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Rugby union
New Zealand vs South Africa 2006 Tri Nations Line Out.JPG
South African Victor Matfield takes a lineout against New Zealand in 2006.
Highest governing body International Rugby Board
Nickname(s) Rugger[1]
First played Early 19th century (early forms)

1845 (first written rules)
Characteristics
Contact Full Contact
Team members Fifteen
Mixed gender Separate competitions
Categorization Team sport, Outdoor
Equipment Rugby ball
Olympic 1900, 1908, 1920 & 1924
.Rugby union is a full contact team sport, a form of football which originated in England in the early 19th century.^ Tags: football , rugby , rugby union , union .
  • Rugby Union | SportsPassion - Your Sports Community Online for Players, Fans, Coaches and Managers 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC sportspassion.com [Source type: General]

^ The first national union was established in England when the Rugby Football Union was formed in 1871, ...
  • Amazon.com: "Rugby Football Union": Key Phrase page 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC www.amazon.com [Source type: General]

^ Rugby union Gridiron football .
  • Professional Punter Free Rugby Union Wagering and Betting Tips 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC www.propun.com.au [Source type: General]

[2] .One of the codes of rugby football, it is based on running with the ball in hand.^ Rugby football is a ball handling game.

^ Rugby union, often known simply as rugby or union, is one of two variations of the game derived from rugby football, with the name coming from the original governing body, The Rugby Football Union.

^ Rugby union football (often referred to as simply rugby or union) is a full-contact outdoor sport played by teams of 15 players with an oval ball.
  • Rugby Union | SportsPassion - Your Sports Community Online for Players, Fans, Coaches and Managers 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC sportspassion.com [Source type: General]

.It is played with an oval-shaped ball, outdoors on a level field, usually with a grass surface, up to 100 metres (330 ft) long and 70 metres (230 ft) wide.^ It is exclusively played on the open outdoor grass fields.

^ It is played with a stick and a ball and most often played on grass or synthetic surfaces.
  • Department of Sport and Recreation | Rugby Union 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC www.dsr.wa.gov.au [Source type: News]

^ Rugby is played on a grassy pitch 70 meters wide 100 meters long.

[3][4] .At each end of the field is an H-shaped goal.^ Goal-line ( Tryline ): The line at either end of the field of play which a player must cross for his team to successfully score a try is called a tryline .
  • The basics of rugby union 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC www.rugby.neu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Football — Australian Rules Australian rules football, also known as Australian football, Aussie rules, or simply ‘football’ or ‘footy’ is a code of football played with a spheroid ball on large, oval-shaped fields with four posts at each end.
  • Department of Sport and Recreation | Rugby Union 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC www.dsr.wa.gov.au [Source type: News]

^ It is played on a rectangular grass field, with a goal at each end.
  • Department of Sport and Recreation | Rugby Union 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC www.dsr.wa.gov.au [Source type: News]

.William Webb Ellis is often credited with the invention of running with the ball in hand in 1823 at Rugby School when he allegedly caught the ball while playing football and ran towards the opposition goal.^ Rugby football is a ball handling game.

^ Ellis or anyone else deciding to run with the ball).
  • Rugby: Rugby League and Rugby Union?, rugby league game, rugby football union 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: News]

^ In 1823, during a game of soccer at Rugby School in England, 16 year old William Webb Ellis picked up the ball and ran with it towards his opponents' goal line.
  • The History and Origins of Rugby Union 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC hubpages.com [Source type: General]

Although the evidence to support it is doubtful, the Ellis story was immortalised at the school with a plaque unveiled in 1895.[5] In 1848, the first rules were written by pupils;[6] other significant events in the early development of rugby include the Blackheath Club's decision to leave the Football Association in 1863 and the split between rugby union and rugby league in 1895.
.Rugby union has been governed by the International Rugby Board since its formation in 1886 and currently has a membership of 115 national unions.^ The International Rugby Board was formed in 1890.

^ Irb International Rugby Board loading loading...
  • International Rugby Board - Home 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC www.irb.com [Source type: News]

^ Originally, rugby league was considered the professional sport and rugby union the amateur one, but in 1995 the International Rugby Board made rugby union an open sport, allowing professional competition.

.In 1995, the IRB removed restrictions on payments to players, making the game openly professional at the highest level for the first time.^ At the time he had played 9 first grade games.
  • http://www.LeagueFreak.com - League Freak - Rugby League Mass Ownage� - Covering The National Rugby League , Rugby Super League, State Of Origin And International Rugby League 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC ihaterugbyunion.com [Source type: News]

^ England A leading study into the frequency of injuries occurring at elite level in England has found that they are on the rise for the first time since 2003.
  • RFU survey points to injury increase | Rugby Union | Global | Rugby News | Scrum.com 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC www.scrum.com [Source type: News]

^ SCRUM.COM - A leading study into the frequency of injuries occurring at elite level in England has found that injuries are on the rise for the first time since 2003 .
  • Rugby Union News 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC rugby.tweetmeme.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Rugby World Cup, first held in 1987, takes place every four years, with the winner of the tournament receiving the Webb Ellis Cup.^ Rugby World Cup 2007 .

^ World Cup 2011 Winner .
  • Rugby Union Odds | BetBrain.com Sports Betting OddsRugby Union Odds | BetBrain.com Sports Betting Odds 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC www.betbrain.com [Source type: News]

^ The World's oldest rugby tournament.
  • Rugby Week | Rugby Cup News,Rugby Club Fixtures & Results for Rugby Union 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC rugbyweek.com [Source type: News]

.The Six Nations in Europe and the Tri Nations in the southern hemisphere are major international competitions held annually.^ The Southern Hemisphere's premier international tournament.
  • Rugby Week | Rugby Cup News,Rugby Club Fixtures & Results for Rugby Union 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC rugbyweek.com [Source type: News]

^ For those not familiar with the sport, rugby union is a professional, widespread sport in Europe and countries in the southern hemisphere (Australia).
  • Introduction to Preparing Athletes for the Challenging Sport of Rugby Union 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC www.elitefts.com [Source type: General]

^ A much faster version of rugby union and is played by all the major rugby playing nations in mini tournaments held in various locations around the world.
  • Rugby Week | Rugby Cup News,Rugby Club Fixtures & Results for Rugby Union 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC rugbyweek.com [Source type: News]

.Major domestic competitions include the Top 14 in France, the Guinness Premiership in England, the Currie Cup in South Africa, and the Air New Zealand Cup in New Zealand.^ Read England 6 New Zealand 19 .
  • Rugby Union news and results, World Cup pictures & games | News of the World| News Of The World 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC www.newsoftheworld.co.uk [Source type: General]

^ England 20 - 12 New Zealand .
  • Rugby News, Fixtures, Tables & Results from Rugby.co.uk 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC www.rugby.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ The French domestic tournament which is similar to South Africa's Currie Cup and New Zealand's NPC tournament.
  • Rugby Week | Rugby Cup News,Rugby Club Fixtures & Results for Rugby Union 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC rugbyweek.com [Source type: News]

.Other transnational competitions include the Magners League, involving Irish, Scottish and Welsh teams; the Super 14, involving South African, Australian and New Zealand teams; and the Heineken Cup, involving the top European based teams of their respective domestic competitions.^ Which Australian team will perform the best in the Super 14?
  • Rugby Heaven 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC www.smh.com.au [Source type: News]

^ Fly Half woes for South African Super 14 teams .

^ Each New Zealand team has a big Super 14 question .

Contents

History

Rugby School in Rugby, Warwickshire, with a rugby pitch in the foreground
.The origin of rugby is reputed to be an incident during a game of English school football at Rugby School, Rugby, England, in 1823 when William Webb-Ellis picked up the ball and ran with it.^ Rugby didn't start with William Web Ellis, but it did start at the English Public schools.
  • The History and Origins of Rugby Union 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC hubpages.com [Source type: General]

^ According to legend, rugby originated when a student at England’s Rugby School picked up the ball during a soccer game and began running with it.

^ High School Rugby is starting up!

[7] .Although this tale is apocryphal, the Rugby World Cup trophy is named after him.^ Rugby World Cup 2007 .

^ England named as 2015 Rugby World Cup hosts .
  • Rugby Football Union: News & Videos about Rugby Football Union - CNN.com 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC topics.edition.cnn.com [Source type: News]

^ Rugby League World Cup (group) .
  • Rugby League World Cup 2008 - The Federal Government of Papua New Guinea ought to ban Rugby Union from being played in PNG 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC cs.rugbyleagueworldcup.twiihosting.net [Source type: News]

.Rugby football stems from a game played at Rugby School, Rugby, which old pupils initially took to university; with Cambridge believing that Old Rugbeian Albert Pell was the first student to form a 'football' team.^ The first cave men probably played rugby like games.
  • The History and Origins of Rugby Union 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC hubpages.com [Source type: General]

^ Old School Football Song (modified) .

^ Rugby: Rugby League and Rugby Union?, rugby league game, rugby football union .
  • Rugby: Rugby League and Rugby Union?, rugby league game, rugby football union 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: News]

[8] .During this early period different schools used different rules, with former pupils from Rugby and Eton attempting to carry their preferred rules through to their universities.^ In 1823 at Rugby school William Webb Ellis (or some other student) gasped the ball and ran with it, however the first set of rules at Rugby School date from 1843.

^ The rugby wasn’t the best, in either half, what can you expect from teams who normally play under different rules.
  • Furness Rugby 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC www.frufc.net [Source type: General]

^ The rules were first seriously agreed upon and documented when former Rugby students and clubs wanted to commence formal competitions outside of the Rugby School in 1862.
  • Rugby: Rugby League and Rugby Union?, rugby league game, rugby football union 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: News]

[9]
.Significant events in the early development of rugby were the production of the first set of written laws at Rugby School in 1845, the Blackheath Club's decision to leave The Football Association in 1863[10] and the formation of the Rugby Football Union in 1871.[10] The code was originally known simply as "rugby football"; it was not until after a schism in 1895, which resulted in the separate code of rugby league, that the name "rugby union" came to be used for the game itself.^ What are 4 main differences in rugby league and union?
  • WikiAnswers - What is the difference between rugby league and rugby union 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: News]

^ Rugby union, often known simply as rugby or union, is one of two variations of the game derived from rugby football, with the name coming from the original governing body, The Rugby Football Union.

^ League separated itself from Union in 1895 after a dispute over player payments.
  • rec.sport.rugby.union FAQ: introducing Rugby Union (part 3/4) 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Supporters of both codes will frequently refer to theirs as merely "rugby", unless they are differentiating between the two.^ There are also faster seven-a-side variations called rugby sevens , which exist in both codes of play.

^ ARFU also supports regional and pan-Asian tournaments, including women's, men's, and junior competitions in both Rugby Sevens and fifteen-a-side rugby.
  • ASIAN RUGBY FOOTBAL UNION 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC arfu.com [Source type: News]

^ They buy two players that couldnt play a full NRL season between them and pay over for both of them.
  • http://www.LeagueFreak.com - League Freak - Rugby League Mass Ownage� - Covering The National Rugby League , Rugby Super League, State Of Origin And International Rugby League 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC ihaterugbyunion.com [Source type: News]

.The first rugby international took place on 27 March 1871, played between England and Scotland.^ The first international between England and Scotland was played.

^ It's all to play for in Pool 3 of the Heineken Cup after Clermont Auvergne moved into second place after recording a 27-7 victory over the Ospreys at Stade Marcel Michelin.
  • WRU: Home 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC www.wru.co.uk [Source type: General]

^ Planet Rugby provides an immense archive in which you can delve into every aspect of international rugby union history, dating back to 1871.
  • Rugby Union Sites in UK Net Guide: Sports & Leisure 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC www.uknetguide.co.uk [Source type: News]

[11] .By 1881 both Ireland and Wales had representative teams, and in 1883 the first international competition, the Home Nations Championship had begun.^ Wales team to be announced here first .
  • WRU: Home 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC www.wru.co.uk [Source type: General]

^ He also represented and played with Welsh Crawshays and attended Wales development team camp befoe having to leave for University.
  • Home | Philippine Rugby Football Union 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC www.prfu.com [Source type: General]
  • About Rugby | Philippine Rugby Football Union 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC www.prfu.com [Source type: General]

^ The Botswana Rugby Union first affiliated to the International Rugby Board (IRB) in 1994, then the Botswana National Sports Council in 1997 and the Confederation of African Rugby (CAR) in 2000.
  • BNSC - Botswana Rugby Union 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC www.bnsc.co.bw [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.1883 also saw the first rugby sevens tournament at Melrose—the Melrose Sevens,[12] which is still held annually.^ The 14th Annual Winterfest 7s Rugby Tournament - February 21st .
  • Midwest Rugby Territory 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC midwestrugby.org [Source type: General]

^ Saturday 14th November saw the heavyweights of schoolboy rugby in Asia gathered at the coveted British International School for the U’16s Rugby 10’s tournament.

^ Rugby Sevens is a "cut down" version of rugby which allows tournaments over a weekend with open play and quick scoring.

.Five years later two important overseas tours took place; a British Isles team visited Australia and New Zealand—although a private venture, it laid the foundations for future British and Irish Lions tours; and the 1888 New Zealand Native team brought the first overseas team to British spectators.^ Australia 38 - 10 New Zealand .
  • Rugby News, Fixtures, Tables & Results from Rugby.co.uk 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC www.rugby.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ The New Zealand Natives' Rugby Tour of 1888/89 A history of the New Zealand Maori rugby team's tour of Great Britain and Australia in 1888/89.
  • The History and Origins of Rugby Union 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC hubpages.com [Source type: General]

^ The British and Irish Lions have accepted an extra match on their tour of New Zealand next year.
  • Scottish Rugby Union: News & Videos about Scottish Rugby Union - CNN.com 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC topics.edition.cnn.com [Source type: News]

.From 1905 through to 1907, all three major Southern Hemisphere rugby countries sent their first touring teams to the Northern Hemisphere; Dave Gallaher's New Zealand in 1905, followed by Paul Roos' South Africa in 1906 and then Herbert Moran's Australia.^ New Zealand Rugby Referees - a collection of all things to do with Rugby Refereeing in New Zealand.
  • Resources for Rugby Union 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC sportsvl.com [Source type: News]

^ Three of the collegiate ruggers learned their rugby in Australia, New Zealand or Great Britain.

^ IRB follow soccer's lead and the First Rugby World Cup was held in Australia and New Zealand.

.All three teams brought new styles of play, fitness levels and tactics,[13] and were far more successful than critics at first believed.^ Will have to get over 2009 WILL SKINNER is glad 2009 is over and wants Quins to start the New Year with a bang All hail the Lion King of rugby WILL CARLING says no one in rugby merits a knighthood more than Ian McGeechan .
  • Rugby Union | Six Nations | News | Scores | Results | Fixtures | Tables | Videos| Sun Sport Online| The Sun| The Sun 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC www.thesun.co.uk [Source type: General]

^ More Rugby: All the action from the field Rugby World: Giteau makes team of decade .
  • Rugby Union | Rugby Australia, News, Rugby, Results | Perth Now 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC www.perthnow.com.au [Source type: General]

^ Such was the dominance of their Philippines team over their opponents, in all three games, the Philippines scored a total of 128 points and only had 6 points scored against them.
  • Home | Philippine Rugby Football Union 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC www.prfu.com [Source type: General]

1905 also saw the first French internationals.[14]
.The years during the First World War saw an end of international rugby games and union-sponsored club matches, but competitions continued with service teams such as the New Zealand Army team.^ A rugby union game is called a 'Match'.

^ Brighton Rugby Union Club will celebrate 60 years in 2010 .

^ Rugby union news, results and fixtures .
  • Rugby union news, results and fixtures | Sport | guardian.co.uk 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

[15] .The Second World War saw an end of international matches from most countries, though Italy, Germany and Romania played a limited number of games,[16][17][18] and Cambridge and Oxford continued their annual University Match.^ Rugby is a game that is played in over 120 countries throughout the world.
  • About Rugby | Philippine Rugby Football Union 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC www.prfu.com [Source type: General]

^ Rugby Union is one of the most played outdoor games of this time and is being established as a global sport with the increase of its popularity across the world.

^ Yesterday Tuesday, January 19 Monday, January 18 Sunday, January 17 Saturday, January 16 Friday, January 15 Alternatively you can visit our online text and image archives, where you can access the published content from News Limited's papers around the country.
  • Rugby | Rugby Union News, Results, Teams & Players | The Daily Telegraph 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC www.dailytelegraph.com.au [Source type: News]
  • Rugby Union | Rugby Australia, News, Rugby, Results | Perth Now 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC www.perthnow.com.au [Source type: General]

[19]
.In 1973 the first officially sanctioned international sevens tournament took place at Murrayfield, as part of the Scottish Rugby Union centenary celebrations.^ Offside is a complicated part of rugby union.
  • The basics of rugby union 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC www.rugby.neu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The premier rugby union tournament in...
  • Rugby Union Tickets - Buy Rugby Union tickets Sports Tickets 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC www.viagogo.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The sport is now governed by the International Rugby Board who also publish the rules and laws of rugby union.

[20] .In 1987 the first Rugby World Cup was held in New Zealand and Australia, and the inaugural winners were New Zealand.^ Australia 38 - 10 New Zealand .
  • Rugby News, Fixtures, Tables & Results from Rugby.co.uk 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC www.rugby.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ Rugby League World Cup (group) .
  • Rugby League World Cup 2008 - The Federal Government of Papua New Guinea ought to ban Rugby Union from being played in PNG 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC cs.rugbyleagueworldcup.twiihosting.net [Source type: News]

^ Rugby Rebels a winner - Berwick News .
  • Rugby Union - Sport Snipe - Team News - Blogs - Stats - Updates 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC www.sportsnipe.com [Source type: News]

The first World Cup Sevens tournament was held at Murrayfield in 1993.
.Rugby union was an amateur sport until the IRB declared the game 'open' in 1995, removing restrictions on payments to players.^ Teddy Wakelam, English sports broadcaster and rugby union player (b.
  • Today in Rugby Union History 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC www.historyorb.com [Source type: News]

^ A rugby union game is called a 'Match'.

^ Rugby union players cant tackle.
  • http://www.LeagueFreak.com - League Freak - Rugby League Mass Ownage� - Covering The National Rugby League , Rugby Super League, State Of Origin And International Rugby League 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC ihaterugbyunion.com [Source type: News]

[21] .However, the pre-1995 period of rugby union was marked by frequent accusations of "shamateurism",[22] including an investigation in Britain by a House of Commons Select committee.^ Rugby Union: Sale 19-29 Leicester Cross-border competition, however threatened by blueprints for the future of the game, always comes as a bit of a relief...
  • Rugby Union 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC www.buzzle.com [Source type: News]

^ Rugby Union: Guinness Premiership: Northampton 27 - 22 London Irish Crisis talks will commence this week at relegated Northampton, while Steve Thompson blames the foreigners.
  • Rugby Union 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC www.buzzle.com [Source type: News]

^ In the case of some modern rugby union writers who take this view, they also portray the 1995 professionalism of their code as a watershed awakening of the sport.
  • Australian Wallabies rugby union 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC www.rl1908.com [Source type: Original source]

[23][24]

Laws

Ireland and Georgia contesting a lineout in the 2007 Rugby World Cup
A rugby tackle: tackles must be low down on the body, with the aim of impeding or grounding the player with the ball
.Rugby union is played between two teams; each team starts the match with 15 players on the field and may make up to seven replacements (for injury) or substitutions (tactical changes).^ A team has 15 players in it, as well as up to seven substitutes.
  • rec.sport.rugby.union FAQ: introducing Rugby Union (part 3/4) 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The teams play home and away between September and May.
  • rec.sport.rugby.union FAQ: introducing Rugby Union (part 3/4) 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Rugby League Rugby league is a team sport, played by two teams of 13 players.
  • Department of Sport and Recreation | Rugby Union 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC www.dsr.wa.gov.au [Source type: News]

[25] .In international matches, up to seven replacements/substitutes are allowed; in domestic or cross-border tournaments, at the discretion of the responsible national union(s), the number may be increased to eight, of whom three must be sufficiently trained and experienced to provide cover for the three front row positions.^ Failure to have three trained and experienced front-row players at the start of a match will result in a forfeit.
  • Eastern Rockies Rugby Football Union 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC errfu.org [Source type: General]

^ JOHN Ulugia is back at the Brumbies on a short-term contract to provide cover to an injury-hit front row which lost three of it's first pick players last week.
  • Rugby | Rugby Union News, Results, Teams & Players | The Daily Telegraph 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC www.dailytelegraph.com.au [Source type: News]

^ USA RUGBY - National Union Variation for Law 3 September 14, 2009 The following competition regulation applies for any match that leads in any way to a USA Rugby National Championship • All matches shall be governed by IRB Law 3 with respect to substitutions and front row replacements.
  • Eastern Rockies Rugby Football Union 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC errfu.org [Source type: General]

[26] .Players in a team are divided into eight forwards (two more than in rugby league) and seven backs.^ Rugby League Rugby league is a team sport, played by two teams of 13 players.
  • Department of Sport and Recreation | Rugby Union 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC www.dsr.wa.gov.au [Source type: News]

^ Rugby union is played by two teams of 15 players.
  • The basics of rugby union 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC www.rugby.neu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The players are split into two different groups, Forwards, and Backs.

.Forwards are generally bigger and stronger, and take part in the scrum and lineout, while backs are generally smaller but faster, more agile and often the main points scorers for the team.^ The team that has conceded the points takes the kick.
  • The basics of rugby union 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC www.rugby.neu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ You see we are bigger, stronger, smarter, faster and tougher.
  • http://www.LeagueFreak.com - League Freak - Rugby League Mass Ownage� - Covering The National Rugby League , Rugby Super League, State Of Origin And International Rugby League 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC ihaterugbyunion.com [Source type: News]

^ As with most forms of contact teams sports players are broken into two main categories - forwards and backs .
  • Rugby Union@Everything2.com 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC everything2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Points can be scored in several ways: a try, scored by grounding the ball in the in-goal area, is worth 5 points and a subsequent conversion kick scores 2 points; a successful penalty kick or a drop goal each score 3 points.^ Other ways of scoring are the drop goal and the penalty goal.
  • rec.sport.rugby.union FAQ: introducing Rugby Union (part 3/4) 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A Conversion Goal- it is taken immediately after each try is scored and is worth 2 points.

^ There are several ways to score points.
  • The basics of rugby union 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC www.rugby.neu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[27] The values of each of these scoring methods have been changed over the years. .The team which scores more points wins the game.^ The team scoring the most points after two halves wins.
  • Department of Sport and Recreation | Rugby Union 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC www.dsr.wa.gov.au [Source type: News]

^ The team with the most goals wins the game.
  • Department of Sport and Recreation | Rugby Union 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC www.dsr.wa.gov.au [Source type: News]

^ The team that scores the most goals wins.
  • Department of Sport and Recreation | Rugby Union 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC www.dsr.wa.gov.au [Source type: News]

.At the beginning of the game, the captains and the referee toss a coin to decide which team will kick off first.^ To start the game, a coin is tossed, and the visiting captain will call.

^ At the start of the second half, the team which did not kick off in the first half will do so to begin the second half.

^ Before the start of the match, the referee tosses a coin to decide which team will kick off the match.
  • The basics of rugby union 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC www.rugby.neu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Play then starts with a drop kick, with the players chasing the ball into the opposition's territory, and the other side trying to retrieve the ball and advance it back.^ The ball can be advanced down the field by kicking it into touch.

^ Actively try to play the ball .
  • The basics of rugby union 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC www.rugby.neu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "Having watched Super 14 all season, the way all players seem comfortable with the ball, the offloads in tackles, the kicking game being aimed at allowing chasing players to get at the ...
  • Sky Sports | Rugby Union | Columnists 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC www.skysports.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.If the player with the ball is tackled, frequently a ruck will result.^ This will give us a better understanding of the relationship between changes in the frequency and nature of game events (tackles, rucks, mauls, scrums, lineouts, restarts) i.e.
  • RFU survey points to injury increase | Rugby Union | Global | Rugby News | Scrum.com 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC www.scrum.com [Source type: News]

^ The opposing team attempts to prevent the attacking team from carrying out this objective by tackling the player with the ball.
  • Department of Sport and Recreation | Rugby Union 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC www.dsr.wa.gov.au [Source type: News]

^ When the players go down, the resulting scrummage that forms is known as a ruck.

[28]
.Forward passing (throwing the ball ahead to another player) is not allowed.^ Passing - to throw the ball to another player.

^ You can run with the ball, kick it and pass it, but passing forwards is not allowed.
  • The basics of rugby union 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC www.rugby.neu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Throw forward - the official name for a forward pass.

.The ball tends to be moved forward in three ways—by kicking, by a player running with it, or within a scrum or a ruck (formerly also a maul).^ You can run with the ball, kick it and pass it, but passing forwards is not allowed.
  • The basics of rugby union 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC www.rugby.neu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "Having watched Super 14 all season, the way all players seem comfortable with the ball, the offloads in tackles, the kicking game being aimed at allowing chasing players to get at the ...
  • Sky Sports | Rugby Union | Columnists 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC www.skysports.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This will give us a better understanding of the relationship between changes in the frequency and nature of game events (tackles, rucks, mauls, scrums, lineouts, restarts) i.e.
  • RFU survey points to injury increase | Rugby Union | Global | Rugby News | Scrum.com 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC www.scrum.com [Source type: News]

.Unlike in American football, "blocking" is not allowed, so only the player with the ball may be tackled or rucked.^ In rugby union, you can only tackle a player in possession of the ball.
  • The basics of rugby union 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC www.rugby.neu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Unlike soccer the players are allowed to pick up the ball and run with it.
  • Rugby Union@Everything2.com 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC everything2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "Having watched Super 14 all season, the way all players seem comfortable with the ball, the offloads in tackles, the kicking game being aimed at allowing chasing players to get at the ...
  • Sky Sports | Rugby Union | Columnists 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC www.skysports.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.When a ball is knocked forward by a player with his/her arms, a "knock-on" is committed, and play is restarted with a scrum.^ Similarly, if the ball hits a player's body and goes forward, this is a rebound, not a throw forward, and would not be penalized.

^ This is one of the methods used to restart play when the ball has gone over a team's dead ball line.
  • The basics of rugby union 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC www.rugby.neu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, no other player in the scrum is allowed to handle the ball until the ball is free - not even the hooker.
  • The basics of rugby union 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC www.rugby.neu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.When the ball leaves the side of the field, a lineout is awarded against the team which last touched the ball.^ Peeling off - when a player leaves the line-out to get in position to receive the ball direct from the line-out (for example, standing at the side of the line) Penalties - a kick awarded by the referee, which is taken by one player, free from any other player involvement.

^ If the ball goes off at the touchline sides of the field, play continues.

^ If a player is in front of a team-mate in possession of the ball, or in front of a team-mate who last played the ball, they will be offside if they: .
  • The basics of rugby union 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC www.rugby.neu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A number of players from both teams line up, at least 5m from the sideline, and the ball is thrown in by the hooker.^ There will be at least two players in the line.

^ The line out is when the ball is thrown in from the sideline by the hooker and the second rows are the main catchers.

^ The number of players in the lines will be determined by the team taking the throw.

.Lineouts are one of the chief differences between the two rugby codes, as they do not occur in rugby league.^ Touch Football Touch, or touch football, comes from two rugby codes ─ rugby league and rugby union.
  • Department of Sport and Recreation | Rugby Union 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC www.dsr.wa.gov.au [Source type: News]

^ Many people are unsure as to the difference between Rugby Union and Rugby League.
  • Rugby: Rugby League and Rugby Union?, rugby league game, rugby football union 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: News]

^ Blackheath Club's decision to leave The Football Association in 1863, and in 1895, the split between rugby union and rugby league.
  • The History and Origins of Rugby Union 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC hubpages.com [Source type: General]

.Games are divided into 40-minute halves, with a break in the middle.^ The Reduced History of Rugby: The Oval-shaped Story of the Union Game Squeezed into 80 Minutes Price: $11.26 List Price: $14.42 .
  • The History and Origins of Rugby Union 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC hubpages.com [Source type: General]

^ A match is made up of two halves of 40 minutes each.
  • rec.sport.rugby.union FAQ: introducing Rugby Union (part 3/4) 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There is a one minute break between the halves.

.The sides exchange ends of the field after the half-time break.^ A game consists of two 30-minute halves with a 10-minute half-time break.
  • Department of Sport and Recreation | Rugby Union 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC www.dsr.wa.gov.au [Source type: News]

.Stoppages for injury or to allow the referee to take disciplinary action, do not count as part of the playing time, so that the elapsed time is usually longer than 80 minutes.^ Vickery to miss England's Six Nations Campaign Prop ruled out after taking longer than expected to recover from neck surgery.
  • Rugby Union Tickets - Buy Rugby Union tickets Sports Tickets 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC www.viagogo.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "The Munster-Leinster game should be a cracker, Leinster will put up a stronger show than the recent Magners League game, O'Driscoll will be playing this time and the Leinster Lions will...
  • Sky Sports | Rugby Union | Columnists 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC www.skysports.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Players, coaches, conditioners, referees, law makers, the disciplinary process all have key roles to play."
  • RFU survey points to injury increase | Rugby Union | Global | Rugby News | Scrum.com 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC www.scrum.com [Source type: News]

.Unlike in many other sports, there are no "time outs". The referee is responsible for keeping time, even when—as in many professional tournaments—he is assisted by an official time-keeper; when time has expired, whether at the end of the first half, or at the end of the game, the referee will wait until the ball is 'dead' before blowing for half-time or full-time.^ The scrum-half must then not handle the ball until it has come out of the scrum.
  • The basics of rugby union 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC www.rugby.neu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The opposing scrum-half has to wait until the ball is out of the scrum before making a tackle for the ball.
  • The basics of rugby union 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC www.rugby.neu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At the time he had played 9 first grade games.
  • http://www.LeagueFreak.com - League Freak - Rugby League Mass Ownage� - Covering The National Rugby League , Rugby Super League, State Of Origin And International Rugby League 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC ihaterugbyunion.com [Source type: News]

.The field of play on a rugby pitch is as near as possible to a maximum of 100m long, and 70m wide.^ The field of play is 100m long and 70m wide.
  • Department of Sport and Recreation | Rugby Union 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC www.dsr.wa.gov.au [Source type: News]

^ The maximum playing area is 70m x 35m.
  • Department of Sport and Recreation | Rugby Union 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC www.dsr.wa.gov.au [Source type: News]

^ Rugby is played on a grassy pitch 70 meters wide 100 meters long.

.There are several lines crossing it, notably the half way line, the goal line/try line (on which the goal posts are located), the "twenty two", which is 22m from the goal, and the dead ball line, which can be anywhere between 10m and 22m behind the goal line.^ There are several ways to score points.
  • The basics of rugby union 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC www.rugby.neu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The distance between the two goal posts is 5.6m.
  • Department of Sport and Recreation | Rugby Union 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC www.dsr.wa.gov.au [Source type: News]

^ Try - the action of touch the ball on the ground behind the opposing goal line, for 5 points.

[4]
.Tries are scored between the goal line, and the dead ball line.^ A try is scored when the ball is touched onto the ground beyond the opponents goal line.

^ A try can be scored from a scrummage, as long as the ball is grounded on or over the line.

^ Throwing the ball into touch, touch-in-goal, or over the dead-ball line is not allowed.

.A ball over the dead ball line is out of play.^ Touch-in-goal - when the ball goes out of play behind the goal-line.

^ Once the ball goes over this line it is out of play.
  • The basics of rugby union 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC www.rugby.neu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The ball only changes if their has been a mistake/offence or if the ball goes out of play -Union -6, and then the other team is given the ball, unless a try has been scored.
  • Rugby: Rugby League and Rugby Union?, rugby league game, rugby football union 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: News]

.Rugby goalposts are H-shaped, and consist of two poles, 5.6m apart, connected by a horizontal crossbar 3m above the ground.^ Goalposts are situated at each end of the playing area and must be 5.6 metres apart with a crossbar , the transverse bar between the goalposts that's three metres from the ground.
  • The basics of rugby union 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC www.rugby.neu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Unlike some other sports there are no goalkeepers, and the section underneath the crossbar has no special meaning, although a try scored between or close to the posts makes for an easier conversion.^ His argument is valid enough on at least some of the Guinness Premiership numbers: there are half as many tries this year as there were at the same time in 2007-8, and 2.6 and 4.7 tries per match respectively; but less convincing on others, the comparison of drops and pens between the same years are not that different.
  • Blood and Mud: Rugby Union is dead, apparently. 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC www.bloodandmud.com [Source type: General]

^ These 6 points came in the form of penalty conversions meaning that Laos, Iran and Pakistan were unable to score a try against the rock solid Pinoy defense.
  • Home | Philippine Rugby Football Union 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC www.prfu.com [Source type: General]

^ No simple answer, although some ambition on the part of coaches and a change in emphasis at the breakdown on the attacking team seem to be two parts of the solution.
  • Blood and Mud: Rugby Union is dead, apparently. 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC www.bloodandmud.com [Source type: General]

The original pitch dimensions were in imperial units, but have since been converted to the metric system.
.There are generally three match officials: a referee, and two touch judges, who indicate that the ball is "in touch" and other decisions with their flags.^ The game is presided over by a referee and two touch-judges.

^ The 2009 British Lions have delivered an astonishing snub to South African referees by demanding neutral officials in every provincial match on their tour next year.

^ There is a referee, aided by two touch judges (one on each side of the pitch), to decide how the rules should be applied during a game.
  • The basics of rugby union 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC www.rugby.neu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In addition, for matches in high level competitions, there is often a television match offical (TMO; popularly called the "video referee"), to assist with certain decisions, linked up to the referee by radio.^ Referee's Whistle The origin of the high pitched noise heard during a rugby union match every 20-30 seconds.
  • http://www.LeagueFreak.com - League Freak - Rugby League Mass Ownage� - Covering The National Rugby League , Rugby Super League, State Of Origin And International Rugby League 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC ihaterugbyunion.com [Source type: News]

^ Referees are strict on this, because players can often try to slow the ball up for the opposition, helping their side to re-group in defence .
  • The basics of rugby union 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC www.rugby.neu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Referees often blow up for penalties because a player off their feet or from the tackler's team has used a subtle hand to bring it back to their side.
  • The basics of rugby union 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC www.rugby.neu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[29] The referees have a system of hand signals to indicate their decisions.
.Common offences include high tackles, collapsing the scrum, not releasing the ball when on the ground or being off-side.^ What is known is that at Rugby School by the 1830's running with the ball was in common use, the goal posts had been extended to 18 feet high (with a cross-bar at 10 feet above the ground) and there were forms of scrummaging and line-outs.
  • Rugby: Rugby League and Rugby Union?, rugby league game, rugby football union 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: News]

^ Once it has, then the opposition scrum-half can tackle their opposite number for the ball.
  • The basics of rugby union 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC www.rugby.neu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If the ball goes off at the touchline sides of the field, play continues.

.Penalties can be taken by the non-offending team in various ways: taking a short, tap kick then running with the ball, kicking the ball from hand (punting) for field position, place kicking (for goal) or choosing a scrum.^ This is a drop-kick taken by the defending team.

^ The non-offending team do not have to take a kick.

^ If the kicking team commit an offence, a scrum takes place, with the opposing team putting the ball in.

.Players may be sent off (signalled by a red card) or temporarily "sin-binned" for ten minutes (yellow card) for foul play, and may not be replaced.^ The offender could also find themselves shown a yellow card, which results in a 10-minute spell in the sin-bin.
  • The basics of rugby union 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC www.rugby.neu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A player can be 'in touch' (off the field of play) but still play the ball by kicking or using the hands, providing that the ball does not hit the ground, in which case it would be in touch, or the player does not catch the ball, in which case it would be out of play.

^ The sin-bin is the bench where all players who have committed a yellow card offence sit out of the game for 10 minutes.
  • The basics of rugby union 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC www.rugby.neu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Equipment

A professional player (Scott Daruda of the Western Australian team, Western Force) wearing an elaborate scrum cap
.The most basic items of equipment for a game of rugby are the ball itself, a rugby shirt (also known as a "jersey"), shorts, socks, and boots, which have soles with studs to allow grip on the turf of the pitch.^ Rugby Union equipment: ball .
  • The basics of rugby union 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC www.rugby.neu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Rugby Union equipment: boots .
  • The basics of rugby union 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC www.rugby.neu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Rugby union equipment: shirt .
  • The basics of rugby union 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC www.rugby.neu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The studs may be either metal or plastic but must not have any sharp edges or ridges.
Protective equipment is optional and strictly regulated. .The most common items are mouth guards, which are worn by almost all players, and are legally required in some rugby-playing nations[citation needed].^ All legal and compliance requirements were met.
  • Home toRUGBY UNION RUGBY LEAGUE BASKETBALL NETBALL - News - Rugby Union 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC www.craigieburnphoenix.com [Source type: General]

^ Most of the NorCal players were still playing collegiate rugby and some were playing professional football.

^ University of Delaware Men's Rugby Team Seeks National Division 1 Title - The team is in the midst of one of its most successful seasons, having been ranked No.
  • ::: Home EPRU ::: Home 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC www.epru.org [Source type: General]

.Other protective items that are permitted include protective head gear, thin (not more than 10mm thick) non-rigid shoulder pads, and shin guards, which are worn underneath socks.^ But remember, wearing body protection doesn't mean you are invincible and can do things others rugby players can't - you'll do yourself more damage if you think like that.
  • The basics of rugby union 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC www.rugby.neu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The aim of the game is very simple - use the ball to score more points than the other team.
  • The basics of rugby union 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC www.rugby.neu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Bandages or tape can be worn to support or protect injuries; some players wear tape around the head to protect the ears in scrums and rucks.^ They're often used by front row forwards to prevent blows to the head and damage to their ears while in scrums or mauls.
  • The basics of rugby union 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC www.rugby.neu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But remember, wearing body protection doesn't mean you are invincible and can do things others rugby players can't - you'll do yourself more damage if you think like that.
  • The basics of rugby union 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC www.rugby.neu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The ball has been knocked on The ball has gone forward Accidental offside The ball has not come out from a ruck or maul Not every player can join a scrum.
  • The basics of rugby union 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC www.rugby.neu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Female players may also wear chest pads.[30][31]
.Fingerless gloves (grip gloves) are sometimes worn to improve players' grip on the ball.^ But sometimes players dive in off their feet in an attempt to slow the ball down, allowing defences to re-group.
  • The basics of rugby union 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC www.rugby.neu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sometimes, a player will deliberately get in the way of an opponent because they think their rival has a good chance of getting to the ball first, but it is not allowed.
  • The basics of rugby union 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC www.rugby.neu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It is the responsibility of the match officials to check players' clothing and equipment before a game to ensure that it conforms to the laws of the game.^ All Easts players are requested to attend the after-match function following our home games at Griffith Oval.

^ This fee must be paid before you play any trial or competition games, to ensure you are covered by the ARU insurance scheme.

^ Unacceptable are: * Discussion of specific matches, players, officials or match reporting unless relevant in arguments regarding advancement of the sport.
  • Bit.listserv.sport.rugby-union.advancement newsgroup FAQ 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]


Governing bodies

.The international governing body of rugby union (and associated games such as sevens) is the International Rugby Board (IRB).^ Jordan Rugby The Governing body of rugby in Jordan top .
  • Resources for Rugby Union 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC sportsvl.com [Source type: News]

^ Rugby Union Organisational bodies in the USA .
  • Resources for Rugby Union 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC sportsvl.com [Source type: News]

^ Rugby Union Organisational bodies .
  • Resources for Rugby Union 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC sportsvl.com [Source type: News]

.The IRB headquarters are located in Dublin, Ireland.^ President PRU, Fawzi Khawaja Attends IRB General Assembly In Dublin Ireland .

Six continental associations, which are members of the IRB form the next level of administration; these are:
.SANZAR (South Africa, New Zealand and Australia Rugby) is a joint venture of the South African Rugby Union, the New Zealand Rugby Union and the Australian Rugby Union, which operates the Super 14 and Tri Nations competitions.^ Australia 38 - 10 New Zealand .
  • Rugby News, Fixtures, Tables & Results from Rugby.co.uk 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC www.rugby.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ Fly Half woes for South African Super 14 teams .

^ These days, Australia, New Zealand and South Africa play for the Tri Nations Championship.
  • rec.sport.rugby.union FAQ: introducing Rugby Union (part 3/4) 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.National unions oversee rugby union within individual countries.^ Home / Extra-Curricular Activities / MAGS Sport / Individual Sports / Rugby Union / Parker Wesley JonesTrophy: April 12 - 17, 2009.
  • Rugby Union : Mount Albert Grammar School 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC www.mags.school.nz [Source type: News]

^ Rugby Union: Native Son Stevens to Face Springboks With Point to Prove Matt Stevens prepares to face the country of his birth with a point to prove to both sides.
  • Rugby Union 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC www.buzzle.com [Source type: News]

^ The Pakistan Rugby Union held another intensive camp for the Under 20 national team Boys from all over Pakistan have been attending the camps .

.These are affiliated both to the IRB and with their respective regional association.^ Executive Members Najib Tariq Tariq Perveiz Munir Dar Adeel Awan Membership and Affiliation IRB ARFU Pakistan Olympic Association Pakistan Sports Board .

Global reach

URBA Rugby 2007 Finals
Germany playing Belgium
Japanese and Welsh rugby fans in Cardiff, Wales
.Rugby union has established itself as a popular sport for both spectators and participants, particularly in Australia, Argentina, Cook Islands, England, Fiji, France, Georgia, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Madagascar, New Zealand, Niue, Namibia, Romania, Samoa, Scotland, South Africa, Tonga, and Wales.^ Australia 38 - 10 New Zealand .
  • Rugby News, Fixtures, Tables & Results from Rugby.co.uk 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC www.rugby.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ Read England 6 New Zealand 19 .
  • Rugby Union news and results, World Cup pictures & games | News of the World| News Of The World 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC www.newsoftheworld.co.uk [Source type: General]

^ England 20 - 12 New Zealand .
  • Rugby News, Fixtures, Tables & Results from Rugby.co.uk 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC www.rugby.co.uk [Source type: News]

[32][33]
.Other places with lasting traditions in rugby, as a minority sport in most cases, include Andorra, Barbados, Belgium, Bermuda, Brazil, Canada, Chile, Côte d'Ivoire, Czech Republic, Germany, Hong Kong, India, Kenya, Malaysia, Moldova, Morocco, The Netherlands, Pakistan, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Poland, Portugal, Russia, Singapore, South Korea, Spain, Sri Lanka, Tunisia, Uganda, Ukraine, Uruguay, United States, Zambia, and Zimbabwe.^ Rugby 7s has recently received a significant boost by the IOC's decision to include this form of the game as a full-medal sport in the Olympic Games 2016 onwards .

^ Heavensgame has a simple ethos that every rugby story is as important as the other this means that each story is placed on top of another irrespective of the country of origin or the competition involved in the story.

^ Host Winner Finalist 1987 Aus/NZ New Zealand France 1991 England Australia England 1995 South Africa South Africa New Zealand 1999 Wales Australia France 2003 Australia England Australia 2007 France Until 1995, Rugby was officially an amateur sport.
  • rec.sport.rugby.union FAQ: introducing Rugby Union (part 3/4) 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The United States are the most recent Olympic gold medalists; an American team stacked with American football players won the event at the Paris Olympics in 1924, which was the last year rugby was played at the games.^ The Americans had won the gold medal.

^ This was one year before the formation of the United States Rugby Union.

^ Rugby League Rugby league is a team sport, played by two teams of 13 players.
  • Department of Sport and Recreation | Rugby Union 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC www.dsr.wa.gov.au [Source type: News]

[34] .Large numbers of players are active in North America, and the national the USA regularly qualify for World Cups, while Canada has participated at every World Cup.^ World Cup 2011 Qualifiers Qualifiers - View all the up and coming qualifiers for the World Cup 2011 here on Rugby.co.uk...
  • Rugby News, Fixtures, Tables & Results from Rugby.co.uk 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC www.rugby.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ Shaun Edwards: England's manager is targeting the Six Nations with the World Cup only 20 months away Continue reading...
  • Sportblog + Rugby union | Sport | guardian.co.uk 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ This tournament is a qualifier for Asian countries to compete in the prestigious IRB 7s circuit that leads to the Rugby 7s World Cup.

[35][36]
.Japan, also a country with many registered players, will host the 2019 World Cup.^ This tournament is a qualifier for Asian countries to compete in the prestigious IRB 7s circuit that leads to the Rugby 7s World Cup.

^ Description == {{Information |Description={{en|1=A map showing countries best results and host countries of the Rugby World Cup.
  • File:Rugby union map .svg - Wikimedia Commons 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Rugby union map .svg English: A map showing countries best results and host countries of the Rugby World Cup.
  • File:Rugby union map .svg - Wikimedia Commons 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Reference]

[37] .It will be the first country outside of traditional playing areas to host the event, and is viewed by the IRB as an opportunity for rugby union to extend its reach,[37] particularly in Asia.^ We also provide a corresponding service for Rugby Union players, Rugby coaches and Rugby personnel who are looking for Rugby contracts or simply wish to experience Rugby in a new country.
  • Rugby Union, Clubs, Players, Coaches, Agents and Rugby Recruitment - Rugbyweb 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC www.rugbyweb.org [Source type: General]

^ Rugby Union: Native Son Stevens to Face Springboks With Point to Prove Matt Stevens prepares to face the country of his birth with a point to prove to both sides.
  • Rugby Union 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC www.buzzle.com [Source type: News]

^ Six other teams, four of them from non-traditional Rugby states, are playing for the Australian Rugby Shield.
  • rec.sport.rugby.union FAQ: introducing Rugby Union (part 3/4) 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Previously, Japan unsuccessfully bid to host the 2011 tournament, narrowly losing to selected host New Zealand.^ RB World Cup - New Zealand 2011 .
  • Midwest Rugby Territory 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC midwestrugby.org [Source type: General]

^ New Zealand Rugby Info & Travel Independent rugby & travel guide for fans travelling to New Zealand for the 2011 World Cup top .
  • Resources for Rugby Union 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC sportsvl.com [Source type: News]

^ The quarter finalists of the previous tournament, as well as the host nation(s) automatically qualify.
  • rec.sport.rugby.union FAQ: introducing Rugby Union (part 3/4) 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[38]
.The International Rugby Board (IRB), founded in 1886, governs the sport worldwide and also publishes the game's laws and rankings.^ International Rugby Board Laws of the game, including .
  • Resources for Rugby Union 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC sportsvl.com [Source type: News]

^ Rugby 7s has recently received a significant boost by the IOC's decision to include this form of the game as a full-medal sport in the Olympic Games 2016 onwards .

^ Rugby in Asia features Asian rugby news from grass-roots through to international games.
  • Resources for Rugby Union 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC sportsvl.com [Source type: News]

There are currently 95 full members[39] and eight associate member countries. .According to IRB figures, rugby union is played in over 100 countries spanning six continents by men and women of all ages.^ Rugby has been played in Southern Alberta for over 100 years, interrupted only by the two world wars.

^ In all, the 24 European nations where Rugby is an amateur sport, play for the ENC. Georgia, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Spain and the Czech Republic are currently in Division One, which is sometimes referred to as 'Six Nations B'.
  • rec.sport.rugby.union FAQ: introducing Rugby Union (part 3/4) 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Women are known to play Rugby since 1913.
  • rec.sport.rugby.union FAQ: introducing Rugby Union (part 3/4) 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[40] .The IRB controls the Rugby World Cup, the Women's Rugby World Cup, Rugby World Cup Sevens, IRB Sevens World Series, Junior World Championship, Junior World Trophy, Nations Cup and the Pacific Nations Cup.^ The Pakistan under 20 national rugby team won 7-0 against Loas in the As ian under 20 Div II championship Match in anila Phillipines .

^ World Cup 2011 Qualifiers Qualifiers - View all the up and coming qualifiers for the World Cup 2011 here on Rugby.co.uk...
  • Rugby News, Fixtures, Tables & Results from Rugby.co.uk 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC www.rugby.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ Canadian Rugby News International, National and Provincial coverage, Womens, University/College, Over 40's!
  • Resources for Rugby Union 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC sportsvl.com [Source type: News]

.It holds votes to decide where all of these events shall be held, except in the case of the Sevens World Series.^ IRB Sevens World Series schedule .
  • Kenya Rugby Footbal Union | 2009 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC www.kenyarfu.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Pakistan rugby union has been holding a national 7 championship since 1990 and this year will be the 19 all pakistan and it will be held in Islamabad in end November.

.For that competition, the IRB contracts with several national unions to hold individual events.^ Pakistan rugby union has been holding a national 7 championship since 1990 and this year will be the 19 all pakistan and it will be held in Islamabad in end November.

^ Rugby Union: Boks Promise to Pick Their Best South Africa have promised to field full strength teams in future Tri-Nations events after fielding reserves in this...
  • Rugby Union 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC www.buzzle.com [Source type: News]

^ New Zealand Rugby Union News Events, get involved, the game, Small Blacks The All Blacks New Zealand's famous National Team New Zealand Maori Rugby Team From Wikipedia Regional New Zealand Rugby .
  • Resources for Rugby Union 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC sportsvl.com [Source type: News]

Women's Rugby

US women's rugby: NC Hustlers vs. Midwest II
.Records of women's rugby go back over 100 years, with the first documented source being Emily Valentine's own writings, stating that she set up a rugby team in Portora Royal School in Enniskillen, Ireland in 1887.[41] Although there are reports of early women's matches in New Zealand and France, one of the first notable games to prove primary evidence was the 1917 war-time encounter between Cardiff Ladies and Newport Ladies; a photo of which shows the Cardiff team before the match at the Cardiff Arms Park.^ Although your rugby team/school will provide your jerseys for matches, it is worth buying one for training.
  • The basics of rugby union 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC www.rugby.neu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This diagram shows one team in a scrummage.

^ At the time he had played 9 first grade games.
  • http://www.LeagueFreak.com - League Freak - Rugby League Mass Ownage� - Covering The National Rugby League , Rugby Super League, State Of Origin And International Rugby League 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC ihaterugbyunion.com [Source type: News]

[42] .In the past 30 years the game has grown in popularity among female athletes, and, according to England's RFU, is now played in over 80 countries.^ Today, it is now a popular game in the world.
  • The History and Origins of Rugby Union 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC hubpages.com [Source type: General]

^ Rugby League A sport played in Sydney and Northern England that has given union every single one of its inovations over the last 100 years.
  • http://www.LeagueFreak.com - League Freak - Rugby League Mass Ownage� - Covering The National Rugby League , Rugby Super League, State Of Origin And International Rugby League 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC ihaterugbyunion.com [Source type: News]

^ Now, let me refresh your stupid little union mind about the League converts that have played international rugby union in the late few years...
  • http://www.LeagueFreak.com - League Freak - Rugby League Mass Ownage� - Covering The National Rugby League , Rugby Super League, State Of Origin And International Rugby League 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC ihaterugbyunion.com [Source type: News]

.The English Rugby Football Union for Women (RFUW) was founded in 1983, and is the oldest formally organised national governing body for women's rugby.^ Jordan Rugby The Governing body of rugby in Jordan top .
  • Resources for Rugby Union 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC sportsvl.com [Source type: News]

^ Rugby Union Organisational bodies in the USA .
  • Resources for Rugby Union 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC sportsvl.com [Source type: News]

^ Rugby Union Organisational bodies in New Zealand .
  • Resources for Rugby Union 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC sportsvl.com [Source type: News]

[33]

Major international competitions

A giant rugby ball is suspended from the Eiffel Tower to commemorate France's hosting of the 2007 Rugby World Cup
.The most important tournament in rugby union is the Rugby World Cup, a men's tournament that takes place every four years among the elite national rugby union teams.^ Rugby Union news and results, World Cup pictures & games .
  • Rugby Union news and results, World Cup pictures & games | News of the World| News Of The World 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC www.newsoftheworld.co.uk [Source type: General]

^ Rugby World Cup 2011 (3) .
  • Blood and Mud: Rugby Union is dead, apparently. 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC www.bloodandmud.com [Source type: General]

^ World Cup: Held every four years.
  • rec.sport.rugby.union FAQ: introducing Rugby Union (part 3/4) 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.South Africa is the current holder, winning the 2007 tournament held in France.^ Host Winner Finalist 1987 Aus/NZ New Zealand France 1991 England Australia England 1995 South Africa South Africa New Zealand 1999 Wales Australia France 2003 Australia England Australia 2007 France Until 1995, Rugby was officially an amateur sport.
  • rec.sport.rugby.union FAQ: introducing Rugby Union (part 3/4) 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ And at least people cared about winning the rugby world cup in South Africa.
  • http://www.LeagueFreak.com - League Freak - Rugby League Mass Ownage� - Covering The National Rugby League , Rugby Super League, State Of Origin And International Rugby League 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC ihaterugbyunion.com [Source type: News]

^ The first holder was South Africa, who were awarded the Shield after their World Cup win in 1995.
  • rec.sport.rugby.union FAQ: introducing Rugby Union (part 3/4) 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.They beat 2003 winners England in the final; no World Cup winner has yet retained the trophy.^ The Calcutta Cup is a trophy, made from melted down Indian Rupees, donated by old Rugbeians to the RFU. It is awarded to the winner of the annual England vs. Scotland match.
  • rec.sport.rugby.union FAQ: introducing Rugby Union (part 3/4) 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Rugby Union: Abendanon Shines As Saxons Book Place in Final Nick Abendanon helped England Saxons beat Scotland A 18-3 to book a place in the Churchill Cup final.
  • Rugby Union 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC www.buzzle.com [Source type: News]

^ As for the Rugby League World Cup, the final will be played at Lang Park, the world famous venue that is the premier rugby stadium in the world.
  • http://www.LeagueFreak.com - League Freak - Rugby League Mass Ownage� - Covering The National Rugby League , Rugby Super League, State Of Origin And International Rugby League 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC ihaterugbyunion.com [Source type: News]

.England were the first team from the Northern Hemisphere to win, the previous champions being New Zealand (1987), Australia (1991 and 1999), South Africa (1995 and 2007).^ Australia 38 - 10 New Zealand .
  • Rugby News, Fixtures, Tables & Results from Rugby.co.uk 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC www.rugby.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ Read England 6 New Zealand 19 .
  • Rugby Union news and results, World Cup pictures & games | News of the World| News Of The World 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC www.newsoftheworld.co.uk [Source type: General]

^ England 20 - 12 New Zealand .
  • Rugby News, Fixtures, Tables & Results from Rugby.co.uk 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC www.rugby.co.uk [Source type: News]

.Major international competitions are the Six Nations Championship and the Tri Nations Series, held in the northern and southern hemispheres respectively.^ There was no such championship in the Southern Hemisphere.
  • rec.sport.rugby.union FAQ: introducing Rugby Union (part 3/4) 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ International Competitions 2.6.1 Between national teams African Nations Cup: There are two divisions of international Rugby in Africa with promotion and relegation rules applying between them.
  • rec.sport.rugby.union FAQ: introducing Rugby Union (part 3/4) 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ National Competitions Argentina: The Argentine Championship is contested between provinces in the Southern Spring.
  • rec.sport.rugby.union FAQ: introducing Rugby Union (part 3/4) 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Six Nations is an annual competition involving the European teams England, France, Ireland, Italy, Scotland and Wales.^ Six Nations: England, France, Ireland, Italy, Scotland and Wales play eachother once, with the home team alternating yearly.
  • rec.sport.rugby.union FAQ: introducing Rugby Union (part 3/4) 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ England will be without Tom Croft for at least their first two RBS 6 Nations fixtures after the injured flanker was ruled out for five to six weeks.
  • Rugby News, Fixtures, Tables & Results from Rugby.co.uk 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC www.rugby.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ Shane wants Six Nations chance Shane Williams admits he is desperate to prove his fitness to Warren Gatland ahead of Wales' Six Nations opener with England.
  • CanadianRugby.ca 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC canadianrugby.ca [Source type: News]

Each country plays the other five once. .After the initial internationals between England and Scotland, the 1880s saw Ireland and Wales begin competing, forming the Home International Championships.^ Six Nations: England, France, Ireland, Italy, Scotland and Wales play eachother once, with the home team alternating yearly.
  • rec.sport.rugby.union FAQ: introducing Rugby Union (part 3/4) 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ France joined founders England, Ireland, Scotland and Wales in 1910, but were expelled between 1931 and 1939.
  • rec.sport.rugby.union FAQ: introducing Rugby Union (part 3/4) 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A touring side featuring the best rugby union players from England, Ireland, Scotland and Wales.
  • Resources for Rugby Union 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC sportsvl.com [Source type: News]

.France joined the tournament in the 1900s and in 1910 the term Five Nations first appeared.^ England will be without Tom Croft for at least their first two RBS 6 Nations fixtures after the injured flanker was ruled out for five to six weeks.
  • Rugby News, Fixtures, Tables & Results from Rugby.co.uk 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC www.rugby.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ France joined founders England, Ireland, Scotland and Wales in 1910, but were expelled between 1931 and 1939.
  • rec.sport.rugby.union FAQ: introducing Rugby Union (part 3/4) 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, the Home Nations (England, Ireland, Scotland, and Wales) excluded France in 1931 amid a run of poor results, allegations of professionalism (rugby union was officially amateur until 1995) and concerns over on-field violence.^ Six Nations: England, France, Ireland, Italy, Scotland and Wales play eachother once, with the home team alternating yearly.
  • rec.sport.rugby.union FAQ: introducing Rugby Union (part 3/4) 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ France joined founders England, Ireland, Scotland and Wales in 1910, but were expelled between 1931 and 1939.
  • rec.sport.rugby.union FAQ: introducing Rugby Union (part 3/4) 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A touring side featuring the best rugby union players from England, Ireland, Scotland and Wales.
  • Resources for Rugby Union 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC sportsvl.com [Source type: News]

.France then rejoined in 1939-1940, though World War II halted proceedings for a further eight years.^ Rugby has been played in Southern Alberta for over 100 years, interrupted only by the two world wars.

.France has played in all the tournaments since WWII, the first of which was played in 1947. In 2000, Italy became the sixth nation in the contest and Rome's Stadio Flaminio, where their games are played, is the smallest venue in the tournament.^ Italy became part of the Championship in 2000.
  • rec.sport.rugby.union FAQ: introducing Rugby Union (part 3/4) 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At the time he had played 9 first grade games.
  • http://www.LeagueFreak.com - League Freak - Rugby League Mass Ownage� - Covering The National Rugby League , Rugby Super League, State Of Origin And International Rugby League 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC ihaterugbyunion.com [Source type: News]

^ Dan Carter returns to the Crusaders January 19, 2010 For the first time since 2008, the All Blacks record test points scorer and arguably the best number ten in the game has returned to training with the seven times champion Crusaders.
  • CanadianRugby.ca 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC canadianrugby.ca [Source type: News]

Ireland are the reigning Six Nations champions, having won their first Grand Slam in 61 years by beating Wales in Cardiff on March 21, 2009.[43]
.The Tri Nations is an annual international series held between the southern hemisphere teams of Australia, New Zealand and South Africa.^ These days, Australia, New Zealand and South Africa play for the Tri Nations Championship.
  • rec.sport.rugby.union FAQ: introducing Rugby Union (part 3/4) 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Tri Nations: Australia, New Zealand and South Africa meet on a home-and-away basis in July and August.
  • rec.sport.rugby.union FAQ: introducing Rugby Union (part 3/4) 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Host Winner Finalist 1987 Aus/NZ New Zealand France 1991 England Australia England 1995 South Africa South Africa New Zealand 1999 Wales Australia France 2003 Australia England Australia 2007 France Until 1995, Rugby was officially an amateur sport.
  • rec.sport.rugby.union FAQ: introducing Rugby Union (part 3/4) 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Tri Nations was initially played on a home and away basis with the three nations playing each other twice.^ Handicap Winner Total Points Winning Margin Match Winner 1st Half Handicap 1st Scoring Play Highest Scoring Quarter Half Time Total Home Team Points Away Team Points .
  • SPORTS Betting - Online Betting at Blue Square 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC www.bluesq.com [Source type: General]

.In 2006 a new system was introduced where each nation plays the others three times, though in 2007 the teams played each other only twice, as it was a World Cup year.^ Women's Rugby World Cup fromAdidas - full coverage, including History Talk Rugby Openside Flanker provides a ranking system for International teams based on results against each other Rugby Union Blog from BBC Sport Covering World Rugby top .
  • Resources for Rugby Union 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC sportsvl.com [Source type: News]

^ Rugby has been played in Southern Alberta for over 100 years, interrupted only by the two world wars.

^ Six other teams, four of them from non-traditional Rugby states, are playing for the Australian Rugby Shield.
  • rec.sport.rugby.union FAQ: introducing Rugby Union (part 3/4) 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Especially since Argentina's strong performances in the 2007 World Cup, a number of commentators believed they should join the Tri-Nations.^ October 15 2007 21:33:13 it is easy to score tries against a team with 12 players i 'm suprised they could find 13 people in New Zeland who play Rugby League they might have to play in the rugby world cup.
  • http://www.LeagueFreak.com - League Freak - Rugby League Mass Ownage� - Covering The National Rugby League , Rugby Super League, State Of Origin And International Rugby League 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC ihaterugbyunion.com [Source type: News]

^ League Freak on October 14 2007 15:09:04 And what a way to win it too....so far England have scored 1 try in total since the group stages on their way to the 2007 rugby union world cup final.
  • http://www.LeagueFreak.com - League Freak - Rugby League Mass Ownage� - Covering The National Rugby League , Rugby Super League, State Of Origin And International Rugby League 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC ihaterugbyunion.com [Source type: News]

^ Shaun Edwards: England's manager is targeting the Six Nations with the World Cup only 20 months away Continue reading...
  • Sportblog + Rugby union | Sport | guardian.co.uk 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

[44] .This was first seriously proposed for the 2008 tournament,[45] then for 2010,[46] but came much closer to reality after the 2009 Tri Nations tournament, when SANZAR (South Africa, New Zealand and Australian Rugby) extended an official invitation to the Unión Argentina de Rugby (UAR) to join an expanded Four Nations tournament in 2012. This move has generally been met with great approval from all parties involved.^ New Zealand Rugby Referees - a collection of all things to do with Rugby Refereeing in New Zealand.
  • Resources for Rugby Union 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC sportsvl.com [Source type: News]

^ These days, Australia, New Zealand and South Africa play for the Tri Nations Championship.
  • rec.sport.rugby.union FAQ: introducing Rugby Union (part 3/4) 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Stories National Rugby news .

[47][48] .The invitation is subject to certain conditions, like the guaranteed availability of Argentina's top players, most of whom play professional club rugby in Europe at present.^ However, rugby has changed and players of shapes and sizes are playing in different positions to what their body types.
  • The basics of rugby union 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC www.rugby.neu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We have lost almost our whole backline to player retirements, rugby league, club changes and an overseas player returning home.

^ The future senior players of Easts Rugby commence their playing careers through the Easts Junior Rugby Club.

.Amidst all the international competitions there are also various Test matches and series, often as part of tours by national teams, which generally take place from September to December and from June to August.^ BBC News Covers current International tours and events News feed From NewsNow - up to the minute information from all sources.
  • Resources for Rugby Union 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC sportsvl.com [Source type: News]

^ With the Super 14 just about a month away there seems to be a major problem amongst almost all of the South African teams in the flyhalf position.

^ Super League News, schedules, results, teams, history, National All Stars top .
  • Resources for Rugby Union 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC sportsvl.com [Source type: News]

Olympic rugby

.Rugby union was played at the Olympic Games in 1900, 1908, 1920 and 1924. As per Olympic rules, the nations of Scotland, Wales and England were not allowed to play separately as they are not sovereign states.^ Rugby union is a complex game played by wankers."
  • http://www.LeagueFreak.com - League Freak - Rugby League Mass Ownage� - Covering The National Rugby League , Rugby Super League, State Of Origin And International Rugby League 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC ihaterugbyunion.com [Source type: News]

^ They were boring and the game they play is shit!
  • http://www.LeagueFreak.com - League Freak - Rugby League Mass Ownage� - Covering The National Rugby League , Rugby Super League, State Of Origin And International Rugby League 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC ihaterugbyunion.com [Source type: News]

^ Game Played In Heaven Term used to describe rugby union.
  • http://www.LeagueFreak.com - League Freak - Rugby League Mass Ownage� - Covering The National Rugby League , Rugby Super League, State Of Origin And International Rugby League 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC ihaterugbyunion.com [Source type: News]

.Rugby sevens has been played at the Commonwealth Games since 1998 and on 9 October 2009, the International Olympic Committee voted with a majority of 81 to 8 that rugby be reinstated as an Olympic sport in at least the 2016 and 2020 games, but in the sevens, 4-day tournament format.^ Women are known to play Rugby since 1913.
  • rec.sport.rugby.union FAQ: introducing Rugby Union (part 3/4) 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Basics Rugby Union is a contact sport, played on a field of about 100x70 meters.
  • rec.sport.rugby.union FAQ: introducing Rugby Union (part 3/4) 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Rugby League A sport played in Sydney and Northern England that has given union every single one of its inovations over the last 100 years.
  • http://www.LeagueFreak.com - League Freak - Rugby League Mass Ownage� - Covering The National Rugby League , Rugby Super League, State Of Origin And International Rugby League 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC ihaterugbyunion.com [Source type: News]

[49][50] .This is something the rugby world has aspired to for a long time and Bernard Lapasset, president of the International Rugby Board, said the Olympic gold medal would be considered to be "the pinnacle of our sport" (Rugby Sevens).^ You can't keep going on offloading the woes that rugby causes in our society to other sports codes.
  • The History and Origins of Rugby Union 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC hubpages.com [Source type: General]

^ "I have said for 20 years that if rugby really wants to compete with other high-entertainment sports all it has to do is make the field 10 metres wider.
  • http://www.LeagueFreak.com - League Freak - Rugby League Mass Ownage� - Covering The National Rugby League , Rugby Super League, State Of Origin And International Rugby League 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC ihaterugbyunion.com [Source type: News]

^ "You can't keep going on offloading the woes that rugby causes in our society to other sports codes.
  • The History and Origins of Rugby Union 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC hubpages.com [Source type: General]

[51]

Women's international rugby

.Women's international rugby union began in 1982, with a match between France and Netherlands played in Utrecht.^ Blackheath Club's decision to leave The Football Association in 1863, and in 1895, the split between rugby union and rugby league.
  • The History and Origins of Rugby Union 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC hubpages.com [Source type: General]

^ This, the first international match between England and Scotland, took place at Raeburn Place in Edinburgh on 27 March 1871, resulting in a win to Scotland by one goal and one try to one goal.
  • The History and Origins of Rugby Union 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC hubpages.com [Source type: General]

^ Women are known to play Rugby since 1913.
  • rec.sport.rugby.union FAQ: introducing Rugby Union (part 3/4) 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[52] .Over six hundred women's internationals have been played by over forty different nations.^ Six Nations: England, France, Ireland, Italy, Scotland and Wales play eachother once, with the home team alternating yearly.
  • rec.sport.rugby.union FAQ: introducing Rugby Union (part 3/4) 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Division One usually uses the same weekends as the Six Nations Championship; other divisions play throughout the year.
  • rec.sport.rugby.union FAQ: introducing Rugby Union (part 3/4) 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Kiwi Hape joins long list of ‘Guns for Hire’ in Six Nations International Rugby News 08:46 20-Jan-10 .
  • NewsNow: Rugby Union 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC www.newsnow.co.uk [Source type: News]

.The first Women's Rugby World Cup was held in Wales in 1991, and was won by the United States.^ Rugby Union: Henson Injury Doubt for Wales Gavin Henson is an injury doubt for the World Cup with an achilles tendon problem.
  • Rugby Union 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC www.buzzle.com [Source type: News]

^ League fans already knew the rugby union world cup was a second rate competition.
  • http://www.LeagueFreak.com - League Freak - Rugby League Mass Ownage� - Covering The National Rugby League , Rugby Super League, State Of Origin And International Rugby League 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC ihaterugbyunion.com [Source type: News]

^ As for the Rugby League World Cup, the final will be played at Lang Park, the world famous venue that is the premier rugby stadium in the world.
  • http://www.LeagueFreak.com - League Freak - Rugby League Mass Ownage� - Covering The National Rugby League , Rugby Super League, State Of Origin And International Rugby League 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC ihaterugbyunion.com [Source type: News]

.The second tournament took place in 1994, and since that date the competition has been held every four years.^ World Cup: Held every four years.
  • rec.sport.rugby.union FAQ: introducing Rugby Union (part 3/4) 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Heavensgame has a simple ethos that every rugby story is as important as the other this means that each story is placed on top of another irrespective of the country of origin or the competition involved in the story.

^ The tournament has been held on the Saturday following Thanksgiving since 1959 and traditionally marks the end of the Fall rugby season in the New York Metropolitan area.
  • Resources for Rugby Union 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC sportsvl.com [Source type: News]

.The New Zealand Women's team have won the last three World Cups (1998, 2002, 2006).^ RB World Cup - New Zealand 2011 .
  • Midwest Rugby Territory 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC midwestrugby.org [Source type: General]

^ As for Tana he actually played for the junior New Zealand league team, so where does it say he couldnt make grade for the knight because he is a bad player?
  • http://www.LeagueFreak.com - League Freak - Rugby League Mass Ownage� - Covering The National Rugby League , Rugby Super League, State Of Origin And International Rugby League 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC ihaterugbyunion.com [Source type: News]

^ It's not the teams that made the world cup one to forget it's the fricking irb!!!
  • http://www.LeagueFreak.com - League Freak - Rugby League Mass Ownage� - Covering The National Rugby League , Rugby Super League, State Of Origin And International Rugby League 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC ihaterugbyunion.com [Source type: News]

.As well as the Women's Rugby World Cup there are also other regular tournaments, including a Six Nations, run in parallel to the men's competition.^ There also is a knock-out competition, including all the nation's clubs.
  • rec.sport.rugby.union FAQ: introducing Rugby Union (part 3/4) 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There is a knock-out competition as well, called the Powergen Cup.
  • rec.sport.rugby.union FAQ: introducing Rugby Union (part 3/4) 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Women's Rugby World Cup fromAdidas - full coverage, including History Talk Rugby Openside Flanker provides a ranking system for International teams based on results against each other Rugby Union Blog from BBC Sport Covering World Rugby top .
  • Resources for Rugby Union 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC sportsvl.com [Source type: News]

Variants

Beach Rugby match
Besides the full-contact, 15-a-side code, other variants exist:
.
  • Rugby sevens (7's, or VIIs), is a fast-paced variant which originated in Melrose, Scotland in 1883. In rugby sevens, there are only 7 players per side, and each half is normally 7 minutes.^ VARIATIONS: RUGBY SEVENS - see below .

    ^ The tournament will be played in the Sevens format, a variant of rugby union played in the same field with only seven players per side, and with each match lasting 14 minutes.

    ^ Thirteen players play in each side, hence its French name 'Rugby a Treize'.
    • rec.sport.rugby.union FAQ: introducing Rugby Union (part 3/4) 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Major tournaments include the Hong Kong Sevens and Dubai Sevens, both held in areas not normally associated with the highest levels of the 15-a-side game.
  • Touch rugby, in which "tackles" are made by simply touching the ball carrier with two hands.
  • Tag Rugby, in which the participants wear a belt with two Velcro tags, the removal of either counting as a 'tackle'.
  • Mini rugby, also known as "New Image Rugby", which originates in England, is a variety mainly used to coach children.^ New England rugby kit .
    • Top 20 Rugby Union websites - Telegraph 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: General]

    ^ In the old days, rugby balls were made of hand-stitched leather.
    • The basics of rugby union 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC www.rugby.neu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Rugby 7s has recently received a significant boost by the IOC's decision to include this form of the game as a full-medal sport in the Olympic Games 2016 onwards .

    [53]
  • .
  • Rugby tens (10's or Xs), a Malaysian variant with ten players per side.^ Thirteen players play in each side, hence its French name 'Rugby a Treize'.
    • rec.sport.rugby.union FAQ: introducing Rugby Union (part 3/4) 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Rugby Profiler a new site developing a directory of rugby club sites and resources Rugby Union 10-a-side .
    • Resources for Rugby Union 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC sportsvl.com [Source type: News]

    ^ A touring side featuring the best rugby union players from England, Ireland, Scotland and Wales.
    • Resources for Rugby Union 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC sportsvl.com [Source type: News]

    [54]
  • American Flag Rugby, (AFR), like mini rugby, is a mixed gender, non-contact imitation of Rugby Union designed for American children entering grades K-9.[55]
Other less formal variants include beach rugby, snow rugby, rugby threes and street rugby.

Influence on other sports

.
A game of American football (1902).
^ Rugby union games consist of 2 teams of 15 amateur players that run on a grass field with a ball similar in appearance to an American football.
  • Rugby Union 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC www.buzzle.com [Source type: News]

Earlier forms of the game had a more obvious kinship with their rugby equivalents.
.Rugby union, and its immediate ancestor rugby football, has had a strong influence on several other sports.^ Basics Rugby Union is a contact sport, played on a field of about 100x70 meters.
  • rec.sport.rugby.union FAQ: introducing Rugby Union (part 3/4) 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Rugby League A sport played in Sydney and Northern England that has given union every single one of its inovations over the last 100 years.
  • http://www.LeagueFreak.com - League Freak - Rugby League Mass Ownage� - Covering The National Rugby League , Rugby Super League, State Of Origin And International Rugby League 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC ihaterugbyunion.com [Source type: News]

^ "I have said for 20 years that if rugby really wants to compete with other high-entertainment sports all it has to do is make the field 10 metres wider.
  • http://www.LeagueFreak.com - League Freak - Rugby League Mass Ownage� - Covering The National Rugby League , Rugby Super League, State Of Origin And International Rugby League 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC ihaterugbyunion.com [Source type: News]

.The Gridiron codes, American football[56][57] and Canadian football,[58] are derived from early forms of rugby.^ American football is the direct descendant of rugby.
  • Rugby Union 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC www.buzzle.com [Source type: News]

^ You might also want to prefer one of the medieval football codes looking like Rugby.
  • rec.sport.rugby.union FAQ: introducing Rugby Union (part 3/4) 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Rugby union games consist of 2 teams of 15 amateur players that run on a grass field with a ball similar in appearance to an American football.
  • Rugby Union 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC www.buzzle.com [Source type: News]

.Confusingly, in Canada, Canadian football has also frequently been referred to as "rugby football",[58] and a number of national and provincial bodies were called "Rugby Football Unions" or "Rugby Unions", such as the Ontario and Quebec Rugby Football Unions.^ Rugby Union Organisational bodies in the USA .
  • Resources for Rugby Union 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC sportsvl.com [Source type: News]

^ Rugby Union Organisational bodies .
  • Resources for Rugby Union 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC sportsvl.com [Source type: News]

^ Rugby Union equipment: upper body .
  • The basics of rugby union 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC www.rugby.neu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[58] For example, in the Encyclopedia Canadiana, the entry Rugby Football begins by referring to "the Canadian development of rugby union or "English rugger" introduced into Canada in the third quarter of the nineteenth century", but later states that "the Canadian game is a radical departure from rugby union".[58]
.Australian rules football has been influenced by a large number of sports, including rugby football and cricket.^ Rugby Football History A site dedicated to the History of rugby, including the olympics, a rugby timeline, and the history of various tournaments.
  • The History and Origins of Rugby Union 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC hubpages.com [Source type: General]

^ Rugby union is a contact sport, so you can tackle an opponent in order to get the ball, as long as you stay within the rules.
  • The basics of rugby union 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC www.rugby.neu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Positions Defined by Wikipedia or by Answers.com Wikipedia definition Rugby Coach -Number 6; what you need to understand and do BBC Sports Academy Skills needed.
  • Resources for Rugby Union 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC sportsvl.com [Source type: News]

.Many authors believe that the primary influence was rugby football and other other games emanating from English public schools.^ Rugby union games consist of 2 teams of 15 amateur players that run on a grass field with a ball similar in appearance to an American football.
  • Rugby Union 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC www.buzzle.com [Source type: News]

^ Union, of course, was dominated by the upper class Brits from the Public Schools and league was the game of the Working Man.
  • The History and Origins of Rugby Union 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC hubpages.com [Source type: General]

^ The type of football played at Rugby School in Ellis's time was not soccer, but a game with a mixture of both soccer and rugby rules.
  • The History and Origins of Rugby Union 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC hubpages.com [Source type: General]

[59] .Tom Wills, the founding father of Aussie Rules, also attended Rugby School.^ The type of football played at Rugby School in Ellis's time was not soccer, but a game with a mixture of both soccer and rugby rules.
  • The History and Origins of Rugby Union 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC hubpages.com [Source type: General]

^ Along with the founding of the Rugby Football Union a committee was formed, and three ex-Rugby School pupils, all lawyers, were invited to formulate a set of rules.
  • The History and Origins of Rugby Union 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC hubpages.com [Source type: General]

^ Ah so thats where Aussie rules football (1852) came from, it is Older than both Rugby (The Greatest Game) and Soccer (1862) .
  • The History and Origins of Rugby Union 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC hubpages.com [Source type: General]

.Gaelic football is not an offshoot of rugby union, it originated from the game of Caid.^ It was at this meeting that the Rugby Football Union was founded.
  • The History and Origins of Rugby Union 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC hubpages.com [Source type: General]

^ Blackheath Club's decision to leave The Football Association in 1863, and in 1895, the split between rugby union and rugby league.
  • The History and Origins of Rugby Union 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC hubpages.com [Source type: General]

^ The Reduced History of Rugby: The Oval-shaped Story of the Union Game Squeezed into 80 Minutes Price: $11.26 List Price: $14.42 .
  • The History and Origins of Rugby Union 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC hubpages.com [Source type: General]

.In response to the encroachment of English sports, Irish nationalist Michael Cusack set up the GAA. [60] In particular, Rule 42 of the GAA's Official Guide forbids prohibits the playing of non-Gaelic games in GAA stadiums, including rugby.^ The reaction of his fellow players or any officials is not recorded; but the advantages of playing the game in this natural fashion were obvious to Ellis's schoolmates who followed his example.
  • The History and Origins of Rugby Union 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC hubpages.com [Source type: General]

^ Six other teams, four of them from non-traditional Rugby states, are playing for the Australian Rugby Shield.
  • rec.sport.rugby.union FAQ: introducing Rugby Union (part 3/4) 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As for the Rugby League World Cup, the final will be played at Lang Park, the world famous venue that is the premier rugby stadium in the world.
  • http://www.LeagueFreak.com - League Freak - Rugby League Mass Ownage� - Covering The National Rugby League , Rugby Super League, State Of Origin And International Rugby League 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC ihaterugbyunion.com [Source type: News]

[61] .However, the rule has been relaxed while Lansdowne Road is being redeveloped, and rugby has now been played in Croke Park,[62] which saw a club rugby attendance record in 2009 in a match between Leinster and Munster.^ Blackheath Club's decision to leave The Football Association in 1863, and in 1895, the split between rugby union and rugby league.
  • The History and Origins of Rugby Union 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC hubpages.com [Source type: General]

^ However, rugby has changed and players of shapes and sizes are playing in different positions to what their body types.
  • The basics of rugby union 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC www.rugby.neu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A: English / Irish pubs, as well as local Rugby clubs are always worth a go, if you don't know where to watch a match.
  • rec.sport.rugby.union FAQ: introducing Rugby Union (part 3/4) 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[63]
.Swedish football was a code whose rules were a mix of the association football rules and the rugby football rules.^ Blackheath Club's decision to leave The Football Association in 1863, and in 1895, the split between rugby union and rugby league.
  • The History and Origins of Rugby Union 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC hubpages.com [Source type: General]

^ You might also want to prefer one of the medieval football codes looking like Rugby.
  • rec.sport.rugby.union FAQ: introducing Rugby Union (part 3/4) 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Union fans adore the somewhat complex rules of their code and regard things like scrums, rucks and mauls as essential for Rugby.
  • rec.sport.rugby.union FAQ: introducing Rugby Union (part 3/4) 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Some played the game with the round ball, while others played with the oval ball.^ Any other sport so racist in NZ? love the Maori to play the game but back them up...?when?
  • The History and Origins of Rugby Union 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC hubpages.com [Source type: General]

^ When a team kicks off, the ball must cross this line for play to continue in other words, the ball must be kicked at least 10 metres towards the opposing team to allow play to start.
  • The basics of rugby union 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC www.rugby.neu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The aim of the game is very simple - use the ball to score more points than the other team.
  • The basics of rugby union 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC www.rugby.neu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[64] It is no longer played.
.Rugby lends its name to wheelchair rugby (also known as "quad rugby" or "murderball"), but the sport is more strongly influenced by wheelchair basketball, ice hockey and handball than rugby union.^ A lot of the matters raised here seem to relate more to the love of money than to the love of rugby.
  • The History and Origins of Rugby Union 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC hubpages.com [Source type: General]

^ Basics Rugby Union is a contact sport, played on a field of about 100x70 meters.
  • rec.sport.rugby.union FAQ: introducing Rugby Union (part 3/4) 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Rugby League A sport played in Sydney and Northern England that has given union every single one of its inovations over the last 100 years.
  • http://www.LeagueFreak.com - League Freak - Rugby League Mass Ownage� - Covering The National Rugby League , Rugby Super League, State Of Origin And International Rugby League 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC ihaterugbyunion.com [Source type: News]

.Likewise, the sport of underwater rugby, is related to rugby in little more than name.^ A lot of the matters raised here seem to relate more to the love of money than to the love of rugby.
  • The History and Origins of Rugby Union 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC hubpages.com [Source type: General]

^ Objective: The object of Rugby Union is to score more points than the opposing team by passing, carrying, or kicking the ball.

^ The primary objective in Rugby is to have more points than your opponent at the end of the match.
  • rec.sport.rugby.union FAQ: introducing Rugby Union (part 3/4) 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In addition, rugby union as a descendant of rugby football shares a common ancestry with rugby league .^ Rugby League just dominates union!
  • http://www.LeagueFreak.com - League Freak - Rugby League Mass Ownage� - Covering The National Rugby League , Rugby Super League, State Of Origin And International Rugby League 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC ihaterugbyunion.com [Source type: News]

^ American football is the direct descendant of rugby.
  • Rugby Union 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC www.buzzle.com [Source type: News]

^ It was at this meeting that the Rugby Football Union was founded.
  • The History and Origins of Rugby Union 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC hubpages.com [Source type: General]

See also

References

  1. ^ Else, David (2007). British language & culture (2nd ed.). Lonely Planet. p. 97. ISBN 186450286X. 
  2. ^ Origins of Rugby - Codification—"The innovation of running with the ball was introduced some time between 1820 and 1830."
  3. ^ "Intro EN" (PDF). http://www.irb.com/mm/Document/LawsRegs/0/Law2EN_7708.pdf. Retrieved 2010-02-06. 
  4. ^ a b "Intro EN" (PDF). http://www.irb.com/mm/Document/LawsRegs/0/Law1EN_7709.pdf. Retrieved 2010-02-06. 
  5. ^ William Webb Ellis - fact or fiction? bbc.co.uk
  6. ^ "Early Rules". Rugbyfootballhistory.com. http://www.rugbyfootballhistory.com/originsofrugby.htm#3. Retrieved 2010-02-06. 
  7. ^ "Webb Ellis, William". http://www.rugbyfootballhistory.com/webb-ellis.html. Retrieved September 14th, 2009. 
  8. ^ Marshall (1951), pg 13.
  9. ^ Marshall (1951), pg 13-14.
  10. ^ a b Godwin (1981), pg 10.
  11. ^ Godwin, p10
  12. ^ Godwin (1981), pg 12.
  13. ^ Godwin, p18
  14. ^ Godwin, p18
  15. ^ Godwin, (1981) p19
  16. ^ Italy tour - Bucharest, 14 April 1940 Romania vs Italy, Scrum.com
  17. ^ Italy tour - Stuttgart, 5 May 1940 Germany vs Italy, Scrum.com
  18. ^ Romania tour - Milan, 2 May 1942 Italy vs Romania, Scrum.com
  19. ^ Godwin, (1981) p22
  20. ^ Try and Try again Scotland.org
  21. ^ Stubbs, p118
  22. ^ "ONTARIO: The Shamateurs". Time.com. 29 September 1947. http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,804253,00.html. Retrieved 6 February 2010. 
  23. ^ "History of Rugby Union". http://www.talkrugbyunion.co.uk/guides/history_of_rugby_union.html. Retrieved 6 February 2010. 
  24. ^ "The Amateur Era". http://www.rfu.com/microsites/museum/page.aspx?section=111&sectionTitle=The+Amateur+Era. Retrieved 6 February 2010. 
  25. ^ "Law 3 Number of Players" (PDF). http://www.irb.com/mm/document/lawsregs/0/090729sgsmlaw3_8811.pdf. Retrieved 2010-02-06. 
  26. ^ "IRB acts on uncontested scrums". IRB. 2009-08-19. http://www.irb.com/newsmedia/mediazone/pressrelease/newsid=2033086.html#irb+acts+uncontested+scrums. Retrieved 2009-09-23. 
  27. ^ "Intro EN" (PDF). http://www.irb.com/mm/Document/LawsRegs/0/Law9EN_7703.pdf. Retrieved 2010-02-06. 
  28. ^ Midgley, p394
  29. ^ "Intro EN" (PDF). http://www.irblaws.com/downloads/EN/law_6_en.pdf. Retrieved 2010-02-06. 
  30. ^ "Intro EN" (PDF). http://www.irblaws.com/downloads/EN/law_4_en.pdf. Retrieved 2010-02-06. 
  31. ^ "Regulation 12 Provisions relating to player dress" (PDF). http://www.irb.com/mm/document/lawsregs/0/regulation12090603_8287.pdf. Retrieved 2010-02-06. 
  32. ^ Encarta (1997)
  33. ^ a b Stubbs (2009)
  34. ^ Godwin (1981), pg 246.
  35. ^ Rugby Canada: History of Rugby Canada
  36. ^ "Canada book Wales RWC encounter". BBC.co.uk. 13 August 2006. http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport1/hi/rugby_union/international/4788663.stm. Retrieved 7 February 2010. 
  37. ^ a b "England will host 2015 World Cup". BBC Sport. 28 July 2009. http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport1/hi/rugby_union/8170488.stm. Retrieved 7 February 2010. 
  38. ^ "New Zealand handed 2011 World Cup". BBC Sport. 17 November 2005. http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport1/hi/rugby_union/international/4433818.stm. Retrieved 7 February 2010. 
  39. ^ "IRB World Rankings". IRB.com. 1 February 2010. http://www.irb.com/rankings/full.html. Retrieved 7 February 2010. 
  40. ^ "IRB Organisation". IRB.com. http://www.irb.com/aboutirb/organisation/index.html. Retrieved 7 February 2010. 
  41. ^ "Emily Valentine: First Lady Of Irish And World Rugby". IrishRugby.ie. 20 January 2010. http://www.irishrugby.ie/23_19440.php. Retrieved 7 February2010. 
  42. ^ Davies, D.E. (1975). Cardiff Rugby Club, History and Statistics 1876-1975. Risca: The Starling Press. p. 70-71. ISBN 0950442100. 
  43. ^ Mediaclan 2008. "ticketbooth.org.uk". ticketbooth.org.uk. http://www.ticketbooth.org.uk/stadioflaminioguide.php. Retrieved 2010-02-06. 
  44. ^ "Argentina invited to join Tri-Nations series". CNN. September 14, 2009. 
  45. ^ Cain, Nick (2007-02-25). "Ambitious Argentina poised to secure TriNations place". The Sunday Times. http://timesonline.co.uk/tol/sport/rugby/article1434537.ece. Retrieved 2007-02-26. 
  46. ^ "Pumas will stay crouched until 2010". RugbyRugby.com. 2007-08-13. http://www.rugbyrugby.com/tournaments/tri_nations/story_13807145000.php. Retrieved 2007-10-11. 
  47. ^ "International Rugby Board - IRB welcomes Argentina Four Nations Invite". Irb.com. http://www.irb.com/newsmedia/mediazone/pressrelease/newsid=2033716.html. Retrieved 2010-02-06. 
  48. ^ "news Argentina to make it the Four Nations". www.rugby365.com. http://www.rugby365.com/news/1922820.htm. Retrieved 2010-02-06. 
  49. ^ Klein, Jeff (2009-08-13). "I.O.C. Decision Draws Cheers and Complaints From Athletes". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2009/08/14/sports/14sports.html. Retrieved 2009-08-13. 
  50. ^ "Olympics At Summer Games In Rio de Janeiro Reinstated As Olympic Sport". cbs11tv.com. 2009-10-09. http://cbs11tv.com/sports/golf.rugby.olympics.2.1238472.html. Retrieved 2010-02-06. 
  51. ^ "BBC SPORT | Olympics | Golf & rugby voted into Olympics". BBC News. 2009-10-09. http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport2/hi/olympic_games/8292584.stm. Retrieved 2010-02-06. 
  52. ^ World Rugby Chronology RFU.com
  53. ^ Rutherford, Don (1993). The Complete Book of Mini Rugby. London: Partridge. p. 2. ISBN 1852251964. 
  54. ^ Bath, p71
  55. ^ About AFR americanflagrugby.com
  56. ^ Bath p77
  57. ^ Stubbs, Ray, The Sports Book, p115
  58. ^ a b c d "Rugby football" in Encyclopedia Canadiana, p110
  59. ^ Geoffrey Blainey, Leonie Sandercock, Ian Turner and Sean Fagan have all written in support of this view. See, for example: Richard Davis, 1991, "Irish and Australian Nationalism: the Sporting Connection: Football & Cricket", Centre for Tasmanian Historical Studies Bulletin, v.3, no.2, pp. 49-50 and; B. W. O'Dwyer, 1989, "The Shaping of Victorian Rules Football", Victorian Historical Journal, v.60, no.1.
  60. ^ "Michael Cusack, Maurice Davin and the Gaelic Athletic Association". http://www.nli.ie/1916/pdf/3.4.1.pdf. Retrieved 2008-03-16. 
  61. ^ "2009 official guide part1". http://www.gaa.ie/files/official_guides/2009_official_guide_part1.pdf. Retrieved 2010-01-07. 
  62. ^ "Ireland must wait to enjoy Croke craic". http://www.planetrugby.com/Story/0,18259,3551_1902765,00.html. Retrieved 2007-02-11. 
  63. ^ "Leinster 25-6 Munster". http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport1/hi/rugby_union/8030912.stm. Retrieved 7 January 2010. 
  64. ^ Jönsson, Åke (2006). Fotboll: hur världens största sport växte fram. Lund: Historiska media. p. 203. ISBN 91-85377-48-1. 

Printed sources

  • Encyclopedia Canadiana vol. 8. Toronto, Ottawa, Montreal: Grolier of Canada. 1972. ISBN 0717216012. 
  • Bath, Richard (ed.) .The Complete Book of Rugby (Seven Oaks Ltd, 1997 ISBN 1862000131)
  • Godwin, Terry; Rhys, Chris (1981).^ Rugby Union: Dark Horses Saracens Secure Signing of All Black Jack Saracens have completed the signing of the All Black lock Chris Jack until 2010.
    • Rugby Union 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC www.buzzle.com [Source type: News]

    The Guinness Book of Rugby Facts & Feats. Enfield: Guinness Superlatives Ltd. ISBN 0851122140. 
  • Griffiths, John (1987). The Phoenix Book of International Rugby Records. London: Phoenix House. p. 5:3. ISBN 0460070037.
  • Marshall, Howard; Jordon, J.P. (1951). Oxford v Cambridge, The Story of the University Rugby Match. London: Clerke & Cockeran. 
  • Midgley, Ruth (1979). The Official World Encyclopedia of Sports and Games. London: Diagram Group. ISBN 0-7092-0153-2. 
  • Richards, Huw (2007). .A Game for Hooligans: The History of Rugby Union.^ The beauty of rugby union is that is a game for people of all shapes and all sizes.
    • The basics of rugby union 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC www.rugby.neu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Rugby Union: Sale 19-29 Leicester Cross-border competition, however threatened by blueprints for the future of the game, always comes as a bit of a relief...
    • Rugby Union 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC www.buzzle.com [Source type: News]

    ^ League Convert A former Rugby League player who plays at rugby unions highest level within weeks of switching codes despite the supposed complexities of the game.
    • http://www.LeagueFreak.com - League Freak - Rugby League Mass Ownage� - Covering The National Rugby League , Rugby Super League, State Of Origin And International Rugby League 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC ihaterugbyunion.com [Source type: News]

    Edinburgh: Mainstream Publishing. ISBN 978-1845962555.
     
  • Stubbs, Ray (2009). The Sports Book. Dorling Kindersley. ISBN 978-1405336970. 

Electronic sources

.
  • "IRB Laws of Rugby Union 2009" (PDF).^ The IRB finally capitulated to the inevitable, and in August 1995 rugby union became fully professional.
    • The History and Origins of Rugby Union 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC hubpages.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Essentially the IRB The International Rugby Board -- the governing body of rugby union -- has been dominated by worthy English gentlemen who adhered implacably to their cherished amateur principles.
    • The History and Origins of Rugby Union 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC hubpages.com [Source type: General]

    irb.com. 2009. .http://www.irblaws.com/EN/.^ We All Hate Rugby Union - http://www.ihaterugbyunion.com - What A Shit Excuse For A Sport!!!
    • http://www.LeagueFreak.com - League Freak - Rugby League Mass Ownage� - Covering The National Rugby League , Rugby Super League, State Of Origin And International Rugby League 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC ihaterugbyunion.com [Source type: News]

    ^ RLFANS.COM http:www.leaguefreak.com is owned and operated by The King Of The Internet: League Freak League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, .
    • http://www.LeagueFreak.com - League Freak - Rugby League Mass Ownage� - Covering The National Rugby League , Rugby Super League, State Of Origin And International Rugby League 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC ihaterugbyunion.com [Source type: News]

    .Retrieved 2009-09-24.
     
  • "IRB Regulations" (PDF).^ RB Law Ruling Summary - 2009 - Posted 09/24/09 .
    • Midwest Rugby Territory 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC midwestrugby.org [Source type: General]

    irb.com. .http://www.irb.com/lawregulations/regulations/index.html.^ We All Hate Rugby Union - http://www.ihaterugbyunion.com - What A Shit Excuse For A Sport!!!
    • http://www.LeagueFreak.com - League Freak - Rugby League Mass Ownage� - Covering The National Rugby League , Rugby Super League, State Of Origin And International Rugby League 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC ihaterugbyunion.com [Source type: News]

    ^ RLFANS.COM http:www.leaguefreak.com is owned and operated by The King Of The Internet: League Freak League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, League Freak, .
    • http://www.LeagueFreak.com - League Freak - Rugby League Mass Ownage� - Covering The National Rugby League , Rugby Super League, State Of Origin And International Rugby League 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC ihaterugbyunion.com [Source type: News]

    .Retrieved 2009-09-24.
     
  • "Rugby Football," in Microsoft(R) Encarta(R) 97 Encyclopedia (CD-ROM) 1993-1996 Microsoft Corporation.^ RB Law Ruling Summary - 2009 - Posted 09/24/09 .
    • Midwest Rugby Territory 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC midwestrugby.org [Source type: General]

    ^ USA Rugby Game Management Guidelines - 2009 - Updated 02/27/09 .
    • Midwest Rugby Territory 20 January 2010 14:24 UTC midwestrugby.org [Source type: General]

    (Reviewed by USA Rugby)
  • Rugby15.co.uk RFU Laws
  • Scrum.com Rugby guide

External links

Official

Resources

Fan sites and news


Simple English

File:Scrum

Rugby Union
General Information
Originated 1845, Rugby, Warwickshire, England
World Governing Body International Rugby Board
Major Competitions
Major Competitions The World Cup
Tri Nations
Six Nations
Super 14
Heineken Cup

Rugby union is a ball sport. Two teams of 15 players play against each other. The ball used is oval in shape. The field is a rectangle shape. It is 100 meters long and 70 meters wide. At the ends of the field are two H-shaped goal-posts.

The game is played for 80 minutes in two 40-minute halves. There is a 10-minute break at half-time.

Point Scoring

A Try is scored when a player 'scores'. A try is worth 5 points. To score a try the player must put down the ball in the 'goal area'. The goal area is behind the goal-posts.

Once a try has been scored, the team has a chance to score extra points. The goal kicker kicks the ball towards the goal-posts. The ball must pass between the two upright goal-posts and above the cross-piece. If it does, the team is awarded 2 additional points. This act is known as a 'conversion'.

Another method of scoring points is through penalties. When a team breaks the rules, the referee may award a penalty. The goal-kicker kicks towards the goal-posts. The ball must pass between the two upright goal-posts and above the cross-piece. If it does, the team is awarded 3 points.

During play, the goal-kicker can also attempt a 'drop-goal'. The goal-kicker kicks towards the goal-posts. The ball must pass between the two upright goal-posts and above the cross-piece. If it does, the team is awarded 3 points.

Numbers and Positions

Forwards

1 : Loose head prop

2 : Hooker

3 : Tight head prop

4 : Lock / Second row

5 : Lock / Second row

6 : Blind side flanker / blind-side wing-forward

7 : Open side flanker / open-side wing-forward

8 : Number 8

Backs

9 : Scrum-half

10 : Fly half/outside-half/outhalf (or first-five-eighth)

11 : Left-wing

12 : Inside centre (or second-five-eighth)

13 : Outside centre

14 : Right-wing

15 : Fullback

Rules

and Georgia taking a lineout in the 2007 Rugby World Cup]]

[[File:|thumb|A rugby tackle: tackles must be low down on the body, with the aim of impeding or grounding the player with the ball]]

The laws of Rugby Union are a bit complicated.

The key rule to rugby union play is that the person who is carrying the ball at any time cannot pass the ball to a teammate who is closer to the opposition goal line. The ball must always be passed sideways or backwards.

Only the player with the ball may be tackled. Tackling is when the player with the ball is brought to the ground by an opposition player. The opposition player must use their hands to hold onto the ball carrier, and wrestle them to the ground.

When the player with the ball is on the ground, players from the opposition team may stand over him and attempt to grab the ball off them. The opposition players must remain standing ('on their feet'). Meanwhile, the player with the ball will try to pass the ball backwards along the ground to a teammate. His teammates will pile their bodies on top of the player with the ball to stop the opposition from getting it.

During the game, there are four officials who enforce the rules. The referee runs alongside players as they play the game. The referee controls the game.

The two touch-judges patrol the out-of-bounds areas. They also indicate when a goal kick has been successful.

The TMO, or 'television match official', helps the referee with difficult decisions. Only some games use a TMO.

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Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 28, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Rugby union, which are similar to those in the above article.








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