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Roots

25th Anniversary DVD Cover released in late 2001.
Approx. run time 570 minutes
Genre Historical / Period
Creator Alex Haley
Produced by David L. Wolper
Stan Margulies
Starring Ben Vereen
LeVar Burton
John Amos
Louis Gossett, Jr.
Leslie Uggams
Georg Stanford Brown
Music by Gerald Fried
Quincy Jones (ep. 1)
Budget US$6 million
Country United States
Original channel ABC
Original run January 23, 1977 – January 30, 1977
No. of episodes 8 (re-edited for VHS and DVD to 6)
Followed by Roots: The Next Generations

Roots is a 1977 American television miniseries based on Alex Haley's work Roots: The Saga of an American Family. Roots received 36 Emmy Award nominations, winning nine; it also won a Golden Globe and a Peabody Award.[1] It received unprecedented Nielsen ratings with the finale still standing as the third-highest rated U.S. television program ever.[2] It was shot on a budget of $6 million.[3][4]

The series introduced LeVar Burton in the role of Kunta Kinte. It also starred Louis Gossett, Jr. as Fiddler. A sequel, Roots: The Next Generations, was broadcast in 1979, and a second sequel, Roots: The Gift, was produced as a Christmas movie and lacks the prestige of the original, despite the fact that LeVar Burton and Louis Gossett, Jr. starred.

Roots and the novel from which the first miniseries was adapted revived interest in oral and genealogical history among all segments of the population.[5] It also spurred an interest in African or African-sounding names; Kizzy (played by Leslie Uggams), for example, became popular for African-American baby girls.[6] Its other cultural effects have also been lasting: even a generation later, noted black American comedian Dave Chappelle satirized the TV series in a popular sketch aired on Chappelle's Show.

The series was directed by Marvin J. Chomsky, John Erman, David Greene and Gilbert Moses. It was produced by Stan Margulies; David L. Wolper was executive producer. The now-familiar score was composed by Gerald Fried and Quincy Jones.

Alex Haley narrates the last few minutes of the series, in which photos of Haley appear alongside those of his ancestors, showing nine generations from Haley all the way back to Kunta Kinte's grandmother.

Contents

Plot summary

In the Gambia, West Africa, in 1750, Kunta Kinte (LeVar Burton) is born to Muslim Mandinka warrior Omoro Kinte (Thalmus Rasulala) and his wife Binta (Cicely Tyson). When their son reaches the age of 15, he and a group of other adolescent males take part in a tribal "coming of manhood" ceremony, after which they officially become Mandinka warriors. While trying to find wood outside his village to make a drum, Kunta is captured by slave traders and put on a slave ship commanded by Captain Davies (Edward Asner) and his third mate Slater (Ralph Waite) for a three-month journey to Colonial America. During the course of their forced journey, a group of Africans rebel but they fail to take over the ship.

The ship lands months later in Annapolis, Maryland, where the captured Africans are sold as chattel slaves. Kunta Kinte is sold to plantation owner John Reynolds (Lorne Greene) and is given the slave name of Toby. An older slave named Fiddler (Louis Gossett Jr) is charged with teaching Toby the ways of being a chattel slave, including learning English. In a desperate struggle to be free and to preserve his Mandinka heritage, he makes several unsuccessful attempts to escape. An overseer named Ames (Vic Morrow) has Kunta Kinte severely whipped by another slave until he submits to the name Toby.

The adult Kunta Kinte/Toby (John Amos) eventually learns what it means to be a chattel slave but is haunted by his Mandinka roots and his memories of being free. He submits to the harsh life, but only after having half of his foot severed to keep him from attempting further escapes. He is sold to John Reynolds' brother William (Robert Reed), eventually marrying another slave named Belle (Madge Sinclair) and having a daughter named Kizzy (Leslie Uggams). Kizzy is secretly taught to read and write by Reynolds' niece Missy Anne (Sandy Duncan). When Kizzy is in her late teens, she is caught writing a fake travel pass for a boy she is in love with. She is then sold away to Tom Moore (Chuck Connors) in North Carolina. Kizzy is viciously raped by Moore and, as a result, gives birth to a son named George (Ben Vereen).

George becomes an expert in cockfighting, earning him the moniker "Chicken George," which eventually gives him the opportunity in the 1840s to be sent into servitude in England. He later returns to America a free man. George's son Tom Harvey (Georg Stanford Brown) becomes a blacksmith whose slave labor is used by the Confederate Army during the American Civil War. After the war, racists led by Evan Brent (Lloyd Bridges) begin to frequently harass George, his family and other blacks — exploiting them economically by day and trying to intimidate them wearing hooded robes by night. The miniseries ends as Tom and his family, newly freed, move to Tennessee to begin a new life.

Alex Haley narrates the last few minutes of the miniseries: a montage of photos of family members connecting Tom's daughter Cynthia, the great-great-granddaughter of Kunta Kinte, to Haley himself.

Production

The Museum of Broadcast Communications recounts the apprehensions that Roots would flop, and how this made ABC prepare the format:

Familiar television actors like American [sic] actor Lorne Greene were chosen for the white, secondary roles, to reassure audiences. The white actors were featured disproportionately in network previews. For the first episode, the writers created a conscience-stricken slave captain (Ed Asner), a figure who did not appear in Haley's novel but was intended to make white audiences feel better about their historical role in the slave trade. Even the show's consecutive-night format allegedly resulted from network apprehensions. ABC programming chief Fred Silverman hoped that the unusual schedule would cut his network's imminent losses—and get Roots off the air before sweeps week.[7]

Differences between miniseries and book

There are numerous differences between the miniseries and novel that it is based on. The differences include:

  • All the characters' surnames are different. Waller is changed to Reynolds, Lea is changed to Moore, and Murray is changed to Harvey. Additionally, Murray's first name is not revealed in the book, whereas Harvey is given the first name Samuel in the miniseries.
  • Kunta's grandfather, Kairaba Kunta Kinte, is mentioned only once, at the very end of the third episode, as Kunta is describing his newborn daughter Kizzy's Mandinka lineage to her. While Sireng, Kairaba's first wife, is not referenced in the miniseries as in the book, it is important to note that Kunta's narrative to his daughter is the final scene of the episode (the audio gradually tapers off with Kairaba's name barely distinguishable). Thus, presumably Kunta would have mentioned Sireng shortly after mentioning Kairaba.
  • The book records the early life and adolescence of Kunta Kinte in Juffure while the miniseries covers only his birth and teenage years before his capture.
  • The Character of Nyo Boto is a combination of the same character in the novel as well as Kunta's paternal grandmother Yaisa. Also Nyo Boto seems to be Kunta's maternal grandmother in the television adaptation whereas the novel portrays her as a family friend and someone who fills the void left when Yaisa dies.
  • Kunta has two other brothers besides Lamin, named Suwadu and Madi in the novel, while he is only referred to as having two brothers in total in the television adaptation.
  • The character of Fanta is a widow at least twenty years Kunta's senior in the novel, while she is portrayed as closer to his age in the miniseries. She also plays a more crucial role in Kunta's journey whereas in the novel she has only one scene, and is never captured along with Kunta.
  • Kunta's two half-uncles Janneh and Saloum Kinte are omitted entirely.
  • The subplot of Captain Thomas Davies and his crew was expanded. In the book, only Capt. Davies is twice named toward the very end of the book (pp 582–583, 1st Edition printing, Doubleday & Co., Inc., 1976).
  • The captured men are chained nude to each other in the book, but they have simple loincloths in the miniseries, naturally. Surprisingly for American television—though realistically given The Gambia's location in the Tropics—some of the women captured, most notably one who commits suicide in order to escape, are topless like the men.
  • The woman who tries to escape seemingly dies by drowning, but in the novel she is quickly attacked and killed by sharks.
  • An entire scene involving John Reynolds and his family is exclusive to the miniseries. Also, later scenes of Reynolds and his brother were created in order to link the story.
  • Kunta escapes at least three times from the Reynolds plantation during his first year there. The miniseries depicts only one escape when he is young, and one other when he is older.
  • The characters of Fiddler, and William and Mrs. Reynolds are expanded the miniseries.
  • In the novel, when Kunta is first purchased, the black slave bringing him back to Virginia is named Samson, and is cruel towards Kunta. Kunta tries to kill him and is later sold; only then does he meet Fiddler. In the miniseries, Fiddler is present from the beginning at Annapolis.
  • In the novel, the front half of Kunta's foot is amputated after his third escape attempt at the age of eighteen, but in the miniseries this occurs when he is twenty-six.
  • Kunta's process of counting the number of rains he has seen by placing pebbles in a gourd has been omitted.
  • Fiddler tries to buy his freedom in the book, something not mentioned in the miniseries, and comes to a very bad end with Dr. Waller (Reynolds in the miniseries) who won't sell it to Fiddler except for double the originally agreed-upon price. The novel indicates, through Fiddler's poignant dialogue, that this is due chiefly to the slave-price inflation of that day, spurred by the invention of the cotton gin and a resulting greater need for slave labor in the deep South. Additionally, slaveowners were in fact not legally compelled to keep their word to their slaves.
  • Kunta is somewhat more willing to engage in sexual relations with other slaves in the miniseries than he is in the novel. In the miniseries, a beautiful mulatto slave named Genelva directly propositions Kunta in his cabin, though they are interrupted when the overseer barges in. As depicted in the novel, however, Kunta is far too proud a Mandinka to engage with anyone with the lack of self-dignity to not want to be free, until his eventual marriage to Belle.
  • Belle and Kunta are married after just over four years from when she cares for him, but in the novel it takes nearly twenty-two years after she cares for him post-amputation before they finally marry.
  • The character of Missy Anne is given a unique backstory as the product of an adulterous affair between William Reynolds and his sister-in-law. In the book Reynolds (Waller) is simply Missy Anne's adoptive uncle. Also Missy Anne is slightly older in the miniseries as opposed to the novel, and plays a much larger role.
  • William Reynolds's backstory involving Belle's admiration toward him and Missy Anne has been omitted.
  • Kizzy's childhood has been omitted from the miniseries.
  • Belle's knowledge of reading and writing was shared by Kizzy in the novel. Belle seems proud—though very cautiously so, given the laws of that day regarding black people and literacy—with her daughter's knowledge, but in the television adaptation she is furious with Kizzy for learning how to read and write from Missy Anne.
  • When Kizzy is sold to Tom Lea (Moore in the miniseries) she befriends the cook Ms. Malizy and the two become good friends for years. In the miniseries the character's name is slightly changed to Melissa, and only appears in two scenes. Also several characters whom Kizzy befriends including Uncle Pompey and Sister Sarah have been omitted entirely.
  • In the miniseries, there is only one Pompey shown. This is the drummer, whose real name is Bodeyn Bodiako, who is plotting to escape to the North. In the novel, his real name is spelled Boteng Bediako, and he is not planning escape. Rather, he is an attendee at Kunta's and Belle's wedding.
  • In the novel, Mrs. Moore is a scatterbrained but somewhat understanding woman who shows benevolence at times. But in the television adaptation, she is an aloof shrew who is very disturbed by her husband's adultery and has a quick temper.
  • The romance between Kizzy and Sam Bennett, and her returning to the Reynolds plantation where she finds Kunta's grave and scratches out "Toby" on the headstone, writing "Kunta Kinte" in its place, were both created for the miniseries.
  • Matilda's father, a reverend, is seen briefly, while in the novel Matilda claims she never knew anything about her father except that his name was Virgil, and it was a reverend who formerly owned her.
  • Out of Matilda's eight children, only Tom, Lewis and Julius are depicted in the miniseries.
  • The plot regarding Nat Turner and his rebellion is dated as occurring in 1841 but in reality it occurred a decade earlier.
  • Chicken George leaves for England and does not return for fourteen years, whereas the novel gives his stay as four years.
  • The extended Moore family is discussed in the novel including several brothers and sisters of Master Moore as well as nieces and nephews who would later be revealed as Chicken George's half brothers and sisters.
  • The selling of Chicken George's family and his later return to the Moore plantation are only referenced but never shown. Additionally, the skills that Tom Harvey shows as a blacksmith at a young age and his eventual marriage to Irene Holt are not shown.
  • In the novel, Irene is pregnant when she first meets Chicken George, but in the miniseries she already has at least four children, as opposed to eight in the novel.
  • The novel describes the final meeting between Chicken George and his father in some detail, whereas in the miniseries this meeting is only mentioned in a brief statement by Chicken George when returning to his family after living in England. The novel, however, describes how Master Moore does not grant Chicken George his freedom and then passes out in a drunken stupor. Chicken George then sneaks into Moore's bedroom and then steals his freedom papers from a lockbox under Moore's bed. In the process, Chicken George also narrates that for a black slave to enter a white man's bedroom would be punishable by death.
  • C. J. Barnes is changed to Evan Brent in the miniseries.
  • In the novel, Tom is shoeing horses for Captain J. D. Cates, a former Alamance County sheriff. In the miniseries he is working for Evan Brent.
  • Most of the plot from the eighth episode was created especially for the miniseries and was not derived from the book.
  • In the film, Martha is with Ol' George Johnson when he arrives. In the novel he goes and fetches her after a time.
  • Senator Arthur Johnson was created for the miniseries, as was the selling of Sam Harvey's property and the delayed freedom of the slaves.

Cast

with: Tanya Boyd, Helen Martin, William Watson, Lee de Broux, Fred covington, Maurice Hunt, Lee Kessler, Hank Rolike, Allen Williams and more

Broadcast history

Roots originally aired on ABC for eight consecutive nights from January 23 to January 30, 1977. Episodes 1, 2, 6, and 8 were each two hours long while episodes 3, 4, 5, and 7 were each one hour long. The miniseries has since been re-edited to 6 two-hour episodes for VHS, and later DVD, release.

Ratings and viewers

The miniseries was watched by an estimated 130[8][9][10] and 140[11][12] million viewers total and averaged a 44.9 rating[11] 66% share[11] of the audience. The final episode was watched by 100 million viewers and an average of 80 million viewers watched each of the last seven episodes.[7] 85% of all television homes saw all or part of the mini-series.[7]

The ratings for all episodes were found here. All episodes rank within the top 100 rated TV shows of all time.[13]

Episode All-time Ratings
Ranking
Number of
Households
Rating Share Date Network
Roots Part I #82 28.84 million 40.5% 61% 01977-01-23 January 23, 1977 ABC
Roots Part II #32 31.40 million 44.1% 62% 01977-01-24 January 24, 1977 ABC
Roots Part III #27 31.90 million 44.8% 68% 01977-01-25 January 25, 1977 ABC
Roots Part IV #35 31.19 million 43.8% 66% 01977-01-26 January 26, 1977 ABC
Roots Part V #21 32.54 million 45.7% 71% 01977-01-27 January 27, 1977 ABC
Roots Part VI #18 32.68 million 45.9% 66% 01977-01-28 January 28, 1977 ABC
Roots Part VII #50 30.12 million 42.3% 65% 01977-01-29 January 29, 1977 ABC
Roots Part VIII #3 36.38 million 51.1% 71% 01977-01-30 January 30, 1977 ABC

DVD release

Warner Home Video, which released a 25th-anniversary 3-disc DVD edition of the series in 2002, released a four-disc (three double-sided, one single-sided) 30th-anniversary set on May 22, 2007. Bonus features include a new audio commentary by LeVar Burton, Cicely Tyson and Ed Asner among other key cast members, "Remembering Roots" behind-the-scenes documentary, "Crossing Over: How Roots Captivated an Entire Nation" featurette, new interviews with key cast members and the DVD-ROM "Roots Family Tree" feature.[14]

Awards and nominations

  • Emmy Awards:
    • Best Actor – Drama or Comedy Series, Single Appearance (LeVar Burton for "Part I")
    • Best Actor – Drama or Comedy Series, Single Appearance (John Amos for "Part V")
    • Best Actor – Drama or Comedy Series, Single Appearance (Ben Vereen for "Part VI")
    • Best Actor – Drama or Comedy Series, Single Appearance (Louis Gossett, Jr., won)
    • Best Actress – Drama or Comedy Series, Single Appearance (Madge Sinclair for "Part IV")
    • Best Actress – Drama or Comedy Series, Single Appearance (Leslie Uggams for "Part VI")
    • Best Art Direction or Scenic Design – Drama Series ("Part II")
    • Best Art Direction or Scenic Design – Drama Series ("Part VI")
    • Best Costume Design – Drama or Comedy Series (Jack Martell for "Part I")
    • Best Cinematography in Entertainment Programming – Series (Stevan Larner for "Part II")
    • Best Cinematography in Entertainment Programming – Series (Joseph M. Wilcots for "Part VII")
    • Best Director – Drama Series (David Greene for "Part I", won)
    • Best Director – Drama Series (John Erman for "Part II")
    • Best Director – Drama Series (Marvin J. Chomsky for "Part III")
    • Best Director – Drama Series (Gilbert Moses for "Part VI")
    • Best Editing – Drama Series (Neil Travis for "Part I", won)
    • Best Editing – Drama Series (James T. Heckert and Neil Travis for "Part II")
    • Best Editing – Drama Series (Peter Kirby for "Part III")
    • Best Editing – Drama Series (James T. Heckert for "Part VIII")
    • Best Limited Series (won)
    • Best Music Composition for a Series – Dramatic Underscore (Gerald Fried and Quincy Jones for "Part I", won)
    • Best Music Composition for a Series – Dramatic Underscore (Gerald Fried for "Part VIII")
    • Best Sound Editing – Series (won)
    • Best Sound Mixing ("Part I")
    • Best Sound Mixing ("Part IV")
    • Best Sound Mixing ("Part VII")
    • Best Sound Mixing ("Part VIII")
    • Best Supporting Actor – Comedy or Drama Series, Single Appearance (Edward Asner for "Part I", won)
    • Best Supporting Actor – Drama or Comedy Series, Single Performance (Moses Gunn for "Part I")
    • Best Supporting Actor – Drama or Comedy Series (Ralph Waite for "Part I")
    • Best Supporting Actor – Drama or Comedy Series (Robert Reed for "Part V")
    • Best Supporting Actress – Drama or Comedy Series (Cicely Tyson for "Part I")
    • Best Supporting Actress – Drama or Comedy Series (Sandy Duncan for "Part V")
    • Best Supporting Actress – Comedy or Drama Series, Single Appearance (Olivia Cole for "Part VIII", won)
    • Best Writing – Drama Series (Ernest Kinoy and William Blinn for "Part II", won)
    • Best Writing in a Drama Series (M. Charles Cohen for "Part VIII")
    • Best Writing in a Drama Series (James Lee for "Part V")
  • Golden Globe Awards:
    • Best TV Actress – Drama (Leslie Uggams, nominee)
    • Best TV Series – Drama (won)

References

  1. ^ Awards for "Roots"
  2. ^ Top 100 Rated TV Shows Of All Time TV By the Numbers.
  3. ^ "New Roots series expected to yield big bucks for ABC". Ottawa Citizen: p. 54. February 20, 1979. http://news.google.com/newspapers?id=t0MzAAAAIBAJ&sjid=Vu4FAAAAIBAJ&dq=cost%20abc%20%246%20million%20and%20ran%2012%20hours&pg=5309%2C265933. 
  4. ^ Courtis, Brian (February 19, 1979). "Roots...Second Time Around". The Age: p. 2. http://news.google.com/newspapers?id=QdoQAAAAIBAJ&sjid=mZIDAAAAIBAJ&dq=roots%20the%20next%20generations%20ratings&pg=4550%2C1703582. 
  5. ^ Genealogy Discovering Your Own Roots
  6. ^ Baby Names: Kizzy
  7. ^ a b c Museum of Broadcast Communications
  8. ^ Rich, Frank (February 18, 1979). "Television: A Super Sequel to Haley's Comet". Time. http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,912386,00.html. 
  9. ^ "ABC Soard in Ratings With 'Roots' Sequel". Schenectady Gazette: p. 12. February 24, 1979. http://news.google.com/newspapers?id=MgwhAAAAIBAJ&sjid=UnIFAAAAIBAJ&dq=roots%20the%20next%20generations%20ratings&pg=1194%2C7147519. 
  10. ^ "110 million see 'Roots' video special". The Tuscaloosa News: p. 8. March 1, 1979. http://news.google.com/newspapers?id=nDAdAAAAIBAJ&sjid=0p4EAAAAIBAJ&dq=roots%20the%20next%20generations%20ratings&pg=6626%2C36002. 
  11. ^ a b c "'Roots' Ratings Dip". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette: p. 29. February 28, 1979. http://news.google.com/newspapers?id=MkwNAAAAIBAJ&sjid=OG0DAAAAIBAJ&dq=roots%20the%20next%20generations%20ratings&pg=4905%2C3529170. 
  12. ^ Hanauer, Joan (February 28, 1979). "ABC Takes "Roots" Again". The Bryan Times. http://news.google.com/newspapers?id=-xMpAAAAIBAJ&sjid=lVEDAAAAIBAJ&dq=roots%20the%20next%20generations%20ratings&pg=5350%2C4725707. 
  13. ^ Gorman, Bill (May 21, 2009). "Top 100 Rated TV Shows Of All Time". http://tvbythenumbers.com/2009/03/21/top-100-rated-tv-shows-of-all-time/14922. Retrieved 2010-02-17. 
  14. ^ "Roots" DVD details

See also

External links








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