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Rosa × damascena
Rosa damascena
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order: Rosales
Family: Rosaceae
Genus: Rosa
Species: R. × damascena
Binomial name
Rosa × damascena
Mill.

Rosa × damascena, more commonly known as the Damask rose or simply as "Damask", or sometimes as the Rose of Castile, is a rose hybrid, derived from Rosa gallica and Rosa moschata (Huxley 1992). Further DNA analysis has shown that a third species, Rosa fedtschenkoana, is associated with the Damask rose (Harkness 2003). The Damask rose is commonly used to flavor food and to make rose water

Contents

Description and history

The Damask Rose is a deciduous shrub growing to 2.2 metres (7 ft 3 in) tall, the stems densely armed with stout, curved prickles and stiff bristles. The leaves are pinnate, with five (rarely seven) leaflets. It is considered an important type of Old Rose, also for their prominent place in the pedigree of many other types. They are renowned for their fine fragrance, and their flowers are commercially harvested for rose oil used in perfumery. The perfume industry often refers to this rose as the Damascus rose.

The Crusader Robert de Brie is sometimes given credit for bringing them from Persia to Europe sometime between 1254 and 1276. The name refers to Damascus, Syria a major city in the region. Other stories say the Romans brought the rose to England, and a third account is says that the Henry VIII's physician gave him a Damask rose, as a present, around 1540.[1]

Varieties

The hybrid is divided in two varieties (Huxley 1992):

  • Summer Damasks (R. × damascena nothovar. damascena) have a short flowering season, only in the summer.
  • Autumn Damasks (R. × damascena nothovar. semperflorens (Duhamel) Rowley) have a longer flowering season, extending into the autumn; they are otherwise not distinguishable from the summer damasks.

A still popular example of R. × damascena is the Ispahan rose. The hybrid Rosa × centifolia is derived in part from Rosa × damascena, as are the Bourbon, Portland and Hybrid Perpetual classes.

Culinary uses

Damascus roses are used in cooking as a flavouring ingredient or spice. It appears as one of the ingredients in the Moroccan spice mixture known as ras el hanout. Rose water and powdered roses are used in Indian and Middle Eastern cooking. Rose water is often sprinkled on many meat dishes, while rose powder is added to sauces. The most popular use, however, is in the flavoring of desserts such as ice cream, jam, turkish delights, rice pudding, yogurt and etc. Chicken with rose is a popular dish in Persian cuisine. Western cookery today does not make much use of roses or rose water. However, it was a popular ingredient in ancient times and continued to be popular well into the Renaissance. In the west, it was most commonly used in desserts. Many traditional desserts in Europe, however, still make use of roses, such as Marzipan or Turrón.

See also

References

External links

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Wikispecies

Up to date as of January 23, 2010
(Redirected to Rosa ×damascena article)

From Wikispecies

Rosa ×damascena

Taxonavigation

Classification System: APG II (down to family level)

Main Page
Cladus: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiospermae
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: core eudicots
Cladus: Rosids
Cladus: Eurosids I
Ordo: Rosales
Familia: Rosaceae
Subfamilia: Rosoideae
Tribus: Roseae
Genus: Rosa
Nothospecies: Rosa ×damascena

Name

Rosa ×damascena Mill., Gard. Dict., ed. 8. n. 15. 1768.

Synonyms

  • Rosa belgica Mill., Gard. dict. ed. 8, Rosa no.17. 1768.
  • Rosa bifera (Poir.) Pers., Gard. dict. ed. 8, Rosa no.17. 1806.
  • Rosa calendarum Münchh. ex Borkh., Forstbot. 330. 1790.
  • Rosa centifolia var. bifera Poir., Encycl. 6(1). 1804.
  • Rosa ×damascena nothovar. variegata Keller
  • Rosa ×damascena nothovar. trigintipetala Dieck
  • Rosa ×elegans Salisb., Prodr. : 358. 1796. nom. illeg. (pro sp.)
  • Rosa multiflora Wrede ex Rössig, Oekon.-bot. Beschr. Rosen 1. 1799.
  • Rosa polyanthos Rössig, Rosen no.35, 1802.

Parentage

Rosa fedtschenkoana × Rosa gallica × Rosa moschata

References

  • Brumme, H. & Gladis, T. (2007) Die Wildrosen (Gattung Rosa L.) im Europa-Rosarium Sangerhausen, nach ihrer Verwandtschaft geordnet [1].
  • Harkness, P. (2003). The Rose: An Illustrated History. Firefly.
  • Rosa ×damascena Report on ITIS

Vernacular names

English: Damask rose
Svenska: Damascenerros
Türkçe: Yağ gülü, Isparta gülü, Şam gülü
Wikimedia Commons For more multimedia, look at Rosa ×damascena on Wikimedia Commons.

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