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Rotigotine
Systematic (IUPAC) name
(S)-6-[propyl(2-thiophen-2-ylethyl)amino]-5,6,7,8- tetrahydronaphthalen-1-ol
Identifiers
CAS number 92206-54-7
ATC code N04BC09
PubChem 57537
Chemical data
Formula C19H25NOS 
Mol. mass 315.474 g/mol
Pharmacokinetic data
Bioavailability 37% (transdermal)
Protein binding 92%
Metabolism Hepatic (CYP-mediated)
Half life 5-7 hours
Excretion Urine (71%), Fecal (23%)
Therapeutic considerations
Pregnancy cat. C
Legal status Prescription only
Routes Transdermal patch

Rotigotine (Neupro) is a non-ergoline dopamine agonist indicated for the treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD) and restless legs syndrome (RLS) in Europe and the United States.[1][2] It is formulated as a once-daily transdermal patch which provides a slow and constant supply of the drug over the course of 24 hours.[1][1]

Like other dopamine agonists, rotigotine has been shown to possess antidepressant effects and may be useful in the treatment of depression as well.[3]

Contents

History

Rotigotine was developed by Aderis Pharmaceuticals. In 1998, Aderis licensed worldwide development and commercialization rights for rotigotine to the German pharmaceutical company Schwarz Pharma (today a subsidiary of the Belgian company UCB S.A.).[4]

The drug has been approved by the EMEA for use in Europe in 2006 and is today being sold in several European countries. In 2007, the Neupro patch was approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as the first transdermal treatment of Parkinson's disease in the United States. However, as of 2008, Schwarz Pharma has recalled all Neupro patches in the United States and some in Europe because of problems with the delivery mechanism.

Rotigotine has been authorized as a treatment for RLS since August 2008.[2]

Chemistry

Rotigotine is analogous to 7-OH-DPAT and UH-232, all three of which are aminotetralin derivatives. These compounds are similar in structure to dopamine, likely underlying their pharmacology.

Pharmacology

Rotigotine possesses the following in vitro receptor binding profile:[5]

All affinities listed were assayed using human materials except that for α2B-adrenergic which was done with NG 108–15 cells. Rotigotine behaves as a partial or full agonist (depending on the assay) at all dopamine receptors listed, as an antagonist at the α2B-adrenergic receptor, and as a partial agonist at the 5-HT1A receptor.[5] Though it has affinity for a large number of sites as shown above, at clinical doses rotigotine behaves mostly as a selective D2-like (D2-D4) and D5 receptor agonist, with its α2B-adrenergic and 5-HT1A activity also possibly having some low relevance.

Side effects

General side effects for rotigotine may include constipation, dyskinesia, nausea, vomiting, dizziness, fatigue, insomnia, somnolence, confusion, and hallucinations.[6][7] More serious complications can include psychosis and impulse control disorders like hypersexuality, punding, and pathological gambling.[8] Mild adverse skin reactions at the patch application site may also occur.[7][1]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d Chen JJ, Swope DM, Dashtipour K, Lyons KE (December 2009). "Transdermal rotigotine: a clinically innovative dopamine-receptor agonist for the management of Parkinson's disease". Pharmacotherapy 29 (12): 1452–67. doi:10.1592/phco.29.12.1452. PMID 19947805. http://www.atypon-link.com/doi/abs/10.1592/phco.29.12.1452. 
  2. ^ a b Davies S (September 2009). "Rotigotine for restless legs syndrome". Drugs of Today (Barcelona, Spain : 1998) 45 (9): 663–8. doi:1396674/dot.2009.45.9.1399952. PMID 19956807. http://journals.prous.com/journals/servlet/xmlxsl/pk_journals.xml_summaryn_pr?p_JournalId=4&p_RefId=1399952. 
  3. ^ Bertaina-Anglade V, La Rochelle CD, Scheller DK (October 2006). "Antidepressant properties of rotigotine in experimental models of depression". European Journal of Pharmacology 548 (1-3): 106–14. doi:10.1016/j.ejphar.2006.07.022. PMID 16959244. http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0014-2999(06)00757-6. 
  4. ^ Development & Commercialization of rotigotine by Aderis (Aderis Pharmaceuticals making a reference for the commercialization of rotigotine)
  5. ^ a b Scheller D, Ullmer C, Berkels R, Gwarek M, Lübbert H (January 2009). "The in vitro receptor profile of rotigotine: a new agent for the treatment of Parkinson's disease". Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology 379 (1): 73–86. doi:10.1007/s00210-008-0341-4. PMID 18704368. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00210-008-0341-4. 
  6. ^ Kulisevsky J, Pagonabarraga J (2010). "Tolerability and safety of ropinirole versus other dopamine agonists and levodopa in the treatment of Parkinson's disease: meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials". Drug Safety : an International Journal of Medical Toxicology and Drug Experience 33 (2): 147–61. doi:10.2165/11319860-000000000-00000. PMID 20082541. http://content.wkhealth.com/linkback/openurl?issn=0114-5916&volume=33&issue=2&spage=147. 
  7. ^ a b "A controlled trial of rotigotine monotherapy in early Parkinson's disease". Archives of Neurology 60 (12): 1721–8. December 2003. doi:10.1001/archneur.60.12.1721. PMID 14676046. http://archneur.ama-assn.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=14676046. 
  8. ^ Wingo TS, Evatt M, Scott B, Freeman A, Stacy M (2009). "Impulse control disorders arising in 3 patients treated with rotigotine". Clinical Neuropharmacology 32 (2): 59–62. doi:10.1097/WNF.0B013E3181684542. PMID 18978496. http://meta.wkhealth.com/pt/pt-core/template-journal/lwwgateway/media/landingpage.htm?issn=0362-5664&volume=32&issue=2&spage=59. 

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