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Rostov (Rostov the Great) (English)
Ростов Великий (Russian)
—  Inhabited locality  —
Spaso-Jakovlevskij -1.JPG
Spaso-Jakovlevskij Monastery
Map of Russia - Yaroslavl Oblast (2008-03).svg
Location of Yaroslavl Oblast on the map of Russia
Rostov (Rostov the Great) is located in Yaroslavl Oblast
Location of Rostov (Rostov the Great) on the map of Yaroslavl Oblast
Coordinates: 57°11′N 39°25′E / 57.183°N 39.417°E / 57.183; 39.417Coordinates: 57°11′N 39°25′E / 57.183°N 39.417°E / 57.183; 39.417
Coat of Arms of Rostov (Yaroslavl oblast).png
Coat of arms
Flag of Rostov (Yaroslavl oblast).png
Flag
Administrative status
Country Russia
Federal subject Yaroslavl Oblast
Municipal status
Municipal Status Urban okrug
Mayor Nadezhda Giorgievna Sokolova
Statistics
Population (2002 Census) 32,526 inhabitants[1]
Time zone MSK/MSD (UTC+3/+4)
Founded 862
Postal code(s) 152150
Dialing code(s) +7 +7 48536
Official website http://www.admrostov.ru/

Rostov (Russian: Росто́в; Old Norse: Rostofa) is one of the oldest towns in Russia and a tourist centre of the so-called Golden Ring. It is located on the shores of Lake Nero in Yaroslavl Oblast, 202 km to the north east of Moscow. Population: 34,141 (2002 Census);[2] 35,707 (1989 Census).[3]

While the official name of the town is Rostov, it is better known to Russians as Rostov Veliky, i.e. Rostov the Great. This name is used to distinguish it from Rostov on Don, which is now a much larger city. Rostov Yaroslavsky is the official name of its railway station (due to its position in Yaroslavl Oblast); the town itself is hardly ever called by that name.

Contents

History

Rostov was predated by Sarskoye Gorodishche, which some scholars interpret as the capital of the Merya tribe, while others believe it was an important Viking trade enclave and fortress guarding the Volga trade route. First mentioned in the year 862 as an already important settlement, by the 13th century, Rostov became capital city of one of the most prominent Russian principalities. It was incorporated into Muscovy in 1474.

Even after it lost its independence, Rostov was still an ecclesiastic center of utmost importance (from 988 it was the see of one of the first Russian bishoprics). In the 14th Century, the bishops of Rostov became archbishops, and late in the 16th century, metropolitans. One of those metropolitans, Iona (Jonah) Sysoevich (ca. 1607-1690), commissioned the town's main landmark: the kremlin that many regard as the finest outside of Moscow.

Ravaged by the Mongols in the 13th and 14th centuries (last sack by Edigu in 1408) and the Poles in 1608, Rostov is now a medium size town. The metropolitan see was transferred to Yaroslavl late in the 18th century.

During World War II, Rostov was the site of fierce combat, most notably in 1941 during the first Battle of Rostov. The city was captured by German forces in 1942, but in 1943 it was retaken by Soviet troops.

Apart from its history, Rostov is renowned for its enamels.

Main sights

The central square of Rostov is occupied by the enormous Assumption Cathedral. It is unknown when the present building was erected, the mid-16th Century being the most likely date. Lower parts of the cathedral walls are dated to the 12th century. The ponderous bell-tower was constructed mostly in the 17th century. Its bells are among the largest and most famous in Russia; each has its own name. The largest bell, cast in 1688, weighs 32000 kilograms. It is named Sysoi to honour the metropolitan's father.

An area situated between the cathedral square and the lake was chosen by Iona Sysoevich as a place for his fairy-tale residence. All the construction works were carried out between 1667 and 1694. Major buildings include the ornate Savior Church-na-Senyakh (1675), the sombre Church of St. Gregory (1670), and the barbican churches of St. John the Apostle (1683) and of the Resurrection of Christ (1670). The residence, often erroneously called kremlin, also includes eleven ornate tower bells, numerous palaces, several small belfries, and the dimunitive baroque Church of Our Lady of Smolensk (1693). All the churches are elaborately painted and decorated.

The cathedral and four tall kremlin churches with their silver "blind" domes were imitated throughout the city. This tendency is particularly evident in the Savior-on-the-Market church and the cathedral church of the Nativity convent, both dating from the 17th century and situated near the kremlin walls. The oldest church within the city centre was consecrated to St. Isidore the Blessed in 1565. They say that Ivan the Terrible had the architect executed, because his church was so much smaller than its predecessor.

The kremlin is flanked by two great monasteries, both facing the Lake Nero. To the right from the Kremlin stands the Abraham monastery, founded in the 11th Century and one of the oldest in Russia. Its cathedral, commissioned by Ivan the Terrible in 1553 to commemorate the conquest of Kazan, inspired numerous churches in the region, particularly in Yaroslavl.

Spaso-Yakovlevsky Monastery, situated to the left from the kremlin on the town's outskirts, has been venerated as the shrine of St. Dmitry of Rostov. Most of the monastery structures were built in the late 18th and early 19th centuries in the fine neoclassical style. There are also two 17th-Century churches: the Conception of St. Anna, and the Transfiguration of Our Saviour. Unlike most other churches in the town, the monastery belongs to the Russian Orthodoxy and houses a theological seminary.

Surroundings

The vicinity of Rostov is rich in old architecture. For example, an old wooden church (1687-89) may be seen in the village of Ishnia. One of the best preserved monasteries in Russia, that of saints Boris and Gleb, is situated in Borisoglebsky, about 20 km west of the town. The monastery was favoured by Ivan the Terrible, who personally supervised the construction of towered walls and bell-tower around an even more ancient cathedral. The only addition made to the monastery after Ivan's death is a superb barbican church, commissioned by the metropolitan Iona Sysoevich.

Rostov in films

  • Peter the First (Russian: Пётр Первый) (1937), by Vladimir Petov.
  • Ivan Vasilievich: Back to the Future (Russian: Иван Васильевич меняет профессию, Ivan Vasilievich Changes His Profession) (1973), by Leonid Gaidai.

See also

References

  1. ^ Федеральная служба государственной статистики (Federal State Statistics Service) (2004-05-21). "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек (Population of Russia, its federal districts, federal subjects, districts, urban localities, rural localities—administrative centers, and rural localities with population of over 3,000)" (in Russian). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2002). Federal State Statistics Service. http://perepis2002.ru/ct/html/TOM_01_04_1.htm. Retrieved 2009-08-19.  
  2. ^ Федеральная служба государственной статистики (Federal State Statistics Service) (2004-05-21). "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек (Population of Russia, its federal districts, federal subjects, districts, urban localities, rural localities—administrative centers, and rural localities with population of over 3,000)" (in Russian). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2002). Federal State Statistics Service. http://www.perepis2002.ru/ct/doc/1_TOM_01_04.xls. Retrieved 2008-07-25.  
  3. ^ "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров. (All Union Population Census of 1989. Present population of union and autonomous republics, autonomous oblasts and okrugs, krais, oblasts, districts, urban settlements, and villages serving as district administrative centers.)" (in Russian). Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года (All-Union Population Census of 1989). Demoscope Weekly (website of the Institute of Demographics of the State University—Higher School of Economics. 1989. http://demoscope.ru/weekly/ssp/rus89_reg2.php. Retrieved 2007-12-13.  

External links


Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

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Contents

English

Etymology

The surname - from Russian рост (rost) - growth. The etymology of the city names is unclear.

Proper noun

Singular
Rostov

Plural
-

Rostov

  1. a city in Russia, in Yaroslavl oblast, also called Rostov Veliky (Ростов Великий literally: Rostov the Great) officially and to distinguish from Rostov-na-Donu.
  2. a large city in Russia, centre of Rostov oblast, normally called Rostov-na-Donu or Rostov-on-Don (Ростов-на-Дону).
  3. Rostov Oblast in Russia, its centre is Rostov-na-Donu.
  4. a Russian surname

Translations


Simple English

[[File:|thumb|275px|The citadel of Rostov seen from Lake Nero.]]

Rostov (Russian: Росто́в; Old Norse: Rostofa) is one of the oldest towns in Russia. It was first mentioned in the year 862 as an already important town. By the 13th century Rostov became the capital of an important area.

Now it is an important tourist centre of the so called Golden ring. It is located on the shores of Lake Nero in Yaroslavl Oblast. About 35,300 people lived there in 2002.

While the official name of the town is Rostov, it is better known to Russians as Rostov Veliky, i.e. Rostov the Great. This name is used to distinguish it from Rostov on Don, which is now a much larger city. Rostov Yaroslavsky is the official name of its railway station (due to its position in Yaroslavl Oblast), but not of the town itself.









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