Roy Jenkins: Wikis

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The Right Honourable
 The Lord Jenkins of Hillhead
 OM PC


In office
2 July 1982 – 13 June 1983
Preceded by New creation
(Prior to Jenkins' election as sole leader, the SDP was led jointly by the 'Gang of Four')
Succeeded by David Owen

In office
18 August 1977 – 12 January 1981
Preceded by François-Xavier Ortoli
Succeeded by Gaston Thorn

In office
5 March 1974 – 10 September 1976
Preceded by Robert Carr
Succeeded by Merlyn Rees
In office
23 December 1965 – 30 September 1967
Preceded by Frank Soskice
Succeeded by James Callaghan

In office
12 May 1973 – 5 March 1974
Preceded by Shirley Williams
Succeeded by James Prior

In office
19 June 1970 – 7 April 1972
Preceded by George Brown
Succeeded by Edward Short

In office
30 November 1967 – 19 June 1970
Prime Minister Harold Wilson
Preceded by James Callaghan
Succeeded by Iain Macleod

Born 11 November 1920
Abersychan, Monmouthshire, Wales, UK
Died 5 January 2003 (aged 82)
Oxfordshire, UK
Political party (1) Labour Party (1945 - 1981)
(2) Social Democratic Party (1981 - 1988)
(3) Liberal Democrats (1988 - 2003)

Roy Harris Jenkins, Baron Jenkins of Hillhead OM, PC (11 November 1920 – 5 January 2003) was a British politician. Once prominent as a Labour Member of Parliament (MP) and government minister in the 1960s and 1970s, he became the first (and so far only) British President of the European Commission (1977-81) and one of the four principal founders of the Social Democratic Party (SDP) in 1981. In 1987, he was appointed as Chancellor of the University of Oxford, a position he served until his death. During his lifetime, he was also a distinguished writer, especially of biographies. His nickname in Private Eye magazine was 'Smoothiechops'.[1]

Contents

Early life

Born in Abersychan, Monmouthshire in south-eastern Wales, as an only child, Roy Jenkins was the son of a National Union of Mineworkers official, Arthur Jenkins. His father was wrongly imprisoned during the 1926 General Strike for his supposed involvement in a riot and later became Member of Parliament for Pontypool, Parliamentary Private Secretary to Clement Attlee, and briefly a minister in the 1945 Labour government. Jenkins's mother, Hattie Harris, was the daughter of a steelworks manager.

Jenkins was educated at Abersychan County School, University College, Cardiff, and at Balliol College, Oxford, where he was twice defeated for the Presidency of the Oxford Union but took First Class Honours in Politics, Philosophy and Economics (PPE). His university colleagues included Tony Crosland, Denis Healey, and Edward Heath, and he became friends with all three, although he was never particularly close to Healey. During the Second World War he served with the Royal Artillery and then at Bletchley Park, reaching the rank of captain. On 20 January 1945, in the final year of the War, he married Jennifer Morris, who became Dame Jennifer Jenkins.

Member of Parliament

Having failed to win Solihull in 1945, he was elected to the House of Commons in a 1948 by-election as the Member of Parliament for Southwark Central, becoming the "Baby of the House". His constituency was abolished in boundary changes for the 1950 general election, when he stood instead in the new Birmingham Stechford constituency. He won the seat and represented the constituency until 1977.

Jenkins was principal sponsor, in 1959, of the bill which became the liberalising Obscene Publications Act, responsible for establishing the "liable to deprave and corrupt" criterion as a basis for a prosecution of suspect material and for specifying literary merit as a possible defence. Like Healey and Crosland, he had been a close friend of Hugh Gaitskell and for them Gaitskell's death and the elevation of Harold Wilson as Labour Party leader was a setback.

In government

At first Minister of Aviation in the Wilson government elected in the 1964 general election, he was Home Secretary from 22 December 1965 to November 1967. In this position he is often seen as responsible for the most wide-ranging reforms that the 1960s Labour governments would enact. Jenkins refused to authorise the birching of prisoners and presided over the suspension of capital punishment. Jenkins was responsible for the relaxation of the laws relating to divorce, abolition of theatre censorship and gave government support to David Steel's Private Member's Bill for the legalisation of abortion and Leo Abse's bill for the decriminalisation of homosexuality. Wilson, with his puritan background, was not especially sympathetic to these developments, however. Jenkins replied to public criticism by asserting that the so called permissive society was in reality the civilised society.

Chancellor of the Exchequer

From 1967 to 1970 he was Chancellor of the Exchequer, replacing James Callaghan following the devaluation of the pound in November 1967. He quickly gained a reputation as a particularly tough Chancellor, although he was hesitant about increasing taxes and reducing expenditure. It is though, generally assumed that Labour's defeat in the 1970 general election was partly the consequence of one month's bad trade figures announced a few days before the election and his delivery of a fiscally neutral Budget shortly before the election.

Deputy Leader of the Labour Party

Jenkins was elected to the deputy leadership of the Labour Party in July 1970, but resigned in 1972 over the party's policy on favouring a referendum on British membership of the European Economic Community (EEC); his position had been undermined the previous year by his decision to lead sixty-nine Labour MPs through the division lobby in support of the Heath's government's motion to take Britain in to the EEC. This led to some former admirers, including Roy Hattersley, choosing to distance themselves from Jenkins. His lavish lifestyle — Wilson once described him as "more a socialite than a socialist" — had already alienated much of the Labour Party from him.

When Labour returned to power he was made Home Secretary again, serving from 1974 to 1976. In this period he undermined his previous liberal credentials to some extent by pushing through the controversial Prevention of Terrorism Act, which, among other things, extended the length of time suspects could be held in custody and instituted exclusion orders.

President of the European Commission

Jenkins was a candidate for the leadership of the Labour Party in March 1976, but came third out of the six candidates, behind Callaghan and Michael Foot. Jenkins had wanted to become Foreign Secretary (Rosen (2001) 318), but accepted an appointment as President of the European Commission instead, succeeding François-Xavier Ortoli. Unofficially he was known as King John XV, from the French pronunciation of his name, Roi Jean Quinze. The main development overseen by the Jenkins Commission was the development of the Economic and Monetary Union of the European Union from 1977, which began in 1979 as the European Monetary System, a forerunner of the Single Currency or Euro.[2] Jenkins remained in Brussels until 1981, contemplating the political changes in the UK from there.

The Social Democratic Party

On 22 November 1979 Jenkins delivered the annual Dimbleby Lecture which he called "Home Thoughts from Abroad", detailing what he saw as the reasons for Britain's persistent underperformance as a failure of adaptability and problems associated with the two party system. More importantly he advocated a new "radical centre" and called for a new political grouping. As one of the so-called "Gang of Four", he was a founder of the Social Democratic Party (SDP) in January 1981 with David Owen, Bill Rodgers and Shirley Williams.

He attempted to re-enter Parliament at the Warrington by-election in 1981 but Labour retained the seat with a small majority. He was more successful in 1982, being elected in the Glasgow Hillhead by-election as the MP for a previously Conservative-held seat.

During the 1983 election campaign his position as the prime minister designate for the SDP-Liberal Alliance was questioned by his close colleagues, as his campaign style was now regarded as ineffective; the Liberal leader David Steel was considered to have a greater rapport with the electorate.

He led the new party from March 1982 until after the 1983 general election, when Owen succeeded him unopposed. Jenkins was disappointed with Owen's move to the right, and his acceptance and backing of some of Thatcher's policies. At heart, Jenkins remained a Keynesian.

He continued to serve as SDP Member of Parliament for Glasgow Hillhead until his defeat at the 1987 general election by the Labour candidate George Galloway.

Peerage and death

From 1987, Jenkins remained in politics as a member of the House of Lords as a life peer with the title Baron Jenkins of Hillhead, of Pontypool in the County of Gwent. Also in 1987, Jenkins was elected Chancellor of the University of Oxford. In 1993, he was appointed to the Order of Merit. He was leader of the Liberal Democrats in the Lords until 1997. In December 1997, he was appointed chair of a Government-appointed Independent Commission on the Voting System, which became known as the "Jenkins Commission", to consider alternative voting systems for the UK. The Jenkins Commission reported in favour of a new uniquely British mixed-member proportional system called "Alternative vote top-up" or "limited AMS" in October 1998. No action had been taken on this recommendation at the time of Jenkins' death from a heart attack at 9 a.m. on 5 January 2003. He earlier underwent heart surgery in November 2000, and postponed his 80th birthday celebrations, by having a celebratory party on 7 March 2001.

Jenkins wrote 19 books, including a biography of Gladstone (1995), which won the 1995 Whitbread Award for Biography, and a much-acclaimed biography of Winston Churchill (2001). His official biographer, Andrew Adonis, was to have finished the Churchill biography had Jenkins not survived the heart surgery he underwent towards the end of its writing. At the time of his death he was apparently starting work on a biography of U.S. President John F. Kennedy.

Roy Jenkins is fondly remembered by Private Eye as having a passion for claret and a distinct inability to pronounce his 'r's. This was clearly shown in their obituary cartoon with the caption: Roy Jenkins, 1920-2003. WIP. Referring to the same, one of the entries in Douglas Adams' The Meaning of Liff reads "WATH (n.) : The rage of Roy Jenkins".

For some conservatives, such as Peter Hitchens in The Abolition of Britain, he was a "cultural revolutionary" and takes a large part of the responsibility for the decline of "traditional values" in Britain.

References

  1. ^ "Lord Jenkins of Hillhead, OM", Daily Telegraph, January 6, 2003.
  2. ^ http://www.euro-know.org/dictionary/j.html
  • Rosen, Greg (2001) Dictionary of Labour Biography, Politicos

Selected bibliography

Books by Roy Jenkins:

  • Roosevelt. Pan Macmillan. 2005. ISBN 0330432060 .  
  • Churchill. Macmillan. 2001. ISBN 0-333-78290-9.  
  • The Chancellors. Macmillan. 1998. ISBN 0-333-73057-7.  
  • Gladstone. Macmillan. 1995. ISBN 0-8129-6641-4.  
  • A life at the centre. Macmillan. 1991. ISBN 0-333-55164-8.  
  • Gallery of 20th century Portraits and Oxford Papers. David and Charles. 1989. ISBN 0-7153-9299-9.  
  • Truman. HarperCollins. 1986. ISBN 0-06-015580-9.  
  • Baldwin. Collins. 1984. ISBN 0-00-217586-X .  
  • Asquith. Collins. 1964. ISBN 0-00-211021-0 .  , revised edition 1978
  • Sir Charles Dilke: A Victorian Tragedy. Collins. 1958. ISBN 0-333-62020-8.  
  • Mr. Balfour's poodle; peers v. people. Collins. 1954. OCLC 436484.  

Books about Roy Jenkins:

  • Andrew Adonis & Keith Thomas — Editors (2004). Roy Jenkins: A Retrospective. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-927487-8 .  
  • Giles Radice (2002). Friends and Rivals: Crosland, Jenkins and Healey. Little, Brown. ISBN 0-316-85547-2 .  
  • John Campbell (1983). Roy Jenkins, a biography. Weidenfeld & Nicolson. ISBN 0-297-78271-1.  

External links

Offices held

Parliament of the United Kingdom
Preceded by
John Hanbury Martin
Member of Parliament for Southwark Central
1948 – 1950
Constituency abolished
New constituency Member of Parliament for Birmingham Stechford
1950 – 1977
Succeeded by
Andrew MacKay
Preceded by
Tam Galbraith
Member of Parliament for Glasgow Hillhead
1982 – 1987
Succeeded by
George Galloway
Preceded by
Edward Carson
Baby of the House
1948 – 1950
Succeeded by
Peter Baker
Political offices
Preceded by
Sir Frank Soskice
Home Secretary
1965 – 1967
Succeeded by
James Callaghan
Preceded by
James Callaghan
Chancellor of the Exchequer
1967 – 1970
Succeeded by
Iain Macleod
Preceded by
Shirley Williams
Shadow Home Secretary
1973 – 1974
Succeeded by
James Prior
Preceded by
Robert Carr
Home Secretary
1974 – 1976
Succeeded by
Merlyn Rees
Preceded by
François-Xavier Ortoli
President of the European Commission
1977 – 1981
Succeeded by
Gaston Thorn
Party political offices
Preceded by
George Brown
Deputy Leader of the Labour Party
1970 – 1972
Succeeded by
Edward Short
New political party Leader of the Social Democratic Party
1982 – 1983
Succeeded by
David Owen
Preceded by
The Baroness Seear
Liberal Party Leader in the House of Lords
The Lord Diamond
Social Democratic Party Leader in the House of Lords
Liberal Democrat Leader in the House of Lords
1988 – 1997
Succeeded by
The Lord Rodgers of Quarry Bank
Academic offices
Preceded by
The Earl of Stockton
Chancellor of the University of Oxford
1987 – 2003
Succeeded by
Chris Patten

Quotes

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiquote

Roy Harris Jenkins, Baron Jenkins of Hillhead OM PC (11 November 19205 January 2003) was a British politician. Prominent as a Labour Member of Parliament and government minister in the 1960s and 1970s, he went on to be one of the four principal founders of the Social Democratic Party (SDP) in the early 1980s. He was also a distinguished writer, especially of biographies.

Sourced

  • There has been a lot of talk about the formation of a new Centre Party. Some have even been kind enough to suggest that I might lead it. I find this idea profoundly unattractive...I do not believe that such a grouping would have any coherent philosophical base...I cannot be indifferent to the political traditions in which I was brought up...the Labour Party is and always has been an instinctive part of my life.
    • Speech in Oxford (9 March, 1973).
  • I do not think you can push public expenditure significantly above 60 per cent and maintain the values of a plural society with adequate freedom of choice. We are here close to one of the frontiers of social democracy
    • Speech in Anglesey (23 January, 1976).
    • Michael Hatfield, "Inflation fight goes on, Mr Jenkins tells left", The Times (24 January, 1976).
  • I therefore believe that the politics of the left and centre of this country are frozen in an out-of-date mould which is bad for the political and economic health of Britain and increasingly inhibiting for those who live within the mould. Can it be broken?
    • Speech to the Parliamentary Press Gallery (9 June, 1980)
  • Many of the early nationalisation measures were right. They have remained part of the social fabric. I favour measures of that type.
    • Speech in the House of Commons (Hansard, 10th November 1982, Col. 579).

Unsourced

  • A substantial extension of public ownership is an essential prerequisite of greater equality of earned income.
    • 1952
  • The first duty of a party of the left is to be radical in the context of the moment, to offer a prospect of continuing advance and to preserve the loyalty of those whose optimistic humanism makes them natural supporters.
    • 1953
  • The permissive society has been allowed to become a dirty phrase. A better phrase is the civilised society.
    • 1969
  • I am sure Mr. Heath thinks he is honest but I wish he didn't have to have his friends say it so often.
    • 1970
  • We must not expect a full-scale peaceful revolution every time a Labour Government is elected.
    • 1970
  • A social democratic party without deep roots in the working-class movement would quickly fade into an unrepresentative intellectual sect.
    • 1972
  • There are always great dangers in letting the best be the enemy of the good.
    • 1975
  • Each successive Labour government has been the most rapacious, doctrinaire and unpatriotic conspiracy to be seen this side of the Iron Curtain.
    • 1979
  • The fact is that Harold Wilson is a person no one can like, a person without friends.
    • 1981
  • The great disadvantage of our present electoral system is that it freezes the pattern of politics, and holds together the incompatible because everyone assumes that if a party splits it will be electorally slaughtered.
    • 1982

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