reagan & G. at end of table, reporter asks why meeting has been going on longer than scheduled: R.: Because whoever was scheduling didn t allow enough time.
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^ Get used to praying 15 times a day, yelling lalalalalalalalalalalalala with his terrorists friends as they blow you up, and an end to any kind of moral values that were left of this great nation.
  • The Superficial - Barack Obama is the President of the United States 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC thesuperficial.com [Source type: Original source]

.Professor Marcello Truzzi, a sociologist at Eastern Michigan University who studied the Reagans' interest in astrology, regarded this explanation as "preposterous", as the decision to be sworn in at that odd time of day was made six weeks earlier, and was based on advice from Reagan's long-time friend, the astrologer Carroll Righter.^ At present the interests of the different parts of the Union are not at variance; but who is able to foresee the multifarious changes of the future, in a country in which towns are founded from day to day, and States almost from year to year?
  • Democracy in America, Part I. by Alexis de Tocqueville 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Such certification shall be made within such time prior to the day of the presidential election as the Commission shall prescribe by rules or regulations.
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^ Reagan began firing 11,500 air traffic controllers who had gone out on strike 2 days earlier.
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[60]
.In his first term, he froze government hiring and approved tax hikes to balance the budget.^ Then, they lied to you, fixed the election (remember, the Supreme Court decided the election to get Bush his first term) and had control of all 3 houses of government.
  • The Superficial - Barack Obama is the President of the United States 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC thesuperficial.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Hoover pushed through a ferocious tax increase to balance the budget and restore "confidence."
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[61] .Shortly after the beginning of his term, Reagan tested the presidential waters in 1968 as part of a "Stop Nixon" movement, hoping to cut into Nixon's Southern support[62] and be a compromise candidate[63] if neither Nixon nor second-place Nelson Rockefeller received enough delegates to win on the first ballot at the Republican convention.^ Republicans: Each delegate to the Republican National Convention shall use his best efforts at the convention for the party's presidential nominee candidate from California to whom the delegate has pledged support until such person is nominated for President, receives less than 10 percent of the votes for nomination, releases the delegate from his obligation, or until two convention nominating ballots have been taken.
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^ A candidate's name shall be printed on the presidential preference primary ballot unless he submits to the Department of State, prior to the second Tuesday after the first Monday in January, an affidavit stating that he is not now, and does not presently intend to become, a candidate for President at the upcoming nominating convention.
  • http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS5356 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC purl.access.gpo.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ A delegate or alternate delegate selected from a congressional district to the national convention of a political party shall, on the first ballot at the national convention, support the candidate for President of the United States who received the highest number of votes in the congressional district at the primary election if the person is in fact a candidate at the convention.
  • http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS5356 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC purl.access.gpo.gov [Source type: Original source]

.However, by the time of the convention Nixon had 692 delegate votes, 25 more than he needed to secure the nomination, followed by Rockefeller with Reagan in third place.^ In the first place it is to be remarked, that if in a democratic State the governors have less honesty and less capacity than elsewhere, the governed, on the other hand, are more enlightened and more attentive to their interests.
  • Democracy in America, Part I. by Alexis de Tocqueville 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ There are, however, no nations upon the face of the earth more miserable than those of South America.
  • Democracy in America, Part I. by Alexis de Tocqueville 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Bush won more votes than any other president in American history.
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[62]
The Reagans meeting with then-President Richard Nixon and First Lady Pat Nixon in July 1970
Reagan was involved in high-profile conflicts with the protest movements of the era. .On May 15, 1969, during the People's Park protests at UC Berkeley, Reagan sent the California Highway Patrol and other officers to quell the protests, in an incident that became known as "Bloody Thursday".[64][65] Reagan then called out 2,200 state National Guard troops to occupy the city of Berkeley for two weeks in order to crack down on the protesters.^ And to no people can this inquiry be more vitally interesting than to the French nation, which is blindly driven onwards by a daily and irresistible impulse towards a state of things which may prove either despotic or republican, but which will assuredly be democratic.
  • Democracy in America, Part I. by Alexis de Tocqueville 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ (AP, 3/14/97) 1987 May 15, President Reagan told a gathering of out-of-town reporters at the White House he did not consider himself "mortally wounded" by the Iran-Contra affair.
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^ I am convinced that in fifty years it will be more difficult to collect authentic documents concerning the social condition of the Americans at the present day than it is to find remains of the administration of France during the Middle Ages; and if the United States were ever invaded by barbarians, it would be necessary to have recourse to the history of other nations in order to learn anything of the people which now inhabits them.
  • Democracy in America, Part I. by Alexis de Tocqueville 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

[64] When the Symbionese Liberation Army kidnapped Patty Hearst in Berkeley and demanded the distribution of food to the poor, Reagan joked, "It's just too bad we can't have an epidemic of botulism."[66]
Early in 1967, the national debate on abortion was beginning. .Democratic California state senator Anthony Beilenson introduced the "Therapeutic Abortion Act", in an effort to reduce the number of "back-room abortions" performed in California.^ When these 2,400 weapons have been withdrawn, the United States will have reduced its nuclear weapons in Europe by over one-third from 1979 levels, and NATO will have the lowest number of nuclear weapons in 20 years.
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^ It would be easy for me to adduce a great number of secondary causes which have contributed to establish, and which concur to maintain, the democratic republic of the United States.
  • Democracy in America, Part I. by Alexis de Tocqueville 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The State of Maryland, which had been founded by men of rank, was the first to proclaim universal suffrage, and to introduce the most democratic forms into the conduct of its government.
  • Democracy in America, Part I. by Alexis de Tocqueville 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

[64] .The State Legislature sent the bill to Reagan's desk where, after many days of indecision, he signed it.^ Reagan sits & signs bill, stands & shakes her hand giving her the pen.
  • Footage Farm: Ronald Reagan 25 January 2010 0:24 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (AP, 2/6/99) 1998 Feb 6, President Clinton signed a bill changing the name of Washington National Airport to Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport.
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^ (AP, 12/6/97)(HNPD, 12/22/98) 1791 Feb 25, President George Washington signed a bill creating the Bank of the United States.
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[67] .About two million abortions would be performed as a result, mostly because of a provision in the bill allowing abortions for the well-being of the mother.^ But if this faint dawn of freedom were to show two millions of men their true position, the oppressors would have reason to tremble.
  • Democracy in America, Part I. by Alexis de Tocqueville 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Singing Happy Birthday - makes joke about being two days early.
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^ The people, well acquainted with its true interests, would allow that in order to profit by the advantages of society it is necessary to satisfy its demands.
  • Democracy in America, Part I. by Alexis de Tocqueville 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

[67] .Reagan had been in office for only four months when he signed the bill, and stated that had he been more experienced as governor, it would not have been signed.^ A nominating petition for a slate of candidates for the offices of presidential elector shall be signed, filed, and certified as provided for State candidates voted on throughout the State (Sec.
  • http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS5356 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC purl.access.gpo.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ In the first place it is to be remarked, that if in a democratic State the governors have less honesty and less capacity than elsewhere, the governed, on the other hand, are more enlightened and more attentive to their interests.
  • Democracy in America, Part I. by Alexis de Tocqueville 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Furgler invites Shevardnadze & Sec of State Schultz to table to sign protocols w/ Reagan & G. standing behind, smling & watching, laughing.
  • Footage Farm: Ronald Reagan 25 January 2010 0:24 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

After he recognized what he called the "consequences" of the bill, he announced that he was pro-life.[67] .He maintained that position later in his political career, writing extensively about abortion.^ No one cares about (or apparently knows about) the issues, the politics, or the capabalities of the candidates.
  • The Superficial - Barack Obama is the President of the United States 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC thesuperficial.com [Source type: Original source]

[68]
.Despite an unsuccessful attempt to recall him in 1968,[69] Reagan was re-elected in 1970, defeating "Big Daddy" Jesse M. Unruh.^ (AP, 10/28/98) 1980 Nov 4, Ronald Reagan (69) was elected the 40th president of the United States.
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^ Nov 6, President Ronald Reagan was re-elected.
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^ Oval Office of White House - arm-wrestling gag for cameras - Reagan beats him twice - I wanna re-match!
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.He chose not to seek a third term in the following election cycle.^ Since George Washington’s second term, Inauguration Day had been March 4 of the year following the election.
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.One of Reagan's greatest frustrations in office concerned capital punishment, which he strongly supported.^ Reagan Posing With Jonas Savimbi & UNITA Supporters] President Reagan posing w/ large group in Oval Office.
  • Footage Farm: Ronald Reagan 25 January 2010 0:24 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[21] His efforts to enforce the state's laws in this area were thwarted when the Supreme Court of California issued its People v. .Anderson decision, which invalidated all death sentences issued in California prior to 1972, though the decision was later overturned by a constitutional amendment.^ But eight years later a more decisive measure was taken, and it was enacted that all children born of slave parents after July 4, 1799, should be free.
  • Democracy in America, Part I. by Alexis de Tocqueville 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ All amendments shall be filed with the chief election officer not later than 4:30 p.m.
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^ A decision shall be issued not later than 4:30 p.m.
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.The only execution during Reagan's governorship was on April 12, 1967, when Aaron Mitchell's sentence was carried out by the state in San Quentin's gas chamber.^ Jul 12, Doctors discovered what turned out to be a cancerous growth in President Reagan’s large intestine, prompting surgery the following day.
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^ He shall nominate only the electors recommended by the State executive committee of the respective political party.
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^ (AP, 7/12/00) 1985 Sep 9, President Ronald W. Reagan issued Executive Order No.
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[70]
.Reagan's terms as governor helped to shape the policies he would pursue in his later political career as president.^ (HN, 1/25/99) 1984 Jan 29, President Ronald Reagan announced that he would run for a second term.
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^ Czolgosz, explaining that he "thought it would be a good thing for the country to kill the President," was put to death by electrocution 45 days later.
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^ To entrust the execution of the laws of the Union to tribunals instituted by these political bodies would be to allow foreign judges to preside over the nation.
  • Democracy in America, Part I. by Alexis de Tocqueville 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

.By campaigning on a platform of sending "the welfare bums back to work", he spoke out against the idea of the welfare state.^ The United States promised to wage all-out retaliation against those responsible and any regime that protected them.
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^ Does this mean I can get welfare and black people actually have to go out and work?
  • The Superficial - Barack Obama is the President of the United States 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC thesuperficial.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Bush met with British PM Tony Blair at Camp David, Md., to work out a strategy for taking action against Iraq's Saddam Hussein.
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.He also strongly advocated the Republican ideal of less government regulation of the economy, including that of undue federal taxation.^ The federal government spent less than $8 million in operations and borrowed the money needed for the purchase.
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^ Jimmy_Hoffa) 1971 The US government set strict federal safety standards for the auto industry that included passive restraints, i.e.
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^ The attributes of the Federal Government were therefore carefully enumerated and all that was not included amongst them was declared to constitute a part of the privileges of the several Governments of the States.
  • Democracy in America, Part I. by Alexis de Tocqueville 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

[71]

1976 presidential campaign

Ronald Reagan on the podium with Gerald Ford at the 1976 Republican National Convention after narrowly losing the presidential nomination.
.In 1976, Reagan challenged incumbent President Gerald Ford in a bid to become the Republican Party's candidate for president.^ Gerald R. Ford was sworn in as the 38th US President (1974-1976).
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^ Reagan switched to the Republican Party.
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^ (WSJ, 2/25/97, p.A22)(www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/index.php?pid=6516) 1976 Nov 2, Former Georgia Gov. (James Earl) Jimmy Carter defeated Republican incumbent Gerald R. Ford, becoming the 39th president and the first from the Deep South since the Civil War.
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.Reagan soon established himself as the conservative candidate with the support of like-minded organizations such as the American Conservative Union which became key components of his political base, while President Ford was considered a more moderate Republican.^ This was the first such visit by an American president.
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^ (AP, 3/14/97) 1987 May 15, President Reagan told a gathering of out-of-town reporters at the White House he did not consider himself "mortally wounded" by the Iran-Contra affair.
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^ But I do not conclude from this that we shall ever be necessarily led to draw the same political consequences which the Americans have derived from a similar social organization.
  • Democracy in America, Part I. by Alexis de Tocqueville 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

[72]
Reagan's campaign relied on a strategy crafted by campaign manager John Sears of winning a few primaries early to seriously damage the lift-off of Ford's campaign. .Reagan won North Carolina, Texas, and California, but the strategy disintegrated[73] and he ended up losing New Hampshire and Florida.^ (AP, 2/8/00) 1980 Feb 26, Republican Ronald Reagan won the New Hampshire primary over George H.W. Bush and Howard Baker 49.8 to 22.8 to 12.9%.
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^ Republican Richard Nixon won the New Hampshire primary over Nelson Rockefeller 77.6 to 10.8%.
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^ (AP, 2/1/08) 1968 Republican Richard Nixon won the New Hampshire primary over Nelson Rockefeller 77.6 to 10.8%.
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[74] As the party's convention neared, Ford appeared close to victory. .Acknowledging his party's moderate wing, Reagan chose moderate Republican Senator Richard Schweiker of Pennsylvania as his running mate.^ Reagan switched to the Republican Party.
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^ Later that day, Nixon chose Maryland Gov. Spiro T. Agnew to be his running mate.
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^ (HN, 7/18/98) 1988 Aug 13, Vice President George Bush contemplated a list of potential running mates as Republicans gathered in New Orleans for their party's national convention.
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Nonetheless, Ford narrowly won with 1,187 delegates to Reagan's 1,070.[74]
.Reagan's concession speech emphasized the dangers of nuclear war and the threat posed by the Soviet Union.^ Presidential Radio Broadcast; Speech; Nuclear Missiles Negotiations; Arms Limitations; 1980s; 1983; NOTE: Credit to be given Courtesy Ronald Reagan Library .
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^ [Reagan Speech Star Wars from cut show excerp & animation clip] .
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^ (Star Wars) Reagan making speech If we can stop the madness from continuing into the next century ...
  • Footage Farm: Ronald Reagan 25 January 2010 0:24 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Though he lost the nomination, he received 307 write-in votes in New Hampshire, 388 votes as an Independent on Wyoming's ballot, and a single electoral vote from a Washington State faithless elector in the November election,[75] which Ford lost to Democratic challenger Jimmy Carter.^ The electoral votes of 4 States were disputed.
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^ When the affiliation of electors has polled for any one of its candidates for any public office in the electoral district at least one percent of the total vote cast in the electoral district for candidates for: (A) Presidential elector at the last general election at which candidates for President and Vice President of the United States were listed on the ballot; or (B) Any single state office to be voted upon in the state at large for which nominations by political parties are permitted by law at the most recent election at which a candidate for the office was elected to a full term (Sec.
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^ On the ballot shall be printed the heading ``Electors for President and Vice President'' and thereunder the names of the candidates for President and Vice President nominated by the political party which received the highest vote for Governor in the last general election of the Governor in the State, above which shall appear the name of the said party, then shall appear the names of other candidates for President and Vice President who have been properly nominated (Sec.
  • http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS5356 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC purl.access.gpo.gov [Source type: Original source]

1980 presidential campaign

Reagan campaigns with Nancy and Senator Strom Thurmond (right) in South Carolina, 1980
.The 1980 presidential campaign between Reagan and incumbent President Jimmy Carter was conducted during domestic concerns and the ongoing Iran hostage crisis.^ (AP, 8/1/01) 1991 Aug 5, Democratic congressional leaders formally launched an investigation into whether the 1980 Reagan-Bush campaign had secretly conspired with Iran to delay release of American hostages until after the presidential election.
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^ Talk:Kitty_Kelley) 1991 Aug 5, Democratic congressional leaders formally launched an investigation into whether the 1980 Reagan-Bush campaign had secretly conspired with Iran to delay release of American hostages until after the presidential election.
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^ (AP, 1/20/98)(WSJ, 8/15/96, p.A12) 1981 Jan 20, Iran released 52 Americans held hostage for 444 days, minutes after the presidency had passed from Jimmy Carter to Ronald Reagan.
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.His campaign stressed some of his fundamental principles: lower taxes to stimulate the economy,[76] less government interference in people's lives,[77] states' rights,[78] and a strong national defense.^ We knew that economic freedom meant paying less of the American family s earnings into the Government, and so we cut personal income tax rates...
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^ People of all incomes, races, states (except some I won't mention) united for one night.
  • The Superficial - Barack Obama is the President of the United States 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC thesuperficial.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It's amazing to me that people who make 25-40K a year living in a trailer would complain about a guy that wants to give you a tax cut.
  • The Superficial - Barack Obama is the President of the United States 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC thesuperficial.com [Source type: Original source]

[77]
.After receiving the Republican nomination, Reagan selected one of his primary opponents, George H.W. Bush, to be his running mate.^ George W. Bush as a running mate.
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^ Reagan and VP George Bush walking.
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^ Republican attorneys called George W. Bush the certified, rightful victor.
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His showing in the October televised debate boosted his campaign. .Reagan won the election, carrying 44 states with 489 electoral votes to 49 electoral votes for Carter (representing six states and Washington, D.C.).^ The electoral votes of 4 States were disputed.
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^ Excludes one electoral vote cast for Ronald Reagan in Washington.
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^ A state's share of the population is based on its number of electoral votes (using the 1990 Census).
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.Reagan received 50.7% of the popular vote while Carter took 41%, and Independent John B. Anderson (a liberal Republican) received 6.7%.^ Even though Lincoln narrowly won the popular vote, Douglas prevailed in the state legislature 54-41 and thus the election.
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^ Roosevelt received 60.8% of the popular vote and an astounding 98.5% of the Electoral College defeating Republican Alfred Landon, the governor of Kansas.
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^ Jackson won the popular vote followed by John Quincy Adams, William Crawford and Henry Clay.
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[79] .Republicans captured the Senate for the first time since 1952, and gained 34 House seats, but the Democrats retained a majority.^ (AP, 10/21/04) 1994 Nov 8, In midterm elections, Republicans won a majority in the Senate, gained control of the House for the first time in 40 years.
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^ The Democrats won a majority in both houses of Congress.
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^ (SFC, 7/30/99, p.A1) 1999 Aug 5, Republicans overcame solid Democratic opposition to narrowly win passage of a ten-year, $792 billion tax cut, first in the House, then in the Senate; President Clinton denounced the bill and promised a veto.
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Presidency, 1981–1989

.During his Presidency, Ronald Reagan pursued policies that reflected his personal belief in individual freedom, brought changes domestically, both to the U.S. economy and expanded military, and contributed to the end of the Cold War.^ (AP, 4/19/97) 1951 Jul 9, President Truman asked Congress to formally end the state of war between the United States and Germany.
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^ President Reagan takes podium, Communist representative heckles, asks questions re American military in Central America.
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^ Journey for Democracy and Peace Pt 2 of 2 A review of President Ronald Reagan s five day trip to Latin America, 30th Nov.
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[80] .Termed the Reagan Revolution, his presidency would reinvigorate American morale[81][82] and reduce the people's reliance upon government.^ The Americans of the United States already exercise a very considerable moral influence upon all the peoples of the New World.
  • Democracy in America, Part I. by Alexis de Tocqueville 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ President Reagan takes podium, Communist representative heckles, asks questions re American military in Central America.
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^ No matter what his plans for America were, he could have very well died of old age during his term and Palin would be our president.
  • The Superficial - Barack Obama is the President of the United States 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC thesuperficial.com [Source type: Original source]

[80] .As president, Reagan kept a series of diaries in which he commented on daily occurrences of his presidency and his views on the issues of the day.^ Journey for Democracy and Peace Pt 2 of 2 A review of President Ronald Reagan s five day trip to Latin America, 30th Nov.
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^ Jul 12, Doctors discovered what turned out to be a cancerous growth in President Reagan’s large intestine, prompting surgery the following day.
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^ [President Reagan at Re-Commissioning of USS New Jersey, 28Dec82] View along guns w/ pennants.
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.The diaries were published in May 2007 in the bestselling book, The Reagan Diaries.^ (AP, 3/28/01) 1991 May 15, Simon and Schuster published “Nancy Reagan: The Unauthorized Biography” by Kitty Kelly.
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[83]

First term, 1981–1985

The Reagans wave from the limousine taking them down Pennsylvania Avenue to the White House, right after the president's inauguration
.To date, Reagan is the oldest man elected to the office of the presidency (at 69).^ [President Reagan Meeting w/ Members of Congress in Oval Office, 20Nov87] Shaking hands as members arrive.
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^ District delegates and alternate district delegates to a national convention at which a person is to be nominated for the office of President of the United States shall be elected at the spring primary held in the year of any such convention.
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^ State Visit of PM Thatcher to United States - Oval Office Meeting Q & A with reporters - Thatcher & Reagan remarks re last meeting between them before end of Reagan presidency.
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[84] In his first inaugural address on January 20, 1981, which Reagan himself wrote,[85] he addressed the country's economic malaise arguing: "In this present crisis, government is not the solution to our problems; government is the problem."
.The Reagan Presidency began in a dramatic manner; as Reagan was giving his inaugural address, 52 U.S. hostages, held by Iran for 444 days were set free.^ Mar 4, President Reagan addressed the nation on the Iran-Contra affair.
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^ The students held 52 American hostages for 444 days, and were released on the day of the inauguration President Ronald Reagan, January 20, 1981.
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^ Journey for Democracy and Peace Pt 2 of 2 A review of President Ronald Reagan s five day trip to Latin America, 30th Nov.
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[86]

Assassination attempt

On March 30, 1981, Reagan, along with his press secretary James Brady and two others, were shot by a would-be assassin, John Hinckley, Jr. Missing Reagan's heart by less than one inch,[87] the bullet instead pierced his left lung.[87] .He began coughing up blood in the limousine and was rushed to George Washington University Hospital, where it was determined that his lung had collapsed;[87] he endured emergency surgery to remove the bullet.^ (AP, 12/19/97) 1777 George Washington wrote a letter offering Nathaniel Sackett $50 a month to set up an intelligence network.
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^ (AP, 3/1/98) 1781 Aug 20, George Washington began to move his troops south to fight Cornwallis.
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^ Statement Upon Leaving George Washington University Hospital .

[88] .In the operating room, Reagan joked to the surgeons, "I hope you're all Republicans!"^ You're all so goddamn stupid.
  • The Superficial - Barack Obama is the President of the United States 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC thesuperficial.com [Source type: Original source]

^ You're all morons.
  • The Superficial - Barack Obama is the President of the United States 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC thesuperficial.com [Source type: Original source]

^ [President Reagan Lunching With Advisors, Geneva, Switzerland, 18Nov85] Reagan into room, talks about sleep & sits down on couch; advisors all sit down & some one asks Reagan Are you grumpy today?
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[89] Though they were not, Joseph Giordano replied, "Today, Mr. President, we're all Republicans."
The bullet was removed and the surgery was deemed a success.[88] It was later determined, however, that the president's life had been in serious danger due to rapid blood loss and severe breathing difficulties.[90] .He was able to turn the grave situation into a more light-hearted one, though, for when Nancy Reagan came to see him he told her, "Honey, I forgot to duck" (using Jack Dempsey's quip).^ [President Reagan & Nancy Light National Christmas Tree] 06Dec88 Nancy wearing festive red and carrying dog with President Ronald Reagan standing next to Christmas tree.
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^ [President Reagan W/ Nancy at National Christmas Tree Lighting, 12Dec85] Both in winter coats, Nancy holds dog.
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^ President Reagan into car w/ hot air balloon behind: California Loves Ron & Nancy; crowd waving flags etc.
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[89]
.The president was released from the hospital on April 11 and recovered relatively quickly,[91] becoming the first serving U.S. President to survive being shot in an assassination attempt.^ Bush signed an act requiring the release of nearly all government files concerning the assassination of President Kennedy.
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^ (SFC, 1/19/09, p.E1) 1933 Feb 15, President-elect Roosevelt escaped an assassination attempt in Miami.
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^ (AP, 11/6/97)(HN, 11/6/98) 1861-1865 Jefferson Davis served as the first and only president of the Confederacy.
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[92] .The attempt had great influence on Reagan's popularity; polls indicated his approval rating to be around 73%.^ In 1801 the Republicans got possession of the Government; Thomas Jefferson was named President; and he increased the influence of their party by the weight of his celebrity, the greatness of his talents, and the immense extent of his popularity.
  • Democracy in America, Part I. by Alexis de Tocqueville 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

[93] Reagan believed that God had spared his life so that he might go on to fulfill a greater purpose.[94]

Air traffic controllers' strike

.Only a short time into his administration, federal air traffic controllers went on strike, violating a regulation prohibiting government unions from striking.^ The first is that Federal form of Government which the Americans have adopted, and which enables the Union to combine the power of a great empire with the security of a small State.
  • Democracy in America, Part I. by Alexis de Tocqueville 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ I was six times president of my union, and I led it in the first strike.
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^ Nevertheless the Federal Government of these different peoples has always been as remarkable for its weakness and inefficiency as that of the Union is for its vigorous and enterprising spirit.
  • Democracy in America, Part I. by Alexis de Tocqueville 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

[95] Declaring the situation an emergency as described in the 1947 Taft Hartley Act, Reagan held a press conference in the White House Rose Garden, where he stated that if the air traffic controllers "do not report for work within 48 hours, they have forfeited their jobs and will be terminated."[96] Despite fear from some members of his cabinet over a potential political backlash,[97] on August 5, Reagan fired 11,345 striking air traffic controllers who had ignored his order to return to work,[98] busting the union.[99] According to Charles Craver, a labor law professor at George Washington University Law School, the move gave Americans a new view of Reagan, who "sent a message to the private employer community that it would be all right to go up against the unions".[99]

"Reaganomics" and the economy

Ronald Reagan's official White House portrait
.During Jimmy Carter's last year in office (1980), inflation averaged 12.5%, compared to 4.4% during Reagan's last year in office (1988).^ (AP, 12/11/00) 1994 Dec 14, Bosnian Serb leader Radovan Karadzic asked former U.S. President Jimmy Carter to mediate a lasting peace in Bosnia.
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^ (HN, 12/16/98) 1977 Jan 20, President Jimmy Carter was sworn in and then surprised everyone as he walked from the U.S. Capitol to the White House.
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^ State Visit of PM Thatcher to United States - Oval Office Meeting Q & A with reporters - Thatcher & Reagan remarks re last meeting between them before end of Reagan presidency.
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[100] .Over those eight years, the unemployment rate declined from 7.5% to 5.3%, hitting highs of 9.7% (1982) and 9.6% (1983) and averaging 7.5% during Reagan's administration.^ During 1974 unemployment jumped from 5 percent to more than 7 percent, interest rates climbed to 12 percent, the stock market fell 28 percent, automobile sales collapsed.
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^ The old soldier and war hero who had served as president for eight years, spoke those words when he returned to his home in Tennessee.
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^ Statement on Signing a Bill Authorizing Fiscal Years 1982 and 1983 Appropriations for Certain Federal Agencies .

[101]
The minimum wage remained the same during the tenure of the Reagan administration.[102]
.Reagan implemented policies based on supply-side economics and advocated a classical liberal and laissez-faire philosophy,[103] seeking to stimulate the economy with large, across-the-board tax cuts.^ Regardless, individual companies do not control the collective interests of Wall Street and certainly not that of foreign markets who are also seeing economic strife across the board.
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^ On the evening of the 20th, Bush delivered a hard-hitting speech in which he attacked the Democrats and promised to seek across-the-board tax cuts if re-elected.
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^ (AP, 9/8/97) 1992 Sep 10, Less than two months before Election Day, President Bush unveiled a repackaged economic manifesto which included a possible 1 percentage-point across-the-board tax-rate cut.
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[104][105] .Citing the economic theories of Arthur Laffer, Reagan promoted the proposed tax cuts as potentially stimulating the economy enough to expand the tax base, offsetting the revenue loss due to reduced rates of taxation, a theory that entered political discussion as the Laffer curve.^ We knew that economic freedom meant paying less of the American family s earnings into the Government, and so we cut personal income tax rates...
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^ His proposals included a $250 billion tax cut; tough gun control measures; expanded tax breaks for vaccine development; new education spending; and approval of the China WTO accord.
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^ The same rate of taxation which may easily be supported by a wealthy contributor will reduce a poor one to extreme misery.
  • Democracy in America, Part I. by Alexis de Tocqueville 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

.Reaganomics was the subject of debate with supporters pointing to improvements in certain key economic indicators as evidence of success, and critics pointing to large increases in federal budget deficits and the national debt.^ I have shown the advantages which the Americans derive from their federal system; it remains for me to point out the circumstances which rendered that system practicable, as its benefits are not to be enjoyed by all nations.
  • Democracy in America, Part I. by Alexis de Tocqueville 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Andrew Jackson succeeded in retiring the national debt largely through the sale of public land.
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^ By June 1940, interest in uranium and its properties had increased to the point that the president created a larger organization, the National Defense Research Committee, with a broader scope of activity.
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His policy of "peace through strength" (also described as "firm but fair") resulted in a record peacetime defense buildup including a 40% real increase in defense spending between 1981 and 1985.[106]
.During Reagan's presidency, federal income tax rates were lowered significantly with the signing of the bipartisan Economic Recovery Tax Act of 1981.^ Statement on Signing the Maritime Act of 1981 .

^ We knew that economic freedom meant paying less of the American family s earnings into the Government, and so we cut personal income tax rates...
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^ Exterior building w/ sign Pope AFB & arrival of President Reagan s plane, Air Force One.
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[107] .Real gross domestic product (GDP) growth recovered strongly after the 1982 recession and grew during his eight years in office at an annual rate of 3.85% per year.^ Credit usage plunged and GDP fell by an annualized 8%, the steepest quarterly drop in 50 years.
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^ During the war of independence, which lasted eight years, the population continued to increase without intermission in the same ratio.
  • Democracy in America, Part I. by Alexis de Tocqueville 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

[108] .Unemployment peaked at 10.8% percent in December 1982—higher than any time since the Great Depression—then dropped during the rest of Reagan's presidency.^ President Franklin Roosevelt proposed the Works Progress Administration (WPA) during the Great Depression of the 1930s when almost 25 percent of Americans were unemployed.
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^ A candidate for President may register at any time after January first of the election year and not later than four o'clock p.m.
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^ Reagan & G. at end of table, reporter asks why meeting has been going on longer than scheduled: R.: Because whoever was scheduling didn t allow enough time.
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[109] Eighteen million new jobs were created, while inflation significantly decreased.[110] .The net effect of all Reagan-era tax bills was a 1% decrease in government revenues when compared to Treasury Department revenue estimates from the Administration's first post-enactment January budgets.^ He removed 3 narrow provisions in the new budget legislation in spending and tax bills.
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^ Extraordinary security measures were in effect for the first wartime State of the Union address since the Vietnam era.
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^ (AP, 5/3/97) 1802 Congress repealed all taxes except for a tax on salt and left the government dependent on import tariffs.
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[111] .However, federal Income Tax receipts almost doubled from 1980 to 1989, rising from $308.7Bn to $549.0Bn.^ Independent analysis has shown than 95 percent of families with children would see federal income taxes go down."
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^ "Obama's proposal would increase federal income tax on families earning more than $250,000 annually" -Wall Street Journal .
  • The Superficial - Barack Obama is the President of the United States 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC thesuperficial.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Radio Address to the Nation on Federal Income Taxes .

[112]
.During the Reagan Administration, federal receipts grew at an average rate of 8.2% (2.5% attributed to higher Social Security receipts), and federal outlays grew at an annual rate of 7.1%.^ Interest Rates & the Federal Reserve System; the Federal Reserve Board having policies opposite those Reagan has stated.
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^ Reagan signed a $165B bail out for Social Security.
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^ Message to the Congress Transmitting the Federal Republic of Germany-United States Social Security Agreement .

[113][114]
.Reagan also revised the tax code with the bipartisan Tax Reform Act of 1986.^ It was part of the Tax Reform Act of 1969 and became operative in 1970.
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^ (HN, 7/11/98) 1986 Oct 22, President Reagan signed into law sweeping tax-overhaul legislation.
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^ Nixon signed the Tax Reform Act of 1969.
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[115]
Reagan gives a televised address from the Oval Office, outlining his plan for Tax Reduction Legislation in July 1981
.Reagan's policies proposed that economic growth would occur when marginal tax rates were low enough to spur investment,[116] which would then lead to increased economic growth, higher employment and wages.^ Bush’s tax cut would increase the federal budget deficits and voiced opposition.
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.Critics labeled this "trickle-down economics"—the belief that tax policies that benefit the wealthy will create a "trickle-down" effect to the poor.^ If this so-called "trickle down" effect really works, then why is the economy such shit?
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^ As far as facts for disliking Obama: 1 he'll raise taxes in a down economy, the first thing you DON'T do by ANY economic standard.
  • The Superficial - Barack Obama is the President of the United States 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC thesuperficial.com [Source type: Original source]

[117] .Questions arose whether Reagan's policies benefitted the wealthy more than those living in poverty,[118] and many poor and minority citizens viewed Reagan as indifferent to their struggles.^ The States which increase less rapidly than the others look upon those which are more favored by fortune with envy and suspicion.
  • Democracy in America, Part I. by Alexis de Tocqueville 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The right of association with these views is very analogous to the liberty of unlicensed writing; but societies thus formed possess more authority than the press.
  • Democracy in America, Part I. by Alexis de Tocqueville 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The opinions established in the United States under the empire of the liberty of the press are frequently more firmly rooted than those which are formed elsewhere under the sanction of a censor.
  • Democracy in America, Part I. by Alexis de Tocqueville 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

[118]
.Following his less-government intervention views, Reagan cut the budgets of non-military[119] programs[120] including Medicaid, food stamps, federal education programs[119] and the EPA.^ We knew that economic freedom meant paying less of the American family s earnings into the Government, and so we cut personal income tax rates...
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^ McCain’s spending and tax-cut proposals would add hundreds of billions to the federal deficit, according to the Committee for a Responsible Federal Budget.
  • The Superficial - Barack Obama is the President of the United States 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC thesuperficial.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Clinton moved to cut military ties with Indonesia and the IMF suspended its lending program due to the violence in East Timor.
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[121] .He protected entitlement programs, such as Social Security and Medicare,[122] however, his administration attempted to purge many people with alleged disabilities from the Social Security disability rolls.^ Clinton presented a $1.77 trillion budget that he said will help rescue Social Security and Medicare.
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^ Bush proposed a $2.57 trillion budget that would slash domestic programs including entitlements such as Medicaid, farm subsidies and veterans benefits.
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^ Clinton gave his State of the Union address and proposed a number of new policies that included infusions of cash to bolster Social Security and Medicare.
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[123]
.The administration's stance toward the Savings and Loan industry contributed to the Savings and Loan crisis.^ They deregulated the savings and loan industry which collapsed and needed taxpayer rescue.
  • The Superficial - Barack Obama is the President of the United States 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC thesuperficial.com [Source type: Original source]

[124] .It is also suggested, by a minority of Reaganomics critics, that the policies partially influenced the stock market crash of 1987,[125] but there is no consensus regarding a single source for the crash.^ There shall be no automatic delegates to the national convention who serve by virtue of party position or elective office.
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^ Panic spread to Europe as London and Paris markets crashed and the New York Stock Exchange closed for the first time for 10 days.
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^ There is no family or corporate authority, and it is rare to find even the influence of individual character enjoy any durability.
  • Democracy in America, Part I. by Alexis de Tocqueville 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

[126] .In order to cover newly spawned federal budget deficits, the United States borrowed heavily both domestically and abroad, raising the national debt from $700 billion to $3 trillion.^ England, France, and the United States have established this political jurisdiction by law; and it is curious to examine the different adaptations which these three great nations have made of the principle.
  • Democracy in America, Part I. by Alexis de Tocqueville 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Executive Order 12315 - Amendments to the Manual for Courts-Martial, United States, 1969 (Revised Edition) .

^ [This was speedily accomplished, and ere long both Texas and California formed part of the United States.
  • Democracy in America, Part I. by Alexis de Tocqueville 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

[110] .Reagan described the new debt as the "greatest disappointment" of his presidency.^ (AP, 8/3/97) 1987 Aug 5, President Reagan announced his administration had reached a "general agreement" with leaders of Congress on a new Central America peace plan.
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^ VOL_106/TECH_V106_S0437_P003.txt) 1986 Jul 3, President Reagan presided over a gala ceremony in New York Harbor that saw the relighting of the renovated Statue of Liberty.
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^ New Year's Messages of President Reagan and President Mikhail Gorbachev of the Soviet Union .

[110]
.He reappointed Paul Volcker as Chairman of the Federal Reserve, and in 1987 he appointed monetarist Alan Greenspan to succeed him.^ (AP, 7/10/97) 1991 Jul 10, President Bush announced he was appointing Alan Greenspan to a second term as Federal Reserve chairman.
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^ (AP, 2/18/98) 1993 Feb 19, President Clinton's economic plan won praise from Federal Reserve Chairman Alan Greenspan.
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^ (AP, 2/8/03) 2003 Feb 11, Federal Chairman Alan Greenspan said that Pres.
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.Reagan ended the price controls on domestic oil which had contributed to energy crises in the 1970s.^ Truman raised margin requirements of futures to 33% as wartime controls ended and food prices soared.
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[127][128] The price of oil subsequently dropped, and the 1980s did not see the fuel shortages that the 1970s had.[129] .Reagan also fulfilled a 1980 campaign promise to repeal the Windfall profit tax in 1988, which had previously increased dependence on foreign oil.^ (AP, 5/3/97) 1802 Congress repealed all taxes except for a tax on salt and left the government dependent on import tariffs.
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^ Keep in mind, these profits were attainable under the current BUSH tax plans which taxes Exxon and oil companies like it at a rate of 35%.
  • The Superficial - Barack Obama is the President of the United States 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC thesuperficial.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Campaign Politics; 1980s; 1980; Republican Campaign Commercial; Presidential Politics; Note: Credit must be given to: The Ronald Reagan Presidential Library.
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[130] .Some economists, such as Nobel Prize winners Milton Friedman and Robert A. Mundell, argue that Reagan's tax policies invigorated America's economy and contributed to the economic boom of the 1990s.^ Unlike some others (reverends), I won't say the economic death that'll follow the big O's economic policies are 'America's chickens coming home to roost.'
  • The Superficial - Barack Obama is the President of the United States 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC thesuperficial.com [Source type: Original source]

^ As far as facts for disliking Obama: 1 he'll raise taxes in a down economy, the first thing you DON'T do by ANY economic standard.
  • The Superficial - Barack Obama is the President of the United States 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC thesuperficial.com [Source type: Original source]

[131] .Other economists, such as Nobel Prize winner Robert Solow, argue that the deficits were a major reason why Reagan's successor, George H. W. Bush, reneged on a campaign promise and raised taxes.^ Reagan and VP George Bush walking.
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^ Feb 26, Republican Ronald Reagan won the New Hampshire primary over George H.W. Bush and Howard Baker 49.8 to 22.8 to 12.9%.
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^ (AP, 11/5/97) 2001 Mar 4, President George W. Bush dedicated a $4 billion aircraft carrier in honor of former President Reagan.
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[131]

Lebanon and Grenada, 1983

Reagan meets with Prime Minister Eugenia Charles of Dominica in the Oval Office about ongoing events in Grenada
.American peacekeeping forces in Beirut, a part of a multinational force during the Lebanese Civil War who had been earlier deployed by Reagan, were attacked on October 23, 1983. The Beirut barracks bombing resulted in the deaths of 241 American servicemen by suicide bombers.^ The mission resulted in the deaths of eight U.S. servicemen.
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^ The Indians who were thus placed between civilization and death, found themselves obliged to live by ignominious labor like the whites.
  • Democracy in America, Part I. by Alexis de Tocqueville 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Reagan began firing 11,500 air traffic controllers who had gone out on strike 2 days earlier.
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.Reagan called the attack "despicable", pledged to keep a military force in Lebanon, and planned to target the Sheik Abdullah barracks in Baalbek, Lebanon, training ground for Hezbollah fighters,[132][133] but the mission was later aborted.^ Bush approved plans to send some 100 US troops to Yemen to help train the nation’s military to fight terrorists.
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^ It allowed the president to use unlimited military force to prevent attacks on U.S. forces.
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.On February 7, 1984, President Reagan ordered the Marines to begin withdrawal from Lebanon.^ White House lawn, Marine Band, President & Mrs. Reagan announced & walk out in sun w/ crowd watching.
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^ [President Zia of Pakistan at White House Dinner, 07Dec82] Marines w/ flags descend Grand Staircase followed by Pres Reagan & Pres Zia & wives.
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^ Mar 25, President Ronald Reagan ordered emergency aid for the Honduran army.
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.On October 25, 1983, only two days later, Reagan ordered U.S. forces to invade Grenada, where a 1979 coup d'état had established a Marxist-Leninist government aligned with the Soviet Union and Cuba.^ He died two days later.
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^ Now I know of only two methods of establishing equality in the political world; every citizen must be put in possession of his rights, or rights must be granted to no one.
  • Democracy in America, Part I. by Alexis de Tocqueville 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Mar 25, President Ronald Reagan ordered emergency aid for the Honduran army.
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A formal appeal from the Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States (OECS) led to the intervention of U.S. forces; President Reagan also cited the regional threat posed by a Soviet-Cuban military build-up in the Caribbean and concern for the safety of several hundred American medical students at St. George's University as adequate reasons to invade. .In the first major operation conducted by the U.S. military since the Vietnam War, several days of fighting commenced, resulting in a U.S. victory,[134] with 19 American fatalities and 116 wounded American soldiers.^ Four Americans were wounded in the overwhelming American victory, while 22 Hessians were killed and 78 wounded.
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^ (WSJ, 2/5/96, p.A-19) 1970 Oct 12, President Richard Nixon announced the pullout of 40,000 more American troops in Vietnam by Christmas.
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^ Extraordinary security measures were in effect for the first wartime State of the Union address since the Vietnam era.
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[135] .In mid-December, after a new government was appointed by the Governor-General, U.S. forces withdrew.^ (AP, 7/1/97) 1942 Jun 25, Major General Dwight Eisenhower was appointed commander of US forces in Europe.
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^ Anti-government demonstrations in Budapest a week earlier had forced a reshuffling of the Hungarian government and demands that the new government denounce the Warsaw Pact and seek liberation from Soviet domination.
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^ When the authority, which is by general consent awarded to the laws, is disregarded, the Governor puts himself at the head of the armed force of the State, to quell resistance, and to restore order.
  • Democracy in America, Part I. by Alexis de Tocqueville 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

[134]

Escalation of the Cold War

.Reagan escalated the Cold War, accelerating a reversal from the policy of détente which began in 1979 following the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan.^ Nuclear Arms Control Talks; Diplomats; Diplomacy; Republican Policy; Cold War; Propaganda; .
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^ Diplomacy; Cold War; Negotiating; Presidents; Welcoming Ceremony; Note: Credit to be given Courtesy Ronald Reagan Library .
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[136] .Reagan ordered a massive buildup of the United States Military[106] and implemented new policies towards the Soviet Union: reviving the B-1 bomber program that had been canceled by the Carter administration, and producing the MX "Peacekeeper" missile.^ The Americans of the United States already exercise a very considerable moral influence upon all the peoples of the New World.
  • Democracy in America, Part I. by Alexis de Tocqueville 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The administrative power in the United States presents nothing either central or hierarchical in its constitution, which accounts for its passing, unperceived.
  • Democracy in America, Part I. by Alexis de Tocqueville 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Executive Order 12315 - Amendments to the Manual for Courts-Martial, United States, 1969 (Revised Edition) .

[137] .In response to Soviet deployment of the SS-20, Reagan oversaw NATO's deployment of the Pershing II missile in West Germany.^ Nov 22, President Reagan called for defense-pact deployment of the MX missile.
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^ Statement by Deputy Press Secretary Speakes on the Soviet Announcement Concerning Missile Deployment .

[138]
Reagan, the first American president ever to address the British Parliament, predicts Marxism-Leninism will be left on the "ash-heap of history".[139]
.Together with Britain's prime minister Margaret Thatcher, Reagan denounced the Soviet Union in ideological terms.^ (AP, 1/1/98) 1988 Jan 2, President Reagan and Canadian Prime Minister Brian Mulroney signed an agreement to lift trade restrictions between their countries.
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^ (AP, 4/21/97) 1987 Apr 30, President Reagan welcomed Japanese Prime Minister Yasuhiro Nakasone to the White House.
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^ Why do we not jump all over Britain Prime Minister?
  • The Superficial - Barack Obama is the President of the United States 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC thesuperficial.com [Source type: Original source]

[140] In a famous address on June 8, 1982 to the British Parliament in the Royal Gallery of the Palace of Westminster, Reagan said, "the forward march of freedom and democracy will leave Marxism-Leninism on the ash-heap of history."[141][142] On March 3, 1983, he predicted that communism would collapse, stating, "Communism is another sad, bizarre chapter in human history whose last pages even now are being written."[143] .In a speech to the National Association of Evangelicals on March 8, 1983, Reagan called the Soviet Union "an evil empire".[141] After Soviet fighters downed Korean Air Lines Flight 007 on September 1, 1983, carrying 269 people including U.S. congressman from Georgia Larry McDonald, Reagan labeled the act a "massacre" and declared that the Soviets had turned "against the world and the moral precepts which guide human relations among people everywhere".[144] The Reagan administration responded to the incident by suspending all Soviet passenger air service to the United States, and dropped several agreements being negotiated with the Soviets, wounding them financially.^ Reagan Speech to National Association of Evangelicals Part 3 of 3 (Evil Empire Speech) 8Mar1983 There is sin and evil in the world(..
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^ Reagan Speech to National Association of Evangelicals Part 2 of 3 (Evil Empire Speech) 8Mar1983 14:39:18 An example of that vocal superiority...
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^ United States, declared President Roosevelt's National Industrial Recovery Act unconstitutional.
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[144]
.Under a policy that came to be known as the Reagan Doctrine, Reagan and his administration also provided overt and covert aid to anti-communist resistance movements in an effort to "rollback" Soviet-backed communist governments in Africa, Asia and Latin America.^ His new American policy came to be known as the Carter Doctrine.
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^ Reagan & aides back into White House.
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^ President Reagan takes podium, Communist representative heckles, asks questions re American military in Central America.
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[145] Reagan deployed the CIA's Special Activities Division to Afghanistan and Pakistan. .They were instrumental in training, equipping and leading Mujaheddin forces against the Soviet Red Army.^ Vernon to lead the army against France.
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[146][147] .President Reagan's Covert Action program has been given credit for assisting in ending the Soviet occupation of Afghanistan.^ Presidential Radio Broadcast; Speech; Nuclear Missiles Negotiations; Arms Limitations; 1980s; 1983; NOTE: Credit to be given Courtesy Ronald Reagan Library .
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^ [President Reagan Speaks To Nation After Geneva Summit, 21Nov85] Ronald Reagan dressed casually sitting at desk reading report re Geneva Summit and Soviet-American relations.
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^ State Visit of PM Thatcher to United States - Oval Office Meeting Q & A with reporters - Thatcher & Reagan remarks re last meeting between them before end of Reagan presidency.
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[148]
.In March 1983, Reagan introduced the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI), a defense project[149] that would have used ground and space-based systems to protect the United States from attack by strategic nuclear ballistic missiles.^ Clinton proposed to EU allies in Portugal to share key technology on a US missile defense program to calm fears of a nuclear arms race that would leave Europe vulnerable.
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^ A state's share of the population is based on its number of electoral votes (using the 1990 Census).
  • http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS5356 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC purl.access.gpo.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Presidential Radio Broadcast; Speech; Nuclear Missiles Negotiations; Arms Limitations; 1980s; 1983; NOTE: Credit to be given Courtesy Ronald Reagan Library .
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[150] .Reagan believed that this defense shield could make nuclear war impossible,[149][151] but disbelief that the technology could ever work led opponents to dub SDI "Star Wars" and argue that the technological objective was unattainable.^ President Reagan at Strategic Defence Initiative Symposium President Reagan at SDI conference The First Five Years ( Star Wars ) speaking in front of black background.
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^ Calls on Helen Thomas for first question re SDI (Strategic Defense Initiative aka Star Wars).
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^ President Reagan on Star Wars 03:05:10 - 03.05.40 Reagan - talks about the security Star wars technology gives - current technology - may not be achieved before the end of the century.
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[149] .The Soviets became concerned about the possible effects SDI would have;[152] leader Yuri Andropov said it would put "the entire world in jeopardy".[153] For those reasons, David Gergen, former aide to President Reagan, believes that in retrospect, SDI hastened the end of the Cold War.^ President Bush said he would never deal with the coup leaders.
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^ Nixon put U.S. troops on high alert for just under a week to show the Soviet Union that America would not allow it to send forces to aid Arab states fighting Israel.
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^ Bush said that the annual process of selling arms to Taiwan, a US policy since 1982, would end.
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[154]
.Critics labeled Reagan's foreign policies as aggressive, imperialistic, and chided them as "warmongering", though they were supported by leading American conservatives who argued that they were necessary to protect U.S. security interests.^ (WSJ, 8/27/04, p.A6) 1987 Jan 17, A Reagan Administration official who initiated the arms shipments to Iran, acknowledged that the US had virtually no independent intelligence to support its policy.
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^ Reagan responds, thanks them for their work & a unified public front though they had individual differences.
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^ The United States pledge themselves to the observance of the obligation; but the territory which they at present occupy was formerly secured to them by the most solemn oaths of Anglo-American faith.
  • Democracy in America, Part I. by Alexis de Tocqueville 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

[152] .A reformer, Mikhail Gorbachev, would later rise to power in the Soviet Union in 1985, implementing new policies for openness and reform that were called glasnost and perestroika.^ (AP, 3/29/00) 1990 Apr 5, It was announced that President Bush and Soviet President Gorbachev would hold their first full-scale summit in the United States.
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^ (AP, 12/10/97) 1988 Jan 1, President Reagan and Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev exchanged optimistic New Year's greetings, expressing mutual hope they would reach an arms control treaty on strategic weapons within six months.
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^ (AP, 5/28/98) 1988 May 29, President Reagan began his first visit to the Soviet Union as he arrived in Moscow for a superpower summit with Soviet leader Mikhail S. Gorbachev.
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1984 presidential campaign

.
1984 presidential electoral votes by state.
^ In terms of winning the largest percentage of electoral votes, the presidential election of 1936 was the biggest landslide of the 20th century.
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^ The electors of the same State assemble, but they transmit to the central government the list of their individual votes, and not the mere result of the vote of the majority.
  • Democracy in America, Part I. by Alexis de Tocqueville 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The electoral franchise has been conferred upon the negroes in almost all the States in which slavery has been abolished; but if they come forward to vote, their lives are in danger.
  • Democracy in America, Part I. by Alexis de Tocqueville 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

Reagan (red) won every state except for Minnesota (and Washington, D.C.)
.Reagan accepted the Republican nomination in Dallas, Texas, on a wave of positive feeling.^ (AP, 7/16/97)(SFEM,11/2/97, p.12) 1980 Jul 17, Ronald Reagan formally accepted the Republican nomination for president.
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^ Nomination for 2nd Term; Bush 92 Rallies] 20Aug92 On podium speaking to Republican Convention, Houston, Texas after nomination for Second Term as President.
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^ (SSFC, 3/16/08, p.A4) 1975 Nov 20, Ronald Reagan announced his intention to battle Gerald Ford for the Republican presidential nomination.
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.He proclaimed that it was "morning again in America",[16] regarding the recovering economy and the dominating performance by the U.S. athletes at the Los Angeles Olympics that summer, among other things.^ Remarks at a Luncheon Meeting of the United States Olympic Committee in Los Angeles, California .

^ Remarks to United States Olympic Medal Winners in Los Angeles, California .

^ Remarks to United States Athletes at the Summer Olympic Games in Los Angeles, California .

.He became the first American president to open an Olympic Games held in the United States.^ Mr President...welcome to the United States.
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^ This was the first such visit by an American president.
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^ The Americans of the United States already exercise a very considerable moral influence upon all the peoples of the New World.
  • Democracy in America, Part I. by Alexis de Tocqueville 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

[155]
.Reagan's opponent in the 1984 presidential election was former Vice President Walter Mondale.^ (HN, 1/25/99) 1984 Jan 29, President Ronald Reagan announced that he would run for a second term.
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^ (AP, 3/5/98) 1988 Mar 8, Vice President George Bush was the big winner in the Super Tuesday Republican presidential primaries.
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^ (AP, 11/5/97) 2001 Mar 4, President George W. Bush dedicated a $4 billion aircraft carrier in honor of former President Reagan.
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.With questions about Reagan's age, and a weak performance in the first presidential debate, it was questioned whether he was capable to be president for another term.^ Citing national divisions over the war in Vietnam, Johnson declares that "I shall not seek, and I will not accept, the nomination of my party for another term as your president."
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^ (HN, 1/25/99) 1984 Jan 29, President Ronald Reagan announced that he would run for a second term.
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^ Now the majority of your so-called "United" states has spoken, and you've got a President who may not shoot first and ask questions later.
  • The Superficial - Barack Obama is the President of the United States 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC thesuperficial.com [Source type: Original source]

[156][157] .Reagan rebounded in the second debate, and confronted questions about his age, quipping, "I will not make age an issue of this campaign.^ Their ignorance about the real issues, and their persistance to live a the dark ages' lifestyle is dumbfounded.
  • The Superficial - Barack Obama is the President of the United States 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC thesuperficial.com [Source type: Original source]

I am not going to exploit, for political purposes, my opponent's youth and inexperience", which generated applause and laughter.[158]
.That November, Reagan was re-elected, winning 49 of 50 states.^ Reagan winning 49 states over Mondale's 1 was a Landslide.
  • The Superficial - Barack Obama is the President of the United States 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC thesuperficial.com [Source type: Original source]

^ (AP, 10/28/98) 1980 Nov 4, Ronald Reagan (69) was elected the 40th president of the United States.
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^ Dec 5, Andrew Jackson was re-elected US president and became the 1st president to win an election in which the turnout exceeded 50%.
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[159] .The president's landslide victory saw Mondale carry only his home state of Minnesota (by 3800 votes) and the District of Columbia.^ So one can only hope that the current president - Of the United States, the new Israeli prime minister - would have a backbone and wouldn't sell his/her soul.
  • The Superficial - Barack Obama is the President of the United States 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC thesuperficial.com [Source type: Original source]

^ (SFC, 12/27/06, p.A11) 1974 Dec 19, Nelson A. Rockefeller was sworn in as the 41st vice president of the United States after a House vote.
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^ Because each state had its own slavery code when the District of Columbia was founded in 1800, Washington had adopted Maryland’s laws.
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.Reagan won a record 525 electoral votes, the most of any candidate in United States history,[160] and received 58.8% of the popular vote to Mondale's 40.6%.^ Lincoln won with 55% of the popular vote.
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^ Samuel J. Tilden (D) won the popular vote.
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^ Tilden won the popular votes, while Hays won the electoral votes.
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[159]

Second term, 1985–1989

.Reagan was sworn in as president for the second time on January 20, 1985, in a private ceremony at the White House.^ (SC, 3/4/02) 1893 Sep 9, Frances Cleveland, wife of President Cleveland, gave birth to a daughter, Esther, in the White House.
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^ (AP, 3/14/97) 1987 May 15, President Reagan told a gathering of out-of-town reporters at the White House he did not consider himself "mortally wounded" by the Iran-Contra affair.
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^ (HN, 12/16/98) 1977 Jan 20, President Jimmy Carter was sworn in and then surprised everyone as he walked from the U.S. Capitol to the White House.
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.Because January 20 fell on a Sunday, a public celebration was not held but took place in the Capitol Rotunda the following day.^ A public swearing-in took place two days later.
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^ A public ceremony was held the next day.
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^ The secretary of state shall certify the names and party affiliations of the candidates to be placed on the presidential primary election ballots fifty days before such election is to be held.
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.January 21 was one of the coldest days on record in Washington, D.C.; due to poor weather, inaugural celebrations were held inside the Capitol.^ The students held 52 American hostages for 444 days, and were released on the day of the inauguration President Ronald Reagan, January 20, 1981.
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^ Since George Washington’s second term, Inauguration Day had been March 4 of the year following the election.
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^ He made it clear that the day should be one of prayer and giving thanks to God, to be celebrated by all the religious denominations.
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Ronald Reagan is sworn in for a second term as president in the Capitol Rotunda
.In 1985, Reagan visited a German military cemetery in Bitburg to lay a wreath with West German Chancellor Helmut Kohl.^ Arrival - President and Mrs Reagan down steps of presidential plane, greeted by Chancellor Kohl, wife Hannelore and others.
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^ To Honor With Dignity Arlington Military Cemetery - President Reagan at military funeral for the unknown soldier.
  • Footage Farm: Ronald Reagan 25 January 2010 0:24 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Secret Service arouind, open doors & President & Nancy Reagan out w/ West German President Richard von Weizsaecker & wife, greeted; shaking hands.
  • Footage Farm: Ronald Reagan 25 January 2010 0:24 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

It was determined that the cemetery held the graves of 49 members of the Waffen-SS. .Reagan issued a statement that called the Nazi soldiers buried in that cemetery "victims", which ignited a stir over whether he had equated the SS men to Holocaust victims; Pat Buchanan, Director of Communications under Reagan, argued that the notion was false.^ The unknown soldier was buried in Virginia’s Arlington National Cemetery on Armistice Day.
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^ May 28, President Reagan led a state funeral at Arlington National Cemetery at the Tomb of the Unknowns for an unidentified American soldier killed in the Vietnam War.
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[161] .Now strongly urged to cancel the visit,[162] the president responded that it would be wrong to back down on a promise he had made to Chancellor Kohl.^ Arrival - President and Mrs Reagan down steps of presidential plane, greeted by Chancellor Kohl, wife Hannelore and others.
  • Footage Farm: Ronald Reagan 25 January 2010 0:24 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Now the disappointment begins, there is no way he will be able to deliver on all those empty promises he made.
  • The Superficial - Barack Obama is the President of the United States 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC thesuperficial.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Chancellor Helmut Kohl & President Ronald Reagan past band (unsteady pix).
  • Footage Farm: Ronald Reagan 25 January 2010 0:24 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

He attended the ceremony where two military generals laid a wreath.[163]
.The disintegration of the Space Shuttle Challenger on January 28, 1986 proved a pivotal moment in Reagan's presidency.^ They shake hands & take a few questions, including a question about yesterday s disaster (Space Shuttle Challenger explosion).
  • Footage Farm: Ronald Reagan 25 January 2010 0:24 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ May 28, President Reagan led a state funeral at Arlington National Cemetery at the Tomb of the Unknowns for an unidentified American soldier killed in the Vietnam War.
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^ President Reagan talks about reports he received on unemployment: There are 357,000 more unemployed now than in January, 1981; but there are also 5,700,000 more ??
  • Footage Farm: Ronald Reagan 25 January 2010 0:24 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

All seven astronauts aboard were killed.[164] On the night of the disaster, Reagan delivered a speech written by Peggy Noonan in which he said:
The future doesn't belong to the fainthearted; it belongs to the brave... .We will never forget them, nor the last time we saw them, this morning, as they prepared for their journey and waved goodbye and 'slipped the surly bonds of Earth' to 'touch the face of God.'^ The American vessels cost almost as much to build as our own; *j they are not better built, and they generally last for a shorter time.
  • Democracy in America, Part I. by Alexis de Tocqueville 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Ugh, Ayers was never friends with Obama, for the last time!
  • The Superficial - Barack Obama is the President of the United States 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC thesuperficial.com [Source type: Original source]

^ "The bastards have never been bombed like they're going to be bombed this time," Nixon privately declares.
  • Timeline US Presidents to GW Bush 20 September 2009 6:54 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

[165]

War on Drugs

.Midway into his second term, Reagan declared more militant policies in the War on Drugs.^ President Woodrow Wilson was elected for a second term largely because he had successfully kept America out of the war that was raging in Europe since 1914.
  • Timeline US Presidents to JFK 2 February 2010 18:54 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (Star Wars) Reagan making speech If we can stop the madness from continuing into the next century ...
  • Footage Farm: Ronald Reagan 25 January 2010 0:24 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Napoleon quickly accepted Madison’s terms and under congressional pressure Madison declared war on England.
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.He said that "drugs were menacing our society" and promised to fight for drug-free schools and workplaces, expanded drug treatment, stronger law enforcement and drug interdiction efforts, and greater public awareness.^ I have always said that this is another indication of why drug testing is not bad...we ll do our best to salvage these people who have been addicted.
  • Footage Farm: Ronald Reagan 25 January 2010 0:24 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If it is just a case of having used them I would like to see us do our best to get them into a drug treatment organization, and they would agree to accept the cure.
  • Footage Farm: Ronald Reagan 25 January 2010 0:24 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The "Great Society" was to be achieved through a vast program that included an attack on diseases, a doubling of the war on poverty, greater enforcement of Civil Rights Law, immigration law reform and greater support of education.
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[166][167]
.In 1986, Reagan signed a drug enforcement bill that budgeted $1.7 billion dollars to fund the War on Drugs and specified a mandatory minimum penalty for drug offenses.^ Clinton signed the federal minimum wage bill for an increase of .90 cents per hour in two steps to $5.15 per hour over 13 months.
  • Timeline US Presidents to GW Bush 20 September 2009 6:54 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ This current administration lost billions of dollars, in wars, and in this bailout.
  • The Superficial - Barack Obama is the President of the United States 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC thesuperficial.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Zedillo signed several accords on economic measures and the drug war.
  • Timeline US Presidents to GW Bush 20 September 2009 6:54 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

[168] .The bill was criticized for promoting significant racial disparities in the prison population[168] and critics also charged that the policies did little to reduce the availability of drugs on the street, while resulting in a great financial burden for America.^ Roosevelt won the election and quickly implemented his "New Deal" policies to bring America out of the Great Depression.
  • Timeline US Presidents to JFK 2 February 2010 18:54 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ William Roth, had hoped for more significant tax cuts, but settled on this bill after a great debate in Congress.
  • Timeline US Presidents to GW Bush 20 September 2009 6:54 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

[169] Defenders of the effort point to success in reducing rates of adolescent drug use.[170][171] First Lady Nancy Reagan made the War on Drugs her main priority by founding the "Just Say No" drug awareness campaign, which aimed to discourage children and teenagers from engaging in recreational drug use by offering various ways of saying "no". Mrs. Reagan traveled to 65 cities in 33 states, raising awareness about the dangers of drugs and alcohol.[172]

Libya bombing

.Relations between Libya and the U.S. under President Reagan were continually contentious, beginning with the Gulf of Sidra incident in 1981. These tensions were later revived in early April 1986, when a bomb exploded in a Berlin discothèque, resulting in the injuries of 63 American military personnel and death of one serviceman.^ Exterior building w/ sign Pope AFB & arrival of President Reagan s plane, Air Force One.
  • Footage Farm: Ronald Reagan 25 January 2010 0:24 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ President Reagan takes podium, Communist representative heckles, asks questions re American military in Central America.
  • Footage Farm: Ronald Reagan 25 January 2010 0:24 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (AP, 1/20/98)(WSJ, 8/15/96, p.A12) 1981 Jan 20, Iran released 52 Americans held hostage for 444 days, minutes after the presidency had passed from Jimmy Carter to Ronald Reagan.
  • Timeline US Presidents to GW Bush 20 September 2009 6:54 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

[173] .Citing that there was "irrefutable proof" that Libya had directed the terrorist bombing,[174] Reagan authorized the use of force against the country.^ If I were a terrorist and I wanted to destroy the American way of life, I wouldn't use planes and bombs to kill folks, that's too risky, you might get caught, or killed, or both.
  • The Superficial - Barack Obama is the President of the United States 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC thesuperficial.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Bush signed a Defense Department authorization bill that included a provision for up to $25 million to support foreign forces aiding US efforts against terrorists.
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^ Kennedy authorized American advisors to aid South Vietnam against the forces of North Vietnam.
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[173] .In the late evening of April 15, 1986, the U.S. launched a series of air strikes on ground targets in Libya.^ Afterward, Bush said he would hold off on a ground war against Iraq for the time being, saying allied air strikes had been "very, very effective."
  • Timeline US Presidents to GW Bush 20 September 2009 6:54 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ Lyndon Johnson ordered air strikes against targets in North Vietnam, in retaliation for guerrilla attacks on the American military in South Vietnam.
  • Timeline US Presidents to GW Bush 20 September 2009 6:54 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ Statement by Principal Deputy Press Secretary Speakes on the United States Air Strike Against Libya .

[173] The attack was designed to halt Libyan leader Muammar Gaddafi's ability to export terrorism, offering him "incentives and reasons to alter his criminal behavior".[173] The president addressed the nation from the Oval Office after the attacks had commenced, stating, "When our citizens are attacked or abused anywhere in the world on the direct orders of hostile regimes, we will respond so long as I'm in this office."[174]

Immigration

.Reagan signed the Immigration Reform and Control Act in 1986. The act made it illegal to knowingly hire or recruit illegal immigrants, required employers to attest to their employees' immigration status, and granted amnesty to approximately 3 million illegal immigrants who entered the United States prior to January 1, 1982, and had lived in the country continuously.^ Remarks on Signing the Tax Reform Act of 1986 .

^ Reagan signed a landmark immigration reform bill.
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^ The Simpson-Rodino Immigration Reform and Control Act led to legal residency for 2.7 million illegal immigrants.
  • Timeline US Presidents to GW Bush 20 September 2009 6:54 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

Critics argue that its contention subjecting employers to sanctions were without teeth and that it failed to stem illegal immigration.[175] .Upon signing the act at a ceremony held beside the newly refurbished Statue of Liberty, Reagan said, "The legalization provisions in this act will go far to improve the lives of a class of individuals who now must hide in the shadows, without access to many of the benefits of a free and open society.^ Reagan signed into law the Gold Bullion Coin Act that authorized the government to mint gold coins.
  • Timeline US Presidents to GW Bush 20 September 2009 6:54 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ Reagan acts surprised, someone says someone else has said he was grumpy yesterday.
  • Footage Farm: Ronald Reagan 25 January 2010 0:24 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If none of the candidates has a majority, the House of Representatives then proceeds immediately to elect a President, but with the condition that it must fix upon one of the three candidates who have the highest numbers.
  • Democracy in America, Part I. by Alexis de Tocqueville 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

.Very soon many of these men and women will be able to step into the sunlight and, ultimately, if they choose, they may become Americans."^ Emigration was at first necessary to them as a means of subsistence; and it soon becomes a sort of game of chance, which they pursue for the emotions it excites as much as for the gain it procures.
  • Democracy in America, Part I. by Alexis de Tocqueville 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ He admits that they may serve to make men live in peace with one another, and to prepare them gently for the hour of death.
  • Democracy in America, Part I. by Alexis de Tocqueville 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ These provincial institutions were incoherent, ill compacted, and frequently absurd; in the hands of the aristocracy they had sometimes been converted into instruments of oppression.
  • Democracy in America, Part I. by Alexis de Tocqueville 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

[176]

Iran-Contra affair

President Reagan receives the Tower Report in the Cabinet Room of the White House, 1987
.In 1986, a scandal shook the administration stemming from the use of proceeds from covert arms sales to Iran to fund the Contras in Nicaragua, which had been specifically outlawed by an act of Congress.^ (AP, 7/17/99) 1998 Jul 17, The Clinton administration sought approval to use funds for covert operations against Iraqi Pres.
  • Timeline US Presidents to GW Bush 20 September 2009 6:54 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ (AP, 8/8/01) 2000 Aug 23, The Clinton administration released guidelines for federally funded scientists to conduct research on human embryonic stem cells.
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^ (AP, 7/3/97) 1986 Jul 11, President Ronald Reagan placed the Contras, who were fighting the government of Nicaragua, under CIA jurisdiction.
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[177] .The Iran-Contra affair became the largest political scandal in the United States during the 1980s.^ I was struck by the small number of political trials which occur in the United States, but I had no difficulty in accounting for this circumstance.
  • Democracy in America, Part I. by Alexis de Tocqueville 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ England, France, and the United States have established this political jurisdiction by law; and it is curious to examine the different adaptations which these three great nations have made of the principle.
  • Democracy in America, Part I. by Alexis de Tocqueville 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Mar 4, President Reagan addressed the nation on the Iran-Contra affair.
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[178] .The International Court of Justice, whose jurisdiction to decide the case was disputed,[179] ruled that the U.S. had violated international law in Nicaragua due to its obligations not to intervene in the affairs of other states.^ The Supreme Court decides upon the evidence of the fact as well as upon the law of the case, whereas the Cour de Cassation does not pronounce a decision of its own, but refers the cause to the arbitration of another tribunal.
  • Democracy in America, Part I. by Alexis de Tocqueville 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ On the other hand, I thought that I remarked a more lively sense of independence, and a more decided attachment to provincial government in the States.
  • Democracy in America, Part I. by Alexis de Tocqueville 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Federal laws are those which most require courts of justice, and those at the same time which have most rarely established them.
  • Democracy in America, Part I. by Alexis de Tocqueville 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

[180]
President Reagan professed ignorance of the plot's existence. .He appointed two Republicans and one Democrat (John Tower, Brent Scowcroft and Edmund Muskie, known as the "Tower Commission") to investigate the scandal.^ Democrat Edmund Muskie won over George McGovern 46.4 to 37.1%.
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^ Nixon told John Ehrlichman to investigate the tax returns of rich Jews contributing to the democratic campaigns of Humphrey and Muskie.
  • Timeline US Presidents to GW Bush 20 September 2009 6:54 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ Hey, gang, I think Democrats and Republicans alike can all agree on this one; I'd never want to be Australian!
  • The Superficial - Barack Obama is the President of the United States 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC thesuperficial.com [Source type: Original source]

.The commission could not find direct evidence that Reagan had prior knowledge of the program, but criticized him heavily for his disengagement from managing his staff, making the diversion of funds possible.^ Where a party fails to produce such evidence, the Hearing Officer may make findings of fact adverse to the party on all issues to which the evidence would have been material.
  • http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS5356 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC purl.access.gpo.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ The Commission shall make available to the Clerk and the Secretary on a regular basis a complete list of names and addresses of all candidates registered with the Commission, and shall cooperate and coordinate its candidate information and notification program with the Clerk and the Secretary to the greatest extent possible.
  • http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS5356 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC purl.access.gpo.gov [Source type: Original source]

[181] .A separate report by Congress concluded that "If the president did not know what his national security advisers were doing, he should have."^ (AP, 8/25/99) 1994 Sep 10, President Clinton, Vice President Al Gore and top national security advisers met to discuss intervention in Haiti, but made no final decisions.
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^ Roosevelt had urged the passage of the Antiquities Act to allow the president to designate areas of scientific, historic or archeological significance as national monuments without the approval of Congress.
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^ [President Reagan Speaks To Nation After Geneva Summit, 21Nov85] Ronald Reagan dressed casually sitting at desk reading report re Geneva Summit and Soviet-American relations.
  • Footage Farm: Ronald Reagan 25 January 2010 0:24 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[181] .Reagan's popularity declined from 67 percent to 46 percent in less than a week, the greatest and quickest decline ever for a president.^ The nominating petitions must be signed by not less than 1 percent of the voters eligible to vote in the next election for the filing of the office the candidate is seeking.
  • http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS5356 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC purl.access.gpo.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ [Inauguration of President Reagan - Part 3 of 5] 20Jan81 Reagan Inaugural Speech [mostly in CU] - ...In the eyes of many in the world, this every four year ceremony we accept as normal is nothing less than a miracle...
  • Footage Farm: Ronald Reagan 25 January 2010 0:24 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A candidate for nomination as a party's candidate for the office of President must file nomination papers not less than 40 days or more than 70 days before the presidential preference election.
  • http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS5356 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC purl.access.gpo.gov [Source type: Original source]

[182] The scandal resulted in fourteen indictments within Reagan's staff, and eleven convictions.[183]
.Many Central Americans criticize Reagan for his support of the Contras, calling him an anti-communist zealot, blinded to human rights abuses, while others say he "saved Central America".[184] Daniel Ortega, Sandinistan and current president of Nicaragua, said that he hoped God would forgive Reagan for his "dirty war against Nicaragua".[184] In 1986 the USA was found guilty by the International Court of Justice (World Court) of war crimes against Nicaragua.^ Human rights groups are calling for euthanasia for them.
  • The Superficial - Barack Obama is the President of the United States 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC thesuperficial.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Central American politicians and human rights activists issued stinging criticism of Negroponte, citing the career diplomat's active backing for the Contra rebels and support for a government involved in human rights abuses.
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^ The laws of the American democracy are frequently defective or incomplete; they sometimes attack vested rights, or give a sanction to others which are dangerous to the community; but even if they were good, the frequent changes which they undergo would be an evil.
  • Democracy in America, Part I. by Alexis de Tocqueville 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

[185]

End of the Cold War

Ronald Reagan speaks at the Berlin Wall's Brandenburg Gate, challenging Gorbachev to "tear down this wall!"
.By the early 1980s, the USSR had built up a military arsenal and army surpassing that of the United States.^ CU seal of President of United States & Military Patches hanging on wall.
  • Footage Farm: Ronald Reagan 25 January 2010 0:24 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Nixon declared a state of national emergency and assigned military units to NYC post offices.
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^ To the best of my knowledge it is for the first time that the President of the United States of America has put up a very comprehensive plan w/ so many positive elements in this...
  • Footage Farm: Ronald Reagan 25 January 2010 0:24 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Previously, the U.S. had relied on the qualitative superiority of its weapons to essentially frighten the Soviets, but the gap had been narrowed.[186] .After President Reagan's military buildup, the Soviet Union did not further dramatically build up its military;[187] the enormous military expenses, in combination with collectivized agriculture and inefficient planned manufacturing, were a heavy burden for the Soviet economy.^ For 20 years the Soviet Union has been accumulating enormous military might...
  • Footage Farm: Ronald Reagan 25 January 2010 0:24 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Exterior building w/ sign Pope AFB & arrival of President Reagan s plane, Air Force One.
  • Footage Farm: Ronald Reagan 25 January 2010 0:24 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ President Reagan takes podium, Communist representative heckles, asks questions re American military in Central America.
  • Footage Farm: Ronald Reagan 25 January 2010 0:24 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[188] .At the same time, the Reagan Administration persuaded Saudi Arabia to increase oil production,[189] which resulted in a drop of oil prices in 1985 to one-third of the previous level; oil was the main source of Soviet export revenues.^ When these 2,400 weapons have been withdrawn, the United States will have reduced its nuclear weapons in Europe by over one-third from 1979 levels, and NATO will have the lowest number of nuclear weapons in 20 years.
  • Footage Farm: Ronald Reagan 25 January 2010 0:24 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I do not think that it is possible to combine several principles in the same government, so as at the same time to maintain freedom, and really to oppose them to one another.
  • Democracy in America, Part I. by Alexis de Tocqueville 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ It must be observed, that in the State of Massachusetts the Court of Sessions is at the same time an administrative body, properly so called, and a political tribunal.
  • Democracy in America, Part I. by Alexis de Tocqueville 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

[188] .These factors gradually brought the Soviet economy to a stagnant state during Gorbachev's tenure.^ (AP, 3/29/00) 1990 Apr 5, It was announced that President Bush and Soviet President Gorbachev would hold their first full-scale summit in the United States.
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^ These results are added together and multiplied by .5 to calculate an ``Allocation Factor'' for each state.
  • http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS5356 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC purl.access.gpo.gov [Source type: Original source]

[188]
.Ronald Reagan recognized the change in the direction of the Soviet leadership with Gorbachev, and shifted to diplomacy, with a view to encourage the Soviet leader to pursue substantial arms agreements.^ My view is that president Gorbachev is different from previous Soviet leaders.
  • Footage Farm: Ronald Reagan 25 January 2010 0:24 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Presidential Radio Broadcast; Speech; Nuclear Missiles Negotiations; Arms Limitations; 1980s; 1983; NOTE: Credit to be given Courtesy Ronald Reagan Library .
  • Footage Farm: Ronald Reagan 25 January 2010 0:24 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (AP, 4/1/98) 1987 Apr 10, President Reagan and Soviet leader Mikhail S. Gorbachev delivered speeches on nuclear arms, with the president challenging the Soviets to join the United States in working harder for arms reductions, and Gorbachev proposing talks on short-range weapons.
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[190] .Gorbachev and Reagan held four summit conferences between 1985 and 1988: the first in Geneva, Switzerland, the second in Reykjavík, Iceland, the third in Washington, D.C., and the fourth in Moscow.^ A presidential preference primary will be held on the first Tuesday in March in any year evenly divisible by the number four.
  • http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS5356 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC purl.access.gpo.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ [President Reagan Speaks To Nation After Geneva Summit, 21Nov85] Ronald Reagan dressed casually sitting at desk reading report re Geneva Summit and Soviet-American relations.
  • Footage Farm: Ronald Reagan 25 January 2010 0:24 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (AP, 5/25/98) 1988 May 28, On the eve of the Moscow summit, Soviet television aired a 34-minute interview with President Reagan in which he pledged to make human rights "agenda item number one."
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[191] .Reagan believed that if he could persuade the Soviets to allow for more democracy and free speech, this would lead to reform and the end of Communism.^ If passing occurrences sometimes act as checks upon the passions of democracy, the intelligence and the manners of the community exercise an influence which is not less powerful and far more permanent.
  • Democracy in America, Part I. by Alexis de Tocqueville 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ I am persuaded that, if ever a despotic government is established in America, it will find it more difficult to surmount the habits which free institutions have engendered than to conquer the attachment of the citizens to freedom.
  • Democracy in America, Part I. by Alexis de Tocqueville 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ If none but small nations existed, I do not doubt that mankind would be more happy and more free; but the existence of great nations is unavoidable.
  • Democracy in America, Part I. by Alexis de Tocqueville 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

[192]
.Speaking at the Berlin Wall on June 12, 1987, Reagan challenged Gorbachev to go further, saying, "General Secretary Gorbachev, if you seek peace, if you seek prosperity for the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe, if you seek liberalization, come here to this gate!^ I would like to share w/ General Secretary Gorbachev our hopes & our plans.
  • Footage Farm: Ronald Reagan 25 January 2010 0:24 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (AP, 4/1/98) 1987 Apr 10, President Reagan and Soviet leader Mikhail S. Gorbachev delivered speeches on nuclear arms, with the president challenging the Soviets to join the United States in working harder for arms reductions, and Gorbachev proposing talks on short-range weapons.
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^ Well, if you're white and you hate President Obama (feels good saying that) then go the fuck back to WHERE-ever your ancestors came from (feels even better saying that) in Europe...
  • The Superficial - Barack Obama is the President of the United States 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC thesuperficial.com [Source type: Original source]

Mr. Gorbachev, open this gate! Mr. Gorbachev, tear down this wall!"
Reagan and Gorbachev sign the INF Treaty at the White House in 1987
.Prior to Gorbachev visiting Washington, D.C., for the third summit in 1987, the Soviet leader announced his intention to pursue significant arms agreements.^ (TMC, 1994, p.1987)(AP 12/8/97)(SFEC, 12/19/99, p.C12) 1987 Dec 10, President Reagan and Soviet leader Mikhail S. Gorbachev concluded three days of summit talks in Washington.
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^ (AP, 9/18/97) 1987 Oct 30, President Reagan announced that Soviet leader Mikhail S. Gorbachev would visit Washington the following December for a summit, during which the two leaders would sign a treaty banning intermediate-range nuclear missiles.
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^ (AP, 4/1/98) 1987 Apr 10, President Reagan and Soviet leader Mikhail S. Gorbachev delivered speeches on nuclear arms, with the president challenging the Soviets to join the United States in working harder for arms reductions, and Gorbachev proposing talks on short-range weapons.
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[193] .The timing of the announcement led Western diplomats to contend that Gorbachev was offering major concessions to the U.S. on the levels of conventional forces, nuclear weapons, and policy in Eastern Europe.^ Nixon ordered a worldwide "secret" nuclear alert to scare the Soviets into forcing concessions from North Vietnam.
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^ In non-primary states which do not hold state conventions authorized to elect delegates, at-large delegates shall be apportioned according to the division of preference among district-level delegates at the time of district-level selection.
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[193] .He and Reagan signed the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces (INF) Treaty at the White House, which eliminated an entire class of nuclear weapons.^ [Gorbachev & Reagan Sign INF Treaty] 08-10Dec87?
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^ Graphic re Intermediate range weapons.
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^ Reagan & Gorbachev after signing of Intermediate Weapons Treaty.
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[194]
.When Reagan visited Moscow for the fourth summit in 1988, he was viewed as a celebrity by Russians.^ (AP, 8/28/99) 1998 Sep 2, President Clinton concluded his Moscow summit with Russian President Boris Yeltsin.
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^ (AP, 5/25/98) 1988 May 28, On the eve of the Moscow summit, Soviet television aired a 34-minute interview with President Reagan in which he pledged to make human rights "agenda item number one."
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^ (AP, 5/28/98) 1988 May 29, President Reagan began his first visit to the Soviet Union as he arrived in Moscow for a superpower summit with Soviet leader Mikhail S. Gorbachev.
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.A journalist asked the president if he still considered the Soviet Union the evil empire.^ Reporter asks Reagan if he thinks they are still an evil empire.
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^ I think the evil doers are still there, trying to make the president, any president, do their bidding.
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^ May 22, President Nixon began a visit to the Soviet Union, the 1st for a US president, during which he and Kremlin leaders signed the SALT I arms limitation treaty.
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."No", he replied, "I was talking about another time, another era."^ You have no clue what you're talking about.
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^ From January next year, the rest of the world will stop hating you - and no, I'm not talking about the middle east, but Asia and Europe.
  • The Superficial - Barack Obama is the President of the United States 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC thesuperficial.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It was the 1st time in half a century that the Israeli and Syrian leaders had shared a meal but no agreement on peace talks was expected.
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[195] .At Gorbachev's request, Reagan gave a speech on free markets at the Moscow State University.^ President Reagan and Mikhail Gorbachev, Red Square, Moscow Reagan & Gorbachev walk around Red Square and answer questions from reporters.
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[196] .In his autobiography, An American Life, Reagan expressed his optimism about the new direction that they charted, his warm feelings for Gorbachev.^ Another golden turd nugget from Heather: "How about the fact that some of his family is living illegaly in the US. They ARE NOT EVEN American's.
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^ I have examined the precautions used by the Americans to direct it, as well as those which they have not adopted, and I have undertaken to point out the causes which enable it to govern society.
  • Democracy in America, Part I. by Alexis de Tocqueville 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The absence of a central government will not, then, as has often been asserted, prove the destruction of the republics of the New World; far from supposing that the American governments are not sufficiently centralized, I shall prove hereafter that they are too much so.
  • Democracy in America, Part I. by Alexis de Tocqueville 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

[197] .The Berlin Wall was torn down beginning in 1989 and two years later the Soviet Union collapsed.^ (HN, 1/2/99) 1980 Jan 13, The United States offered Pakistan a two-year aid plan to counter the Soviet threat in Afghanistan.
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^ (AP, 3/24/98) 1999 Nov 8, Former President Bush was honored in Germany for his role in the fall of the Berlin Wall ten years earlier.
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^ Origin of the first Union—Its weakness—Congress appeals to the constituent authority—Interval of two years between this appeal and the promulgation of the new Constitution.
  • Democracy in America, Part I. by Alexis de Tocqueville 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

Health and well-being

.On July 13, 1985, Reagan underwent surgery at Bethesda Naval Hospital to remove cancerous polyps from his colon.^ Jul 12, Doctors discovered what turned out to be a cancerous growth in President Reagan’s large intestine, prompting surgery the following day.
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^ (AP, 5/22/97) 1996 May 24, President Clinton underwent his annual physical at Bethesda Naval Medical Center, where he had a precancerous lesion removed from his nose.
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.This caused the first-ever invocation of the acting president clause of the 25th Amendment.^ The effect of the Twenty-Fifth Amendment first clarifies the historical practice by which a Vice President would become President upon the death of the President or upon the removal or resignation of the President.
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^ Third, the Amendment clarifies that the President may declare in writing his disability and that, upon such occurrence, the Vice President becomes acting President until the President declares in writing that he is able to resume his duties.
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^ (AP, 3/21/97) 1790 Apr 10, President George Washington signed into law the first United States Patent Act.
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[198] The surgery lasted just under three hours and was successful.[199] .Reagan resumed the powers of the presidency later that day.^ Journey for Democracy and Peace Pt 2 of 2 A review of President Ronald Reagan s five day trip to Latin America, 30th Nov.
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^ Czolgosz, explaining that he "thought it would be a good thing for the country to kill the President," was put to death by electrocution 45 days later.
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^ Jul 12, Doctors discovered what turned out to be a cancerous growth in President Reagan’s large intestine, prompting surgery the following day.
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[200] In August of that year, he underwent an operation to remove skin cancer cells from his nose.[201] In October, additional skin cancer cells that were detected on his nose were removed.[202]
.Two years later, on January 5, Reagan underwent surgery for an enlarged prostate which caused further worries about his health.^ All such rules shall be filed with the secretary of state no later than January 2, 1992, and no later than January 2 every fourth year thereafter.
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^ A candidate for President may register at any time after January first of the election year and not later than four o'clock p.m.
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^ Lyng talks about working for Reagan as Governor 19 years ago in Sacramento; Reagan moves him to be introduced to the press while standing in front of the fireplace.
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No cancerous growths were found, however, and he was not sedated during the operation.[203] In July of that year, aged 76, he underwent a third skin cancer operation on his nose.[204]
.Earlier in his presidency, Reagan started wearing a custom, technologically advanced hearing aid, first in his right ear[205] and later in his left as well.^ President Eisenhower signed into law the first civil rights bill to pass Congress since Reconstruction.
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^ Mar 25, President Ronald Reagan ordered emergency aid for the Honduran army.
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^ President Reagan at Strategic Defence Initiative Symposium President Reagan at SDI conference The First Five Years ( Star Wars ) speaking in front of black background.
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[206] His decision to go public with his wearing the small, audio-amplifying device boosted their sales.[207]
The Reagan administration was criticized for its slow response to the growing HIV-AIDS epidemic.[208] .As thousands became infected with the virus, President Reagan did not increase funding to try to discover cures, rather he downplayed the situation and only acknowledged that it was an issue of concern at the May 31, 1987 Third International Conference on AIDS in Washington.^ (AP, 3/14/97) 1987 May 15, President Reagan told a gathering of out-of-town reporters at the White House he did not consider himself "mortally wounded" by the Iran-Contra affair.
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^ Mar 25, President Ronald Reagan ordered emergency aid for the Honduran army.
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^ Jul 12, Doctors discovered what turned out to be a cancerous growth in President Reagan’s large intestine, prompting surgery the following day.
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[208]

Judiciary

.During his 1980 campaign, Reagan pledged that, if given the opportunity, he would appoint the first female Supreme Court Justice.^ See also the analysis of all these charters given by Mr. Story, Judge of the Supreme Court of the United States, in the Introduction to his "Commentary on the Constitution of the United States."
  • Democracy in America, Part I. by Alexis de Tocqueville 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ (SFC, 12/27/99, p.A10) 1974 Gov. Ronald Reagan appointed Judge Frank K. Richardson (d.1999 at age 85) to the California Supreme Court.
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^ (AP, 10/30/97) 1987 Nov 11, Following the failure of two Supreme Court nominations, President Reagan announced his choice of Justice Anthony M. Kennedy, who went on to win confirmation.
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[209] .That opportunity came in his first year in office when he nominated Sandra Day O'Connor to fill the vacancy created by the retirement of Justice Potter Stewart.^ Congress in the office of the Governor to perform such duties as required by law, including filling any vacancy in the office of electors (26, Sec.
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^ The political party shall not nominate more than one candidate for each public or party office to be filled at the succeeding general election, except to fill a vacancy in a prior nomination (Sec.
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^ Such notice must be on a form prescribed by the Secretary and must be received by the Secretary at least fifteen days prior to the first day on which the nomination petitions may be circulated (Sec.
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.In his second term, Reagan elevated William Rehnquist to succeed Warren Burger as Chief Justice, and named Antonin Scalia to fill the vacant seat.^ Ronald Reagan sworn in as President by Chief Justice Warren Burger - kisses Nancy.
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^ Chief Justice William Rehnquist was sworn in to preside over the trial.
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^ (HN, 1/25/99) 1984 Jan 29, President Ronald Reagan announced that he would run for a second term.
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.Reagan nominated conservative jurist Robert Bork to the high court in 1987. Senator Ted Kennedy, a Democrat of Massachusetts, strongly condemned Bork, and great controversy ensued.^ (AP, 10/30/97) 1987 Nov 11, Following the failure of two Supreme Court nominations, President Reagan announced his choice of Justice Anthony M. Kennedy, who went on to win confirmation.
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^ (AP, 4/1/98) 1970 Apr 8, The Senate rejected President Nixon's nomination of G. Harold Carswell to the Supreme Court.
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^ Democrat Jimmie Carter won over Ted Kennedy, Jerry Brown and Birch Bayh 47.2 to 37.4 to 9.6%.
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[210] .Bork's nomination was rejected 58-42.[211] Reagan then nominated Douglas Ginsburg, but Ginsburg withdrew his name from consideration after coming under fire for his marijuana use.^ Use of funds.--No part of any payment made under subsection (b) shall be used to defray the expenses of any candidate or delegate who is particiating in any presidential nominating convention.
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^ The names of presidential electors, presented in one certificate of nomination, shall be arranged in a group enclosed in brackets under the designation of the office of President and Vice President.
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^ In two different kinds of government the magistrates *a exercise a considerable degree of arbitrary power; namely, under the absolute government of a single individual, and under that of a democracy.
  • Democracy in America, Part I. by Alexis de Tocqueville 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

[212] Anthony Kennedy was eventually confirmed in his place.[213] .Along with his three Supreme Court appointments, Reagan appointed 83 judges to the United States Courts of Appeals, and 290 judges to the United States district courts.^ Three (3) district delegates for each Representative in the United States House of representatives from each state.
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^ Appeal to Supreme Court; time for appeal.
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^ The Supreme Court of Virginia contested the right of the Supreme Court of the United States to judge an appeal from its decisions, but unsuccessfully.
  • Democracy in America, Part I. by Alexis de Tocqueville 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

His total of 376 appointments is the most by any president.

Post-presidential years, 1989–2004

Ronald and Nancy Reagan in Los Angeles after leaving the White House, early 1990s
.After leaving office in 1989, the Reagans purchased a home in Bel Air, Los Angeles in addition to the Reagan Ranch in Santa Barbara.^ In 1998 the foundation purchased the 680-acre Reagan ranch north of Santa Barbara.
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^ (AP, 1/9/99) 1989 Jan 11, President Reagan bade the nation farewell in an address from the Oval Office.
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^ Reagan boarding Air Force One & waving & saluting, plane taxiing & turning (GOOD Reagan leaving).
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.They regularly attended Bel Air Presbyterian Church[214] and occasionally made appearances on behalf of the Republican Party; Reagan delivered a well-received speech at the 1992 Republican National Convention.^ MS Reagan delivering speech.
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^ Reagan switched to the Republican Party.
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^ [Inauguration of President Reagan - Part 2 of 5] 20Jan81 Senator Mark Hatfield speech continues on inaugural platform outside Capitol - presents Mrs Reagan s pastor Reverend Don Moomaw of the Bel-Air Presbyterian Church of Los Angeles - pastor leads prayer ...we have not lived up to our personal or national potential...we confess our sin...we thank you God for the release of the hostages...
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[215] .Previously on November 4, 1991, the Ronald Reagan Presidential Library was dedicated and opened to the public.^ (AP, 8/5/01) 1991 Nov 4, Ronald Reagan opened his presidential library in Simi Valley, Calif., with a dedication ceremony attended by President Bush and former presidents Jimmy Carter, Gerald Ford and Richard Nixon - the first-ever gathering of five U.S. chief executives.
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^ Presidential Radio Broadcast; Speech; Nuclear Missiles Negotiations; Arms Limitations; 1980s; 1983; NOTE: Credit to be given Courtesy Ronald Reagan Library .
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^ POTUS; Campaign Politics; 1980s; 1984; Republican Campaigning; Weather; Cheering; Presidential Politics; Note: Credit must be given to: The Ronald Reagan Presidential Library.
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.At the dedication ceremonies, five presidents were in attendance, as well as six first ladies, marking the first time five presidents were gathered in the same location.^ I was six times president of my union, and I led it in the first strike.
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^ President Reagan at Strategic Defence Initiative Symposium President Reagan at SDI conference The First Five Years ( Star Wars ) speaking in front of black background.
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^ A candidate for President may register at any time after January first of the election year and not later than four o'clock p.m.
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[216] .Reagan continued to publicly speak in favor of a line-item veto; a constitutional amendment requiring a balanced budget; and the repeal of the 22nd Amendment, which prohibits anyone from serving more than two terms as president.^ But, like all instinctive passions, this kind of patriotism is more apt to prompt transient exertion than to supply the motives of continuous endeavor.
  • Democracy in America, Part I. by Alexis de Tocqueville 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ If more than one list of presidential electors is filed with the Secretary of State by any write-in candidates for the offices of President and Vice President of the United States, the first list filed shall be considered the valid list, provided that this list meets the additional requirements of this section (Sec.
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^ Clinton made the first use of the historic line-item veto approved by Congress.
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[217] .In 1992 Reagan established the Ronald Reagan Freedom Award with the newly formed Ronald Reagan Presidential Foundation.^ He was the Democratic presidential nominee who lost to Ronald Reagan in 1984, and Ambassador to Japan.
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^ (SSFC, 3/16/08, p.A4) 1975 Nov 20, Ronald Reagan announced his intention to battle Gerald Ford for the Republican presidential nomination.
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^ (SSFC, 6/6/04, A27) 1975 Nov 20, Ronald Reagan announced his intention to battle Gerald Ford for the Republican presidential nomination.
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[218] His final public speech was on February 3, 1994 during a tribute to him in Washington, D.C., and his last major public appearance was at the funeral of Richard Nixon on April 27, 1994.

Alzheimer's disease

Announcement and reaction

.In August 1994, at the age of 83, Ronald Reagan was diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease,[219] an incurable neurological disorder which destroys brain cells and ultimately causes death.^ (SSFC, 1/11/04, p.M6) 1981-1988 Ronald Reagan (b.1911) served as the 40th president of the US. In 2001 Steven V. Hayward authored "The Age of Reagan."
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^ Inflation and the crises in Iran caused Jimmy Carter to lose to Ronald Reagan, America’s oldest Pres.-elect.
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^ (AP, 1/18/99) 1994 Nov 5, Former President Reagan disclosed he had Alzheimer's disease.
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[219][220] In November he informed the nation through a handwritten letter,[219] writing in part:
.
I have recently been told that I am one of the millions of Americans who will be afflicted with Alzheimer's Disease...^ And one last thing: Who the hell has told you that the rest of the planet neads USA for saviours?
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^ I for one, and MILLIONS who stand behind me, weep for this lapse of judgment.
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^ Thankfully the United Americans who will make a difference, the good ones, the people who matter stood together.
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At the moment I feel just fine. .I intend to live the remainder of the years God gives me on this earth doing the things I have always done...^ In such meetings, there is always a spirit of loyalty to the State, because that is loyalty to the people, and a reverence for God that gives weight to the duties and responsibilities of citizenship.
  • Democracy in America, Part I. by Alexis de Tocqueville 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ It's amazing to me that people who make 25-40K a year living in a trailer would complain about a guy that wants to give you a tax cut.
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^ I loved that man not because he was President, but because he lived what I believe: Give Americans the freedom guaranteed by the Declaration of Independence and the Constitution and watch them accomplish amazing things.
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.I now begin the journey that will lead me into the sunset of my life.^ I have inquired into the legislative and executive power of the Union, and the judicial power now remains to be examined; but in this place I cannot conceal my fears from the reader.
  • Democracy in America, Part I. by Alexis de Tocqueville 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

.I know that for America there will always be a bright dawn ahead.^ I know no country in which there is so little true independence of mind and freedom of discussion as in America.
  • Democracy in America, Part I. by Alexis de Tocqueville 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Reagan always believed that America's best days were ahead of her and I continue to believe that with all my heart.
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.Thank you, my friends.^ My fellow Americans, thank you for sharing your time tonight.
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^ Thank you for protecting my rights as a woman.
  • The Superficial - Barack Obama is the President of the United States 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC thesuperficial.com [Source type: Original source]

^ May I thank my dear friend & our great leader Bob Dole...this nomination s not for me alone.
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.May God always bless you.^ Congrats and may god/buddha/jebus bless you all.
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^ May God (mine) bless the beautiful AMY WINEHOUSE...forever and always.
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^ GOD BLESS YOU BARACK OBAMA! YOU WILL DO GREAT THINGS IN YOUR TIME. .
  • The Superficial - Barack Obama is the President of the United States 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC thesuperficial.com [Source type: Original source]

[221]
.After his diagnosis, letters of support from well-wishers poured into his California home,[222] but there was also speculation over how long Reagan had demonstrated symptoms of mental degeneration.^ There were Republican supporters as well (91 of the total 263 votes in favor), namely from Bush's Neocon Republicans.
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[223] Former CBS White House correspondent Lesley Stahl recalls an interview when he was president where "a vacant Reagan barely seemed to realize anyone else was in the room", and that before he "reemerged into alertness" she recalls that "I had come that close to reporting that Reagan was senile."[224] However, Dr. Lawrence K. Altman, a physician employed as a reporter for the New York Times, noted that "the line between mere forgetfulness and the beginning of Alzheimer's can be fuzzy"[225] and all four of Reagan's White House doctors said that they saw no evidence of Alzheimer's while he was president.[225] Dr. John E. Hutton, Reagan's primary physician from 1984 to 1989, said the president "absolutely" did not "show any signs of dementia or Alzheimer's".[225] Reagan did experience occasional memory lapses, though, especially with names.[225] .Once, while meeting with Japanese Prime Minister Yasuhiro Nakasone, he repeatedly referred to Vice President Bush as "Prime Minister Bush".[226] Reagan's doctors, however, note that he only began exhibiting overt symptoms of the illness in late 1992[227] or 1993,[225] several years after he had left office.^ Reagan and Bush talking in office.
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^ Bush began meeting with Gen.
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^ (AP, 4/21/97) 1987 Apr 30, President Reagan welcomed Japanese Prime Minister Yasuhiro Nakasone to the White House.
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.His former Chief of Staff James Baker considered "ludicrous" the idea of Reagan sleeping during cabinet meetings.^ (AP, 8/22/02) 1992 Aug 23, James A. Baker III bowed out as secretary of state after three-and-a-half years to become White House chief of staff.
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^ (AP, 3/24/98) 1988 May 1, Newsweek magazine reported that, according to a memoir by former White House chief of staff Donald Regan (1918-2003), astrology had influenced the planning of President Reagan's schedule.
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^ The unflattering revelations surfaced in a yet-to-be published memoir by former chief of staff Donald Regan.
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[228] .Other staff members, former aides, and friends said they saw no indication of Alzheimer's while he was President.^ I first became aware of President Obama in 2003 when I was introduced to him in Chicago by a friend who was a campaign volunteer and former law student of his.
  • Deuce of Davenport | Sports News, Commentary, Humor, Videos: The 44th President Of The United States, Barack Hussein Obama 16 September 2009 1:46 UTC www.deuceofdavenport.com [Source type: General]

^ No other President could have socialised the entire worlds banking system in his term.
  • The Superficial - Barack Obama is the President of the United States 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC thesuperficial.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The policy of the Americans in relation to the whole world is exceedingly simple; for it may almost be said that no country stands in need of them, nor do they require the co-operation of any other people.
  • Democracy in America, Part I. by Alexis de Tocqueville 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

[225]
The Reagans with a model of the USS Ronald Reagan, May 1996
.Complicating the picture, Reagan suffered an episode of head trauma in July 1989, five years prior to his diagnosis.^ Five hundred years ago the English nobles headed the people, and spoke in its name; at the present time the aristocracy supports the throne, and defends the royal prerogative.
  • Democracy in America, Part I. by Alexis de Tocqueville 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ President Reagan at Strategic Defence Initiative Symposium President Reagan at SDI conference The First Five Years ( Star Wars ) speaking in front of black background.
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^ President Reagan at Strategic Defence Initiative Symposium President Reagan at SDI conference The First Five Years .
  • Footage Farm: Ronald Reagan 25 January 2010 0:24 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

After being thrown from a horse in Mexico, a subdural hematoma was found and surgically treated later in the year.[219][220] .Nancy Reagan asserts that her husband's 1989 fall hastened the onset of Alzheimer's disease,[220] citing what doctors told her,[220] although head trauma has not been conclusively proven to accelerate Alzheimer's.^ (AP, 1/18/99) 1994 Nov 5, Former President Reagan disclosed he had Alzheimer's disease.
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^ Reagan, Nancy & others walk in Fall autumn foliage to Navy mess.
  • Footage Farm: Ronald Reagan 25 January 2010 0:24 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (WSJ, 8/20/03, p.D12) 2004 Jun 5, Ronald Reagan (b.1911), 40th US president (1981-1989), died in California after a long twilight struggle with Alzheimer's disease.
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[229][230] Reagan's one-time physician, Dr. Daniel Ruge, has said, it is possible, but not certain, that the horse accident affected the course of Reagan's memory.[231]

Progression

As the years went on, the disease slowly destroyed Reagan's mental capacity.[225] He was only able to recognize a few people, including his wife, Nancy.[225] He remained active, however; he took walks through parks near his home and on beaches, played golf regularly, and often went to his office in nearby Century City.[225]
.Reagan suffered a fall at his Bel Air home on January 13, 2001, resulting in a broken hip.^ (AP, 3/4/02)(SSFC, 7/13/03, p.A2) 2001 Aug 8, Maureen Reagan, daughter of former Pres.
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[232] .The fracture was repaired the following day[233] and the 89 year old Reagan returned home later that week, although he faced difficult physical therapy at home.^ Royalty payments must be paid within 60 days following each date on which you prepare (or are legally required to prepare) your periodic tax returns.
  • Democracy in America, Part I. by Alexis de Tocqueville 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ They were convicted the following January, although Mardian's conviction was later reversed.
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^ (SSFC, 6/9/02, p.F7) 1946 Ronald Reagan signed a new 7-year contract with Warner Brothers for $3,500 a week.
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[234] .On February 6, 2001, Reagan reached the age of 90, becoming the third former president to do so (the other two being John Adams and Herbert Hoover, with Gerald Ford later reaching 90).^ Arrival - President and Mrs Reagan down steps of presidential plane, greeted by Chancellor Kohl, wife Hannelore and others.
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^ (AP, 11/27/97) 1973 Dec 6, House minority leader Gerald R. Ford was sworn in as vice president, succeeding Spiro T. Agnew.
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^ The Indians had only the two alternatives of war or civilization; in other words, they must either have destroyed the Europeans or become their equals.
  • Democracy in America, Part I. by Alexis de Tocqueville 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

[235] .Reagan's public appearances became much less frequent with the progression of the disease, and as a result, his family decided that he would live in quiet isolation.^ If the changes which I have described were gradual, so that each generation at least might have time to disappear with the order of things under which it had lived, the danger would be less; but the progress of society in America is precipitate, and almost revolutionary.
  • Democracy in America, Part I. by Alexis de Tocqueville 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In France the lives and liberties of the subjects would be thought to be in danger if a public officer of any kind was entrusted with so formidable a right.
  • Democracy in America, Part I. by Alexis de Tocqueville 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ It's sad to look at all the ignorant people still writing things that I would be ashamed to say much less post in the world we live in today.
  • The Superficial - Barack Obama is the President of the United States 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC thesuperficial.com [Source type: Original source]

Nancy Reagan told CNN's Larry King in 2001 that very few visitors were allowed to see her husband because she felt that "Ronnie would want people to remember him as he was."[236] Since his diagnosis and death, Mrs. Reagan has become a stem-cell research advocate, urging Congress and President George W. Bush to support federal funding for embryonic stem-cell research, something President Bush opposed. Mrs. Reagan has said that she believes that it could lead to a cure for Alzheimer's.[237] President Barack Obama reversed federal opposition to embryonic stem cell research in 2009.[238]

Death

Ronald Reagan's casket, on a horse-drawn caisson, being pulled down Constitution Avenue to the Capitol
.Reagan died at his home in Bel Air, California on June 5, 2004.[239] A short time after his death, Nancy Reagan released a statement saying: "My family and I would like the world to know that President Ronald Reagan has passed away after 10 years of Alzheimer's Disease at 93 years of age.^ President Ronald Reagan saying this is the anniversary of a day of infamy.
  • Footage Farm: Ronald Reagan 25 January 2010 0:24 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ronald Reagan announced that he would seek the GOP nomination for president.
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^ Ronald Reagan, died at age 60 of malignant melanoma.
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We appreciate everyone's prayers."[239] .President George W. Bush declared June 11 a National Day of Mourning,[240] and international tributes came in from around the world.^ Citing national divisions over the war in Vietnam, Johnson declares that "I shall not seek, and I will not accept, the nomination of my party for another term as your president."
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^ He later became vice-president under George H.W. Bush (1988-1992).
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^ (SFC, 6/8/05, p.A1) 2005 Feb 17, President Bush named John Negroponte, the U.S. ambassador to Iraq, as the government's first national intelligence director.
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[241] .Reagan's body was taken to the Kingsley and Gates Funeral Home in Santa Monica, California later in the day, where well-wishers paid tribute by laying flowers and American flags in the grass.^ Reagan describes the day s schedule Well as you know this is a briefing...and after we have a working luncheon....
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^ [Joint Statement of Reagan & Gorbachev at International Press Center, Geneva 21Nov85] Stage w/ Soviet & American flags.
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^ This truth is as well understood in the United States as it can be anywhere else: the Americans are already able to make their flag respected; in a few years they will be able to make it feared.
  • Democracy in America, Part I. by Alexis de Tocqueville 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

[242] .On June 7, his body was removed and taken to the Ronald Reagan Presidential Library, where a brief family funeral was held.^ He was the Democratic presidential nominee who lost to Ronald Reagan in 1984, and Ambassador to Japan.
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^ (SSFC, 3/16/08, p.A4) 1975 Nov 20, Ronald Reagan announced his intention to battle Gerald Ford for the Republican presidential nomination.
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^ The students held 52 American hostages for 444 days, and were released on the day of the inauguration President Ronald Reagan, January 20, 1981.
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.His body lay in repose in the Library lobby until June 9; over 100,000 people viewed the coffin.^ JFK's body lay in repose in East Room of White House.
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[243]
.On June 9, Reagan's body was flown to Washington, D.C. where he became the tenth United States president to lie in state.^ Mr President...welcome to the United States.
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^ President of the United States is elected.
  • http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS5356 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC purl.access.gpo.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ So one can only hope that the current president - Of the United States, the new Israeli prime minister - would have a backbone and wouldn't sell his/her soul.
  • The Superficial - Barack Obama is the President of the United States 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC thesuperficial.com [Source type: Original source]

In the thirty-four hours that it lay there, 104,684 people filed past the coffin.[244]
.On June 11, a state funeral was conducted in the Washington National Cathedral, and presided over by President George W. Bush.^ The Secretary of State certifies to the judges of probate of the several counties the names of all candidates for President and Vice President who are nominated by a national convention (ibid.
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^ The roll call voting procedure shall be conducted in the same manner as that heretofore provided for the selection of the nominee for President of the United States.
  • http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS5356 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC purl.access.gpo.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ He later became vice-president under George H.W. Bush (1988-1992).
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.Eulogies were given by former British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher,[245] former Canadian Prime Minister Brian Mulroney, and both Presidents Bush.^ Dec 17, President Bush, Canadian Prime Minister Brian Mulroney and Mexican President Carlos Salinas de Gortari signed the North American Free Trade Agreement in separate ceremonies.
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^ (AP, 1/1/98) 1988 Jan 2, President Reagan and Canadian Prime Minister Brian Mulroney signed an agreement to lift trade restrictions between their countries.
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^ (AP, 4/2/98) 1993 Apr 3, President Clinton and Russian President Boris Yeltsin opened a weekend summit in Vancouver, B.C., beginning talks after a luncheon with Canadian Prime Minister Brian Mulroney.
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.Also in attendance were Mikhail Gorbachev, and many world leaders, including British Prime Minister Tony Blair, German Chancellor Gerhard Schröder, Italian Prime Minister Silvio Berlusconi, and interim presidents Hamid Karzai of Afghanistan, and Ghazi al-Yawer of Iraq.^ (SFC, 2/6/98, p.E2) 1998 Feb 6, President Clinton and British Prime Minister Tony Blair redoubled their pledge to use military force against Iraq if necessary; during a joint news conference in which the subject of Monica Lewinsky came up, Clinton said he would never resign.
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^ President...we recognize the President as leader of the Free World; the ideals we have been fighting for for twenty years...
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^ So one can only hope that the current president - Of the United States, the new Israeli prime minister - would have a backbone and wouldn't sell his/her soul.
  • The Superficial - Barack Obama is the President of the United States 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC thesuperficial.com [Source type: Original source]

.After the funeral, the Reagan entourage was flown back to the Ronald Reagan Presidential Library in California, where another service was held, and President Reagan was interred.^ Presidential Radio Broadcast; Speech; Nuclear Missiles Negotiations; Arms Limitations; 1980s; 1983; NOTE: Credit to be given Courtesy Ronald Reagan Library .
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^ Journey for Democracy and Peace Pt 2 of 2 A review of President Ronald Reagan s five day trip to Latin America, 30th Nov.
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^ (AP, 1/20/98)(WSJ, 8/15/96, p.A12) 1981 Jan 20, Iran released 52 Americans held hostage for 444 days, minutes after the presidency had passed from Jimmy Carter to Ronald Reagan.
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[246] .He is the second longest-lived president in U.S. history, having lived 93 years and 120 days, just 45 days fewer than Gerald Ford.^ (WSJ, 1/2/06, p.A1)(WSJ, 1/3/06, p.A1) 2006 Nov 12, Gerald R. Ford surpassed Ronald Reagan as the longest-lived US president at 93 years and 121 days.
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^ (AP, 11/27/97) 1973 Dec 6, House minority leader Gerald R. Ford was sworn in as vice president, succeeding Spiro T. Agnew.
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^ In 1997 Jess Bravin wrote her biography: “Squeaky: The Life and Times of Lynette Alice Fromme.” (SFC, 6/18/97, p.E5)(AP, 9/5/97) 1975 Sep 22, President Gerald R. Ford dodged a second assassination in less than three weeks.
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He was the first United States president to die in the 21st century, and his was the first state funeral in the United States since that of President Lyndon B. Johnson in 1973.
.His burial site is inscribed with the words he delivered at the opening of the Ronald Reagan Presidential Library: "I know in my heart that man is good, that what is right will always eventually triumph and that there is purpose and worth to each and every life."^ In my heart I know that Obama is not the right man for the job.
  • The Superficial - Barack Obama is the President of the United States 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC thesuperficial.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Presidential Radio Broadcast; Speech; Nuclear Missiles Negotiations; Arms Limitations; 1980s; 1983; NOTE: Credit to be given Courtesy Ronald Reagan Library .
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^ There are statutory provisions for a statewide presidential preference primary to be conducted concurrently with the statewide primary on the second Tuesday in June of every general election year (June 9, 1992) (Sec.
  • http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS5356 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC purl.access.gpo.gov [Source type: Original source]

[247]

Legacy

Ronald Reagan at a rally for Senator David Durenberger in Bloomington, Minnesota 1982
.Reagan's legacy is mixed, with supporters pointing to a more efficient and prosperous economy[248] and a peaceful end to the Cold War.^ (AP, 1/2/98) 1988 Jan 25, In his final State of the Union address, President Reagan declared America was "strong, prosperous, at peace."
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^ Diplomacy; Western Europe; 1987; 1980s; End of Cold War; Summit Meetings; .
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^ Reagan went on to become a film actor, governor of California (1967-1975) and the 40th president of the United States (1981-1989) and was credited with ending the Cold War.
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[249] .Critics argue that his economic policies caused huge budget deficits, quadrupling the United States national debt,[110] and that the Iran-Contra affair lowered American credibility.^ Mar 4, President Reagan addressed the nation on the Iran-Contra affair.
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^ The Americans of the United States already exercise a very considerable moral influence upon all the peoples of the New World.
  • Democracy in America, Part I. by Alexis de Tocqueville 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Direction given to the foreign policy of the United States by Washington and Jefferson—Almost all the defects inherent in democratic institutions are brought to light in the conduct of foreign affairs—Their advantages are less perceptible.
  • Democracy in America, Part I. by Alexis de Tocqueville 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

[250] .As time has passed, he has generally come to be viewed in a more positive light, and ranks highly among presidents in many public opinion polls.^ Oh, and by the by, England has a MUCH more liberal immigration policy when it comes to EDUCATED (meaning, not you) people from around the world, including people from many African countries.
  • The Superficial - Barack Obama is the President of the United States 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC thesuperficial.com [Source type: Original source]

^ US solely BECAUSE of the mistakes of your last presidents - WHICH HAS TAKEN THE US OUT OF ITS HIGH RANK IN SO SO SO MANY AREAS. ..
  • The Superficial - Barack Obama is the President of the United States 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC thesuperficial.com [Source type: Original source]

[251] .In presidential surveys he has consistently been ranked in the first and second quartiles, with more recent surveys generally ranking Reagan in the first quartile of U.S. presidents.^ (HN, 1/25/99) 1984 Jan 29, President Ronald Reagan announced that he would run for a second term.
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^ (AP, 8/3/97) 1987 Aug 5, President Reagan announced his administration had reached a "general agreement" with leaders of Congress on a new Central America peace plan.
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^ (HN, 10/21/98) 1983 Nov 11, President Reagan became the first U.S. chief executive to address the Diet, Japan's national legislature.
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[1]
.Mark Weisbrot, co-Director of the Center for Economic and Policy Research, said that Reagan's "economic policies were mostly a failure",[252] and Howard Kurtz of The Washington Post stated that Reagan was "a far more controversial figure in his time than the largely gushing obits on television would suggest".[253] However, Edwin Feulner, President of the Heritage Foundation, said that Reagan "helped create a safer, freer world" and said of his economic policies: "He took an America suffering from 'malaise'...^ (AP, 4/11/99) 1994 May 3, President Clinton presided over a televised forum from Atlanta, during which he denied suggestions he'd vacillated on foreign policy, but said global problems were more difficult than he'd imagined.
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^ If more than one list of presidential electors is filed with the Secretary of State by any write-in candidates for the offices of President and Vice President of the United States, the first list filed shall be considered the valid list, provided that this list meets the additional requirements of this section (Sec.
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^ In the first place it is to be remarked, that if in a democratic State the governors have less honesty and less capacity than elsewhere, the governed, on the other hand, are more enlightened and more attentive to their interests.
  • Democracy in America, Part I. by Alexis de Tocqueville 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

and made its citizens believe again in their destiny."[254]
.Many conservative and liberal scholars agree that Reagan has been the most influential president since Franklin D. Roosevelt, leaving his imprint on American politics, diplomacy, culture, and economics.^ President Reagan takes podium, Communist representative heckles, asks questions re American military in Central America.
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^ (HN, 12/7/98) 1981 Dec 11, Concerned about the safety of Americans in Libya, the Reagan administration asked them to leave.
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^ [President Reagan Speaks To Nation After Geneva Summit, 21Nov85] Ronald Reagan dressed casually sitting at desk reading report re Geneva Summit and Soviet-American relations.
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."As of this writing, among academic historians, the Reagan revisionists—who view the 1980s as an era of mixed blessings at worst, and of great forward strides in some renditions—hold the field", reports Rossinow (2007).^ In most of the States situated to the south-west of the Hudson some great English proprietors had settled, who had imported with them aristocratic principles and the English law of descent.
  • Democracy in America, Part I. by Alexis de Tocqueville 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Military Scientific Research Public Relations; Promotional Video; Weapons; Science; 1980s; Reagan-era; .
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[255]
.The first generation of writing about Reagan comprised studies on the right that approached hagiography, and on the left a devil theory, all relying on popular journalism for their facts.^ Reagan reminisces about his time at Eureka and the changes in America in the fifty years since he left the college.
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^ Reporter, off camera: Sir, do you feel there are misperceptions about your approach to Human Rights?
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^ I think the only thing people care about is the fact that he is the first "black" president.
  • The Superficial - Barack Obama is the President of the United States 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC thesuperficial.com [Source type: Original source]

.A second generation has emerged, based on newly available documents from the archives, that provides a much more sophisticated and complex view.^ The principle of the sovereignty of the people, which is to be found, more or less, at the bottom of almost all human institutions, generally remains concealed from view.
  • Democracy in America, Part I. by Alexis de Tocqueville 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ When the idea of family becomes vague, indeterminate, and uncertain, a man thinks of his present convenience; he provides for the establishment of his succeeding generation, and no more.
  • Democracy in America, Part I. by Alexis de Tocqueville 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In 2001, the Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation was created to provide a secure and permanent future for Project Gutenberg-tm and future generations.
  • Democracy in America, Part I. by Alexis de Tocqueville 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

.The scholars of the second generation have reached a consensus,[256] as summarized by British historian M. J. Heale, who finds that scholars now concur that Reagan rehabilitated conservatism, turned the nation to the right, practiced a pragmatic conservatism that balanced ideology and the constraints of politics, revived faith in the presidency and in American self respect, and contributed to victory in the Cold War.^ Now the children of these same Americans are the persons who, year by year, transport their dwellings into the wilds; and with their dwellings their acquired information and their esteem for knowledge.
  • Democracy in America, Part I. by Alexis de Tocqueville 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ At least now I know who put Bush in the white house for the past 8 years and turned economy to shit - thanks...
  • The Superficial - Barack Obama is the President of the United States 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC thesuperficial.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I do not know whether all the Americans have a sincere faith in their religion, for who can search the human heart?
  • Democracy in America, Part I. by Alexis de Tocqueville 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

[257]

Cold War

.The Cold War was a major political and economic endeavor for over four decades, but the confrontation between the two superpowers had decreased dramatically by the end of Reagan's presidency.^ Bush met with South African President Thabo Mbeki in Pretoria for discussions on AIDS, the war on terror, trade issues and to seek common ground in their attempts to deal with the political and economic crisis in neighboring Zimbabwe.
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^ Rhodes,\6\ the Court struck down Ohio's election laws, which effectively limited access to the ballot to electors of the two major political parties.
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^ President Reagan at Strategic Defence Initiative Symposium President Reagan at SDI conference The First Five Years ( Star Wars ) speaking in front of black background.
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[258] .The significance of Reagan's role in ending the Cold War has spurred contentious and opinionated debate.^ Diplomacy; Western Europe; 1987; 1980s; End of Cold War; Summit Meetings; .
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^ Reagan went on to become a film actor, governor of California (1967-1975) and the 40th president of the United States (1981-1989) and was credited with ending the Cold War.
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^ Dec 3, Presidents George Bush and Mikhail Gorbachev, in Malta, announce the official end to the Cold War.
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[259][260] .That Reagan had some role in contributing to the downfall of the Soviet Union is collectively agreed, but the extent of this role is continuously debated,[190] with many believing that Reagan's defense policies, hard line rhetoric against the Soviet Union and Communism, as well as summits with General Secretary Gorbachev played a significant part in ending the War.^ I would like to share w/ General Secretary Gorbachev our hopes & our plans.
  • Footage Farm: Ronald Reagan 25 January 2010 0:24 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (AP, 3/29/00) 1990 Apr 5, It was announced that President Bush and Soviet President Gorbachev would hold their first full-scale summit in the United States.
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^ Bush made his 1st State of the Union address and declared that the "war against terror is only beginning."
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[118][190]
Reagan and Gorbachev relax at the Reagan ranch in California in 1992, a year after the fall of the Soviet Union
.He was notable amongst post-World War II presidents as being convinced that the Soviet Union could be defeated rather than simply negotiated with,[190] a conviction that was vindicated by Gennadi Gerasimov, the Foreign Ministry spokesman under Gorbachev, who said that Star Wars was "very successful blackmail.^ I would like to discuss several points: why the Soviet Union should feel threatened by us when we have never started a war, and never will.
  • Footage Farm: Ronald Reagan 25 January 2010 0:24 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ My view is that president Gorbachev is different from previous Soviet leaders.
  • Footage Farm: Ronald Reagan 25 January 2010 0:24 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ President Reagan - Star Wars Speech Ronald Reagan seated at desk in White House makes speech re defence budget and detailing his plans for Star Wars - Strategic Defence Initiative.
  • Footage Farm: Ronald Reagan 25 January 2010 0:24 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

... The Soviet economy couldn't endure such competition."[261] .Reagan's strong rhetoric toward the nation had mixed effects; Jeffery W. Knopf, Ph.D. observes that being labeled "evil" probably made no difference to the Soviets but gave encouragement to the East-European citizens opposed to communism.^ Reagan says no deals have been made.
  • Footage Farm: Ronald Reagan 25 January 2010 0:24 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Reagan as chief adviser on Soviet and East European affairs.
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^ Oppression has been no less fatal to the Indian than to the negro race, but its effects are different.
  • Democracy in America, Part I. by Alexis de Tocqueville 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

[190] .That Reagan had little or no effect in ending the Cold War is argued with equal weight; that Communism's internal weakness had become apparent, and the Soviet Union would have collapsed in the end regardless of who was in power.^ The central power, successively stripped of all its prerogatives, and reduced to impotence by tacit consent, would become incompetent to fulfil its purpose; and the second Union would perish, like the first, by a sort of senile inaptitude.
  • Democracy in America, Part I. by Alexis de Tocqueville 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Indians had only the two alternatives of war or civilization; in other words, they must either have destroyed the Europeans or become their equals.
  • Democracy in America, Part I. by Alexis de Tocqueville 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ It'll be an "End Times" war over the basics like food, clean water, power and shelter before it ever becomes a war over ideology and stupid political stances that don't actually exist.
  • The Superficial - Barack Obama is the President of the United States 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC thesuperficial.com [Source type: Original source]

[190] .President Harry Truman's policy of containment is also regarded as a force behind the fall of Communism, and the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan undermined the Soviet system itself.^ (AP, 7/11/99) 1994 Jul 12, President Clinton, visiting Germany, went to the eastern sector of Berlin, the first president to do so since Harry Truman.
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^ (AP, 12/12/99) 1980 Jan 2, President Carter asked the Senate to delay the arms treaty ratification in response to Soviet action in Afghanistan.
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^ (AP, 12/19/03) 1981 Dec 29, President Reagan curtailed Soviet trade in reprisal for its harsh Polish policy.
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[260]
General Secretary Gorbachev said of his former rival's Cold War role: "[He was] a man who was instrumental in bringing about the end of the Cold War",[262] and deemed him "a great President."[262] Gorbachev does not acknowledge a win or loss in the war, but rather a peaceful end; he said he was not intimidated by Reagan's harsh rhetoric.[263] .Margaret Thatcher, former Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, said of Reagan, "he warned that the Soviet Union had an insatiable drive for military power...^ Reagan gives toast to Margaret Thatcher.
  • Footage Farm: Ronald Reagan 25 January 2010 0:24 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ And Wright; well, McCain had a minister who said "Hitler was just fulfilling God's plan to drive the jews out of europe...
  • The Superficial - Barack Obama is the President of the United States 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC thesuperficial.com [Source type: Original source]

^ So one can only hope that the current president - Of the United States, the new Israeli prime minister - would have a backbone and wouldn't sell his/her soul.
  • The Superficial - Barack Obama is the President of the United States 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC thesuperficial.com [Source type: Original source]

but he also sensed it was being eaten away by systemic failures impossible to reform."[264] .She later stated, "Ronald Reagan had a higher claim than any other leader to have won the Cold War for liberty and he did it without a shot being fired."^ W/ Ronald Reagan & others behind.
  • Footage Farm: Ronald Reagan 25 January 2010 0:24 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the first place it is to be remarked, that if in a democratic State the governors have less honesty and less capacity than elsewhere, the governed, on the other hand, are more enlightened and more attentive to their interests.
  • Democracy in America, Part I. by Alexis de Tocqueville 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Bush won more votes than any other president in American history.
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[265] Said Brian Mulroney, former Prime Minister of Canada: "He enters history as a strong and dramatic player [in the Cold War]."[266] Former President Lech Wałęsa of Poland acknowledged, "Reagan was one of the world leaders who made a major contribution to communism's collapse."[267]

Domestic and political legacy

.Ronald Reagan reshaped the Republican party, led the modern conservative movement, and altered the political dynamic of the United States.^ Great political parties are not, then, to be met with in the United States at the present time.
  • Democracy in America, Part I. by Alexis de Tocqueville 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Reagan switched to the Republican Party.
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^ Such petitions shall declare support for the official recognition of a political party, the name of which shall be stated on the declaration (Sec.
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[268] .More men voted Republican under Reagan, and Reagan tapped into religious voters.^ Even republicans have stated that the lower class and less educated have a tendency to vote republican (the majority), and the more educated middle class tend to vote democratic.
  • The Superficial - Barack Obama is the President of the United States 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC thesuperficial.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The US under the watch of the Republicans has turned into a joke, a socialist joke too.
  • The Superficial - Barack Obama is the President of the United States 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC thesuperficial.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Considering that Republicans have always had a fair percentage of the Black voters (although less than the Democrats), the overwhelming percentage for Obama shows that Obama's race was more important than his politics, which is not a good enough reason to vote for him.
  • The Superficial - Barack Obama is the President of the United States 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC thesuperficial.com [Source type: Original source]

[268] .The so-called "Reagan Democrats" were a result of his presidency.^ The National Chairperson of the Democratic National Committee shall call the Convention to order and shall preside until the Permanent Chair of the Convention shall be chosen in accordance with these rules.
  • http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS5356 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC purl.access.gpo.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ (AP, 7/1/97) 1987 Jul 18, President Reagan used his weekly radio address to call on Congress to give more aid to the Nicaraguan Contras.
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^ Nov 22, President Reagan called for defense-pact deployment of the MX missile.
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[268]
.Since leaving office, Reagan has become an iconic influence within the Republican party.^ Reagan switched to the Republican Party.
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^ Reagan became the 1st pres elected in a "0" year, since 1840, to leave office alive.
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^ Detail/32) 1980 cAug, The Republican National Convention, held in Detroit, nominated Ronald Reagan and George Bush to lead the [party.
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[269] .His policies and beliefs have been frequently invoked by Republican presidential candidates since 1989.[16] The 2008 Republican presidential candidates were no exception, for they aimed to liken themselves to him during the primary debates, even imitating his campaign stategies.^ A person not qualified for matching funds is not eligible to be a candidate in the presidential preference primary.
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^ H. No state's delegate selection rules may require the filing of district-level delegate or alternate candidates pledged to a presidential candidate or uncommitted status as a condition of access by a presidential candidate to the primary ballot for voting upon presidential preference.
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^ When a group of candidates for presidential electors designates the presidential and vice presidential candidates for whom all of the group pledge themselves to vote, the names of the presidential candidate and vice-presidential candidate designated by that group shall be printed on the ballot pursuant to Chapter 2.
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[270] Republican nominee John McCain frequently stated that he came to office as "a foot soldier in the Reagan Revolution".[271]

Cultural and political image

.According to columnist Chuck Raasch, "Reagan transformed the American presidency in ways that only a few have been able to."^ President Reagan takes podium, Communist representative heckles, asks questions re American military in Central America.
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^ Most of all, I believe that I am not the only American who feels this way.
  • The Superficial - Barack Obama is the President of the United States 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC thesuperficial.com [Source type: Original source]

^ [President Reagan Speaks To Nation After Geneva Summit, 21Nov85] Ronald Reagan dressed casually sitting at desk reading report re Geneva Summit and Soviet-American relations.
  • Footage Farm: Ronald Reagan 25 January 2010 0:24 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[272] .He redefined the political agenda of the times, advocating lower taxes, a conservative economic philosophy, and a stronger military.^ Guess what, if you knew anything about economics you should know that you can't just LOWER taxes.
  • The Superficial - Barack Obama is the President of the United States 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC thesuperficial.com [Source type: Original source]

[273] .His role in the Cold War further enhanced his image as a different kind of leader.^ Cold War; Anti-Communism; UNITA; Anti-Marx; Rebels; Leaders; Photo Opportunity; Diplomacy; .
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^ Cold War; Anti-Communism; UNITA; Anti-Marx; Rebels; Leaders; Diplomacy; .
  • Footage Farm: Ronald Reagan 25 January 2010 0:24 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[274][275]
Ronald Reagan's approval ratings
Date Event Approval (%) Disapproval (%)
March 30, 1981 Shot by Hinckley 73 19
January 22, 1983 High unemployment 42 54
April 26, 1986 Libya bombing 70 26
February 26, 1987 Iran-Contra affair 44 51
January 20, 1989 End of presidency 64
n/a Career Average 57 39
July 30, 2001 (Retrospective)[251] 64 27
.Reagan did not have the highest approval ratings as president,[276] but his popularity has increased since 1989. Gallup polls in 2001 and 2007 have ranked him number one or number two when correspondents were asked for the greatest president in history, and third of post-World War II presidents in a 2007 Rasmussen Reports poll, fifth in an ABC 2000 poll, ninth in another 2007 Rasmussen poll, and eighth in a late 2008 poll by United Kingdom newspaper The Times.^ [President Reagan Lunching With Advisors, Geneva, Switzerland, 18Nov85] Reagan into room, talks about sleep & sits down on couch; advisors all sit down & some one asks Reagan Are you grumpy today?
  • Footage Farm: Ronald Reagan 25 January 2010 0:24 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If one of the two vice presidential candidates were to die, the Senate would have to choose the survivor because it must choose between only those two vice presidential candidates having the greatest number of votes.
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^ (AP, 3/14/97) 1987 May 15, President Reagan told a gathering of out-of-town reporters at the White House he did not consider himself "mortally wounded" by the Iran-Contra affair.
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[277][278][279] .In a Siena College survey of over 200 historians, however, Reagan ranked sixteenth out of 42.[280][281] While the debate about Reagan's legacy is ongoing, the 2009 Annual C-SPAN Survey of Presidential Leaders ranked Reagan the 10th greatest president.^ White House lawn, Marine Band, President & Mrs. Reagan announced & walk out in sun w/ crowd watching.
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^ Arrival - President and Mrs Reagan down steps of presidential plane, greeted by Chancellor Kohl, wife Hannelore and others.
  • Footage Farm: Ronald Reagan 25 January 2010 0:24 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Jul 12, Doctors discovered what turned out to be a cancerous growth in President Reagan’s large intestine, prompting surgery the following day.
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The survey of leading historians rated Reagan number 11 in 2000.[282]
Ronald Reagan's approval ratings (Gallup 1981–89)

The Great Communicator

.Reagan's ability to connect with the American people[283] earned him the laudatory moniker "The Great Communicator".[284] Of it, Reagan said "I won the nickname the great communicator.^ The pride and comfort that the American people enjoy in the great commentaries of De Tocqueville are far removed from the selfish adulation that comes from a great and singular success.
  • Democracy in America, Part I. by Alexis de Tocqueville 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Funny you should mention Nazis in your post, When Hitler was elected, people bought into his charisma and ability to make great speeches.
  • The Superficial - Barack Obama is the President of the United States 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC thesuperficial.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Whatever moniker people tag him with, he's the President-elect of this country and as Americans we are all obligated to stand behind him as our leader - REGARDLESS of whether you like him or not.
  • The Superficial - Barack Obama is the President of the United States 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC thesuperficial.com [Source type: Original source]

.But I never thought it was my style that made a difference– it was the content.^ Having traveled all my life, all over the world; throughout Europe, Africa and North America I can tell you that Barack has made a difference for people all over this planet.
  • The Superficial - Barack Obama is the President of the United States 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC thesuperficial.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I never thought I would ever see this in my lifetime....
  • The Superficial - Barack Obama is the President of the United States 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC thesuperficial.com [Source type: Original source]

I wasn't a great communicator, but I communicated great things."[285] His age and soft-spoken speech gave him a warm grandfatherly image.[286][287][288]
.Reagan also earned the nickname "the Teflon President", in that public perceptions of him were not tarnished by the controversies that arose during his administration.^ President Reagan & Gorbachev at attention in front of flags in Washington DC on mall as Reagan greets him.
  • Footage Farm: Ronald Reagan 25 January 2010 0:24 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ President and mrs Reagans trip to Japan and China - crowds welcome him.
  • Footage Farm: Ronald Reagan 25 January 2010 0:24 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The President is chosen for four years, and he may be reelected; so that the chances of a prolonged administration may inspire him with hopeful undertakings for the public good, and with the means of carrying them into execution.
  • Democracy in America, Part I. by Alexis de Tocqueville 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

[289] According to Congresswoman Patricia Schroeder, who coined the phrase, and reporter Howard Kurtz, the epithet referred to Reagan's ability to "do almost anything [wrong][289] and not get blamed for it."[283][290]
.Public reaction to Reagan was always mixed; the oldest president was supported by young voters, and began an alliance that shifted many of them to the Republican party.^ Reagan switched to the Republican Party.
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^ Each candidate for President shall file a petition signed by at least 5,000 of the registered voters of the party in the State; however, such candidate shall not appear on the ballot.
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^ (SSFC, 6/6/04, A16)(www.ford.utexas.edu/grf/timeline.asp) 1976 Aug 19, President Ford narrowly won the Republican presidential nomination over Ronald Reagan at the party's convention in Kansas City.
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[291] However, Reagan was unpopular with minority groups, especially African-Americans.[160] .His support of Israel throughout his presidency earned him support from many Jews, though.^ If he is a bad president, which I highly doubt he'll be, we will have to live with our choice, and support him, until we are given the chance to elect a new president.
  • The Superficial - Barack Obama is the President of the United States 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC thesuperficial.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Bush met with Saudi Crown Prince Abdullah, who told him bluntly that the US must temper its support of Israel.
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[292] .He emphasized family values in his campaigns and during his presidency, although he was the first president to have been divorced.^ Statement by Principal Deputy Press Secretary Speakes on the President's Weekly Radio Addresses to the Nation During the 1984 Presidential Campaign .

[293] .The combination of Reagan's speaking style, unabashed patriotism, negotiation skills, as well as his savvy use of the media, played an important role in defining the 1980s and his future legacy.^ To all rational Americans, well done on exercising your right to democratic process and playing your all-important part (whether you voted for Obama or not).
  • The Superficial - Barack Obama is the President of the United States 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC thesuperficial.com [Source type: Original source]

[294]
Reagan was known to gibe frequently during his lifetime, displayed humor throughout his presidency,[295] and was famous for his storytelling.[296] .His numerous jokes and one-liners have been labeled "classic quips" and "legendary".[297] Among the most notable of his jokes was one regarding the Cold War.^ All intermediate measures seem to me likely to terminate, and that shortly, in the most horrible of civil wars, and perhaps in the extirpation of one or other of the two races.
  • Democracy in America, Part I. by Alexis de Tocqueville 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

.As a sound check prior to his weekly radio address in August 1984, Reagan made the following gaffe as a way to test the microphone: "My fellow Americans, I'm pleased to tell you today that I've signed legislation that will outlaw Russia forever.^ Aug 11, President Reagan sparked controversy when he joked during a voice test for a paid political radio address: "My fellow Americans, I'm pleased to tell you today that I've signed legislation that will outlaw Russia forever.
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^ Reagan: ..incidentally I ve taken my test.
  • Footage Farm: Ronald Reagan 25 January 2010 0:24 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (AP, 8/12/97) 1987 Sep 5, In his weekly radio address, President Reagan urged American workers to shun protectionist legislation and "meet the competition head-on."
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We begin bombing in five minutes."[298] Former aide David Gergen commented, "It was that humor... that I think endeared people to Reagan."[154]

Honors

.Reagan received a number of awards in his pre- and post-presidential years.^ The presidential electors at large shall cast their ballots for the presidential and vice-presidential candidates who received the largest number of votes in the State.
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^ A presidential preference primary will be held on the first Tuesday in March in any year evenly divisible by the number four.
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^ Step 3: Multiply the number of delegates to be allocated by the percentage received by each presidential preference.
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.Following his election as president, Reagan received a lifetime gold membership in the Screen Actors Guild, as well as the United States Military Academy's Sylvanus Thayer Award.^ Mr President...welcome to the United States.
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^ President of the United States is elected.
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^ I'm proud of the United States and what we have accomplished in this election.
  • The Superficial - Barack Obama is the President of the United States 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC thesuperficial.com [Source type: Original source]

[299]
.Reagan received an honorary British knighthood, The Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath in 1989. This entitled him to the use of the post-nominal letters GCB, but did not entitle him to be known as "Sir Ronald Reagan". Only two American presidents have received the honor—Reagan and George H.W. Bush.^ Reagan and VP George Bush walking.
  • Footage Farm: Ronald Reagan 25 January 2010 0:24 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ronald Reagan announced that he would seek the GOP nomination for president.
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^ Reagan went onto win the nomination and the presidency.
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[300] Reagan was also named an honorary Fellow of Keble College, Oxford. .Japan awarded him the Grand Cordon of the Order of the Chrysanthemum in 1989; he was the second American president to receive the award, but the first to have it given to him for personal reasons (Dwight D. Eisenhower received it as a commemoration of U.S.-Japanese relations).^ This was the first such visit by an American president.
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^ (AP, 4/24/99) 1989 Apr 28, President Bush announced the U.S. and Japan had concluded a deal on joint development of a new Japanese jet fighter, the FSX, despite concerns that U.S. technology secrets would be given away.
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^ (AP, 4/28/99) 1989 Apr 30, President Bush attended a parade in New York City celebrating the bicentennial of the American presidency.
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[301]
Former President Ronald Reagan returns to the White House to receive the Presidential Medal of Freedom from President George H.W. Bush in 1993
.On January 18, 1993, Reagan's former Vice-President and sitting President George H. W. Bush awarded him the Presidential Medal of Freedom, the highest honor that the United States can bestow.^ Mr President...welcome to the United States.
  • Footage Farm: Ronald Reagan 25 January 2010 0:24 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Reagan and VP George Bush walking.
  • Footage Farm: Ronald Reagan 25 January 2010 0:24 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ President of the United States is elected.
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[302] .Reagan was also awarded the Republican Senatorial Medal of Freedom, the highest honor bestowed by Republican members of the Senate.^ Jimmy Carter and Rosalynn Carter the Medal of Freedom, the highest US civilian award.
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^ Remarks at a Luncheon Honoring Nancy Reagan at the Republican National Convention in New Orleans, Louisiana .

^ Remarks to Members of the Republican National Committee and the Reagan-Bush Campaign Staff in Dallas, Texas .

[303]
.On Reagan's 87th birthday, in 1998, Washington National Airport was renamed Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport by a bill signed into law by President Clinton.^ Bush signed a sweeping anti-terrorism bill into law.
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^ (AP, 2/6/99) 1998 Feb 6, President Clinton signed a bill changing the name of Washington National Airport to Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport.
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^ Clinton signed the new telecommunications bill into law.
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.That year, the Ronald Reagan Building and International Trade Center was dedicated in Washington, D.C.[304] He was among 18 included in Gallup's List of Widely Admired People of the 20th Century, from a poll conducted of the American people in 1999; two years later, the USS Ronald Reagan was christened by Nancy Reagan and the United States Navy.^ Nancy Reagan christened the ship.
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^ The Americans of the United States already exercise a very considerable moral influence upon all the peoples of the New World.
  • Democracy in America, Part I. by Alexis de Tocqueville 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ [President Reagan & Nancy Leave Washington By Helicopter] Presidential helicopter landing, Washington Monument in BG. President Ronald Reagan, Nancy and dog out of White House and into chopper - waving.
  • Footage Farm: Ronald Reagan 25 January 2010 0:24 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It is one of few Navy ships christened in honor of a living person, and the first aircraft carrier to be named in honor of a living former president.^ (SFC, 6/8/05, p.A1) 2005 Feb 17, President Bush named John Negroponte, the U.S. ambassador to Iraq, as the government's first national intelligence director.
  • Timeline US Presidents to GW Bush 20 September 2009 6:54 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ (AP, 11/5/97) 2001 Mar 4, President George W. Bush dedicated a $4 billion aircraft carrier in honor of former President Reagan.
  • Timeline US Presidents to GW Bush 20 September 2009 6:54 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ External security of the Union—Army of six thousand men—Few ships—The President has no opportunity of exercising his great prerogatives—In the prerogatives he exercises he is weak.
  • Democracy in America, Part I. by Alexis de Tocqueville 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

[305]
A bronze statue of Reagan stands in the Capitol rotunda as part of the National Statuary Hall Collection.
.Congress authorized the creation of the Ronald Reagan Boyhood Home National Historic Site in Dixon, Illinois in 2002, pending federal purchase of the property.^ (AP, 2/6/99) 1998 Feb 6, President Clinton signed a bill changing the name of Washington National Airport to Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport.
  • Timeline US Presidents to GW Bush 20 September 2009 6:54 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ (HN, 1/4/99) 1920-1928 The Reagan family settled in Dixon, Ill., and Ronald Reagan attended Dixon Northside High School.
  • Timeline US Presidents to GW Bush 20 September 2009 6:54 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ Detail/32) 1980 cAug, The Republican National Convention, held in Detroit, nominated Ronald Reagan and George Bush to lead the [party.
  • Timeline US Presidents to GW Bush 20 September 2009 6:54 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

[306] .On May 16 of that year, Nancy Reagan accepted the Congressional Gold Medal, the highest civilian honor bestowed by Congress, on behalf of the president and herself.^ Bush presented the Reagans with a Congressional Gold medal.
  • Timeline US Presidents to GW Bush 20 September 2009 6:54 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ (AP, 3/28/01) 1991 May 15, Simon and Schuster published “Nancy Reagan: The Unauthorized Biography” by Kitty Kelly.
  • Timeline US Presidents to GW Bush 20 September 2009 6:54 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ A candidate for President may register at any time after January first of the election year and not later than four o'clock p.m.
  • http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS5356 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC purl.access.gpo.gov [Source type: Original source]

[307]
.Following Reagan's death, the United States Postal Service issued a President Ronald Reagan commemorative postage stamp in 2005.[308] Later in the year, CNN, along with the editors of Time magazine, named him the "most fascinating person" of the network's first 25 years;[309] Time listed Reagan one of the 100 Most Important People of the 20th century as well.^ Mr President...welcome to the United States.
  • Footage Farm: Ronald Reagan 25 January 2010 0:24 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ President of the United States is elected.
  • http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS5356 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC purl.access.gpo.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Write-in candidates Persons seeking to qualify for election as write-in candidates for President and Vice President of the United States may have a blank space provided on the general election ballot for their names to be written in by filing an oath with the Department of State at any time after the 57th day, but before noon of the 49th day, prior to the date of the first primary election in the year in which a presidential election is held.
  • http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS5356 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC purl.access.gpo.gov [Source type: Original source]

[310] .The Discovery Channel asked its viewers to vote for The Greatest American in an unscientific poll on June 26, 2005; Reagan received the honorary title.^ In no case shall the candidate receiving the greatest number of votes in a primary have apportioned to him a lesser number of delegates than the candidate with the next greatest number of votes.
  • http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS5356 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC purl.access.gpo.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ The electors must vote for the candidates for President and Vice President who received the greatest number of votes at the general election (title 17, Sec.
  • http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS5356 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC purl.access.gpo.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ A ``major party'' is one which at the last gubernatorial election polled the greatest or next greatest number of votes cast in the State for Governor (Sec.
  • http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS5356 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC purl.access.gpo.gov [Source type: Original source]

[311]
.In 2006, Reagan was inducted into the California Hall of Fame, located at The California Museum for History, Women, and the Arts.^ President Reagan into car w/ hot air balloon behind: California Loves Ron & Nancy; crowd waving flags etc.
  • Footage Farm: Ronald Reagan 25 January 2010 0:24 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[312] .Every year since 2002, California Governors have proclaimed February 6 "Ronald Reagan Day" in the state of California in honor of their most famous predecessor.^ Governor Ronald Reagan press conference.
  • Footage Farm: Ronald Reagan 25 January 2010 0:24 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Journey for Democracy and Peace Pt 2 of 2 A review of President Ronald Reagan s five day trip to Latin America, 30th Nov.
  • Footage Farm: Ronald Reagan 25 January 2010 0:24 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ All such rules shall be filed with the secretary of state no later than January 2, 1992, and no later than January 2 every fourth year thereafter.
  • http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS5356 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC purl.access.gpo.gov [Source type: Original source]

[313] .In 2007, Polish President Lech Kaczyński posthumously awarded Reagan the highest Polish distinction, the Order of the White Eagle, saying that Reagan inspired the Polish people to work for change and helped to unseat the repressive communist regime; Kaczyński said it "would not have been possible if it was not for the tough-mindedness, determination, and feeling of mission of President Ronald Reagan".[314] Reagan backed the nation of Poland throughout his presidency, supporting the anti-communist Solidarity movement, along with Pope John Paul II.^ President Ronald Reagan saying this is the anniversary of a day of infamy.
  • Footage Farm: Ronald Reagan 25 January 2010 0:24 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ronald Reagan announced that he would seek the GOP nomination for president.
  • Timeline US Presidents to GW Bush 20 September 2009 6:54 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ Reagan says construction is with Communist finance and backing.
  • Footage Farm: Ronald Reagan 25 January 2010 0:24 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[315]
.On June 3, 2009, Nancy Reagan unveiled a statue of her late husband in the United States Capitol rotunda.^ White House - State dinner, President Reagan and Nancy in evening dress greets Indira Gandhi, pose for cameras.
  • Footage Farm: Ronald Reagan 25 January 2010 0:24 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ State Visit of PM Thatcher to United States - Oval Office Meeting Q & A with reporters - Thatcher & Reagan remarks re last meeting between them before end of Reagan presidency.
  • Footage Farm: Ronald Reagan 25 January 2010 0:24 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We know it is said of late by the State of Georgia and by the Executive of the United States, that we have forfeited this right; but we think this is said gratuitously.
  • Democracy in America, Part I. by Alexis de Tocqueville 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

.The statue represents the state of California in the National Statuary Hall Collection.^ Specifically, this category includes former Democratic President and Vice President, former Democratic Leaders of the United States, former Democratic Speakers or Democratic Minority Leaders of the United States House of Representatives, and former National and General Chairs of the Democratic National Committee.
  • http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS5356 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC purl.access.gpo.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ At first sight it might readily be imagined that it is the provincial government which is armed with the authority of the nation, and that Congress represents a single State.
  • Democracy in America, Part I. by Alexis de Tocqueville 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Ambassadors are the representatives of nations in a state of amity with the Union, and whatever concerns these personages concerns in some degree the whole Union.
  • Democracy in America, Part I. by Alexis de Tocqueville 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

.Following Reagan's death, there was a bipartisan agreement to build a statue of Reagan and replace Thomas Starr King.^ There are a lot of things you can do with Project Gutenberg-tm electronic works if you follow the terms of this agreement and help preserve free future access to Project Gutenberg-tm electronic works.
  • Democracy in America, Part I. by Alexis de Tocqueville 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Reagan says it continues to allow build up as there is no verification of number of warheads on the missile.
  • Footage Farm: Ronald Reagan 25 January 2010 0:24 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Remarks of President Reagan, President Mohammed Hosni Mubarak of Egypt, and King Hussein I of Jordan Following Their Meetings .

[316] .The prior day, President Obama signed the Ronald Reagan Centennial Commission Act into law, establishing a commission to plan activities to mark the upcoming 100th anniversary of Reagan's birth.^ President Ronald Reagan saying this is the anniversary of a day of infamy.
  • Footage Farm: Ronald Reagan 25 January 2010 0:24 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Johnson signed the Truth in Lending Act into law.
  • Timeline US Presidents to GW Bush 20 September 2009 6:54 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ Nixon signed into law the Endangered Species Act.
  • Timeline US Presidents to GW Bush 20 September 2009 6:54 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

[317]

Filmography

Footnotes

  1. ^ a b Historical rankings of United States Presidents
  2. ^ a b Ward, Michael. "Main Street Historic District", (PDF), National Register of Historic Places Nomination Form, April 1, 1982, HAARGIS Database, Illinois Historic Preservation Agency. Retrieved July 27, 2007.
  3. ^ "Village in Tipperary is Cashing In on Ronald Reagan's Roots" (fee required). The New York Times. September 6, 1981. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?sec=travel&res=980CE7DE103BF935A3575AC0A967948260. Retrieved May 23, 2009. 
  4. ^ Kengor, Paul (2004), p. 4
  5. ^ Lynette Holloway (December 13, 1996). "Neil Reagan, 88, Ad Executive And Jovial Brother of President". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/1996/12/13/us/neil-reagan-88-ad-executive-and-jovial-brother-of-president.html. Retrieved March 22, 2009. 
  6. ^ a b "Ronald Reagan Facts". Ronald Reagan Presidential Foundation. http://www.reagan.utexas.edu/archives/reference/facts.html. Retrieved June 9, 2007. 
  7. ^ Schribman, David (June 6, 2004). "Reagan, all-American, dies at 93". The Boston Globe. http://www.boston.com/news/nation/articles/2004/06/06/reagan_all_american_dies_at_93/. Retrieved January 17, 2008. 
  8. ^ a b Kengor, Paul (2004), p. 16
  9. ^ Flowers, Richard B. (2005), pp. 181-192
  10. ^ Kengor, Paul (2004), p. 15
  11. ^ Cannon, Lou (2001), p. 2
  12. ^ Reagan, Ronald (1990), p. 27
  13. ^ "School House to White House: The Education of the Presidents". National Archives and Records Administration. http://www.archives.gov/publications/prologue/2007/spring/schoolhouse.html. Retrieved December 30, 2007. 
  14. ^ a b "Ronald Reagan (1911-2004): Small town to tinseltown." CNN, 2004. Retrieved on August 15, 2007.
  15. ^ Cannon, Lou (2001), p. 9
  16. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Cannon, Lou (June 6, 2004). "Actor, Governor, President, Icon". The Washington Post: p. A01. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A18329-2004Jun5.html. Retrieved January 26, 2008. 
  17. ^ Wills, Gary (1987), pp. 109–110
  18. ^ "Biography > A Hero from the Heartland". Ronald Reagan Presidential Foundation. http://www.reaganfoundation.org/reagan/biography/a_hero.asp. Retrieved December 30, 2007. 
  19. ^ "Ronald Reagan > Hollywood Years". Ronald Reagan Presidential Foundation. http://www.reaganfoundation.org/reagan/biography/hollywood_years.asp. Retrieved March 28, 2007. 
  20. ^ a b Cannon, Lou (2001), p. 15
  21. ^ a b Reagan, Ronald (1965). Where's the Rest of Me?. New York: Duell, Sloan, and Pearce. 
  22. ^ Wood, Brett. "Kings Row". TCM website. Turner Classic Movies. http://www.tcm.com/thismonth/article/?cid=17922. Retrieved March 24, 2009. 
  23. ^ Crowther, Bosley (February 3, 1942). "The Screen; 'Kings Row,' With Ann Sheridan and Claude Rains, a Heavy, Rambling Film, Has Its First Showing Here at the Astor". The New York Times. http://movies2.nytimes.com/mem/movies/review.html?res=9903E2DE143BE33BBC4B53DFB4668389659EDE. Retrieved March 29, 2007. 
  24. ^ Cannon, Lou (2005), pp.56-57
  25. ^ a b Friedrich, Otto (1997). City of nets: a portrait of Hollywood in the 1940's. University of California Press (reprint). pp. 86–89. ISBN 978-0520209497. http://books.google.com/books?id=1Y9uZw7YNK8C&printsec=frontcover&dq=city+of+nets&lr=&ei=8P7ISYGWDIPGzQShwfTxCQ#PPA88,M1. 
  26. ^ a b "Ronald Reagan". Internet Movie Database. http://www.imdb.com/name/nm0001654/. Retrieved December 30, 2007. 
  27. ^ "U.S. Army Reserve-History". Global Security.com. http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/agency/army/usar-history.htm. Retrieved December 30, 2007. 
  28. ^ a b c d "Military service of Ronald Reagan". Ronald Reagan Presidential Library. http://www.reagan.utexas.edu/archives/reference/military.html. Retrieved June 22, 2007. 
  29. ^ "History of the 11th Armored Cavalry Regiment". 11th Armored Cavalry Regiment. Archived from the original on 2007-07-01. http://web.archive.org/web/20070701172746/http://www.irwin.army.mil/Units/11TH+Armored+Cavalry+Regiment/11thACR/. Retrieved November 10, 2008. 
  30. ^ "USS Ronald Reagan: Ronald Reagan". United States Navy. http://www.reagan.navy.mil/about_reagan.html. Retrieved March 7, 2007. 
  31. ^ a b c "President Ronald Reagan". National Museum of the United States Air Force. http://www.nationalmuseum.af.mil/factsheets/factsheet.asp?id=1660. Retrieved December 30, 2007. 
  32. ^ a b "Ronald Reagan 1911-2004". Tampico, Illinois Historical Society. http://www.tampicohistoricalsociety.citymax.com/Ronald_Reagan_History_Tampico.html. Retrieved December 30, 2007. 
  33. ^ a b c d "Screen Actors Guild Presidents: Ronald Reagan". Screen Actors Guild. Archived from the original on 2007-12-28. http://web.archive.org/web/20071228063556/http://www.sag.org/history/presidents/reagan.html. Retrieved November 10, 2008. 
  34. ^ "American Notes Hollywood". Time. September 9, 1985. http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,142352,00.html. Retrieved April 21, 2009. 
  35. ^ a b "House Un-American Activities Committee Testimony: Ronald Reagan". Tennessee Wesleyan College. October 23, 1947. http://www.twcnet.edu/cschutz/history-page/Consensus/Reagan-huac-testimony.html. Retrieved December 30, 2007. 
  36. ^ "Dispute Over Theatre Splits Chicago City Council". The New York Times. May 8, 1984. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?sec=travel&res=9407E6DA1138F93BA35756C0A962948260. Retrieved May 17, 2007. 
  37. ^ Oliver, Marilyn (March 31, 1988). "Locations Range From the Exotic to the Pristine". The Los Angeles Times. 
  38. ^ "Jane Wyman: Biography". JaneWyman.com. http://www.jane-wyman.com/biography.html. Retrieved December 31, 2007. 
  39. ^ Severo, Richard (September 11, 2007). "Jane Wyman, 90, Star of Film and TV, Is Dead". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2007/09/11/movies/11wyman.html. Retrieved December 31, 2007. 
  40. ^ Slovick, Matt (1997). "The American President". The Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/style/longterm/movies/features/dcmovies/americanpresident.htm. Retrieved December 31, 2007. 
  41. ^ "Nancy Reagan > Her Life & Times". Ronald Reagan Presidential Foundation. http://www.reaganfoundation.org/reagan/nancy/nancy_bio.asp. Retrieved October 29, 2007. 
  42. ^ a b c d "End of a Love Story". BBC. June 5, 2004. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/americas/265714.stm. Retrieved March 21, 2007. 
  43. ^ "Nancy Davis Reagan". The White House. http://www.whitehouse.gov/history/firstladies/nr40.html. Retrieved January 13, 2008. 
  44. ^ Beschloss, Michael (2007), p. 296
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  46. ^ "Reagan Love Story". MSNBC. June 9, 2004. http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/4201869/. Retrieved May 25, 2007. 
  47. ^ Beschloss, Michael (2007), p. 284
  48. ^ Pemberton (1998) pp 29-31; Reagan, Ronald (1990), p. 132
  49. ^ Thomas W. Evans, The Education of Ronald Reagan: The General Electric Years and the Untold Story of His Conversion to Conservatism (2008)
  50. ^ Lou Cannon, Governor Reagan (2003) p. 113
  51. ^ Steven F. Hayward, The Age of Reagan: The Conservative Counterrevolution, 1980-1989‎ (2009) p. 635
  52. ^ News Hour with Jim Lehrer: Historians reflect on former President Ronald Reagan's legacy in U.S. politics, News Hour with Jim Lehrer: Historians reflect on former President Ronald Reagan's legacy, June 7, 2004 - Roger Wilkins commented on Reagan's Jefferson Davis remark. Wilkins also said the following: "I had one extraordinary conversation with him in which he called me to tell me he wasn't a racist because I had attacked his South Africa policy in a newspaper column and he was very disturbed by the implication that this had any... he spent 30 minutes on the telephone trying to convince me about it, and talked about how he had played football with black guys in high school and college in order to try to make that point."
  53. ^ 1 augustus 2007. "Ronald Reagan Speaks Out Against Socialized Medicine". YouTube. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fRdLpem-AAs. Retrieved 2010-03-08. 
  54. ^ Posted by JohnL at July 23, 2004 12:01 AM (2004-07-23). "Operation Coffee Cup". Texasbestgrok.mu.nu. http://texasbestgrok.mu.nu/archives/038360.php. Retrieved 2010-03-08. 
  55. ^ Richard Rapaport, June 21, 2009, San Francisco ChronicleHow AMA 'Coffeecup' gave Reagan a boost
  56. ^ "A Time for Choosing". PBS. http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/presidents/40_reagan/psources/ps_choose64.html. Retrieved April 17, 2007. 
  57. ^ Cannon, Lou (2001), p. 36
  58. ^ "Governor Ronald Reagan". California State Library. http://www.californiagovernors.ca.gov/h/biography/governor_33.html. Retrieved March 21, 2007. 
  59. ^ Kahn, Jeffery (June 8, 2004). "Ronald Reagan launched political career using the Berkeley campus as a target". UC Berkeley News. http://www.berkeley.edu/news/media/releases/2004/06/08_reagan.shtml. Retrieved March 30, 2007. 
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  61. ^ Cannon, (2001), p. 47
  62. ^ a b Fischer, Klaus (2006), pp. 241-243
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  66. ^ "Reagan Raps Press on Botulism Quote". The Los Angeles Times (Los Angeles, California). March 14, 1974. 
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  85. ^ Murray, Robert K. and Tim H. Blessing (1993); p. 80
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  94. ^ Kengor, Paul (2004). "Reagan's Catholic Connections". Catholic Exchange. http://www.catholiceducation.org/articles/catholic_stories/cs0080.html. Retrieved May 30, 2008. 
  95. ^ Pels, Rebecca (1995). "The Pressures of PATCO: Strikes and Stress in the 1980s". University of Virginia. http://etext.virginia.edu/journals/EH/EH37/Pels.html. Retrieved April 30, 2007. 
  96. ^ "Remarks and a Question-and-Answer Session With Reporters on the Air Traffic Controllers Strike". Ronald Reagan Presidential Foundation. 1981. http://www.reagan.utexas.edu/archives/speeches/1981/80381a.htm. Retrieved May 13, 2007. 
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