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Persian Mystical poet
Name: Jalal ad-Dīn Muhammad Rumi
Title: Mawlānā
Birth: 1207
Death: 17 December 1273
Ethnicity: Persian[1][2]
Region: Rûm
School tradition: Sufism. His followers formed the Mawlawi Order
Main interests: Sufi poetry, Sufi whirling, Muraqaba, Dhikr
Notable ideas: Persian poetry, Ney and Sufi dance
Works: Masnavi, Diwan-e Shams-e Tabrizi, Fihi Ma Fihi
Influences: Attār, Sanā'ī, Abu Sa'īd Abulḫayr, Ḫaraqānī, Bayazīd Bistāmī, Šamse Tabrīzī
Influenced: Sir Mohammad Iqbāl, Tāhir ul-Qadrī, Kazi Nazrul Islam, Abdolkarim Soroush

Jalāl ad-Dīn Muḥammad Balkhī (Persian: جلال الدین محمد بلخى), also known as Jalāl ad-Dīn Muḥammad Rūmī (Persian: جلال‌الدین محمد رومی), and popularly known as Mowlānā (Persian: مولانا) but known to the English-speaking world simply as Rumi[3] (30 September 1207 – 17 December 1273), was a 13th-century Persian[1][4][5][6][7][8][9] poet, jurist, theologian, and Sufi mystic.[10] Rūmī is a descriptive name meaning "the Roman" since he lived most of his life in an area called Rūm because it was once ruled by the Byzantine Empire.[11]

Rumi was born in Greater Balkh (Bakhtarzamin), and thus he is called Balkhi, in Wakhsh,[12] a small town located at the river Wakhsh in what is now Tajikistan. Wakhsh belonged to the larger province of Balkh, and in the year Rumi was born, his father was an appointed scholar there.[12] Both these cities were at the time included in the Greater Persian cultural sphere of Khorasan, the easternmost province of historical Persia,[1] and were part of the Khwarezmian Empire.

His birthplace[1] and native language[13] both indicate a Persian heritage. His father decided to migrate westwards due to quarrels between different dynasties in Khorasan, opposition to the Khwarizmid Shahs who were considered devious by Bahā ud-Dīn Walad (Rumi's father),[14] or fear of the impending Mongol cataclysm.[15] Rumi's family traveled west, first performing the Hajj and eventually settling in the Anatolian city Konya (capital of the Seljuk Sultanate of Rum, now located in Turkey). This was where he lived most of his life, and here he composed one of the crowning glories of Persian literature which profoundly affected the culture of the area.[16]

He lived most of his life under the Sultanate of Rum, where he produced his works[17] and died in 1273 CE. He was buried in Konya and his shrine became a place of pilgrimage.[18] Following his death, his followers and his son Sultan Walad founded the Mawlawīyah Sufi Order, also known as the Order of the Whirling Dervishes, famous for its Sufi dance known as the samāʿ ceremony.

Rumi's works are written in the new Persian language. A Persian literary renaissance (in the 8th/9th century) started in regions of Sistan, Khorāsān and Transoxiana[19] and by the 10th/11th century, it reinforced the Persian language as the preferred literary and cultural language in the Persian Islamic world. Although Rumi's works were written in Persian, Rumi's importance is considered to transcend national and ethnic borders. His original works are widely read in their original language across the Persian-speaking world. Translations of his works are very popular in other countries. His poetry has influenced Persian literature as well as Urdu, Punjabi and other Pakistani languages written in Perso/Arabic script e.g. Pashto and Sindhi. His poems have been widely translated into many of the world's languages and transposed into various formats; He has been described as the "most popular poet in America" in 2007.[20]

Contents

Life

Rumi's tomb (Mevlana Museum).

Rumi was born on 30 September 1207 in greater Balkh which overlaps present day Afghanistan and Tajikistan. He died on 17 December 1273 in Konya in present day Turkey. He was laid to rest beside his father and over his remains a splendid shrine was erected. The 13th century Mevlana Mausoleum with its mosque, dance hall, dervish living quarters, school and tombs of some leaders of the Mevlevi Order continues to this day to draw pilgrims from all parts of the Muslim and non-Muslim world. Jalal al-Din who is also known as Rumi, was a philosopher and mystic of Islam, but not a Muslim of the orthodox type. His doctrine advocates unlimited tolerance, positive reasoning, goodness, charity and awareness through love. To him and to his disciples all religions are more or less truth. Looking with the same eye on Muslim, Jew and Christian alike, his peaceful and tolerant teaching has appealed to men of all sects and creeds. A hagiographical account of him is described in Shams ud-Din Ahmad Aflāki's Manāqib ul-Ārifīn (written between 1318 and 1353). Rumi's father was Bahā ud-Dīn Walad, a theologian, jurist and a mystic from Vakhsh, who was also known by the followers of Rumi as Sultan al-Ulama or "Sultan of the Scholars". The popular hagiographer assertions that have claimed the family's descent from the Caliph Abu Bakr does not hold on closer examination and is rejected by modern scholars[21][22][23]. The claim of maternal descent from the Khwarazmshah for Rumi or his father is also seen as a non-historical hagiographical tradition designed to connect the family with royalty, but this claim is rejected for chronological and historical reasons[21][22][23]. The the most complete genealogy offered for the family streches back to six or seven generations to famous Hanafi Jurists[21][22][23]. We do not learn the name of Baha al-Din's mother in the sources, but only that he referred to her as "Mama"(Mami)[24] (colloquial Persian for Mother), she was a simple woman and that she lives in 1200s. The mother of Rumi was Mu'mina Khātūn. The profession of the family for several generations was that of Islamic preachers of the liberal Hanafi rite and this family tradition was continued by Rumi (see his Fihi Ma Fih and Seven Sermons) and Sultan Walad (see Ma'rif Waladi for examples of his everyday sermons and lectures).

When the Mongols invaded Central Asia sometime between 1215 and 1220, Baha ud-Din Walad, with his whole family and a group of disciples, set out westwards. On the road to Anatolia, Rumi encountered one of the most famous mystic Persian poets, 'Attar, in the Iranian city of Nishapur, located in the province of Khorāsān. 'Attar immediately recognized Rumi's spiritual eminence. He saw the father walking ahead of the son and said, "Here comes a sea followed by an ocean." He gave the boy his Asrārnāma, a book about the entanglement of the soul in the material world. This meeting had a deep impact on the eighteen-year-old Rumi, and later on became the inspiration for his works.

From Nishapur, Walad and his entourage set out for Baghdad, meeting many of the scholars and Sufis of the city.[25] From there they went to Baghdad, and Hejaz and performed the pilgrimage at Mecca. The migrating caravan then passed through Damascus, Malatya, Erzincan, Sivas, Kayseri and Nigde. They finally settled in Karaman for seven years; Rumi's mother and brother both died there. In 1225, Rumi married Gowhar Khatun in Karaman. They had two sons: Sultan Walad and Ala-eddin Chalabi. When his wife died, Rumi married again and had a son, Amir Alim Chalabi, and a daughter, Malakeh Khatun.

On 1 May 1228, most likely as a result of the insistent invitation of 'Alā' ud-Dīn Key-Qobād, ruler of Anatolia, Baha' ud-Din came and finally settled in Konya in Anatolia within the westernmost territories of the Seljuk Sultanate of Rûm.

Baha' ud-Din became the head of a madrassa (religious school) and when he died, Rumi, aged twenty-five, inherited his position. One of Baha' ud-Din's students, Sayyed Burhan ud-Din Muhaqqiq Termazi, continued to train Rumi in the religious and mystical doctrines of Rumi's father. For nine years, Rumi practiced Sufism as a disciple of Burhan ud-Din until the latter died in 1240 or 1241. Rumi's public life then began: he became a teacher who preached in the mosques of Konya and taught his adherents in the madrassa.

During this period, Rumi also travelled to Damascus and is said to have spent four years there.

It was his meeting with the dervish Shams-e Tabrizi on 15 November 1244 that completely changed Rumi's life. Shams had traveled throughout the Middle East searching and praying for someone who could "endure my company". A voice said to him, "What will you give in return?" Shams replied, "My head!" The voice then said, "The one you seek is Jalal ud-Din of Konya." On the night of 5 December 1248, as Rumi and Shams were talking, Shams was called to the back door. He went out, never to be seen again. It is rumored that Shams was murdered with the connivance of Rumi's son, 'Ala' ud-Din; if so, Shams indeed gave his head for the privilege of mystical friendship.[4]

Rumi's love for, and his bereavement at the death of, Shams found their expression in an outpouring of music, dance, and lyric poems, Divan-e Shams-e Tabrizi. He himself went out searching for Shams and journeyed again to Damascus. There, he realized:

Why should I seek? I am the same as
He. His essence speaks through me.
I have been looking for myself![26]

For more than ten years after meeting Shams, Mawlana had been spontaneously composing ghazals (Persian poems), and these had been collected in the Divan-i Kabir or Diwan Shams Tabrizi. Rumi found another companion in Salaḥ ud-Din-e Zarkub, a goldsmith. After Salah ud-Din's death, Rumi's scribe and favorite student, Hussam-e Chalabi, assumed the role of Rumi's companion. One day, the two of them were wandering through the Meram vineyards outside Konya when Hussam described to Rumi an idea he had had: "If you were to write a book like the Ilāhīnāma of Sanai or the Mantiq ut-Tayr of 'Attar, it would become the companion of many troubadours. They would fill their hearts from your work and compose music to accompany it." Rumi smiled and took out a piece of paper on which were written the opening eighteen lines of his Masnavi, beginning with:

Listen to the reed and the tale it tells,
How it sings of separation...[27]

Hussam implored Rumi to write more. Rumi spent the next twelve years of his life in Anatolia dictating the six volumes of this masterwork, the Masnavi, to Hussam.

In December 1273, Rumi fell ill; he predicted his own death and composed the well-known ghazal, which begins with the verse:

How doest thou know what sort of king I have within me as companion?
Do not cast thy glance upon my golden face, for I have iron legs.[28]

Rumi died on 17 December 1273 in Konya; his body was interred beside that of his father, and a splendid shrine, the Yeşil Türbe (Green Tomb, قبه الخضراء; today the Mevlana Museum), was erected over his place of burial. His epitaph reads:

When we are dead, seek not our tomb in the earth, but find it in the hearts of men.[29]

Teachings

A page of a copy circa 1503 of the Diwan-e Shams-e Tabriz-i.

The general theme of Rumi's thought, like that of other mystic and Sufi poets of Persian literature, is essentially that of the concept of tawhīd – union with his beloved (the primal root) from which/whom he has been cut off and become aloof – and his longing and desire to restore it.[citation needed]

The Masnavi weaves fables, scenes from everyday life, Qur’anic revelations and exegesis, and metaphysics into a vast and intricate tapestry.[citation needed] Rumi is considered an example of Insan-e Kamil — Perfect Man, the perfected or completed human being. In the East, it is said of him that he was "not a prophet — but surely, he has brought a scripture".

Rumi believed passionately in the use of music, poetry, and dance as a path for reaching God. For Rumi, music helped devotees to focus their whole being on the divine, and to do this so intensely that the soul was both destroyed and resurrected. It was from these ideas that the practice of "whirling" dervishes developed into a ritual form. His teachings became the base for the order of the Mawlawi which his son Sultan Walad organized. Rumi encouraged samāʿ, listening to music and turning or doing the sacred dance. In the Mevlevi tradition, samāʿ represents a mystical journey of spiritual ascent through mind and love to the Perfect One. In this journey, the seeker symbolically turns towards the truth, grows through love, abandons the ego, finds the truth, and arrives at the Perfect. The seeker then returns from this spiritual journey, with greater maturity, to love and to be of service to the whole of creation without discrimination with regard to beliefs, races, classes, and nations[citation needed].

In other verses in the Masnavi, Rumi describes in detail the universal message of love:

Lover's nationality is separate from all other religions,
The lover's religion and nationality is the Beloved (God).

The lover’s cause is separate from all other causes
Love is the astrolabe of God's mysteries.[30]

Major works

Rumi's poetry is often divided into various categories: the quatrains (rubayāt) and odes (ghazal) of the Divan, the six books of the Masnavi. The prose works are divided into the The Discourses, The Letters, and the Seven Sermons.

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Poetic works

Maṭnawīye Ma'nawī
Mevlâna museum, Konya, Turkey.
  • Rumi's major work is the Maṭnawīye Ma'nawī (Spiritual Couplets; مثنوی معنوی), a six-volume poem regarded by some Sufis[31] as the Persian-language Qur'an. It is considered by many to be one of the greatest works of mystical poetry[32]. It contains approximately 27000 lines of Persian poetry[33].
  • Rumi's other major work is the Dīwān-e Kabīr (Great Work) or Diwan-e Shams-e Tabrizi|Dīwān-e Shams-e Tabrīzī (The Works of Shams of Tabriz; دیوان شمس تبریزی named in honor of Rumi's master Shams. Besides approximately 35000 Persian couplets and 2000 Persian quatrains[34], the Divan contains 90 Ghazals and 19 quatrains in Arabic[35], a couple of dozen or so couplets in Turkish (mainly macaronic poems of mixed Persian and Turkish)[36][37] and 14 couplets in Greek(all of them in three macaronic poems of Greek-Persian)[38][39].

Prose works

  • Fihi Ma Fihi (In It What's in It, Persian: فیه ما فیه) provides a record of seventy-one talks and lectures given by Rumi on various occasions to his disciples. It was compiled from the notes of his various disciples, so Rumi did not author the work directly.[40] An English translation from the Persian was first published by A.J. Arberry as Discourses of Rumi(New York: Samuel Weiser, 1972), and a translation of the second book by Wheeler Thackston, Sign of the Unseen(Putney, VT: Threshold Books, 1994).
  • Majāles-e Sab'a (Seven Sessions, Persian: مجالس سبعه) contains seven Persian sermons (as the name implies) or lectures given in seven different assemblies. The sermons themselves give a commentary on the deeper meaning of Qur'an and Hadeeth. The sermons also include quotations from poems of Sana'i, 'Attar, and other poets, including Rumi himself. As Aflakī relates, after Shams-e Tabrīzī, Rumi gave sermons at the request of notables, especially Salāh al-Dīn Zarkūb.[41]
  • Makatib (The Letters, Persian: مکاتیب) is the book containing Rumi's letters in Persian to his disciples, family members, and men of state and of influence. The letters testify that Rumi kept very busy helping family members and administering a community of disciples that had grown up around them.

Philosophical outlook

See also: Spiritual evolution

Rumi was an evolutionary thinker in the sense that he believed that the spirit after devolution from the divine Ego undergoes an evolutionary process by which it comes nearer and nearer to the same divine Ego.[42] All matter in the universe obeys this law and this movement is due to an inbuilt urge (which Rumi calls "love") to evolve and seek enjoinment with the divinity from which it has emerged. Evolution into a human being from an animal is only one stage in this process. The doctrine of the Fall of Adam is reinterpreted as the devolution of the Ego from the universal ground of divinity and is a universal, cosmic phenomenon.[43] The French philosopher Henri Bergson's idea of life being creative and evolutionary is similar, though unlike Bergson, Rumi believes that there is a specific goal to the process: the attainment of God. For Rumi, God is the ground as well as the goal of all existence.

However a point to note is that Rumi need not be considered a biological evolutionary creationist. In view of the fact that Rumi lived hundreds of years before Darwin, and was least interested in scientific theories, it is probable to conclude that he does not deal with biological evolution at all. Rather he is concerned with the spiritual evolution of a human being: Man not conscious of God is akin to an animal and true consciousness makes him divine. Nicholson has seen this as a Neo-Platonic doctrine: the universal soul working through the various spheres of being, a doctrine introduced into Islam by Muslim philosophers like Al Farabi and being related at the same time to Ibn Sina's idea of love as the magnetically working power by which life is driven into an upward trend.[44]

I died as a mineral and became a plant,
I died as plant and rose to animal,
I died as animal and I was Man.
Why should I fear? When was I less by dying?
Yet once more I shall die as Man, to soar
With angels bless'd; but even from angelhood
I must pass on: all except God doth perish.
When I have sacrificed my angel-soul,
I shall become what no mind e'er conceived.
Oh, let me not exist! for Non-existence
Proclaims in organ tones,
To Him we shall return.

از جمادی مُردم و نامی شدم — وز نما مُردم بحیوان سرزدم

مُردم از حیوانی و آدم شدم — پس چه ترسم کی ز مردن کم شدم

حملهء دیگر بمیرم از بشر — تا برآرم از ملایک بال و پر

وز ملک هم بایدم جستن ز جو — کل شییء هالک الاوجهه

بار دیگر از ملک پران شوم — آنچه اندر وهم ناید آن شوم

پس عدم گردم عدم چو ارغنون — گویدم کانا الیه راجعون

Rumi's universality

It is often said that the teachings of Rumi are ecumenical in nature.[45] For Rumi, religion was mostly a personal experience and not limited to logical arguments or perceptions of the senses.[46] Creative love, or the urge to rejoin the spirit to divinity, was the goal towards which every thing moves.[46] The dignity of life, in particular human life (which is conscious of its divine origin and goal), was important.[46]

I searched for God among the Christians and on the Cross and therein I found Him not.
I went into the ancient temples of idolatry; no trace of Him was there.
I entered the mountain cave of Hira and then went as far as Qandhar but God I found not.
With set purpose I fared to the summit of Mount Caucasus and found there only 'anqa's habitation.
Then I directed my search to the Kaaba, the resort of old and young; God was not there even.
Turning to philosophy I inquired about him from ibn Sina but found Him not within his range.
I fared then to the scene of the Prophet's experience of a great divine manifestation only a "two bow-lengths' distance from him" but God was not there even in that exalted court.
Finally, I looked into my own heart and there I saw Him; He was nowhere else.

Rumi as a Muslim

However, despite the aforementioned ecumenical attitude, and contrary to his contemporary portrayal in the West as a proponent of non-denominational spirituality, a select number of Rumi poems suggest the importance of outward religious observance, the primacy of the Qur'an and what he believed to be the superiority of Islam.[47]

Flee to God's Koran, take refuge in it
there with the spirits of the prophets merge.
The Book conveys the prophets' circumstances
those fish of the pure sea of Majesty.[48]

Rumi's approach to Islam is further clarified in this quatrain:

Man banda-ye qur'ānam, agar jān dāram
man khāk-e rah-e muhammad-e mukhtāram
gar naql konad joz īn kas az goftāram
bēzāram azō waz-īn sokhan bēzāram.

I am the servant of the Qur'an as long as I have life.
I am the dust on the path of Muhammad, the Chosen One.
If anyone quotes anything except this from my sayings,
I am quit of him and outraged by these words.[49]

Seyyed Hossein Nasr states:

One of the greatest living authorities on Rûmî in Persia today, Hâdî Hâ'irî, has shown in an unpublished work that some 6,000 verses of the Dîwân and the Mathnawî are practically direct translations of Qur'ânic verses into Persian poetry.[50]

Rumi states in his Dīwān:

The Sufi is hanging on to Muhammad, like Abu Bakr.[51]

Legacy

Rumi's poetry forms the basis of much classical Iranian and Afghan music (Eastern-Persian, Tajik-Hazara music).[52] Contemporary classical interpretations of his poetry are made by Muhammad Reza Shajarian, Shahram Nazeri, Davood Azad (the three from Iran) and Ustad Mohammad Hashem Cheshti (Afghanistan). Today, Rumi's legacy is expanding in the West as well through the work of translators and performers such as Shahram Shiva who has been presenting bilingual Persian/English Rumi events in the US since 1993. To many modern Westerners, his teachings are one of the best introductions to the philosophy and practice of Sufism. Pakistan's National Poet, Muhammad Iqbal, was also inspired by Rumi's works and considered him to be his spiritual leader, addressing him as "Pir Rumi" in his poems (the honorific Pir literally means "old man", but in the sufi/mystic context it means founder, master, or guide).[53]

Barely known in the West as recently as 15 years ago, Rumi is now one of the most widely read poets in America. His is an exciting new literary and philosophical force. "Rumi deals with the human condition and that is always relevant," says Shahram Shiva. "Rumi is able to verbalize the highly personal and often confusing world of personal growth and development in a very clear and direct fashion. He does not offend anyone, and he includes everyone. The world of Rumi is neither exclusively the world of a Sufi, nor the world of a Hindu, nor a Jew, nor a Christian; it is a state of an evolved human. A human who is not bound by cultural limitations; a one who touches every one of us. Today Rumi's poems can be heard in churches, synagogues, Zen monasteries, as well as in the downtown New York art/performance/music scene." According to Professor Majid M. Naini [54], "Rumi's life and transformation provide true testimony and proof that people of all religions and backgrounds can live together in peace and harmony. Rumi’s visions, words, and life teach us how to reach inner peace and happiness so we can finally stop the continual stream of hostility and hatred and achieve true global peace and harmony.”

Rumi's work has been translated into many of the world's languages, including Russian, German, Urdu, Turkish, Arabic, Bengali, French, Italian, and Spanish, and is being presented in a growing number of formats, including concerts, workshops, readings, dance performances, and other artistic creations [55]. The English interpretations of Rumi's poetry by Coleman Barks have sold more than half a million copies worldwide,[56] and Rumi is one of the most widely read poets in the United States.[57]

Recordings of Rumi poems have made it to Billboard's Top 20 list. A selection of Deepak Chopra's editing of the translations by Fereydoun Kia of Rumi's love poems has been performed by Hollywood personalities such as Madonna, Goldie Hawn, Philip Glass and Demi Moore. Shahram Shiva's CD, Rumi: Lovedrunk, has been very popular in the Internet's music communities, such as MySpace and Facebook.

There is a famous landmark in Northern India, known as Rumi Gate, situated in Lucknow (the capital of Uttar Pradesh) named after Rumi.

Rumi and his mausoleum were depicted on the reverse of the Turkish 5000 lira banknotes of 1981-1994.[58]

Rumi and the Persian world

پارسی گو گرچه تازی خوشتر است — عشق را خود صد زبان دیگر است

Say all in Persian even if Arabic is better – Love will find its way through all languages on its own.

These cultural, historical and linguistic ties between Rumi and the Iranian world have made Rumi an iconic Persian poet and some of the most important Rumi scholars including Foruzanfar, Naini, Sabzewari and etc. have come from modern Iran[59]. Rumi's poetry is displayed on the walls of many cities across the Persian-speaking world, sung in Persian music[59], and read in school books[60].

The Mawlawī Sufi Order

The Mawlawī Sufi order (Mawlawīyah or Mevlevi, as it is known in Turkey) was founded in 1273 by Rumi's followers after his death.[61] His first successor in the rectorship of the order was Husam Chalabi himself , after whose death in 1284 Rumi's younger and only surviving son, Sultan Walad (died 1312), favorably known as author of the mystical Maṭnawī Rabābnāma, or the Book of the Rabab, was installed as grand master of the order.[62] The leadership of the order has been kept within Rumi's family in Konya uninterruptedly since then.[63] The Mawlawī Sufis, also known as Whirling Dervishes, believe in performing their dhikr in the form of samāʿ. During the time of Rumi (as attested in the Manāqib ul-Ārefīn of Aflākī), his followers gathered for musical and "turning" practices.

Rumi was himself a notable musician who played the robāb, although his favorite instrument was the ney or reed flute.[64] The music accompanying the samāʿ consists of settings of poems from the Maṭnawī and Dīwān-e Kabīr, or of Sultan Walad's poems.[64] The Mawlawīyah was a well-established Sufi order in the Ottoman Empire, and many of the members of the order served in various official positions of the Caliphate. The center for the Mawlawiyyah was in Konya. There is also a Mawlawī monastery (درگاه, dargāh) in Istanbul near the Galata Tower in which the samāʿ is performed and accessible to the public. The Mawlawī order issues an invitation to people of all backgrounds:

Come, come, whoever you are,

Wanderer, idolater, worshiper of fire,
Come even though you have broken your vows a thousand times,
Come, and come yet again.
Ours is not a caravan of despair.[65]

Rumi's tomb in Konya, Turkey.

During Ottoman times, the Mawlawīyah produced a number of notable poets and musicians, including Sheikh Ghalib, Ismail Rusuhi Dede of Ankara, Esrar Dede, Halet Efendi, and Gavsi Dede, who are all buried at the Galata Mawlawī Khāna (Turkish: Mevlevi-Hane) in Istanbul.[66] Music, especially that of the ney, plays an important part in the Mawlawiyyah, and thus much of the traditional, oriental music that Westerners associate with Turkey originates from the Mawlawī order.

With the foundation of the modern, secular Republic of Turkey, Mustafa Kemal Atatürk removed religion from the sphere of public policy and restricted it exclusively to that of personal morals, behavior, and faith. On 13 December 1925, a law was passed closing all the tekkes (or tekeyh) (dervish lodges) and zāwiyas (chief dervish lodges), and the centers of veneration to which pilgrimages (ziyārat) were made. Istanbul alone had more than 250 tekkes as well as small centers for gatherings of various fraternities; this law dissolved the Sufi Orders, prohibited the use of mystical names, titles and costumes pertaining to their titles, impounded the Orders' assets, and banned their ceremonies and meetings. The law also provided penalties for those who tried to re-establish the Orders. Two years later, in 1927, the Mausoleum of Mevlana in Konya was allowed to reopen as a Museum.[67]

In the 1950s, the Turkish government began allowing the Whirling Dervishes to perform once a year in Konya. The Mawlānā festival is held over two weeks in December; its culmination is on 17 December, the Urs of Mawlānā (anniversary of Rumi's death), called Šabe Arūs (شب عروس) (Persian meaning "nuptial night"), the night of Rumi's union with God.[68] In 1974, the Whirling Dervishes were permitted to travel to the West for the first time.

Rumi's religious denomination

According to Edward G. Browne, the three most prominent mystical Persian poets Rumi, Sana'i and Attar were all Sunni Muslims and their poetry abounds with praise for the first two caliphs Abu Bakr and Umar ibn al-Khattāb[69]. According to Annemarie Schimmel, the tendency among Shia authors to include leading mystical poets such as Rumi and Attar among their own ranks, became stronger after the introduction of Twelver Shia as the state religion in the Safavid Empire in 1501[70].

Eight hundredth anniversary celebrations

In Afghanistan, Rumi is known as "Mawlana" and in Iran as "Mowlavi".[citation needed]

An Afghan Postage Stamp honors Rumi.

At the proposal of the Permanent Delegations of Afghanistan, Iran, and Turkey, and as approved by its Executive Board and General Conference in conformity with its mission of “constructing in the minds of men the defences of peace”, UNESCO was associated with the celebration, in 2007, of the eight hundredth anniversary of Rumi's birth.[71] The commemoration at UNESCO itself took place on 6 September 2007;[72] UNESCO issued a medal in Rumi's name in the hope that it would prove an encouragement to those who are engaged in research on and dissemination of Rumi's ideas and ideals, which would, in turn, enhance the diffusion of the ideals of UNESCO.[73][74]

The Afghan Ministry of Culture and Youth established a national committee which organized an international seminar to celebrate the birth and life of the great ethical philosopher and world-renowned poet. This grand gathering of the intellectuals, diplomats, and followers of Maulana was held in Kabul and in Balkh.[75]

On 30 September 2007, Iranian school bells were rung throughout the country in honor of Mowlana.[76] Also in that year, Iran held a Rumi Week from 26 October to 2 November. An international ceremony and conference were held in Tehran; the event was opened by the Iranian president and the chairman of the Iranian parliament. Scholars from twenty-nine countries attended the events, and 450 articles were presented at the conference.[77] Iranian musician Shahram Nazeri was awarded the Légion d'honneur and Iran's House of Music Award in 2007 for his renowned works on Rumi masterpieces.[78] 2007 was declared as the "International Rumi Year" by UNESCO.[79].[80]

Also on 30 September 2007, Turkey celebrated Rumi’s eight-hundredth birthday with a giant Whirling Dervish ritual performance of the samāʿ, which was televised using forty-eight cameras and broadcast live in eight countries. Ertugrul Gunay, of the Ministry of Culture and Tourism of Turkey, stated, "Three hundred dervishes are scheduled to take part in this ritual, making it the largest performance of sama in history."[81]

See also

Seljuk Sultanate of Rûm
Organisations

RUMI FORUM , Washington DC

On Persian culture
Spiritual Islam
Other
Rumi experts
English translators of Rumi poetry

Bibliography

English translations

  • "MA-AARIF-E-MATHNAVI A commentary of the Mathnavi of Maulana Jalaluddin Rumi (R.A.)", by Hazrat Maulana Hakim Muhammad Akhtar Saheb (D.B.), 1997.[82]
  • The Sufi Path of Love: The Spiritual Teachings of Rumi, by William Chittick, Albany: SUNY Press, 1983.
  • The Mysteries of the Universe and Rumi's Discoveries on the Majestic Path of Love, by Majid M. Naini, Universal Vision & Research, 2002 ISBN 0-9714600-0-0 www.naini.net
  • The Mesnevi of Mevlānā Jelālu'd-dīn er-Rūmī. Book first, together with some account of the life and acts of the Author, of his ancestors, and of his descendants, illustrated by a selection of characteristic anecdotes, as collected by their historian, Mevlānā Shemsu'd-dīn Ahmed el-Eflākī el-'Arifī, translated and the poetry versified by James W. Redhouse, London: 1881. Contains the translation of the first book only.
  • Masnaví-i Ma'naví, the Spiritual Couplets of Mauláná Jalálu'd-din Muhammad Rúmí, translated and abridged by E. H. Whinfield, London: 1887; 1989. Abridged version from the complete poem. On-line editions at sacred-texts.com and on wikisource.
  • The Masnavī by Jalālu'd-din Rūmī. Book II, translated for the first time from the Persian into prose, with a Commentary, by C.E. Wilson, London: 1910.
  • The Mathnawí of Jalálu'ddín Rúmí, edited from the oldest manuscripts available, with critical notes, translation and commentary by Reynold A. Nicholson, in 8 volumes, London: Messrs Luzac & Co., 1925–1940. Contains the text in Persian. First complete English translation of the Mathnawí.
  • Rending The Veil: Literal and Poetic Translations of Rumi, translated by Shahram Shiva Hohm Press, 1995 ISBN 0-934252-46-7. Recipient of Benjamin Franklin Award.
  • Hush, Don't Say Anything to God: Passionate Poems of Rumi, translated by Shahram Shiva Jain Publishing, 1999 ISBN 0-87573-084-1.
  • The Essence Of Rumi's Masnevi (Including His Life and Works), from Prof. Dr. Erkan TÜRKMEN
  • The Essential Rumi, translated by Coleman Barks with John Moyne, A. J. Arberry, Reynold Nicholson, San Francisco: Harper Collins, 1996 ISBN 0-06-250959-4; Edison (NJ) and New York: Castle Books, 1997 ISBN 0-7858-0871-X. Selections.
  • The Illuminated Rumi, translated by Coleman Barks, Michael Green contributor, New York: Broadway Books, 1997 ISBN 0-7679-0002-2.
  • The Masnavi: Book One, translated by Jawid Mojaddedi, Oxford World's Classics Series, Oxford University Press, 2004 ISBN 0-19-280438-3. Translated for the first time from the Persian edition prepared by Mohammad Estelami with an introduction and explanatory notes. Awarded the 2004 Lois Roth Prize for excellence in translation of Persian literature by the American Institute of Iranian Studies.
  • Divani Shamsi Tabriz, translated by Nevit Oguz Ergin as Divan-i-kebir, published by Echo Publications, 2003 ISBN 188799128X.
  • The rubais of Rumi: insane with love, translations and commentary by Nevit Oguz Ergin and Will Johnson, Inner Traditions, Rochester, Vermont, 2007, ISBN 978-1-59477-183-5.
  • The Masnavi: Book Two, translated by Jawid Mojaddedi, Oxford World's Classics Series, Oxford University Press, 2007. ISBN 978-0-19-921259-0. The first ever verse translation of the unabridged text of Book Two, with an introduction and explanatory notes.
  • The quatrains of Rumi: Complete translation with Persian text, Islamic mystical commentary, manual of terms, and concordance, translated by Ibrahim W. Gamard and A. G. Rawan Farhadi, 2008.
  • The Soul of Rumi: A New Collection of ECS+A+IC Poems, translations by Coleman Barks,Harper One, 2002.

Further reading

On Rumi's life and work

  • Seyyed Hossein Nasr, Islamic Art and Spirituality, Albany: SUNY Press, 1987, chapters 7 and 8.
  • William Chittick, The Sufi Doctrine of Rumi: Illustrated Edition, Bloomington: World Wisdom, 2005.
  • Annemarie Schimmel, The Triumphal Sun: A Study of the Works of Jalaloddin Rumi, Albany: SUNY Press, 1993.
  • Majid M. Naini, The Mysteries of the Universe and Rumi's Discoveries on the Majestic Path of Love, Universal Vision & Research, 2002, ISBN 0-9714600-0-0
  • Franklin Lewis, Rumi Past and Present, East and West, Oneworld Publications, 2000. ISBN 1-85168-214-7
  • Leslie Wines, Rumi: A Spiritual Biography, New York: Crossroads, 2001 ISBN 0-8245-2352-0.
  • Rumi's Thoughts, edited by Seyed G Safavi, London: London Academy of Iranian Studies, 2003.
  • Şefik Can, Fundamentals of Rumi's Thought: A Mevlevi Sufi Perspective, Sommerset (NJ): The Light Inc., 2004 ISBN 1-932099-79-4.Cool

RUMI: His Teachings and Philosophy by R M Chopra Published by Iran Society, Kolkata

  • Rumi's Tasawwuf and Vedanta by R M Chopra in Indo Iranica Vol. 60

On Persian literature

  • E.G. Browne, History of Persia, four volumes, 1998 ISBN 0-7007-0406-X. 2,256 pages, and twenty-five years in the writing.
  • Jan Rypka, History of Iranian Literature, Reidel Publishing Company; 1968 OCLC 460598. ISBN 90-277-0143-1

Rumi's Tasawwuf and Vedanta by R M Chopra

References

  1. ^ a b c d Franklin Lewis, Rumi Past and Present, East and West, Oneworld Publications, 2000.
    How is it that a Persian boy born almost eight hundred years ago in Khorasan, the northeastern province of greater Iran, in a region that we identify today as Central Asia, but was considered in those days as part of the greater Persian cultural sphere, wound up in Central Anatolia on the receding edge of the Byzantine cultural sphere, in which is now Turkey, some 1500 miles to the west? (p. 9)
  2. ^ John Renard,"Historical dictionary of Sufism", Rowman & Littlefield, 2005. pg 155: "Perhaps the most famous Sufi who is known to many Muslims even today by his title alone is the seventh/13th century Persian mystic Rumi"
  3. ^ NOTE: Transliteration of the Arabic alphabet into English varies. One common transliteration is Mowlana Jalaluddin Rumi; the usual brief reference to him is simply Rumi or Balkhi. His given name, Jalāl ad-Dīn Muhammad, literally means "Majesty of Religion"
  4. ^ Annemarie Schimmel, “The Mystery of Numbers”, Oxford University Press,1993. Pg 49: “A beautiful symbol of the duality that appears through creation was invented by the great Persian mystical poet Jalal al-Din Rumi, who compares God's creative word kun (written in Arabic KN) with a twisted rope of 2 threads (which in English twine, in German Zwirn¸ both words derived from the root “two”)”.
  5. ^ Ritter, H.; Bausani, A. "ḎJ̲alāl al- Dīn Rūmī b. Bahāʾ al-Dīn Sulṭān al-ʿulamāʾ Walad b. Ḥusayn b. Aḥmad Ḵh̲aṭībī ." Encyclopaedia of Islam. Edited by: P. Bearman , Th. Bianquis , C.E. Bosworth , E. van Donzel and W.P. Heinrichs. Brill, 2007. Brill Online. Excerpt: "known by the sobriquet Mawlānā (Mevlânâ), Persian poet and founder of the Mawlawiyya order of dervishes"
  6. ^ Julia Scott Meisami, Forward to Franklin Lewis, Rumi Past and Present, East and West, Oneworld Publications, 2008 (revised edition)
  7. ^ John Renard,"Historical dictionary of Sufism", Rowman & Littlefield, 2005. pg 155: "Perhaps the most famous Sufi who is known to many Muslims even today by his title alone is the seventh/13th century Persian mystic Rumi"
  8. ^ Frederick Hadland Davis , "The Persian Mystics. Jalálu'd-Dín Rúmí", Adamant Media Corporation (November 30, 2005) , ISBN 1402157681.
  9. ^ In Persian poetry, the words "Rumi"(Greek), Turk, Hindu and Zangi (Black) take symbolic meaning and this has lead to some confusions for those that are not familiar with Persian poetry. See for example: Annemarie Schimmel. “Turk and Hindu; a literary symbol”. Acta Iranica, 1, III, 1974, pp.243-248 Annemarie Schimmel. “A Two-Colored Brocade: The Imagery of Persian Poetry”, the imagery of Persian poetry. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press. (pg 137-144). As an example, Rumi compares himself to a Hindu, Turk, Greek and etc. A) تو ماه ِ ترکي و من اگر ترک نيستم، دانم من اين قَدَر که به ترکي است، آب سُو “You are a Turkish moon, and I, although I am not a Turk, know this much, that in Turkish the word for water is su”(Schimmel, Triumphal Sun, 196) B) “Everyone in whose heart is the love for Tabriz Becomes – even though he be a Hindu – a rose-cheeked inhabitant of Taraz (i.e. a Turk)”(Schimmel, Triumphal Sun, 196) C) گه ترکم و گه هندو گه رومی و گه زنگی از نقش تو است ای جان اقرارم و انکارم “I am sometimes Turk and sometimes Hindu, sometimes Rumi and sometimes Negro” O soul, from your image in my approval and my denial” (Schimmel, Triumphal Sun, 196) D) دشمن نیم ار چند که دشمن رویم اصلم ترک است اگر چه هندی گویم "To you I might seem like a foe, but I am not. I am Turkish though Hindi is what I speak” For the general meaning of the usage of these terms see: Annemarie Schimmel. “Turk and Hindu; a literary symbol”. Acta Iranica, 1, III, 1974, pp.243-248 Annemarie Schimmel. “A Two-Colored Brocade: The Imagery of Persian Poetry”, the imagery of Persian poetry.
  10. ^ "Islamica Magazine: Mawlana Rumi and Islamic Spirituality". http://www.islamicamagazine.com/issue-13/mawlana-jalal-al-din-rumi-and-islamic-spirituality.html. Retrieved 2007-11-10. 
  11. ^ Schwartz, Stephen (May 14, 2007) "The Balkin Front." Weekly Standard.
  12. ^ a b Annemarie Schimmel, "I Am Wind, You Are Fire," p. 11. She refers to a 1989 article by the German scholar, Fritz Meier:
    Tajiks and Persian admirers still prefer to call Jalaluddin 'Balkhi' because his family lived in Balkh before migrating westward. However, their home was not in the actual city of Balkh, since the mid-eighth century a center of Muslim culture in (Greater) Khorasan (Iran and Central Asia). Rather, as the Swiss scholar Fritz Meier has shown, it was in the small town of Wakhsh north of the Oxus that Baha'uddin Walad, Jalaluddin's father, lived and worked as a jurist and preacher with mystical inclinations. Franklin Lewis, Rumi Past and Present, East and West: The Life, Teachings, and Poetry of Jalâl al-Din Rumi, 2000, pp. 47–49.
    Professor Lewis has devoted two pages of his book to the topic of Wakhsh, which he states has been identified with the medieval town of Lêwkand (or Lâvakand) or Sangtude, which is about 65 kilometers southeast of Dushanbe, the capital of present-day Tajikistan. He says it is on the east bank of the Vakhshâb river, a major tributary that joins the Amu Daryâ river (also called Jayhun, and named the Oxus by the Greeks). He further states: "Bahâ al-Din may have been born in Balkh, but at least between June 1204 and 1210 (Shavvâl 600 and 607), during which time Rumi was born, Bahâ al-Din resided in a house in Vaksh (Bah 2:143 [= Bahâ' uddîn Walad's] book, "Ma`ârif."). Vakhsh, rather than Balkh, was the permanent base of Bahâ al-Din and his family until Rumi was around five years old (mei 16-35) [= from a book in German by the scholar Fritz Meier--note inserted here]. At that time, in about the year 1212 (A.H. 608–609), the Valads moved to Samarqand (Fih 333; Mei 29–30, 36) [= reference to Rumi's "Discourses" and to Fritz Meier's book--note inserted here], leaving behind Baâ al-Din's mother, who must have been at least seventy-five years old."
  13. ^ Annemarie Schimmel, The Triumphal Sun: A Study of the Works of Jalaloddin Rumi, SUNY Press, 1993, p. 193: "Rumi's mother tongue was Persian, but he had learned during his stay in Konya, enough Turkish and Greek to use it, now and then, in his verse"
  14. ^ Franklin Lewis, Rumi Past and Present, East and West, Oneworld Publications, 2000. Chap1
  15. ^ Encyclopedia Iranica, "Baha Al-Din Mohammad Walad" [1], H. Algar.
  16. ^ C.E. Bosworth, "Turkish Expansion towards the west" in UNESCO HISTORY OF HUMANITY, Volume IV, titled "From the Seventh to the Sixteenth Century", UNESCO Publishing / Routledge, 2000. p. 391: "While the Arabic language retained its primacy in such spheres as law, theology and science, the culture of the Seljuk court and secular literature within the sultanate became largely Persianized; this is seen in the early adoption of Persian epic names by the Seljuq Rulers (Qubad, Kay Khusraw and so on) and in the use of Persian as a literary language (Turkish must have been essentially a vehicle for every days speech at this time). The process of Persianization accelerated in the thirteenth century with the presence in Konya of two of the most distinguished refugees fleeing before the Mongols, Baha al-din Walad and his son Mawlana Jalal al-din Rumi, whose Mathnawi, composed in Konya, constitutes one of the crowning glories of classical Persian literature."
  17. ^ Barks, Coleman, Rumi: The Book of Love: Poems of Ecstasy and Longing, HarperCollins, 2005, p. xxv, ISBN 0-06-075050-2
  18. ^ Note: Rumi's shrine is now known as the Mevlana Museum in Turkey
  19. ^ Lazard, Gilbert "The Rise of the New Persian Language", in Frye, R. N., The Cambridge History of Iran, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995, Vol. 4, pp. 595–632. (Lapidus, Ira, 2002, A Brief History of Islamic Societies, "Under Arab rule, Arabic became the principal language for administration and religion. The substitution of Arabic for Middle Persian was facilitated by the translation of Persian classics into Arabic. Arabic became the main vehicle of Persian high culture, and remained such will into the eleventh century. Parsi declined and was kept alive mainly by the Zoroastrian priesthood in western Iran. The Arab conquests however, helped make Persian rather than Arabic the most common spoken language in Khurasan and the lands beyond the Oxus River. Paradoxically, Arab and Islamic domination created a Persian cultural region in areas never before unified by Persian speech. A new Persian evolved out of this complex linguistic situation. In the ninth century the Tahirid governors of Khurasan began to have the old Persian language written in Arabic script rather than in pahlavi characters. At the same time, eastern lords in the small principalities began to patronize a local court poetry in an elevated form of Persian. The new poetry was inspired by Arabic verse forms, so that Iranian patrons who did not understand Arabic could comprehend and enjoy the presentation of an elevated and dignified poetry in the manner of Baghdad. This new poetry flourished in regions where the influence of Abbasid Arabic culture was attenuated and where it had no competition from the surviving tradition of Middle Persian literary classics cultivated for religious purposes as in Western Iran." "In the western regions, including Iraq, Syria and Egypt, and the lands of the far Islamic west including North Africa and Spain, Arabic became the predominant language of both high literary culture and spoken discourse." pp. 125–132, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.)
  20. ^ Charles Haviland (2007-09-30). "The roar of Rumi - 800 years on". BBC News. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/7016090.stm. Retrieved 2007-09-30. 
  21. ^ a b c Franklin Lewis, Rumi Past and Present, East and West, Oneworld Publications, 2008 (revised edition). pp 90-92:"Baha al-Din’s disciples also traced his family lineage to the first caliph, Abu Bakr (Sep 9; Af 7; JNO 457; Dow 213). This probably stems from willful confusion over his paternal great grandmother, who was the daughter of Abu Bakr of Sarakhs, a noted jurist (d. 1090). The most complete genealogy offered for family only stretches back six or seven generations and cannot possibly reach to Abu Bakr, the companion and first caliph of the Prophet, who died two years after the Prophet, in A.D. 634 (FB 5-6 n.3)."
  22. ^ a b c H. Algar, “BAHĀʾ-AL-DĪN MOḤAMMAD WALAD “ , Encyclopedia Iranica. There is no reference to such descent in the works of Bahāʾ-e Walad and Mawlānā Jalāl-al-Dīn or in the inscriptions on their sarcophagi. The attribution may have arisen from confusion between the caliph and another Abū Bakr, Šams-al-Aʾemma Abū Bakr Saraḵsī (d. 483/1090), the well-known Hanafite jurist, whose daughter, Ferdows Ḵātūn, was the mother of Aḥmad Ḵaṭīb, Bahāʾ-e Walad’s grandfather (see Forūzānfar, Resāla, p. 6). . Tradition also links Bahāʾ-e Walad’s lineage to the Ḵᵛārazmšāh dynasty. His mother is said to have been the daughter of ʿAlāʾ-al-Dīn Moḥammad Ḵārazmšāh (d. 596/1200), but this appears to be excluded for chronological reasons (Forūzānfar, Resāla, p. 7) [2]
  23. ^ a b c (Ritter, H.; Bausani, A. "ḎJalāl al- Dīn Rūmī b. Bahāʾ al-Dīn Sulṭān al-ʿulamāʾ Walad b. Ḥusayn b. Aḥmad Ḵhaṭībī ." Encyclopaedia of Islam. Edited by: P. Bearman , Th. Bianquis , C.E. Bosworth , E. van Donzel and W.P. Heinrichs. Brill, 2009. Brill Online. Excerpt: "known by the sobriquet Mawlānā (Mevlânâ), Persian poet and founder of the Mawlawiyya order of dervishes"):"The assertions that his family tree goes back to Abū Bakr, and that his mother was a daughter of the Ḵhwārizmshāh ʿAlāʾ al-Dīn Muḥammad (Aflākī, i, 8-9) do not hold on closer examination (B. Furūzānfarr, Mawlānā Ḏjalāl Dīn , Tehrān 1315, 7; ʿAlīnaḳī Sharīʿatmadārī, Naḳd-i matn-i mathnawī , in Yaghmā , xii (1338), 164; Aḥmad Aflākī, Ariflerin menkibeleri, trans. Tahsin Yazıcı, Ankara 1953, i, Önsöz, 44).")
  24. ^ Franklin Lewis, Rumi Past and Present, East and West, Oneworld Publications, 2008 (revised edition). pp 44:“Baha al-Din’s father, Hosayn, had been a religious scholar with a bent for asceticism, occupied like his own father before him, Ahmad, with the family profession of preacher (khatib). Of the four canonical schools of Sunni Islam, the family adhered to the relatively liberal Hanafi rite. Hosayn-e Khatibi enjoyed such renown in his youth – so says Aflaki with characteristic exaggeration – that Razi al-Din Nayshapuri and other famous scholars came to study with him (Af 9; for the legend about Baha al-Din, see below, “The Mythical Baha al-Din”). Another report indicates that Baha al-Din’s grandfather, Ahmad al-Khatibi, was born to Ferdows Khatun, a daughter of the reputed Hanafite jurist and author Shams al-A’emma Abu Bakr of Sarakhs, who died circa 1088 (Af 75; FB 6 n.4; Mei 74 n. 17). This is far from implausible and , if true, would tend to suggest that Ahmad al-Khatabi had studied under Shams al-A’emma. Prior to that the family could supposedly trace its roots back to Isfahan. We do not learn the name of Baha al-Din’s mother in the sources, only that he referred to her as “Mama” (Mami), and that she lived to the 1200s.”(pg 44)
  25. ^ Ahmed, Nazeer, Islam in Global History: From the Death of Prophet Muhammed to the First World War, p.58, Xlibris Corporation (2000), ISBN 0-7388-5962-1
  26. ^ The Essential Rumi. Translations by Coleman Barks, p. xx.
  27. ^ Helminski, Camille. "Introduction to Rumi: Daylight". http://www.sufism.org/books/dayex.html. Retrieved 2007-05-06. 
  28. ^ Nasr, Seyyed Hossein (1987). Islamic Art and Spirituality. SUNY Press. pp. 120. ISBN 0887061745. http://books.google.com/books?id=EBu6gWcT0DsC&pg=PA120&ots=r7WC3HRDUt&sig=dK7cXLr2Wj7pxYqSLnMZGS0XgII. 
  29. ^ Mevlana Jalal al-din Rumi
  30. ^ Naini, Majid. The Mysteries of the Universe and Rumi's Discoveries on the Majestic Path of Love. 
  31. ^ Abdul Rahman Jami notes:

    من چه گویم وصف آن عالی‌جناب — نیست پیغمبر ولی دارد کتاب

    مثنوی معنوی مولوی — هست قرآن در زبان پهلوی

    What can I say in praise of that great one?
    He is not a Prophet but has come with a book;
    The Spiritual Masnavi of Mowlavi
    Is the Qur'an in the language of Pahlavi (Persian).

    (Khawaja Abdul Hamid Irfani, "The Sayings of Rumi and Iqbal", Bazm-e-Rumi, 1976.)

  32. ^ J.T.P. de Bruijn, "Comparative Notes on Sanai and 'Attar" , The Heritage of Sufism, L. Lewisohn, ed., pp. 361: "It is common place to mention Hakim Sana'i (d. 525/1131) and Farid al-Din 'Attar (1221) together as early highlights in a tradition of Persian mystical poetry which reached its culmination in the work of Mawlana Jalal al-Din Rumi and those who belonged to the early Mawlawi circle. There is abundant evidence available to prove that the founders of the Mawlawwiya in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries regarded these two poets as their most important predecessors"
  33. ^ Franklin Lewis, Rumi Past and Present, East and West, Oneworld Publications, 2008 (revised edition). pg 306: "The manuscripts versions differ greatly in the size of the text and orthography. Nicholson’s text has 25,577 lines though the average medieval and early modern manuscripts contained around 27,000 lines, meaning the scribes added two thousand lines or about eight percent more to the poem composed by Rumi. Some manuscripts give as many as 32000!"
  34. ^ Franklin D. Lewis, Rumi: Past and Present, East and West: The Life, Teaching, and Poetry of Jalâl al-Din Rumi, rev. ed. (2008). pg 314: “The Foruzanfar’s edition of the Divan-e Shams compromises 3229 ghazals and qasidas making a total of almost 35000 lines, not including several hundred lines of stanzaic poems and nearly two thousand quatrains attributed to him”
  35. ^ Dar al-Masnavi Website, accessed December 2009: According to the Dar al-Masnavi website: “In Forûzânfar's edition of Rumi's Divan, there are 90 ghazals (Vol. 1, 29;Vol. 2, 1; Vol. 3, 6; Vol. 4, 8; Vol. 5, 19, Vol. 6, 0; Vol. 7, 27) and 19 quatrains entirely in Arabic. In addition, there are ghazals which are all Arabic except for the final line; many have one or two lines in Arabic within the body of the poem; some have as many as 9-13 consecutive lines in Arabic, with Persian verses preceding and following; some have alternating lines in Persian, then Arabic; some have the first half of the verse in Persian, the second half in Arabic.”
  36. ^ Mecdut MensurOghlu: “The Divan of Jalal al-Din Rumi contains 35 couplets in Turkish and Turkish-Persian which have recently been published me” (Celal al-Din Rumi’s turkische Verse: UJb. XXIV (1952), pp 106-115)
  37. ^ Franklin D. Lewis, Rumi: Past and Present, East and West: The Life, Teaching, and Poetry of Jalâl al-Din Rumi, rev. ed. (2008):"“a couple of dozen at most of the 35,000 lines of the Divan-I Shams are in Turkish, and almost all of these lines occur in poems that are predominantly in Persian”"
  38. ^ Dedes, D. 1993. Ποίηματα του Μαυλανά Ρουμή [Poems by Rumi]. Ta Istorika 10.18-19: 3-22. see also [3]
  39. ^ Franklin D. Lewis, Rumi: Past and Present, East and West: The Life, Teaching, and Poetry of Jalâl al-Din Rumi, rev. ed. (2008):"Three poems have bits of demotic Greek; these have been identified and translated into French, along with some Greek verses of Sultan Valad. Golpinarli (GM 416-417) indicates according to Vladimir Mir Mirughli, the Greek used in some of Rumi’s macaronic poems reflects the demotic Greek of the inhabitants of Anatolia. Golpinarli then argues that Rumi knew classical Persian and Arabic with precision, but typically composes poems in a more popular or colloquial Persian and Arabic.".
  40. ^ Franklin Lewis, Rumi: Past and Present, East and West – The Life, Teachings, and Poetry of Jalal al-Din Rumi, Oneworld Publications, 2000, Chapter 7.
  41. ^ Franklin Lewis, Rumi: Past and Present, East and West – The Life, Teachings, and Poetry of Jalal al-Din Rumi, Oneworld Publications, 2000.
  42. ^ M.M. Sharif, A History of Muslim Philosophy, Vol II, p. 827.
  43. ^ M.M. Sharif, A History of Muslim Philosophy, Vol II, p. 828.
  44. ^ The triumphal sun By Annemarie Schimmel. Pg 328
  45. ^ Various Scholars such as Khalifah Abdul Hakim (Jalal al-Din Rumi), Afzal Iqbal (The Life and Thought of Rumi), and others have expressed this opinion; for a direct secondary source, see citation below.
  46. ^ a b c Khalifah Abdul Hakim, "Jalal al-Din Rumi" in M.M. Sharif, ed., A History of Muslim Philosophy, Vol II.
  47. ^ Lewis 2000, p. 407-408
  48. ^ Lewis 2000, p. 408
  49. ^ Quatrain No. 1173, translated by Ibrahim Gamard and Ravan Farhadi in "The Quatrains of Rumi", an unpublished manuscript
  50. ^ Seyyed Hossein Nasr, "Rumi and the Sufi Tradition," in Chelkowski (ed.), The Scholar and the Saint, p. 183
  51. ^ Quoted in Ibrahim Gamard, Rumi and Islam: Selections from His Stories, Poems, and Discourses — Annotated and Explained, p. 171.
  52. ^ fUSION Anomaly. Whirling Dervish
  53. ^ Said, Farida. "REVIEWS: The Rumi craze". http://www.dawn.com/weekly/books/archive/050508/books18.htm. Retrieved 2007-05-19. 
  54. ^ From Dr. Naini's programs
  55. ^ From Rumi Network
  56. ^ The Diploma of Honorary Doctorate of the University of Tehran in the field of Persian Language and Literature will be granted to Professor Coleman Barks
  57. ^ Curiel,J onathan, San Francisco Chronicle Staff Writer, Islamic verses: The influence of Muslim literature in the United States has grown stronger since the Sept. 11 attacks (February 6, 2005), Available online (Retrieved Aug 2006)
  58. ^ Central Bank of the Republic of Turkey. Banknote Museum: 7. Emission Group - Five Thousand Turkish Lira - I. Series, II. Series & III. Series. – Retrieved on 20 April 2009.
  59. ^ a b Franklin Lewis, Rumi Past and Present, East and West, Oneworld Publications, 2000.
  60. ^ See for example 4th grade Iranian school book where the story of the Parrot and Merchant from the Mathnawi is thought to students
  61. ^ Sufism
  62. ^ ISCA - The Islamic Supreme Council of America
  63. ^ "Mevlana Celaleddin Rumi". http://www.mevlana.net/celebi.htm. Retrieved 2007-05-19. 
  64. ^ a b About the Mevlevi Order of America
  65. ^ Hanut, Eryk (2000). Rumi: The Card and Book Pack : Meditation, Inspiration, Self-discovery. The Rumi Card Book. Tuttle Publishing. xiii. ISBN 1885203950. http://www.google.ca/books?id=Q42DV0Fk96MC&pg=PR13&ots=gR49x6YysU&dq=rumi+come+come+whoever+you+are&sig=R9ohIyuY431C_8p-22yDshe9STk. 
  66. ^ Web Page Under Construction
  67. ^ Mango, Andrew, Atatürk: The Biography of the Founder of Modern Turkey, (2002), ISBN 1585670111.
  68. ^ Kloosterman Genealogy, Jalal al-Din Muhammad Rumi
  69. ^ Edward G. Browne, A Literary History of Persia from the Earliest Times Until Firdawsh, 543 pp., Adamant Media Corporation, 2002, ISBN 1402160453, 9781402160455 (see p.437)
  70. ^ Annemarie Schimmel, Deciphering the Signs of God, 302 pp., SUNY Press, 1994, ISBN 0791419827, 9780791419823 (see p.210)
  71. ^ Today'S Zaman
  72. ^ UNESCO: 800th Anniversary of the Birth of Mawlana Jalal-ud-Din Balkhi-Rumi. – Retrieved on 22 April 2009.
  73. ^ UNESCO. Executive Board; 175th; UNESCO Medal in honour of Mawlana Jalal-ud-Din Balkhi-Rumi; 2006
  74. ^ http://www.iran-daily.com/1385/2690/pdf/i12.pdf
  75. ^ Ministry of Foreign Affairs Afghanistan - Rumi's 800 Anniversary
  76. ^ همشهری آنلاین
  77. ^ Int'l congress on Molana opens in Tehran
  78. ^ Iran Daily - Arts & Culture - 10/03/06
  79. ^ CHN | News
  80. ^ Podcast Interview with Coleman Barks on Rumi
  81. ^ tehrantimes.com, 300 dervishes whirl for Rumi in Turkey
  82. ^ "MA-AARIF-E-MATHNAVI A commentary of the Mathnavi of Maulana Jalaluddin Rumi (R.A.)", by Hazrat Maulana Hakim Muhammad Akhtar Saheb". http://yunuspatel.co.za/books-Ma-aarif-E-Mathnavi.php. 

External links

On-line texts and translations of Rumi

On Rumi

Criticism


Quotes

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiquote

File:Ad-Din Rumi.jpeg
This poetry. I never know what I'm going to say.
I don't plan it.
When I'm outside the saying of it, I get very quiet and rarely speak at all.

Jalal al-Din Muhammad Rumi or مولانا جلال الدين محمد بلخى Jalal ad-Din Muhammad Balkhi (30 September 120717 December 1273) was a Persian philosopher, theologian, poet, teacher, and founder of the Mevlevi (or Mawlawi) order of Sufism; also known as Mevlana (Our Guide), Jalaluddin Rumi, or simply Rumi.

Contents

Sourced

Love is the ark appointed for the righteous,
Which annuls the danger and provides a way of escape.
Sell your cleverness and buy bewilderment. Cleverness is mere opinion, bewilderment is intuition.
I died as a mineral and became a plant, I died as plant and rose to animal, I died as animal and I was Man. Why should I fear? When was I less by dying?
Everyone has been made for some particular work, and the desire for that work has been put in every heart.
Come even though you have broken your vows a thousand times, Come, and come yet again. Ours is not a caravan of despair.
I want a heart which is split, part by part, because of the pain of separation from God, so that I might explain my longing and complaint to it.
You were born with wings. Why prefer to crawl through life?
  • Love is the ark appointed for the righteous,
    Which annuls the danger and provides a way of escape.
    Sell your cleverness and buy bewilderment.
    Cleverness is mere opinion, bewilderment intuition.
    • The Masnavi, Book IV, Story II, as translated in Masnavi I Ma'navi : The Spiritual Couplets of Maulána Jalálu-'d-Dín Muhammad Rúmí (1898) by Edward Henry Whinfield
    • Variant: Sell your cleverness and buy bewilderment.
      Cleverness is mere opinion, bewilderment is intuition.
  • Reason is like an officer when the King appears;
    The officer then loses his power and hides himself.
    Reason is the shadow cast by God; God is the sun.
    • Book IV, Story IV : "Bayazid and his impious sayings when beside himself" as translated in Masnavi I Ma'navi : The Spiritual Couplets of Maulána Jalálu-'d-Dín Muhammad Rúmí (1898) by Edward Henry Whinfield
  • Everyone sees the unseen in proportion to the clarity of his heart, and that depends upon how much he has polished it.
    Whoever has polished it more sees more — more unseen forms become manifest to him.
    • As quoted in The Sufi Path of Love : The Spiritual Teachings of Rumi (1983) by William C. Chittick, p. 162
  • I died as a mineral and became a plant,
    I died as plant and rose to animal,
    I died as animal and I was Man.
    Why should I fear? When was I less by dying?

    Yet once more I shall die as Man, to soar
    With angels blest; but even from angelhood
    I must pass on: all except God doth perish.
    When I have sacrificed my angel-soul,
    I shall become what no mind e'er conceived.
    Oh, let me not exist! for Non-existence
    Proclaims in organ tones, To Him we shall return.
    • "I Died as a Mineral", as translated by A. J. Arberry
    • Variant translation: Originally, you were clay. From being mineral, you became vegetable. From vegetable, you became animal, and from animal, man. During these periods man did not know where he was going, but he was being taken on a long journey nonetheless. And you have to go through a hundred different worlds yet.
      • As quoted in Multimind (1986) by Robert Ornstein
  • Everyone has been made for some particular work, and the desire for that work has been put in every heart.
    • As quoted in Marry Your Muse : Making a Lasting Commitment to Your Creativity (1997) by Jan Phillips, p. 75
  • I am so happy, I cannot be contained in the world;
    But like a spirit, I am hidden from the eyes of the world.
    If the foot of the trees were not tied to earth, they would be pursuing me;
    For I have blossomed so much, I am the envy of the gardens.
    • Divan 1740:1-3, as translated by Fatemeh Keshavarz in Reading Mystical Lyric : The Case of Jalal al-Din Rumi (1998)
  • He whose intellect overcomes his desire is higher than the angels; he whose desire overcomes his intellect is less than an animal.
    • As quoted in The Rumi Collection : An Anthology of Translations of Mevlana Jalaluddin Rumi (2000) by Kabir Helminski
  • The fault is in the one who blames. Spirit sees nothing to criticize.
    • As quoted in Rumi Wisdom: Daily Teachings from the Great Sufi Master (2000) by Timothy Freke
    • Variant: The fault is in the blamer — Spirit sees nothing to criticize.
  • Let the beauty of what you love be what you do.
    • As quoted in Path for Greatness : Spiritualty at Work (2000) by Linda J. Ferguson, p. 51
  • Come, come, whoever you are.
    Wanderer, worshipper, lover of leaving — it doesn't matter,
    Ours is not a caravan of despair.
    Come, even if you have broken your vow a hundred times,
    Come, come again, come.
    • As quoted in Sunbeams : A Book of Quotations (1990) by Sy Safransky, p. 67
    • Variant translations:
      Come, come, whoever you are.
      Wanderer, idolator, worshipper of fire, come even though you have broken your vows a thousand times,
      Come, and come yet again. Ours is not a caravan of despair.
      • As quoted in Muslim Narratives and the Discourse of English (2004) by Amin Malak, p. 151
    • Come, come, whoever you are.
      Wanderer, worshipper, lover of living, it doesn't matter
      Ours is not a caravan of despair.
      Come even if you have broken your vow a thousand times,
      Come, yet again, come, come.
      • As quoted in Rumi and His Sufi Path of Love (2007) by M Fatih Citlak and Huseyin Bingul, p. 81
    • Come, come again, whoever you are, come!
      Heathen, fire worshipper or idolatrous, come!
      Come even if you broke your penitence a hundred times,
      Ours is the portal of hope, come as you are.
      • As quoted in Turkey: A Primary Source Cultural Guide (2004) by Martha Kneib
  • I want a heart which is split, part by part, because of the pain of separation from God, so that I might explain my longing and complaint to it.
    • As quoted in "Mevlana Jalal al-Din Rumi" by Fethullah Gülen in The Fountain #24 (July-September 2004)
    • Variant translation: I want a heart which is split, chamber by chamber, by the pain of separation from God, so that I might explain my longings and desires to it.
  • You were born with wings. Why prefer to crawl through life?
    • As quoted in Wisdom for the Soul : Five Millennia of Prescriptions for Spiritual Healing (2006) by Larry Chang, p. 26

Rumi Daylight (1990)

God turns you from one feeling to another and teaches by means of opposites, so that you will have two wings to fly, not one.
The lion who breaks the enemy's ranks is a minor hero compared to the lion who overcomes himself.
Whoever gives reverence receives reverence.
If you wish to shine like day, burn up the night of self-existence. Dissolve in the Being who is everything.
Rumi Daylight: A Daybook of Spiritual Guidance (1990) translations by Camille Adams Helminsk and Kabir Helminski
  • God turns you from one feeling to another and teaches by means of opposites, so that you will have two wings to fly, not one.
  • This discipline and rough treatment are a furnace
    to extract the silver from the dross.
    This testing purifies the gold by boiling the scum away.
  • Fortunate is he who does not carry envy as a companion.
  • The idol of your self is the mother of all idols.
    To regard the self as easy to subdue is a mistake.
  • If you wish mercy, show mercy to the weak.
  • If you dig a pit for others to fall into,
    you will fall into it yourself.
  • Many of the faults you see in others, dear reader,
    are your own nature reflected in them.
  • The lion who breaks the enemy's ranks
    is a minor hero
    compared to the lion who overcomes himself.
  • Whoever gives reverence receives reverence.
  • Were there no men of vision,
    all who are blind would be dead.
  • If you are wholly perplexed and in straits,
    have patience, for patience is the key to joy.
  • If you are irritated by every rub,
    how will your mirror be polished?
  • Anyone in whom the troublemaking self has died,
    sun and cloud obey.
    If you wish to shine like day,
    burn up the night of self-existence.
    Dissolve in the Being who is everything.
  • There is no worse sickness for the soul,
    O you who are proud, than this pretense of perfection.

    The heart and eyes must bleed a lot
    before self-complacency falls away.
  • When the remedy you have offered only increases the disease, then leave him who will not be cured, and tell your story to someone who seeks the truth.

The Essential Rumi (1995)

The Essential Rumi (1995) translated by Coleman Barks with John Moyne, A. J. Arberry and Reynold Nicholson
What is the body? That shadow of a shadow of your love, that somehow contains the entire universe.
There is a community of the spirit Join it, and feel the delight of walking in the noisy street, and being the noise.
There is no reality but God, says the completely surrendered sheik, who is an ocean for all beings.
I can't stop pointing to the beauty. Every moment and place says, "Put this design in your carpet!"
Gamble everything for love, if you are a true human being.
Every object and being in the universe is a jar overflowing with wisdom and beauty, a drop of the Tigris that cannot be contained by any skin.
Christ is the population of the world, and every object as well.
The miracle of Jesus is himself, not what he said or did about the future.
Good and bad are mixed. If you don't have both,you don't belong with us.
Learn from Ali how to fight without your ego participating.
God's lion did nothing that didn't originate from his deep center.
This that we are now ... The human body and the universe grew from this, not this from the universe and the human body.
Do not grieve. Anything you lose comes round in another form.
Observe the wonders as they occur around you. Don't claim them. Feel the artistry moving through, and be silent.
Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing, there is a field. I will meet you there.
  • All day I think about it, then at night I say it. Where did I come from, and what am I supposed to be doing? I have no idea. My soul is from elsewhere, I'm sure of that, and I intend to end up there.
    • Ch. 1 : The Tavern, p. 2
  • Who looks out with my eyes? What is the soul?
    I cannot stop asking.

    If I could taste one sip of an answer,
    I could break out of this prison for drunks.
    I didn't come here of my own accord, and I can't leave that way.
    Whoever brought me here, will have to take me home.
    • Ch. 1 : The Tavern, p. 2
  • This poetry. I never know what I'm going to say.
    I don't plan it.
    When I'm outside the saying of it,
    I get very quiet and rarely speak at all.
    • Ch. 1 : The Tavern, p. 2
  • There is a community of the spirit
    Join it, and feel the delight
    of walking in the noisy street,
    and being the noise.
    • Ch. 1 : The Tavern, p. 2
  • What is the body? That shadow of a shadow
    of your love, that somehow contains
    the entire universe.
    • "Where are we?" in Ch. 2 Bewilderment
  • There is no reality but God,
    says the completely surrendered sheik, who is an ocean for all beings.
    • "The Grasses" in Ch. 4 Spring Giddiness, p. 44
  • Disputational knowing wants customers.
    It has no soul.
    • "The Sheikh who played with the Children" in Ch. 4 Spring Giddiness, p. 46
  • Let the lover be disgraceful, crazy, absent-minded.
    Someone sober will worry about events going badly.
    Let the lover be.
    • Ch. 4 Spring Giddiness, p. 46
  • I can't stop pointing
    to the beauty.

    Every moment and place says,
    "Put this design in your carpet!"

    • "Put This Design in Your Carpet" Ch. 11 Union
  • From Hallaj, I learned to hunt lions, but I became something hungrier than a lion.
    • "Hallaj" Ch. 11 Union
  • This dance is the joy of existence.

    I am filled with you.
    Skin, blood, bone, brain, and soul.
    There's no room for lack of trust, or trust.
    Nothing in this existence but that existence.

    • "We Three" Ch. 11 Union
  • The place that Solomon made to worship in,
    called the Far Mosque, is not built of earth
    and water and stone, but of intention and wisdom
    and mystical conversation and compassionate action.
    • "The Far Mosque" in Ch. 17 Solomon Poems, p. 191
  • This heart sanctuary does
    exist, but it can't be described. Why try!

    Solomon goes there every morning and gives guidance
    with words, with musical harmonies, and in actions,
    which are the deepest teaching. A prince is just
    a conceit until he does something with generosity.

    • "The Far Mosque" in Ch. 17 Solomon Poems, p. 191
  • Gamble everything for love,
    if you are a true human being.
    • "On Gambling" Ch. 18 The Three Fish, p. 193
  • Do not believe in an absurdity
    no matter who says it.
    • "The Three Fish" Ch. 18 The Three Fish, p. 196
  • Silence
    is an ocean. Speech is a river.

    When the ocean is searching for you, don't walk
    into the language-river. Listen to the ocean,
    and bring your talky business to an end

    Traditional words are just babbling
    in that presence, and babbling is a substitute
    for sight.

    • "The Three Fish" Ch. 18 The Three Fish, p. 196
  • Every object and being in the universe is
    a jar overflowing with wisdom and beauty,
    a drop of the Tigris that cannot be contained
    by any skin.
    Every jarful spills and makes the earth
    more shining, as though covered in satin.
    • "The Gift of Water" Ch. 18 The Three Fish, p. 200
  • You knock at the door of Reality. You shake your thought wings, loosen your shoulders, and open.
    • "The Gift of Water" Ch. 18 The Three Fish, p. 200
  • Christ is the population of the world,
    and every object as well.
    There is no room
    for hypocrisy. Why use bitter soup for healing
    when sweet water is everywhere?
    • Ch. 19 Jesus Poems, p. 204
  • Lovers think they are looking for each other,
    but there is only one search: wandering
    This world is wandering that, both inside one
    transparent sky. In here
    there is no dogma and no heresy.
    • Ch. 19 Jesus Poems, p. 205
  • The miracle of Jesus is himself, not what he said or did
    about the future.
    Forget the future.
    I'd worship someone who could do that.
    • Ch. 19 Jesus Poems, p. 205
  • The cure for pain is in the pain.
    Good and bad are mixed. If you don't have both,
    you don't belong with us.
    • Ch. 19 Jesus Poems
  • Learn from Ali how to fight
    without your ego participating.
    God's lion did nothing
    that didn't originate
    from his deep center.
    • "Ali in Battle" an account of Ali ibn Abi Talib's explanation as to why he declined to kill someone who had spit in his face as Ali was defeating him in battle, in Ch. 20 In Baghdad dreaming of Cairo
  • I am God's Lion, not the lion of passion....
    I have no longing
    except for the One.
    When a wind of personal reaction comes,
    I do not go along with it.

    There are many winds full of anger,
    and lust and greed. They move the rubbish around,
    but the solid mountain of our true nature stays where it's always been.
    • "Ali in Battle" in Ch. 20 In Baghdad dreaming of Cairo
  • This
    that we are now
    created the body, cell by cell,
    like bees building a honeycomb.

    The human body and the universe
    grew from this, not this
    from the universe and the human body.

    • "This We Have Now" in Ch. 25 Majesty. p. 262

Not yet sourced by chapter:

  • Do not grieve. Anything you lose comes round in another form.
  • Every tree and plant in the meadow seemed to be dancing, those which average eyes would see as fixed and still.
  • God's joy moved from unmarked box to unmarked box,
    from cell to cell.
  • Observe the wonders as they occur around you.
    Don't claim them. Feel the artistry
    moving through, and be silent.
  • Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,
    there is a field. I will meet you there.

    When the soul lies down in that grass,
    the world is too full to talk about
    language, ideas, even the phrase each other
    doesn't make any sense.
    • Variant translations:
      Between wrongness and rightness there is a field. I will meet you there.
      • As quoted in Counselling Psychology : Integration of Theory, Research and Supervised Practice (1998) by Petruska Clarkson
    • Out beyond the world of ideas of wrong doing and right doing, there is a field. I will meet you there.
      • As quoted in Lightning in a Bottle : Proven Lessons for Leading Change (2000) by David H. Baum
    • Out beyond ideas of right and wrong doing, there is a field. I will meet you there.
      • As quoted in Architects of Peace : Visions of Hope in Words and Images (2002) by Michael Collopy, p. 109
    • Out beyond ideas of rightdoing
      and wrongdoing
      There is a field.
      I will meet you there.
      • Strategic Learning in a Knowledge Economy : Individual, Collective and Organizational Learning Processes (2000) by Robert L. Cross and Sam B. Israelit

Jewels of Remembrance (1996)

Jewels of Remembrance : A Daybook of Spiritual Guidance : Containing 365 Selections from the Wisdom of Rumi (1996) Translated by Camille and Kabir Helminski
Are you fleeing from Love because of a single humiliation?
What do you know of Love except the name?
Love has a hundred forms of pride and disdain,
and is gained by a hundred means of persuasion.
Come, seek, for search is the foundation of fortune: every success depends upon focusing the heart.
That which God said to the rose, and caused it to laugh in full-blown beauty, He said to my heart, and made it a hundred times more beautiful.
  • Are you fleeing from Love because of a single humiliation?
    What do you know of Love except the name?

    Love has a hundred forms of pride and disdain,
    and is gained by a hundred means of persuasion.
    Since Love is loyal, it purchases one who is loyal:
    it has no interest in a disloyal companion.
    The human being resembles a tree; its root is a covenant with God:
    that root must be cherished with all one's might.
  • Come, seek, for search is the foundation of fortune:
    every success depends upon focusing the heart.
    • III, 2302-5
  • Even though you're not equipped,
    keep searching:
    equipment isn't necessary on the way to the Lord.
    • III, 1445-49
  • If an ant seeks the rank of Solomon,
    don't smile contemptuously upon its quest.
    Everything you possess of skill, and wealth and handicraft,
    wasn't it first merely a thought and a quest?
    • III, 1445-49
  • When you see anyone complaining
    of such and such a person's ill-nature and bad temper,
    know that the complainant is bad-tempered,
    forasmuch as he speaks ill of that bad-tempered person,
    because he alone is good-tempered who is quietly forbearing
    towards the bad-tempered and ill-natured.
    • IV, 771-4
  • That which God said to the rose,
    and caused it to laugh in full-blown beauty,
    He said to my heart,
    and made it a hundred times more beautiful.
    • III, 4129
  • Many have been led astray by the Qur'an:
    by clinging to that rope many have fallen into the well.
    There is no fault in the rope, O perverse man,
    for it was you who had no desire to reach the top.
    • III, 4210-11

Essential Sufism (1997)

Essential Sufism (1997) by James Fadiman and Robert Frager
  • If in thirst you drink water from a cup, you see God in it. Those who are not in love with God will see only their own faces in it.
  • The lower self does not want anyone to receive anything from anybody else, and if it is aware of something receiving a special boon, it seeks to destroy it.
  • Whatever posessions and objects of its desires the lower self may obtain, it hangs on to them, refusing to let them go out of greed for more, or out of fear of poverty and need.

Hush Don't Say Anything to God (1999)

Hush Don't Say Anything to God : Passionate Poems of Rumi (1999) as translated by Shahram Shiva
To Love is to reach God.
Love rests on no foundation. It is an endless ocean, with no beginning or end.
My head is bursting with the joy of the unknown.
This is a gathering of Lovers. In this gathering there is no high, no low, no smart, no ignorant ,no special assembly, no grand discourse, no proper schooling required...
Love said to me, there is nothing that is not me. Be silent.
Even if you lose yourself in wrath for a hundred thousand years, at the end you will discover, it is me, who is the culmination of your dreams.
Didn't I tell you?
They will accuse you of all the wrongdoings, they will call you ugly names, they will make you forget it is me, who is the source of your happiness.
  • To Love is to reach God.
    Never will a Lover's chest
    feel any sorrow.
    Never will a Lover's robe
    be touched by mortals.
    Never will a Lover's body
    be found buried in the earth.
    To Love is to reach God.
  • When in Love,
    body, mind, heart and soul don't even exist.
  • Love rests on no foundation.
    It is an endless ocean,
    with no beginning or end.
  • They will ask you
    what you have produced.
    Say to them,
    except for Love,
    what else can a Lover produce?
  • My head is bursting
    with the joy of the unknown.

    My heart is expanding a thousand fold.
    Every cell,
    taking wings,
    flies about the world.
    All seek separately
    the many faces of my Beloved.
  • There is a certain cloud,
    impregnated with a
    thousand lightnings.
    There is my body,
    in it an ocean formed of his glory,
    all the creation,
    all the universes,
    all the galaxies,
    are lost in it.
  • I always thought that
    I was me — but no,
    I was you
    and never knew it.
  • This is a gathering of Lovers.
    In this gathering
    there is no high, no low,
    no smart, no ignorant,
    no special assembly,
    no grand discourse,
    no proper schooling required.
    There is no master,
    no disciple.

    This gathering is more like a drunken party,
    full of tricksters, fools,
    mad men and mad women.
    This is a gathering of Lovers.
  • Love said to me,
    there is nothing that is not me.
    Be silent.
  • I don't know where I am.
    At times I plunge
    to the bottom of the sea,
    at times, rise up
    like the Sun.

    At times, the universe is pregnant by me,
    at times I give birth to it.

  • A hundred souls cried out, but
    we are yours, we are yours, we are yours.
    You are the light
    that spoke to Moses and said
    I am God, I am God, I am God.
    I said Shams-e Tabrizi, who are you?
    He said, I am you, I am you, I am you.
  • Even if you lose yourself in wrath
    for a hundred thousand years,
    at the end you will discover,
    it is me, who is the culmination of your dreams.
  • Didn't I tell you
    not to be satisfied with the veil of this world?

    I am the master illusionist,
    it is me, who is the welcoming banner at the gate of your contentment.
  • Didn't I tell you?
    I am an ocean, you are a fish;
    do not go to the dry land,
    it is me, who is your comforting body of water.
  • Didn't I tell you?
    They will accuse you of all the wrongdoings,
    they will call you ugly names,
    they will make you forget
    it is me, who is the source of your happiness.

Misattributed

  • Your task is not to seek for love, but merely to seek and find all the barriers within yourself that you have built against it.

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