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Rotation (pool): Wikis


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The appropriate rack for rotation from the racker's point of view; the 1 ball is at the apex of the rack and is on the foot spot, the 2 is in the corner to the racker's right, the 3 ball is in the left corner, and the 15 is in the center, with all other balls placed randomly, and all balls touching.

Rotation, sometimes called rotation pool or 61, is a pocket billiards (pool) game, requiring a standard pool table, cue ball and triangular rack of fifteen pool balls, in which the lowest-numbered object ball on the table must be always struck by the cue ball first, to attempt to pocket (pot) numbered balls for points.[1] Rotation is similar in many ways to nine-ball, but its scoring system is not unlike that of snooker and fifteen-ball.

As with nine-ball and other similar-format games, some attractions of rotation include performing unconventional or difficult shots to reach the correct ball, and quite often making risky attempts to score higher amounts of points by performing advanced shots such as combination shots (plants), bank shots (doubles) and swerves.





The object of the game is to score the most points, by pocketing higher-scoring balls than the opponent(s). A frame is won when a player or team reaches a number of points (usually 61) that makes it impossible for the opponent(s) to win.[1] A match may consist of multiple frames (e.g. a race to 10), as in other types of pool game.


Points are scored by pocketing the object balls on the table; the number of points awarded is equal to the number printed on the ball pocketed; for example, pocketing the 4 ball scores the player 4 points. In a two-player or -team game, the frame is over when a player or team has 61 or more points, although frames tied (drawn) at 60 points can occur (in which case the player who last legally pocketed a ball is credited with a bonus point and declared the winner). More than two players or teams can play, with the winning score being recalculated (whatever number will mathematically eliminate other players from outscoring the leader).[1] For example, the 61-point mark is determined by taking the sum of the values of all fifteen balls, 120, divided by number of players, 2, to yield 60, then adding 1 to ensure a definite winner (other than in the event of a tie at 60, for which see above).

Set up

At the beginning of each frame, the balls are racked in a triangle as in eight-ball and other games using fifteen object balls, but in particular with the 1 ball at the front (apex) of the rack, on the foot spot, the 2 ball on the right rear corner (from the vantage of the racker) and the 3 ball at the left rear corner (as in kelly pool), and the 15 ball – the one with the highest value – in the center; all other balls are placed randomly, and all balls must be touching.[1] In informal British play, it is common to push the rack forward farther so that the 15 ball, still in the center of the rack, is resting on the foot spot. (See illustration at top of article.)

Game play

The primary rule of the game is that the lowest numbered object ball on the table at any time is the "ball-on" and must be struck first (including on the break shot – a side break is a foul), regardless of the player's intentions of which ball to actually pocket. Players may use the lowest numbered ball to pocket other (e.g. higher value) balls. Consequently, fifteen-ball not being a call-shot game, points are also counted if a ball is unintentionally but legally pocketed (a "fluke" or "slop shot"). A player's turn at the table continues until a shot fails to legally pocket a ball, a foul is committed, or the game concludes.[1]


Safety play is rather strictly limited in rotation. If a player legally pockets a ball, that player must shoot again; unlike many games, there is no provision for a called, intentional safety play that pockets a ball. Safeties that consist of simply using the cue ball to drive the ball-on to the closest cushion, without contacting another object ball in the course of the shot, are limited to only two such shots per player per game. Other safeties are unlimited, provided that the lowest numbered ball is of course struck first and either at least two object balls move in the course of the shot, or the ball-on is driven to a cushion that is not the closest to it.[1]


If a foul is committed (other than a foul break or cue ball foul, as detailed below), the incoming opponent may either take the next shot or require the opponent to do so, with all balls as they lie in either case. If the exiting opponent's foul was scratching the cue ball into a pocket or off the table, the incoming player's shot is necessarily ball-in-hand, and must be taken from behind the head string (in baulk), although the incoming player may optionally require the fouling opponent to shoot again instead, with ball-in-hand behind the headstring). Shots taken from behind the head string must cause the cue ball to cross the head string; however, if the ball-on is behind the head string, the player with ball in hand (including a fouling player who has been forced to take the shot by the opponent) may optionally have that ball spotted on the foot spot before shooting. There is no point penalty for fouls Three consecutive fouls (i.e. on three consecutive turns at the table) by the same player is a loss of game.[1]

Fouls include:[1]
  • Failure to hit the lowest-numbered object ball first (or at all)
  • Failure to make an open break on the break shot (incoming player may either accept the object balls as they lie and take cue ball in-hand behind the headstring and shoot from there, or demand a re-rack and shoot a new break shot)
  • Scratching the cue ball into a pocket or off the table (incoming player has ball-in-hand behind the headstring, though may force the fouling opponent to shoot)
  • Failure to either legally pocket an object ball, or drive any ball to a cushion
  • Knocking an object ball off the table (it is spotted; balls legally pocketed on the shot are not)
  • A third or subsequent one ball safety to the closest cushion (see above)

Team play

Two-player doubles (or larger) teams compete by alternating teams and alternating players within each team. For example, if teams consist of players 1 and 2 versus players 3 and 4, and player 1 breaks, turns alternate in the pattern 1 (breaking), 3, 2, 4, 1, 3, 2, 4, etc. I.e., the ending of a player's turn at the table ends that team's turn at the table. As in individual competition, a player's turn at the table does not end until a foul is committed or the player fails to legally pocket an object ball (or the game ends).

Three consecutive fouls by a team player disqualifies that player for the remainder of the frame (i.e., if player 3 were disqualified in the above example, then subsequent play order would be 4, 1, 2, 4, 1, 2, etc.) Balls that were legally pocketed by the disqualified player are not spotted.[1]

Informally, team play can also be conducted in scotch doubles format. However, the disqualification rule does not apply, and three consecutive fouls by the team are a loss of game (otherwise, the team with the hypothetically disqualified player would have an advantage, in no longer having to coordinate two players).


Due to having to always hit the lowest ball or a specifically-numbered ball, forms of rotation are often used to develop particular skills while shooting pool.

Simple rotation

The variation called simple rotation does not count the value of the balls for a score but requires ascending numerical order in which the balls must be struck. The purpose of the game is to have pocketed the most balls, while still having to always hit the lowest ball on the table. The frame ends when one player has pocketed eight or more balls.

Eight-ball rotation

A combination of eight-ball and rotation, eight-ball rotation requires that each suit (group), solids versus stripes (or reds vs. yellows in blackball-style ball sets), must be pocketed in their numerical order, aside from the 8 ball (the black), which is the frame-winning ball. Eight-ball rotation is racked with the 8 ball in the center, not the 15, and the game does not count the numerical value of the balls for a score; the game can only be won by legally pocketing the 8 (and a foul while attempting to do so is a loss of game). This variation is appropriate for team as well as individual competition.

Specific or strict rotation

In specific rotation or strict rotation, the ball's numbered value is counted for a score, but the order of balls pocketed must be sequential (and not simply struck first as in the standard game). If the lowest ball on the table is struck but a higher ball ends up being pocketed – such as in a combination shot – then that higher ball must be placed spotted back on the table after the shot (including after the break); this is not a foul. If the lowest-numbered ball is hit first but not pocketed, and another ball is spotted this ends the shooters turn. If the lowest-numbered ball is hit first and is pocketed along with another ball, that other ball is spotted immediately, and the shooter's turn continues The restrictiveness of this game makes it in some senses similar to one-pocket and bank pool, and it is A more difficult in this respect than regular rotation, though potentially less challenging in other ways, e.g. by essentially forbidding combination shots and caroms (cannons).

In the Philippines

Rotation is very popular in the Philippines, probably more so than in any other country. It is played there both recreationally and in money games.

Hall-of-Famer Efren Reyes is notable rotation player, as are 2006 World Nine-ball Champion Ronnie Alcano and presently U.S.-based Filipino pro Jose Parica.

The standard of nine-ball play among Filipino pros can be partly credited to their often playing rotation., which is a more difficult game than nine-ball because rotation has more blocking balls, making cue ball navigation harder.

Rotation is also being incorrectly called straight or straight ball in the Philippines. This is perhaps due to rotation's recognition and straight pool's obscurity in the country.

Whenever a player is snookered from shooting straight to the lowest numbered ball, he/she has option to call "spot." In this, the object ball is placed on the foot spot and turn of the player at the table ends. The player who takes the shot can place the cue ball anywhere within the head string and attempt to pocket the object ball. A player can also call "spot" but be the one taking the shot if a foul has been made by the other player.


Video of Efren Reyes and Ronnie Alcano playing Rotation -

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i BCA Rules Committee; Long, Amy (ed.) (2006). Billiards: The Official Rules and Records Book (2006 Edition ed.). Colorado Springs, Colorado: Billiard Congress of America. ISBN 1-878496-16-7.  


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