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Royal New Zealand Air Force
Ensign of the Royal New Zealand Air Force
Ensign of the Royal New Zealand Air Force
Founded 1913 (first military aviation)
1923 (New Zealand Permanent Air Force formed)
1 April 1937 (Independent service)
Country New Zealand
Size 2,523 personnel (including civilian employees) (2003)
53 aircraft (2003)
Part of New Zealand Defence Force
Motto Per Ardua ad Astra
Latin:"Through Adversity to the Stars"
Flying hours 190 per year per pilot (IISS 2008)
Commanders
Chief of Air Force Air Vice-Marshal Graham Lintott
Insignia
Roundels Rnzaf-Lowvis roundel.svg Rnzaf roundel.svg

The Royal New Zealand Air Force (RNZAF)[1] (Maori: Te Tauaarangi o Aotearoa, "New Zealand Warriors of the Sky") is the air arm of the New Zealand Defence Force. It was formed from New Zealand components of the British Royal Air Force, becoming an independent force in 1923, although many RNZAF aircrew continued to serve in the Royal Air Force until the end of the 1940s. The RNZAF fought in World War II, Malaysia, Vietnam and the Gulf War plus various United Nations peacekeeping missions. From a 1945 peak of over 1,000 combat aircraft the RNZAF has shrunk to a strength of around 53 aircraft in 2007, focusing on maritime patrol and transport duties in support of the Royal New Zealand Navy and the New Zealand Army.

The RNZAF motto is the same as that of the RAF, Per ardua ad astra — "Through adversity to the stars." RNZAF rank titles and uniform remain similar to those of the RAF. All personnel wear the nationality mark "NEW ZEALAND" on the slip-on rank shoulder epaulette or on a sewn-on shoulder title on the dress uniform.

Contents

History

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Pre-World War I

New Zealand's military aviation began in 1913 when the New Zealand Army was presented with two Blériot monoplanes by the United Kingdom. These machines were grounded after a young woman was given a joyride; on the outbreak of hostilities, the Bleriots were sent to support British forces in Mesopotamia.

World War I

Bleriot XI 'Britannia', 1913

In the Great War, New Zealand aircrew flew as part of the British Royal Flying Corps and Royal Naval Air Service. New Zealand pilots serving with British forces saw service in all theatres. Fifteen became aces, the top scorer being Keith Caldwell with, depending on how counted, more than 24 victories.

The locally-designed Walsh type D pilot training 'boat of 1918

The government assisted two private schools to train pilots for the conflict. The Walsh brothers flying school at Auckland was founded by Leo and Vivian Walsh—pioneers who had made the first controlled flight in New Zealand. From 1915 pilots trained on the Walsh Brothers Flying Boats including Curtiss machines, aircraft of their own design and, later in the war, the first two aircraft made by Boeing.

In 1916 Sir Henry Wigram established the Canterbury Aviation Company at Sockburn, Christchurch, and purchased Caudron biplanes from Britain for pilot training. He gifted the aerodrome, later Wigram Aerodrome, to the government for defence purposes.

At the end of the war many New Zealand pilots stayed with the new Royal Air Force and several had attained high rank by the outbreak of World War II. Others returned to New Zealand and, serving part-time, provided the nucleus of the NZPAF.

The New Zealand Permanent Air Force

Gloster Grebe NZ501 leads Bristol Fighters, late 1920s
Restored Avro 626 trainer.

At the close of hostilities Great Britain offered each of the Dominions a hundred war-surplus combat aircraft. New Zealand was the last to respond and least enthusiastic. When the Avro 504s, Bristol F.2 Fighters and, De Havilland designed, Airco DH.4s and Airco DH.9s did reach New Zealand they were either placed in storage or loaned to the flying schools, barnstormers and nascent commercial operators. Several of the military aircraft were heavily modified—a 504 becoming a 3-seat floatplane and a DH-9 acquiring an enclosed passenger cabin.

The importance of aviation in war was belatedly recognised, largely thanks to the efforts of visionary parliamentarian Sir Henry Wigram. In 1923 the New Zealand Permanent Air Force was formed: a part of the Army staffed by 72 pilots with Great War experience. It was initially equipped with the surviving Avro 504K, the DH.4s, DH.9s and Bristol Fighters. These operated from an airfield outside Christchurch at Sockburn.

In 1926 Wigram donated £2,500 for the purchase of modern fighters and Gloster Grebes were acquired. Sockburn was later renamed Wigram, a name adopted by the suburb which grew up around the airbase. It is the site of the present New Zealand Air Force Museum, but RNZAF Base Wigram has now closed.

Supermarine Walrus of the RNZAFs seaplane training flight.
Fairey IIIF taxiing.

A trickle of new-build Bristol Fighters and other new types joined the NZPAF in the late 1920s and early 1930s. A Lewis gun-equipped De Havilland Gipsy Moth floatplane took part in naval operations against rebels in Samoa. The NZPAF's first action came in 1930 when the Moth dropped an improvised bomb made out of a treacle tin on to a ship suspected of gun-running. The bomb did no damage, fortuitously, as the target turned out to be a local missionary vessel. More creditably, Fairey IIIFs made a dramatic maritime rescue and in the aftermath of the Napier earthquake the NZPAF flew in urgently needed supplies and medical equipment.

See a photo of NZPAF officers c1929, also Leonard Isitt.

Like other western air arms a major expansion began from the mid 1930s. The NZPAF acquired more modern British types including significant numbers of Airspeed Oxfords, Avro 626s, Fairey Gordons, Vickers Vildebeests and Blackburn Baffins—and small numbers of other types. The NZPAF was renamed the Royal New Zealand Air Force in 1934 and became an independent service in 1937.

World War II

World War II in Europe

The badge of the RNZAF.
Vickers Wellington bombers of the RNZAF in England, 1939.

At the outbreak of World War II the primary equipment of the RNZAF was 30 Vickers Wellington bombers, which the New Zealand government had offered to the United Kingdom, in August 1939, together with the crews to fly them. They became 75 Squadron. Many other New Zealanders were serving in the RAF.

The primary role of the RNZAF was to take advantage of New Zealand's distance from the conflict by training aircrew, as part of the Empire Air Training Scheme, alongside the other major former British colonies, Canada, Australia and South Africa. For this task large numbers of De Havilland Tiger Moth, Airspeed Oxford and North American Harvard were manufactured or assembled locally and second-hand biplanes were acquired—such as Hawker Hinds and Vickers Vincents—as well as other types for specialised training such as Avro Ansons and Supermarine Walrus. Only when German surface raiders became active was it realised that a combat force would be needed in New Zealand in addition to the trainers.

New Zealanders serving with the RAF

Air Chief Marshal Park, the famous NZ Commander in the Battle of Britain
A restored 485 (NZ) Squadron Spitfire.

The majority of RNZAF personnel served with RAF units, six RNZAF Article XV squadrons, which were RNZAF units attached to RAF formations, and the Fleet Air Arm — in Europe, the Mediterranean, South East Asia and other theatres. Commonwealth personnel under RAF operational control were pooled for operational practicality and many RNZAF airmen also served with Royal Australian Air Force or Royal Canadian Air Force Article XV squadrons.

New Zealanders in the RAF itself included pilots, such as the first RAF ace of the war, Flying Officer Cobber Kain, Alan Deere (whose book Nine Lives was one of the first post war accounts of combat) and leaders such as the World War I ace, Air Chief Marshal Sir Keith Park, who commanded No. 11 Group RAF in the Battle of Britain and went on to the air defence of Malta and, in the closing stages of the war, Commonwealth air units under South East Asia Command, and Air Marshal Sir Arthur Coningham Air Tactical Commander of D-Day.

Some RAF squadrons were also set aside for pilots from a particular country. The first of these was 75 Squadron, formed by RNZAF aircrews and Vickers Wellington bombers in August 1939.

Pilots of 486 (NZ) Squadron, with Hawker Tempest, Kestrup, Denmark, 1945.

The squadron later flew Short Stirlings, Avro Lancasters and Avro Lincolns. Through accident or design, other RAF units came to be mostly manned by RNZAF pilots, including No. 243 Squadron RAF in Singapore, No. 258 Squadron RAF in the UK and several Wildcat and Hellcat units of the FAA (leading some texts to claim these types were used by the RNZAF).

New Zealand Article XV Squadrons included No. 485, which flew Supermarine Spitfires throughout the war. No. 486, (Hawker Hurricanes, Hawker Typhoons and Hawker Tempests). No. 487, (Lockheed Venturas and De Havilland Mosquitoes). No. 488, (Brewster Buffaloes, Hawker Hurricanes, Bristol Beaufighters and De Havilland Mosquitoes). No. 489, (Bristol Blenheims, Bristol Beauforts, Handley Page Hampdens, Bristol Beaufighters, and De Havilland Mosquitoes). And No. 490, (Consolidated Catalinas and Short Sunderlands).

At least 78 New Zealand pilots became aces during the war.

The RNZAF in the Pacific

Harvards continued as trainers until the mid 1970s. In 1942, they were also last ditch "fighters".

The presence of German raiders lead to the formation of New Zealand-based combat units—initially rearming types, like the Vildebeest, and hurriedly converting impressed airliners, such as the DH86 to carry bombs. Lockheed Hudsons were obtained early in 1941 to take over this role. No. 5 Squadron with Vickers Vincents and Short Singapores were sent to protect Fiji.

RNZAF Catalinas.

In December 1941 Japan attacked and rapidly conquered much of the area to the north of New Zealand. With the apparent threat of imminent invasion New Zealand was forced to look to her own defence, as well as to help the "mother country". Trainers and more airliners in New Zealand were camouflaged and armed and types, such as the such as the North American Harvard, Hawker Hind, Airspeed Oxford and even the de Havilland Tiger Moth, formed shadow bomber, army co-operation and fighter squadrons for use in the event of invasion. Hudsons moved forward into the South Pacific while No. 5 Squadron, in Fiji, commenced operations against the Japanese despite its obsolete equipment.

Hudson in the RNZAF museum.

The vulnerability of New Zealand to Axis naval activity was demonstrated when a submarine-launched Japanese float plane overflew Wellington and Auckland—where it was chased ineffectually by a Tiger Moth. As few combat-capable aircraft were available at home and Britain was unable to help, New Zealand turned to the United States and signed a lend-lease agreement. Gradually at first, America was able to supply New Zealand with aircraft for use in the Pacific Theatre— initially, in 1942, Curtiss P-40 Kittyhawks and additional Harvards and Hudsons. The fall of Singapore led to the evacuated RNZAF pilots, in the RAF there, becoming available in New Zealand and they provided an experienced nucleus around which new fighter squadrons were formed.

The early lend-lease aircraft were obsolescent and had difficulty holding their own against the skilled and well-equipped Japanese pilots, but as soon as pilots had converted to the lend-lease aircraft they were pressed into action.

Restored RNZAF Corsair.

From mid-1943, at Guadalcanal, starting with No. 15 and No. 14 Squadrons, several Kittyhawk units fought with distinction. Several RNZAF pilots became aces against the Japanese, including Geoff Fisken, the Commonwealth's leading ace in the Pacific war. Other squadrons flew the elderly but effective Douglas Dauntless and, later, the modern Grumman Avenger torpedo bomber. From 12 October 1943, as part of Operation Cartwheel, RNZAF aircraft joined an allied air campaign against Japanese held airfields and the port of Rabaul.

The RNZAF took on a major part of the maritime reconnaissance task with Catalina (and later Sunderland) flying boats and Hudson bombers.

Gruman Avenger in the RNZAF Museum.

The role of the RNZAF changed as the allies moved off the defensive. The Americans, leaders of the Allied nations in the Pacific, planned to bypass major Japanese strongholds, instead capturing a handful of island bases to provide a supply chain for an eventual attack on Japan itself. The Allied advance started from the South Pacific. The RNZAF was part of the force tasked with securing the line of advance by incapacitating bypassed Japanese strongholds, for example, Rabaul.

As the war progressed the older types were replaced with more powerful modern aircraft; Kittyhawks gave way to Corsairs, Hudsons and Venturas. At the close of war the RNZAF was planning to bring 320 P51Ds into service as part replacement for the F4U.

P-51D preserved in No. 3 (Canterbury) TAF colours

At its peak, in the Pacific, the RNZAF had 34 Squadrons—25 of which were based outside New Zealand and in action against Japanese forces. Thirteen squadrons of Corsairs, six of Venturas, two each of Catalinas and Avengers, two of Dakotas. The RNZAF also had a squadron of Dauntless dive bombers, several mixed transport and communications squadrons, a flight of Short Sunderlands and nearly 1000 training machines. To administer units in the South Pacific, No. 1 (Islands) Group RNZAF was formed on 10 March 1943.[2] In addition to this several hundred RNZAF personnel saw action with RAF squadrons or the FAA in Burma, Singapore and the South Pacific.

By 1945 the RNZAF had over 41,000 personnel, including just over 10,000 aircrew who served with the RAF in Europe and Africa.

Postwar RNZAF

Vampire gate guardian at Ohakea

In the post war period the RNZAF dealt progressively with demobilisation and disposal of its large obsolete fleet, rearmament to support the cold war, some loss of training opportunities with the American suspension of ANZUS Treaty obligations in protest at New Zealand becoming a nuclear free zone, social changes which saw women become combat pilots, and most recently loss of fast jets as part of the continuing funding cuts, that have seen the air force decline from over a thousand aircraft to just fifty.

14 Squadron Strikemasters, 1984

Following World War II, 14 Squadron was sent to Japan as part of the occupation J-Force. The rest of the air force rapidly divested itself of aircraft and manpower and settled mainly into training and transport mode before the advent of rejuvenated 14 and 75 squadrons.

A Gloster Meteor arrived in 1945, introducing the jet age. The force was equipped from 1946 with the De Havilland Mosquito before the arrival of De Havilland Vampires. Initially used in peacekeeping in Cyprus and Singapore the Vampires were supplemented by loaned De Havilland Venoms and, later, English Electric Canberras, both of which saw action in the Malayan Emergency and subsequent confrontation with Indonesia. The RNZAF bought its own Canberras in 1962, these were replaced from 1969 with A-4 Skyhawks. In the late 1980s 10 further Skyhawks were obtained from Australia and, under the Kahu (Falcon) program, the fleet was updated with F-16 avionics, (including APG 66 radar), allowing use of AIM-9L and AGM-65 Maverick missiles and laser-guided bombs.

During the 1960s the ageing Vampire fleet was used largely for training and any pretence of maintaining a fighter arm was abandoned when these were replaced with BAC Strikemasters in the early 1970s. When, in the early 1990s these had to be retired due to serious wing fatigue problems, they were replaced in the training role by 18 Aermacchi MB-339s.

No. 75 Sqn. TA-4K in 1984

In the immediate post war period, internal communications and transport and other services were maintained by 42 Squadron. It supported the Army and Navy using TBM-1 Avengers (to tow drogue targets for gunnery), the Territorial Air Force's P-51D Mustangs and T-6 Harvards, the VIPs with De Havilland Devons, also used for support, communications and multi-engine conversion training, and Dakotas for VIP and communications support. De Havilland Canada DHC-2 Beaver, De Havilland Canada DHC-3 Otter and Auster types helped to explore Antarctica. A research flight helped develop Aerial Topdressing. Later, Hawker Siddeley Andover and Cessna 421C Golden Eagle aircraft were used for transport and VIP duties.

Nos. 5 and 6 squadron traded their lend-lease Catalinas for Short Sunderland MR5s operating in maritime patrol and search and rescue roles from Hobsonville and Laucala Bay, Fiji, before 6 squadron was disbanded and 5 received P-3K Orions in 1965.

40 Squadron Boeing 757-200 and C130H Hercules flanked by 5 Squadron P-3K Orions breaking formation during the Whenuapai air show in March 2009.

Transport aircraft such as the Douglas C-47 Dakota, Bristol Freighter, De Havilland Devon, Handley Page Hastings, Douglas DC-6, C-130 Hercules, Andover, Boeing 727 and Boeing 757 were operated by Numbers 1, 40, 41 and 42 Squadrons. Transports flew in support of the Army, Navy and other allied military and civil forces in the Malayan Emergency, Korean War, Vietnam War, the Gulf War and the US and NATO led operations in Afghanistan, as well as supporting several UN missions such as UNTAET while carrying out peacetime tasks for governmental and civilian purposes.

The Bell 47 introduced the helicopter to the RNZAF and the Bell UH-1 Iroquois of 3 Squadron went to the Sinai and East Timor, while Westland Wasp and Kaman SH-2 Seasprite helicopters were also operated by the squadron. The Naval Support Flight was separated from 3 Squadron to re-form 6 Squadron in October 2005.

Through much of the postwar period the RNZAF was administered through Operations Group at Auckland, at one time supervising Transport and Maritime Operations Wings, and Support Group at Wigram responsible for training and support. Support Group included No.1 Stores Depot at RNZAF Te Rapa and No.1 Repair Depot at RNZAF Woodborne.

Airbase reductions in the post-Cold War period

Following the end of the Cold War, Minister of Defence Bob Tizard's term of office saw the RNZAF begin to consolidate its facilities. RNZAF Te Rapa north of Hamilton closed in 1992. In 1995 the first established RNZAF airbase, that of RNZAF Wigram Aerodrome in Christchurch closed. RNZAF Shelly Bay base located on Wellington's Miramar peninsula also closed, (during World War II RNZAF Shelly Bay had been the naval station HMNZS Cook). The helicopter and former seaplane base RNZAF Hobsonville has been sold to Housing New Zealand, for eventual development as a residential area. RNZAF remains a tenant on the land, however the remaining units based there will eventually relocate to other defence sites.

Plans to close RNZAF Whenuapai (and consolidate all operations to Ohakea) made by the previous government, were overturned in March 2009.[3] As at 2009, the RNZAF maintain 3 Air Bases (Whenuapai, Ohakea, Woodbourne) and Air Movements Terminals located at Wellington International Airport, and Harewood Airport (Christchurch).

21st century

In a move opposed by many in the defence force,[4][5] the Labour government in 2001 completely removed the RNZAF fighter capability by cancelling the purchase of 28 Block 15 F-16 Fighting Falcon fighters and disbanding:

Most of the RNZAF's fighter pilots subsequently left New Zealand to serve in the Royal Australian Air Force and the Royal Air Force.[7]

A TA-4K Skyhawk at the Ohakea wing of the RNZAF Museum 2007.

By 2003 the RNZAF was reduced to a total of 53 aircraft and 2,523 personnel (including civilian employees).

In 2005 the New Zealand Ministry of Defence selected the NH90 helicopter to replace the RNZAF's ageing fleet of 14 UH-1H Iroquois helicopters. The NZ government allocated NZ$550 million for the replacement of the Iroquois and the RNZAF's small fleet of Bell 47 (Sioux) training helicopters. In late 2005 the NZ government announced that the surviving A-4Ks and MB-339Cs, (17 aircraft of each type, not counting A-4s in museums) were to be sold to an American company, Tactical Air Systems, for use in jet training, subject to the usual U. S. governmental approvals. Tactical Air Systems announced RNZAF colour schemes would be preserved, "out of respect for the history and traditions of the RNZAF". The aircraft remain in storage at Woodbourne due to U. S. State Department concerns about having two squadrons of combat jets operating over the U. S. in private hands. The Aermacchi fleet is still in flying condition but the A4K fleet was covered in protective latex and moved to outside storage in 2007[8] to make space for the C130 life extension.

New Zealand took out an option to purchase C-130J Hercules from Lockheed Martin as a part of an Australian purchase in the late 1990s, however the Labour Government which entered power in 1999 chose not to proceed with the purchase. Instead a NZD226m service life extension programme (SLEP) was ordered from L3 Spar Aerospace of Canada in 2004.[9] This is for the replacement of specific mechanical, avionic, and structural components, and the design and installation of flight deck communications and navigation improvements to meet evolving air traffic management regulations.[10] The first aircraft is to be modified in Canada with the rest at Air New Zealand subsidiary, Safe Air, in Blenheim, New Zealand. The SLEP will see the highest houred C130 Hercules in the world remain in use until approximately 2025. Its replacement will most likely be either the A400M or the C130J. Since 2001, RNZAF P-3K Orions and C-130 Hercules have made periodic deployments in support of Operation Enduring Freedom and the International Security Assistance Force in Afghanistan.

In October 2007 the government announced it had selected the Agusta A109 as the preferred replacement for the Sioux helicopters.[11] Defence Minister Phil Goff declared "In common with the Seasprite helicopter already in service and the eight new NH-90s on order for the RNZAF, the A109 is wheeled and capable of deployment from our Navy vessels". Chief of Air Force, Air Vice-Marshal Graham Lintott, said the A109 "will provide an effective platform to train aircrew in basic helicopter operations plus the advanced skills required to operate both the Navy SH-2G Seasprite and the highly capable RNZAF NH90 helicopter that will come into service in 2010."[12]

In 2008 the Defence Minister expressed the desire to return to service all 17 Aermacchi trainers to supplement Army and Navy operations.[13] Prime Minister John Key said it is extremely unlikely that any jet training will be restored.[14]

Current strength

Aircraft

  • 6 x Lockheed P-3K Orions are operated in the maritime patrol mission. Five were originally delivered in 1966 as P-3Bs. Another was purchased from the RAAF in 1985, following which all were upgraded to their current standard.
  • 5 x Kaman SH-2G(NZ) Seasprites were purchased in 1997 for operation from the RNZN's new Anzac class frigates. Although these are navy aircraft and they are operated by Navy pilots, they are maintained by RNZAF personnel including maintenance planning etc.
  • 5 x Beechcraft B200 King Airs Three were leased by the RNZAF in 1998, with a further two leased in 2000. These are used in the multi-engined training role.
  • 2 x Boeing 757-200s are operated in the fast air transport role.
  • 5 x Lockheed C-130H Hercules are operated in the air transport role. Three were delivered in 1966, with a further two in 1969.
  • 14 x Bell UH-1H Iroquois are the most numerous operational aircraft in the RNZAF inventory.
  • 12 x Pacific Aerospace CT-4E Airtrainers were leased by the RNZAF in 1998 to serve as the air force's basic flying trainer.
  • 5 x Bell 47 Sioux are in service as basic helicopter trainers. Five Agusta A109 helicopters will be delivered from October 2010 to replace the Sioux.[15]
  • 8 x NHI NH90 helicopters have been purchased by the Ministry of Defence for $771 million, including costs for parts and services. Expected to be operational in New Zealand from 2010, they will replace the Iroquois.[16]

In addition a historic flight maintains airworthy Harvard and Tiger Moth trainers. 17 A-4Ks and 17 Aermacchi trainers are also retained in flyable storage condition.

Squadrons

HMNZS Canterbury in 2007 with a SH-2G of No. 6 Sqn.

Other Units

RNZAF bases

Symbols, flags and emblems

The RNZAF roundel

The RNZAF ensign was approved in 1939, based on the ensign of the Royal Air Force, with the letters "NZ" inserted within the roundel.

Low-visibility roundel.

Until the 1950s NZPAF and RNZAF aircraft flew with Royal Air Force roundels; sometimes only the "NZ" prefix to the serial number revealed its nationality within the Commonwealth. A white kiwi or silver fern on a black background or a New Zealand flag frequently appeared on RNZAF aircraft, and also on RAF aircraft with NZ aircrew. Map outlines of New Zealand with a Kiwi superimposed appeared on the tails of Canberras flown from Singapore in the Malayan Emergency: Venoms used in the conflict had a white kiwi on a black tail.

From the mid 1950s RNZAF roundels were modified by a fern frond within the inner red circle. Several colours were tried, including green, gold and finally white. The first two were too difficult to spot and the last looked to much like a white feather (a traditional symbol in the commonwealth of cowardice or pacificism and was hardly a suitable symbol for any military, particularly one with the RNZAF's fine record) that further attempts with ferns were dropped and the Kiwi bird was adopted at the end of the 1960s. To assist camouflage in the 1980s the white was sometimes eliminated, giving a red kiwi within a blue circle (e.g. on Hercules, Aermacchis and Skyhawks). The kiwi roundel is now frequently a black circle around a black kiwi (Hercules, Iroquois) or two-tone grey (Orion, Sea Sprite). The nose is always forward and on wings the the legs are inwards, towards to the fuselage.

Victoria Crosses

Personnel

Air force commanders

1945; Air Vice Marshal Leonard M. Isitt, representing New Zealand, accepts the Japanese surrender
  • 1 April 1937 Group Captain Ralph Cochrane [17]
  • 25 February 1939 Group Captain Hugh Saunders [18]
  • 29 September 1941 Air Commodore Victor Goddard [19]
  • 19 July 1943 Air Vice-Marshal Leonard Isitt [20]
  • May 1946 Air Vice-Marshal Arthur Nevill
  • January 1951 Air Vice-Marshal D V Carnegie[21]
  • February 1954 Air Vice-Marshal W Merton
  • June 1956 Air Vice-Marshal Cyril Kay
  • July 1958 Air Vice-Marshal M F Calder
  • July 1962 Air Vice-Marshal Ian Morrison
  • July 1966 Air Vice-Marshal C Turner
  • July 1969 Air Vice-Marshal W Stratton
  • July 1971 Air Vice-Marshal D F St George
  • September 1974 Air Vice-Marshal Sir Richard Bolt
  • October 1976 Air Vice-Marshal Larry Siegert
  • October 1979 Air Vice-Marshal Ewan Jamieson
  • April 1983 Air Vice-Marshal David Crooks
  • October 1986 Air Vice-Marshal Pat Neville
  • list incomplete
  • September 1995 Air Vice-Marshal Carey Adamson[22]
  • 25 February 1999 Air Vice-Marshal Don Hamilton[23]
  • 25 February 2002 Air Vice-Marshal John Hamilton [24]
  • 1 May 2006 Air Vice-Marshal Graham Lintott [25]

See also

References

  1. ^ RNZAF - Headquarters and Bases
  2. ^ http://www.nzetc.org/tm/scholarly/tei-WH2AirF-c12-1.html
  3. ^ Scoop.co.nz, [1]
  4. ^ http://www.nzherald.co.nz/nz/news/article.cfm?c_id=1&objectid=229361
  5. ^ http://www.nzherald.co.nz/nz/news/article.cfm?c_id=1&objectid=210527
  6. ^ http://www.defence.govt.nz/reports-publications/air-combat/desc-options.html
  7. ^ [Hooper, Nick and Stephens, Barbara; The economics of defence labour markets, Economic Affairs Volume 17 Issue 4, p39]
  8. ^ http://www.nzdf.mil.nz/news/media-releases/20071212-smwfh.htm
  9. ^ http://www.scoop.co.nz/stories/PA0412/S00395.htm
  10. ^ http://www.defence.govt.nz/acquisitions-tenders/current-acquisition-projects/c130-life-extension.html
  11. ^ Lift-off for negotiations on new copters - New Zealand Herald, Wednesday 31 October 2007
  12. ^ Air force helicopter replacement announced - RNZAF Public Relationa Media Release, Tuesday 30 October 2007
  13. ^ "Air Force's Aermacchis may be returned to service". The New Zealand Herald. 1 December 2008. http://www.nzherald.co.nz/nz/news/article.cfm?c_id=1&objectid=10545947.  
  14. ^ "John Key shoots down return of air strike capability". The New Zealand Herald. 2 December 2008. http://www.nzherald.co.nz/armed-forces/news/article.cfm?c_id=123&objectid=10546026. Retrieved 2009-06-16.  
  15. ^ Govt wraps up copter upgrade, New Zealand Herald, 9 May 2008
  16. ^ New Zealand Defence Force (31 July 2006). "New Helicopters Represent Quantum Leap Forward". Press release. http://www.nzdf.mil.nz/news/media-releases/20060731-nhrqlf.htm. Retrieved 4 May 2009.  
  17. ^ [2]
  18. ^ [3]
  19. ^ [4]
  20. ^ [5]
  21. ^ http://www.rafweb.org/Biographies/Carnegie.htm
  22. ^ http://www.flightglobal.com/pdfarchive/view/1996/1996%20-%201835.html
  23. ^ http://www.airforce.mil.nz/about-us/history/the-post-war-years.htm
  24. ^ [6]
  25. ^ [7]

External links


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