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Rostov-on-Don (English)
Ростов-на-Дону (Russian)
—  Inhabited locality  —
Rostov-on-don skyline.jpg
Map of Russia - Rostov Oblast (2008-03).svg
Location of Rostov Oblast on the map of Russia
Rostov-on-Don is located in Rostov Oblast
Location of Rostov-on-Don on the map of Rostov Oblast
Coordinates: 47°14′N 39°42′E / 47.233°N 39.7°E / 47.233; 39.7Coordinates: 47°14′N 39°42′E / 47.233°N 39.7°E / 47.233; 39.7
Coat of Arms of Rostov-na-Donu.png
Coat of arms
Флаг Ростова-на-Дону.jpg
Holiday Third Sunday of September
Administrative status
Country Russia
Federal subject Rostov Oblast
In administrative jurisdiction of Rostov Oblast
Administrative center of Rostov Oblast
Municipal status
Municipal Status Urban okrug
Mayor Mikhail Chernyshyov
Representative body City Duma
Area 354 km2 (136.7 sq mi)
Population (2002 Census) 1,068,267 inhabitants[1]
Rank 10th
- Density 3,018 /km2 (7,800/sq mi)[2]
Time zone MSK/MSD (UTC+3/+4)
Founded 1749
Postal code(s) 344000-344999[3]
Dialing code(s) +7 863
Official website

Rostov-on-Don (Russian: Росто́в-на-Дону́ Rostov-na-Donu, pronounced [rɐˈstov nə dɐˈnu]) is the city and the administrative center of Rostov Oblast and the Southern Federal District of Russia, located on the Don River, just 46 km from the Sea of Azov. Population: 1,068,267 (2002 Census);[4] 1,019,305 (1989 Census).[5]



The center of Rostov-on-Don is located c. 1076 km (2006) southeast from Moscow. It is basically situated to the southeast from the East European Plain, mostly on the right bank of the Don river, 46 km from its confluence with the Sea of Azov. South-Western suburbs of the city side with the delta of the Don river.


Population of Rostov-on-Don is 1.300 million people (2009). It is the 10th biggest city in the Russian Federation. Together with its Rostov agglomeration population of the city is 1.8 million people (6th place in the country)[6].

There are about 2.57 million people in Rostov-Shakhtinsk conurbation.


The climate of Rostov-on-Don is temperate continental. The winter is mild; average temperature in January is -4,4 °C. The summer is hot and continuous. The weather is mostly sunny; average temperature in July is +25,9 °C. Atmospheric precipitation – 500 mm/year.[7].

Average annual atmospheric temperature: +9,6 °C. The lowest ever atmospheric temperature stated -31,9 °C. The highest ever atmospheric temperature stated +39,8 °C.

Average annual wind speed: 2,7 m/sec. Average annual atmospheric humidity: 72%


The mouth of the Don River has been of great commercial and cultural importance since the ancient times. It was the site of the Greek colony Tanais, of the Genoese fort Tana, and of the Turkish fortress Azak. (See the article on Azov for detailed information on those settlements.)

Rostov-on-Don was founded on December 15, 1749, as a customs house was set up on the Temernik (a tributary of the Don) to control the trade with Turkey. The custom house was built according to the edict of the Empress Elizabeth, the daughter of Peter the Great. Not far from the customhouse grew the fortress. It was named after Russian metropolitan, Saint Dimitry of Rostov, a newly-glorified bishop from the old Northern town Rostov the Great. Later the name was changed to Rostov (in 1806) and then to Rostov-on-Don. As Azov gradually declined, a settlement near the new fortress superseded it in importance as a chief commercial centre of the region. In 1756 the "Russian commercial and trading company of Constantinople" set up there, establishing a settlement on the high bank of the Don known as the "Kupecheskaya Sloboda" ("The merchants' settlement"). In 1796 this settlement received town rights and was renamed Rostov-on-Don, in order to distinguish it from its ancient namesake.

Rostov Oblast administration building
A fountain in the Park of Revolution
Central market near Nativity Cathedral

Rostov's favorable geographical position on the crossing of trade routes promoted the rapid economic development of the city. The Don River that the city is named for is a major shipping lane connecting southwestern Russia with regions to the north, and Rostov-on-Don is an important river port in both passenger-oriented and industrial shipping. Rostov became a busy trading port, which was visited by Russian, Italian, Greek, Turkish, as well as other foreign merchants. As the most heavily industrialized city of South Russia, it was a bone of contention between the Whites and the Bolsheviks during the Civil War. By 1928, the regional government was moved from the old Cossack capital Novocherkassk to Rostov, which also engulfed the nearby Armenian town of Nor Nakhijevan (Nakhijevan, Proletarskiy district now).

After the construction of the Volga-Don Shipping Canal in 1952 Rostov became a port of five seas: the Black Sea, the Sea of Azov, the Caspian Sea, the White Sea and the Baltic Sea.

The population of Rostov-on-Don was 15 thousand in 1850 and 110 thousand at the beginning of previous century. In the neighborhood there developed another town, founded in 1779 by the Crimean Armenians, who were granted shelter in the South of Russia. It was Nakhichevan-on-Don. A wheat field was the border between two towns. Nowadays the central square of Rostov-on-Don, Theatre Square, is situated directly on the place of the former town border. In 1928 two cities were united and Nakhichevan became part of Rostov. In Armenian "Nakhichevan" means "the first halt". Thousands of descendants of the Crimean Armenians still live in Rostov.

In the Soviet years, the Bolsheviks demolished two of Rostov's principal landmarks - St Alexander Nevsky Cathedral (1908) and St George Cathedral in Nakhichevan (1783-1807). Much of the city was reduced to rubble by the German forces who occupied it twice during World War II (known locally as the Great Patriotic War) - in 1941 and 1942. The first occupation was in the autumn of 1941. It lasted seven days. In the plans of Hitler's generals Rostov was a city of special importance, a strategic railway junction and a river port, a gateway to the Caucasus, rich in minerals, especially in oil. The city was badly damaged by bombing. The best units of the German panzer army were driven out of Rostov. But in the summer of 1942 the German army managed to occupy the city for the second time. The second occupation lasted seven months. It took ten years to raise the city from the ruins and restore it even further.

Nowadays, the most conspicuous feature of the downtown is the enormous Cathedral of Virgin's Nativity (1860-87), designed by Konstantin Thon.

Rostov has rich cultural traditions. The names of dozens of well-known figures of art, literature an science are connected with the city: they either lived or worked in Rostov or nearby. They are the poets, writers A.P. Chekhov, M.A. Sholokhov, Zakrutkin, Fadeev, Safronov, Kalinin, A.S. Pushkin, A.M. Gorky, S.A. Yesenin, A.N. Tolstoy, the architect E. Vuchetich, the scientists D.I. Mendeleyev, A.S. Popov, L.P. Pavlov, Solzhenitsyn and Zhdanov, the actress Maretskaya, the composers Zaslavsky, Nazaretov, the great Russian commander A.V. Suvorov and many others. Here Moussorgsky gave his concerts and Maxim Gorky, being a youth, worked as a docker. The great Russian actor Mikhail Shchepkin performed in the theatre and the celebrated explorer of the Arctic Sea George Sedov dreamt about his expeditions. It is also important to mention the doctors N.Bogoraz and S.Fedosov, the Armenian writer and enlightener M.Nalbandyan, the outstanding Armenian painters Martiros Saryan and Ashot Melkonian. After visiting Rostov in 1831, A.S. Pushkin published his poem "The Don". The monument to A.S. Pushkin on Pushkin Boulevard is dedicated to remind those events.

Rostov-on-Don has experienced considerable economic growth in recent years, as the Russian economy recovers nationwide. Numerous start-up companies have established headquarters in the city, the median income is increasing, and the city is being transformed from a place thrown back in time by the collapse of USSR into a modern, industrial and technology-rich hub.


In December 1996 Rostov Duma (Rostov Municipality) adopted the main symbols of Rostov-on-Don: the coat-of-arms, the flag and the mayor's decoration.

Coat of arms

For the first time the coat-of-arms of Rostov was designed in 1811 and was approved by the tsar. But in 1904 some changes were made in it. Now there is only one picture left of that coat-of-arms painted in oil; it is kept in the Regional Local Lore Museum but nobody knows if it is exact or not.

In June 1996 Rostov Duma decided to adopt the variant of the coat-of-arms where the tower represents the St. Dimitry Rostovsky Fortress. The ancient Russian arms remind about the role Rostov played in the defense of Russian borders. The coat-of-arms is located now on the mayor's decoration, all other cases of its use are considered by the Duma.


The Flag was approved by the Duma on September 20, 1864. At the end of the 19th and beginning of the 20th centuries the home guard regiments, which defended the Southern borders of Russia, were formed under this flag.

The Flag of Rostov is kept in the building of the City Municipality and protected by the glass case. Its length is 1370 mm and the width - 850 mm. The Flag is taken out of the building only on the Victory Day and City's Day by guard of honour.

Mayor's decoration

The decoration has an oval shape and was introduced in 1870. On its front side in the center there is the city coat-of-arms; at the top - the inscription "Rostov-on-Don" and at the bottom - "Mayor of the City". On its reverse side the day of adoption is written: "April 9, 1996".

The mayor's decoration should be worn over the suit on a big chain. It is done of precious or semi-precious white metal. It should be returned to the Duma when the Mayor retires.

Emblem of the Don Army Region

The Emblem of the Don Army Region was established in July, 5 (18), 1878. The flag of the All Great Don Army was established in May, 1918 on the Circle of the Don Saving. It consists of three length-wise stripes of blue, yellow and red of equal width. The decision of the Circle said: "Three nationalities live on the Don land and make native population of the Don region: Don Cossacks, Kalmyks and Russian peasant. Their national colours were blue (Cossacks), yellow (Kalmyks) and scarlet (Russian).


  • 1970, December - an Order of Lenin.
  • 1982 - an Order of the Great Patriotic War of the 1st Degree.
  • 2008 - an Honourable Status of “The City of Military Glory”[8]

Administrative divisions

The city is divided into eight city districts: Voroshilovsky, Zheleznodorozhny, Kirovsky, Leninsky, Oktyabrsky, Pervomaysky, Proletarsky, and Sovetsky[9]. Another city district (Liventsovsky) is being built. Its central avenue will be named after the famous Russian novelist, dramatist, and historian Alexander Solzhenitsyn.


As per January 2007 Rostov-on-Don has 48 higher educational establishments, including 13 universities, 9 academies[10], 34 secondary schools of vocational training (including 24 colleges, 5 technical schools, 5 specialized schools[11]), 40 elementary schools of vocational training (including 24 lyceums, 16 professional colleges[12]), as well as 159 schools of general education[13].

The largest educational establishments of the city are:

  • Southern Federal University
  • Don State Technical University
  • Rostov State University of Economy
  • The Railway Engineers' University
  • Rostov State Academy of Economy
  • Rostov State University of Construction
  • Rostov State Medical University
  • Rostov State Conservatory named after Sergei Rachmaninoff
  • Branch of the Moscow State Academy named after F.F. Ushakov
  • Rostov Eparchy Religious College
  • Rostov Institute of Advocacy of Entrepreneurs
  • Rostov Institute of Foreign Languages
  • Rostov International Institute of Economy and Management
  • Rostov Juridical Institute of Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation
  • Rostov Institute of Physical Training and Sports (branch of the Cuban State University of Physical Training, Sports and Tourism)
  • Rostov Social & Economic Institute
  • Rostov branch of Moscow Institute of Economy, Management and Law
  • South-Russian Institute of the Humanities
  • North-Caucasian Academy of Public Service
  • North-Caucasian Institute of Anthropology and Applied Psychology
  • The Modern University for the Humanities
  • Russian State University of Trade & Economy
  • Institute of Management, Business and Law,
  • Rostov Institute of Law of the Russian Juridical Academy of the Russian Federation
  • Rostov State Academy of Architecture and Arts,
  • Rostov College of Arts named after M.B. Grekov.

Along with the higher educational institutions a French cultural center (Alliance francaise) [1], a British Council and German Goethe Institut, DAAD and Bosch foundation, Korean Cultural Center can also be found in Rostov.



As per January 2007 Rostov-on-Don has 43 active libraries[14], the largest of which are:

  • The State Don Public Library,
  • Central Library named after Maxim Gorky,
  • Regional Children’s Library named after V.M. Velichkina
  • Rostov Regional Special Library for the Blind,
  • Scientific Library of the Medical University,
  • Central State Children’s Library named after Lenin
  • Children’s Library named after A.S. Pushkin
  • Children’s Library named after Mayakovskiy

The South-Russian Don Public Library is the richest and the largest in the Northern Caucasus.


As per the year 2007 Rostov-on-Don has the following theatres[15]:

  • Academic Drama Theatre named after Maxim Gorky,
  • Rostov State Puppet Theatre,
  • Rostov Regional Academic Theatre of the Youth,
  • Rostov Musical Theatre

In the Academic Drama Theatre named after Maxim Gorky works Mikhail Bushnov, who is the national artist of the USSR and an honorary citizen of Rostov-on-Don[16].

There is also Philharmonic, the Jazz Center named after Kim Nazaretov, many music schools and art studios in Rostov-on-Don.


Rostov museums, as per January 2007[17]:

  • Museum of Local Lore,
  • the Rostov Regional Museum of Fine Arts,
  • Museum of Fine Arts on Dmitrovskaya,
  • Museum of Russian & Armenian Friendship

The small collections of the Art Gallery and the Museum of Arts include some genuine works by such masters of Russian painting as Repin, Surikov, Perov, Levitan, Aivazovsky as well as of modern Rostov artists. The Rostov Regional Local Lore Museum gives its visitors a good idea of Rostov and its surroundings - the history, culture, nature and the traditions and life of the Cossacks.


There are 8 cinemas in Rostov-on-Don, as per January 2010:

  • ”Kinomaks-Don” (8 halls with the total capacity of 1230 seats, including 3D cinema hall),
  • ”Kinomaks-Pobeda” (with the capacity of 800 seats),
  • ”Plaza Cinema” (former “Pleven”, including 2 halls with the capacity of 540 and 240 seats),
  • ”Charlie Severniy” (4 halls with the capacity of 180 seats each one)
  • ”Charlie Zapadniy” (3 halls with the total capacity of 672 seats, including 3D cinema halls).
  • ”Rostov” (1 hall with the capacity of 630 seats),
  • ”Dom Kino” (1 hall with the capacity of 154 seats)
  • ”Luxor” (9 halls with the total capacity of 1227 seats, including 3D cinema hall)

One can also find the State Don Public Library cinema hall, “Zeitnot” auto-cinema , as well as “Chester-Pub” mobile cinema hall.

Besides, there are 7 stadiums, a Palace of Sports, a circus, a zoo[18], as well as many parks (including botanical garden[19]) in Rostov.

Today Rostov-on-Don is the site of the North Caucasian Science Centre. There are many research institutes in Rostov.

Famous people

  • Irina Allegrova (1952) – a Russian pop singer.
  • Amatuni, Petroniy Gai (1916-1982) – a Soviet writer of fantastic stories.
  • Yuri Bashmet (1953) – a famous Russian viola-player, conductor.
  • Ivan Afanasyevich Bondarenko (1926-2009) – a Soviet time political and public figure, the first secretary of the Rostov Region Committee of C.P.S.U. (1966-1984). Hero of the Socialistic Labour, Honorary citizen of the city of Rostov-on-Don.
  • Mikhail Ilyich Bushnov (1923) – a Soviet and Russian theatre and movies actor, People's artist of the USSR (1985), “Golden mask” Prize winner.
  • Dmitry Chaplin (1982) - professional ballroom dancer on Dancing with the Stars, on the ABC television network in the US.
  • Dmitrii Aleksandrovich Dibrov (1959) – a famous Russian journalist, TV presenter and musician.
  • Natalia Duritskaya (1960) – a Russian painter.
  • Aleksey Anatolyevich Evtushenko (1957) – a journalist, writer of fantastic stories, poet, cartoonist, author and performer of own songs.
  • Svyatoslav Fyodorov (1927-2000) – a Russian doctor (ophthalmologist, eye microsurgery expert), Corresponding Member of the Russian Academy of Sciences, member of the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, politician.
  • Yevgeniya Glushenko (1952) – a Russian actress.
  • Alexander Kaidanovsky (1946-1995) – a famous Soviet and Russian actor, producer, scenario writer.
  • Aleksandr Vladlenovich Kislyakov (1954) – a Russian painter.
  • Svetlana Aleksandrovna Koltunova (1980) – a singer.
  • Ivan Arsenyevich Kononov, TV presenter, producer, poet, composer (songs about Rostov, including famous one «Leviy bereg Dona» («Left bank of the Don river») and others).
  • Nikolay Aleksandrovich Konstantinov (1961-2006) – a Russian painter and a musician.
  • Valeriy Nikolaevich Koshlyakov (1962) – a Russian painter.
  • D. D. Morduhai-Boltovskoi (1876-1952) – an outstanding Russian mathematician, Methodist, a teacher, psychologist, philosopher.
  • Alexander Pechersky (1909-1990) – a ringleader of the rebellion in the camp of Sobibor – the only successful rebellion in the Nazi German extermination camp.
  • Sergey Pimenov (1973) – a famous producer and a DJ.
  • Rostislav Yanovich Plyatt (1908-1989) – a Soviet theatre and movie actor, People's artist of the USSR (1961), State Prize winner of the USSR (1982).
  • Sergey Anatolyevich Sapozhnikov (1984) – a Russian painter, photographer, curator.
  • Martiros Saryan (1880-1972) – an Armenian and a Soviet landscape painter, graphic artist and a theatre artist.
  • Kirill Semyonovich Serebrennikov (1969) – a Russian theatre and movie producer.
  • Zinaida Maximovna Sharko – a Soviet and Russian movie and theatre actress, national artist of the Russian Federation.
  • Gurgen Isaakovich Shatvoryan (1919-1975) – a Soviet wrestler, World Champion in Greco-Roman wrestling.
  • Sabina Spielrein (1885-1942) – a psychoanalyst, student of C.G. Yung.
  • Evgeny Shvarts (1896-1958) – a Soviet and a Russian writer, playwright, author of over 20 plays for the Drama Theatre and Puppet Theatre, as well as scenario author for more than 10 movies.
  • Shiltyan, Grigoriy Ivanovich (1900-1985) – a Russian and Italian realist painter of the Armenian origin. Author of numerous picturesque works in cubo-futuristic and realistic style
  • Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn (1918-2008) – a Russian writer, commentator, historian, poet, public and political figure.
  • Anatoliy Vladimirovich Sofronov (1911-1990) – a Soviet and Russian poet.
  • Natalia Alekseeva Sukhanova (1931) – a Russian writer, journalist.
  • Avdey Stepanovich Ter-Oganyan (1961) – a Russian painter.
  • Sergey Anatolyevich Timofeev (1959-1993) – a Russian painter, poet, musician, founder of the Rostov music band “Pekin Rou-Rou”, active participator of the «Arts or Death» artists' association.
  • Viktor Abrosimovich Titov (1939-2000) – a Soviet and Russian producer, scenario writer, director of the movie “Zdravstvuite, ya vasha tyotya!” (“Hello, I’m Your Aunt”).
  • Georgiy Baronovich Tusuzov (1891-1986) – a Soviet theatre and movie actor, an Honoured artist of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic.
  • Iosif Israilevich Vorovich (1920-2001) – a Russian mathematician and mechanical engineer, member of the Russian Academy of Sciences.
  • Izabella Danilovna Yuryevna (1899-2000) – a Soviet pop singer (contralto).
  • Gennadiy Viktorovich Zhukov (1955-2008) – a Russian poet, bard.
  • Jerzy Zhuravlyov (1887-1980) – a pianist and music teacher.
  • Sergey Viktorovich Zhygunov (1963) – a Soviet and Russian actor, TV presenter, producer.

“The Big Rostov”

Ministry of Regional Development of Russia has prepared a program to create eight “Super Cities”, i.e. agglomerated centers with the population of many millions. The project applies to the Rostov Oblast as well. “The Big Rostov” will unite the cities of Rostov-on-Don, Novocherkassk, Taganrog, Aksay, Bataysk and Azov.


The City Day is celebrated on the third Sunday of September.

Center of the Federal District

Starting from May 13, 2000 the Plenipotentiary of the President of the Russian Federation in the Southern Federal District is allocated in Rostov. The federal district is not a part of an administrative and territorial division of the Russian Federation[20].

North Caucasus Military District

The headquarters of the North Caucasus Military District are situated in Rostov.


The Administration of Rostov and Novocherkassk Eparchy of the Russian Orthodox Church is located in Rostov.

There are a Roman Catholic church of the Lord's Supper, an Old Believers' temple, a synagogue[21], a mosque, Armenian and Greek churches, Diamond Way Buddhist Center of the Karma Kagyu Tradition[22].


  • Severnoye
  • Bratskoye
  • Liventsovskoye
  • Nizhne-Gnilovskoye
  • Myasnikovanskoye
  • Alexandrovskoye


Interurban transport

Rostov-on-Don is a major transport junction.

Rostov-on-Don Airport has domestic flights, as well as flights to and from former C.I.S., Europe, Africa and Asia[23]. The international river port[24] is specialized in processing freights (mineral and construction, packing), timber and metal. There are also the main & the suburban railway stations, as well as the main & the suburban bus stations available. The railway line “St.Petersburg-Rostov-Caucasus” crosses the territory of Rostov-on-Don. One can also find the navigable way, which goes from the center of Russia towards the Black and the Mediterranean Seas; and the air line “St.Petersburg-Moscow-Caucasus”[25].

The administration of a North Caucasus Railway is based in Rostov.

Starting from 2011 construction of the Southern Hub is planned. It will be the biggest airport in the South of Russia. The airport will be constructed at the territory of the former military aerodrome of Bataysk.

Several highways of federal and regional significance cross Rostov. The M-4 “Don” route passes Rostov right on the eastern side of it, crossing the Don river in Aksay city area. There is another route, called “Rostov-Novoshakhtinsk”, which starts from the Northern housing block area of the city and goes further northwards, connecting with the M-4 “Don” route between Shakhty and Novoshakhtinsk.

Urban transport

As per January 2007 there are 72 bus routes, 9 trolleybus routes and 54 route-taxi routes in Rostov-on-Don.

Mass media


The beginning of Rostov-on-Don television dates to 1956, when construction of the Rostov TV-center started. The construction was finished by April 26, 1958. The first trial TV programs appeared on TV on April 30, 1958. Rostovites could see the first colour TV in 1974.

List of active Rostov TV channels (as per January 2009):

  • 1. Perviy kanal («First Channel»)
  • 2. Muz-TV
  • 3. Ren-TV
  • 7. STS
  • 9. NTV
  • 12. "Russia channel"
  • 22. MTV
  • 28. RBK
  • 32. TVC
  • 35. DTV (17:00-24:00 Vesti (News))
  • 38. Domashniy («Home Channel»)
  • 43. Sport
  • 47. «Culture»
  • 49. TNT
  • 51. TV 3
  • 59. Petersburg – 5 channel


The history of Rostov radio dates back to October 17, 1975.

There are 14 FM radio stations in Rostov (as per the year 2009):

  1. “Hit FM” – 100,1 MHz
  2. “Radio Record” – 100,7 MHz
  3. “Retro FM” – 101,2 MHz
  4. “Radio Rostova” – 101,6 MHz
  5. Europa Plus” – 102,2 MHz
  6. “Russkoye Radio" (lit. "Russian Radio”) – 103,0 MHz
  7. “Humour FM” – 103,3 MHz
  8. “Radio 7” – 103,7 MHz
  9. AvtoRadio” – 104,1 MHz
  10. “DFM” (Dinamit FM) – 104,6 MHz
  11. “Chanson” – 105,1 MHz
  12. “Love Radio” – 105,7 MHz
  13. “Dorozhnoye Radio” (lit. “Traffic Radio”) -106,3 MHz
  14. Mayak” (lit. "Radio Lighthouse") – 107,5 MHz

Coming soon as well: “Detskoye Radio” (lit. “Children’s Radio”) – 88,2 MHz


  • Newspapers
    • Gorod N
    • Rossiyskaya gazeta Yug Rossii
    • Molot
    • Vedomosti YUG
    • RBK Daily Yug
    • Vecherniy Rostov
    • Yuzhniy Federalniy
    • Nashe vremya
    • Krestyanin
    • Nash rayon
    • Rostov ofitsialniy
  • Internet periodicals
    • DonTR
    • Elektronniy Rostov
    • RostovND
    • Panorama
    • RBK Yuzhniy region

Communication service

The first automatic telephone exchange in Russia with the capacity of 6 thousand numbers was let out to Rostov-on-Don into operation in 1929[26]. Standard numbers of Rostov-on-Don include 7 digitals (starting from 2004)[27]. The city dialing code is "863". Starting from 2009 all city numbers begin with "2" or "3".





Women's handball team Rostov-Don plays in the Russian Handball Championship. The men's team is known as TIBL-Group.

Environmental protection

Nowadays there are several ecological organizations in Rostov and one of them is "And Quiet Flows the Don", named after M.A. Sholokhov's famous novel about the Cossacks, that has been working recent years trying to make environmental situation in Southern Russia better and healthier.

One of the group's main tasks is to analyze the state of environment and make the information public. Besides the group takes actual measures. For example, they have reforested 25 hectars of land on the left bank of the river Don. The Cossack group plans to clean up polluted rivers in the region and has enlisted the help of Peace Corps volunteers to identify potential allies in Russia and abroad.

International relations

Municipal duma in central Rostov-on-Don

Twin towns — Sister cities

Rostov-on-Don is twinned with:

Consulates of foreign countries

External links

Notes and references

  1. ^ Федеральная служба государственной статистики (Federal State Statistics Service) (2004-05-21). "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек (Population of Russia, its federal districts, federal subjects, districts, urban localities, rural localities—administrative centers, and rural localities with population of over 3,000)" (in Russian). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2002). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved 2009-08-19.  
  2. ^ The value of density was calculated automatically by dividing the 2002 Census population by the area specified in the infobox. Please note that this value may not be accurate as the area specified in the infobox does not necessarily correspond to the area of the entity proper or is reported for the same year as the Census (2002).
  3. ^ (Russian) Russian postal objects - find by name
  4. ^ Федеральная служба государственной статистики (Federal State Statistics Service) (2004-05-21). "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек (Population of Russia, its federal districts, federal subjects, districts, urban localities, rural localities—administrative centers, and rural localities with population of over 3,000)" (in Russian). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2002). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved 2008-07-25.  
  5. ^ "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров. (All Union Population Census of 1989. Present population of union and autonomous republics, autonomous oblasts and okrugs, krais, oblasts, districts, urban settlements, and villages serving as district administrative centers.)" (in Russian). Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года (All-Union Population Census of 1989). Demoscope Weekly (website of the Institute of Demographics of the State University—Higher School of Economics. 1989. Retrieved 2007-12-13.  
  6. ^ Официальный сайт администрации Ростовской области — Ростов-на-Дону
  7. ^ Архив данных о погоде в Ростове-на-Дону (in Russian)
  8. ^ Взгляд
  9. ^ Районы города
  10. ^ Учреждения высшего профессионального образования Ростова-на-Дону
  11. ^ Учреждения среднего профессионального образования Ростова-на-Дону
  12. ^ Учреждения начального профессионального образования Ростова-на-Дону
  13. ^ Энциклопедия «Мой город», Ростов-на-Дону
  14. ^ Библиотеки Ростова-на-Дону
  15. ^ Театры Ростова-на-Дону
  16. ^ Бушнов Михаил Ильич на сайте
  17. ^ Каталог Ростовских музеев
  18. ^ Ростовский цирк
  19. ^ Ботанический сад РГУ
  20. ^ Российская Федерация состоит из республик, краев, областей, городов федерального значения, автономной области, автономных округов — равноправных субъектов Российской Федерации. (Конституция РФ, ст.5, п.1)
  21. ^ Synagogues and Jewish prayer houses of Rostov-on-Don
  22. ^ Diamond Way Buddhist Center of the Karma Kagyu Tradition (rus)
  23. ^ Аэропорт Ростова-на-Дону
  24. ^ Речные порты России
  25. ^ Ростовская область — транспорт
  26. ^ Автоматизация телефонной связи
  27. ^ Ростов-на-Дону перешёл на семизначную нумерацию городских телефонов
  28. ^ "Турнирная таблица" (in ru). Российская футбольная премьер-лига. Retrieved 2009-03-20.  
  29. ^ "Первенство России по футболу 2009 года. Второй дивизион." (in ru). Профессиональная футбольная лига. Retrieved 2009-03-20.  
  30. ^ "List of Twin Towns in the Ruhr Destrict". © 2009 Retrieved 2009-10-28.  
  31. ^ "Yerevan Municipality - Sister Cities". © 2005-2009 Retrieved 2009-06-22.  

Simple English

Redirecting to Rostov on Don

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