Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland: Wikis

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Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland
Coláiste Ríoga na Máinleá in Éirinn[1]
RCSIlogo.png
Motto Consilio Manuque
(Scholarship and Dexterity)
Established 11 February 1784
Type Private
Students 1500
Location Dublin, Ireland
Campus Urban
Registrar
President
Professor Cathal J. Kelly
Professor Frank Keane FRCSI
Affiliations NUI, RCPI
Website http://www.rcsi.ie

The Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland (RCSI), (Irish: Coláiste Ríoga na Máinleá in Éirinn) is a Dublin-based medical institution, situated on St. Stephen's Green. The college is one of the five Recognised Colleges of the National University of Ireland. The college dates back to 1784 and at present incorporates schools of medicine, physiotherapy, pharmacy and nursing, providing both undergraduate and postgraduate levels of medical education.

Among medical institutions outside of Ireland, the use of the term "Royal College" currently indicates an oversight body for postgraduate medical education: the RCSI performs such a function, but is also unique in still having its own undergraduate medical school. The RCSI is a sister institute of the royal surgical colleges of the United Kingdom (London, Glasgow and Edinburgh).

Contents

History

Since medieval times, the practice of surgery was licensed by the Barber-Surgeons' Guild, also known at the time as the Guild of St. Mary Magdalene. The guild chapel was in Christchurch. Guild membership at that time was obtained by a 3 year apprenticeship followed by 2 years as a master. In fact the College of Surgeons maintained a mandatory period of apprenticeship to a qualified surgeon until 1828. In 1446, the Barber-Surgeons' guild was incorporated by royal decree of Henry VI, becoming the first medical corporation in the British Isles.

In 1765, Sylvester O’Halloran, a surgeon from Limerick, proposed a College of Surgeons along the lines of the College de St. Cosme in Paris, which had been regulating French surgeons since it had been created by Royal Charter by Louis IX in 1255, to train and regulate surgeons. The Dublin Society of Surgeons’ was founded in 1780 at the Elephant public house on Essex street (now Parliament street). Trinity did not teach surgery as a subject until 1851, so Ireland was entirely without a school focused on surgery.

To have a separate organisation focused on providing standardised surgical education became one of the goals of the society and they lobbied for a Royal Charter, in 1781 presenting the lord lieutenant a petition to be incorporated separately from the barbers. The awaited charter was granted by King George III on 11 February 1784. The governing body, including the first President Samuel Croker-King and William Dease, first professor of surgery, met in the boardroom of the Rotunda Hospital for the first time on 2 March. Most importantly, admission or employment was not discriminated against on sectarian grounds. Two of its chief founders, Sylvester O’Halloran and William Dease as well as eleven out of its first 57 presidents were Catholic. The college also recognised the medical qualifications given by the Catholic university from 1856, which gave legitimacy to their diplomas.

The first candidate for examination was John Birch, in August 1784.

The RCSI Disease and Research centre in Beaumont Hospital

The current location, at the corner of York Street, was acquired in September 1805, with additional land at Glover’s Alley bought in 1809. It was previously an abandoned Quaker burial ground. The Duke of Bedford laid the first stone of the new building on St. Patrick’s Day, 1806 and building reached completion in March 1810.

A supplemental charter was granted by Queen Victoria in 1844, dividing medical graduates into Licentiates and Fellows. Initially, physicians were trained alongside with surgeons. These two disciplines were merged in 1886; and, the medical school began operation. Due to these historical reasons, graduates of medicine still receive Licentiate diplomas from the two Royal Colleges as well as now being awarded MB (Bachelor of Medicine) BCh (Bachelor of Surgery) and BAO (Bachelor of the Art of Obstetrics) degrees by the National University of Ireland.

Ever since the 1980s, Beaumont Hospital, Dublin has been the principal centre for medical training. Other affiliated hospitals include teaching hospitals such as Connolly Hospital.

Academic structure

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Undergraduate Faculties

  • School of Medicine (5 or 6 year programme, 4 year Graduate Entry Programme)
  • School of Pharmacy
  • School of Physiotherapy

Postgraduate Faculties

  • Faculty of Dentistry
  • Faculty of Sports and Exercise Medicine
  • Faculty of Radiologists
  • Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery

Admissions

For the medical programme, there are two main entry routes: a regular scheme for secondary school students, lasting 5 or 6 years (5 years plus 1 year of premedical basic sciences); and a graduate entry scheme lasting 4 years. Entry requirements differ depending on the country of origin. The general Irish Leaving Certificate score requirement is around 570 points[2]. The Irish medical students make up only 16.8% of the medical students of a given year (44 of 262 in 2006)[citation needed]. In the case of North American applicants with bachelor's degrees applying to the medical programme, MCAT scores, GPA and recommendations are used for evaluation. Similar applicants from Australia, for example, may use GAMSAT results.

For the four-year Pharmacy programme, graduates are awarded BSc in Pharmacy. For the three-year Physiotherapy programme, graduates are awarded BSc in Physiotherapy.[3]

Student life

Students at RCSI are encouraged to participate in extracurricular activities that promote service in the community and cultural awareness. As a side note, 80% of the student population is from outside the European Union, with a significant portion coming from North America, the Middle East and Asia. A complete list of current student societies and clubs can be found on the RCSI website.[4]

The Students' Union (SU) is an annually elected body, consisting of 7 officers. The SU is the college's bridge between faculty and the student body and is invited to most meetings, ensuring that student voices are heard on a variety of topics. The SU works closely with the Student Council, which consists of class representatives from all classes at RCSI.

International aspects and operations

The Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland

As a leading international medical institution, RCSI is active in all medically related sectors of education around the globe. During the South African Apartheid, for example, RCSI provided medical education to those that were discriminated against.[5] In 2005, RCSI Dubai was founded and currently offers a master's programme in Healthcare Management.

In 2007 The Royal College of Surgeons Ireland (RCSI) in conjunction with Valentia Technologies, the Dublin Fire Brigade (DFB), and the Pre Hospital Emergency Care Council (PHECC) launched unique training initiative with the Emergency Medical Services Dubai Training Institute. The aim is to better patient care and improve response times within Dubai's emergency ambualance services.[6]

In Malaysia, Penang Medical College became RCSI's far east "launching pad". Established in 1995, Malaysian medical students may choose to complete their pre-clinical studies at either UCD Dublin or RCSI.

RCSI-Bahrain is a fully owned constituent university of RCSI and already has nearly 450 registered students. The first cohort commenced medical studies in October 2004 and graduates are entitled to an M.D. degree. In 2006 the Medical University of Bahrain established a new School of Nursing which took its first cohort of students in September 2006.

For students at the home institution of RCSI, electives may be taken abroad as a result of collaborative agreements with other medical schools around the world. As of 2007, these medical schools include Columbia University, University of Pennsylvania, and Tufts University. There are also informal agreements with other institutions such as the Johns Hopkins University and Mayo Clinic.

More than 60 countries from each continent are represented in the RCSI student body.

Trivia

  • Now defunct subjects taught include: Logic (1852-1862), Military Surgery (1851-1860), Botany (1792-1889) and Hygiene or Political Medicine (1841-1921, then united with chair of Medical Jurisprudence).
  • The RCSI motto, "Consilio Manuque", was adopted from the College de St. Cosme in Paris, which had been afforded the motto by Louis XIV. It was originally "Consiloque Manuque", his personal motto.
Painting of the College
  • The RCSI college council has by custom, met on Thursdays, dating to the advent of the Dublin Society of Surgeons in 1780.
  • The statues on the St. Stephen's Green facade of the college are Aesclepius in the center, with Hygeia on his left and Athena on his right. These statues represent healing, health and wisdom respectively. Over the entrance on the same side is a stone carving of Hippocrates.
  • The Biological Society (BioSoc) is the official student society of the Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland (RCSI) and claims to be the oldest student medical society in the world.[citation needed] The Widdess Lecture is one of their main annual events, where the Society invites an expert in their field (usually from outside of medicine) to speak to students and staff.

Notable alumni

Notable honorary fellows

See also

References

External links

Coordinates: 53°20′20″N 6°15′43″W / 53.338965°N 6.261813°W / 53.338965; -6.261813


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