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The run and shoot offense is an offensive system for American football conceived by former Middletown, Ohio High School football coach Glenn "Tiger" Ellison and refined and popularized by former Portland State Offensive Coordinator Darell "Mouse" Davis.

The Run & Shoot system uses a formation consisting of one running back and between two and four wide receivers. This system makes extensive use of receiver motion (having a receiver suddenly change position by running left or right, parallel to the line of scrimmage, just before the ball is snapped), both to create advantageous mismatches with the opposing defensive players and to help reveal what coverage the defense is using.

The basic idea behind the Run & Shoot is a flexible offense that adjusts "on the fly," as the receivers are free to adjust their routes as they are running them in response to the defensive coverage employed. The quarterback, as a result, also has to read and react to the defense's coverages in a more improvised manner than with other offensive systems.

In the purest form of the offense, the proper complement would consist of two wide receivers lined up on the outside edges of the formation and two "slotbacks" (running backs who are capable of catching the ball as well as running with it, e.g. Ricky Sanders and Richard Johnson of the USFL's Houston Gamblers) lined up just outside and behind the two offensive tackles.

Many of the National Football League teams that used the Run & Shoot in the early 1990s used true wide receivers in all four receiving positions. The types of running backs used varied from smaller backs who could catch passes to big, bruising running backs who could run with power. The frequent passing plays run out of this formation tend to spread out the defense's players. If repeated pass plays work, the defense is not as prepared for running plays; running the ball between the offensive tackles, or just off-tackle, is now possible and more likely to succeed.

Contents

Formation History

The original inventor of the Run & Shoot, Tiger Ellison, first started out with a formation that overloaded the left side of the offensive line for his scrambling quarterback. He called it "The Lonesome Polecat."

A year later, he came back with a more balanced formation that is similar to the diagram below.

  • WR................LT.LG.C.RG.RT...........WR
  • ...........SB...............QB..........SB
  • ...............................FB

Other variations of the above formation are similar to the way spread offenses like to set up their systems. Originally, the run and shoot was set up so that the quarterback would be positioned behind the center in a single back position, with the single running back lined up a few yards back. Later, during his tenure with the University of Hawaii, June Jones used quarterback Colt Brennan out of the shotgun. In this case the running back is offset to the right of the quarterback (as in the formation below).

  • X........LT.LG.C.RG.RT...........Z
  • ....W...........................Y
  • ..................QB..SB

Another formation that can often be seen with the run and shoot is the "trips" formation, where three wide receivers are situated to the right or left side of the line of scrimmage. Most of the time, this formation will created out of motion when the W or Y receiver moves to the opposite side of the formation.

  • X........LT.LG.C.RG.RT...........Z
  • .................................W...Y
  • ..................QB..SB

Running the Run & Shoot

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Player and Motion Names

Every team has its own specific naming conventions, but they all have the same basic principles. To make diagramming plays easier, the receivers used in the Run & Shoot are often given standardized names depending on their position. One way to do this is to label the receivers, from left to right, X, W (for "Wing"), Y, and Z, with the running back being called an S-Back (for Singleback or Superback).

The initial movements of the receivers can also be labelled by using code names for "left" and "right" such as "Lil and Rob," "Liz and Rip," or "Lion and Ram." As an example, a quarterback may call an "X Liz, W Liz, Y Go, Z Rip, SB flat", which tells the X and W receivers to run to their left, the Y receiver to run a go (or fly) route, the Z receiver to run to his right, and the S-Back to run to the flat (close to the line of scrimmage and toward the sideline).

Route concepts

There are several kinds of routes a receiver can run, depending on the specific type of Run & Shoot offense that is being used:

  • The Choice Route is probably the most recognizable element of the Run & Shoot that remains in use in the NFL. This kinds of route gives the receiver the option of which direction to run depending on the play of the opposing defensive back. If the DB is playing inside of the receiver, then the receiver can run an out route that's essentially an L shape to the right. If the DB is playing outside of the receiver, then the receiver can run an inside route that's essentially an L shape to the left. This is one technique that defenses use to try and dictate how receivers run their routes. A smart receiver will see where there's an open area and run there using a designed route.
  • The Switch Route allows for the receivers to "switch" as they run their routes. This often entails the X (or Z) receiver running to the inside while the W (or Y) runs to the outside so that the two receivers cross paths with the intention of confusing the defenders as to who they should cover.
  • The Slide Route often employs motion from the W receiver or the Y receiver to form a trips formation, where one side of the offense has 3 wide receivers on one side of the field.
  • The Go Route gives the receiver the option of running a go route (also known as a fade).
  • The Hook Route gives the receiver the option of running a hook route (also known as a button hook or curl route).
  • The Streak Route gives the receiver the option of running a streak route.

Another important concept to the Run and Shoot is the ability to improvise depending on defensive coverage. One aspect is generally what is called MOFO or MOFC. Those two acronyms stand for: Middle of Field Open or Middle of Field Closed. This relies on the play of the Free Safety and where he is lined up in the defense and often is mentioned in relation to the W or Y receiver.

One example is to have the W receiver be told: If it's MOFO, run an inside post route. Upon lining up at the line of scrimmage, the QB can see that the FS is moved to the left to help double team the X receiver. As a result, the W receiver will have a MOFO situation. Upon the snap, the W receiver would then run an inside post route to where the open area is, that was normally covered by the FS.

A second example is to have the Y receiver be told: If it's MOFC, run a hook route. So the QB sees that the FS is in his general spot and the middle of the field will be "closed" (or covered by the FS). Upon the snap, the Y receiver will run up and then hook or curl back towards the QB in the open area beneath the FS. The Y receiver may also curl to the left or right opposite of the FS depending on how his DB is playing him as well.

Key Concepts

The following concepts are key to understanding the Run & Shoot:

  • Throw to the open receiver. This is fairly obvious but if the receiver is open, the quarterback must recognize the coverage and find him in time to get him the ball.
  • If the QB reads 5 or less in the box, run the football. This means that traditional defensive formations using a 3-4 or 4-3 front will have moved 2 defenders outside of the "box" for coverage help. The "box" is the area about a yard outside of the tight end or offensive tackle on one side of the line to the other offensive tackle/tight end on the other side of the line and about 5 yards beyond the line of scrimmage.
  • Use motion and formations to spread the defense out and anticipate what the defense is going to do. If one uses motion and the defensive back follows the motioning receiver, they are probably playing man coverage or blitzing. If no defensive back follows the motion receiver, then they are probably playing zone defense.

Advantages of the Run & Shoot

As the Run & Shoot offense incorporates four receivers running routes on every play, it forces defenses to substitute extra defensive backs who excel in coverage in place of linebackers and defensive linemen who excel in tackling and stopping the run. This often results in formations with 5 and 6 defensive backs, also known as nickel and dime defenses. The defense is forced to make their team smaller (cornerbacks are often shorter and slimmer than linebackers) and move them away from the ball. This spreads the defense out, creating wider running lanes inside. This not only creates a physical size advantage for the offensive line if they get past the defensive line when run blocking, it also allows teams to play smaller runners with better agility who may not have seen the field otherwise because now they can physically match up against a defensive back.

This kind of offense can create many mismatches in the passing game, with slower defensive players trying to cover faster, more agile receivers. The inside receivers are often known for being very agile (Wes Welker was a W/Y receiver for Texas Tech's 4 WR sets) and can match up well against teams' 5th or 6th defensive back depth wise. A defensive team starting their 5th best DB is usually at a disadvantage when he's going up against the offense's 3rd best WR. If a team has 4 really talented receivers like the Houston Oilers and Atlanta Falcons did in the early 1990s, they can easily abuse the weakest cornerback on defense since most teams rarely have more than 3 really good cornerbacks on a roster at one time.

Perhaps the greatest advantage of the Run & Shoot over other competitive offensive schemes is the advantage it offers in personnel. The 4' 10" Mouse Davis has publicly stated that much of his admiration for the offense comes out of the fact that it turns the game from a game of size and strength (DL and LB on defense) into an intellectual game of speed and intelligence (Finding seams and holes against 5 and 6 DBs).

Disadvantages of the Run & Shoot

There are several potential disadvantages to using a Run & Shoot offense:

  • Since the formation does not use any tight ends or fullbacks, the quarterback is at increased risk for being hit or sacked since there are fewer players available to block a defense's blitz.
  • Teams often use a strong running game to keep possession of the football, especially at times when it would be advantageous for them to run out the clock. A criticism of the Run & Shoot offense is that teams would often continue to rely upon the pass rather than establish the run to finish off a game. One example of this is the 1992 AFC Wild Card game where the Houston Oilers, after earning a 35-3 lead against the Buffalo Bills, rather than winding the clock down with the running game and preserving the lead for the victory, called 22 pass plays against only four runs in the second half and eventually lost the game by a score of 41-38. Alternatives like the Spread offense have been preferred over the Run & Shoot in part because they place more emphasis on the running game.
  • Many commentators noted that the Run & Shoot is less effective in the "Red Zone," when the offense is less than 20 yards from the goal line. In this area the offense has less room to move around and cannot spread the defense out as in other areas of the field.

Teams Using the Run & Shoot

The following colleges and teams used the Run & Shoot as their main offensive strategy for at least a little while, with varying degrees of success.

  • 1974 Portland State: 5-6 (272 vs. 227)
  • 1975 Portland State: 8-3 (366 vs. 196)
  • 1976 Pacific Lutheran[1]:
  • 1976 Portland State: 8-3 (424 vs. 194)
  • 1977 Lewis and Clark:
  • 1977 Portland State: 7-4 (416 vs. 222)
  • 1978 Lewis and Clark[2]:
  • 1978 Portland State: 5-6 (337 vs. 337)
  • 1979 Minnesota[3]: 4-6-1 (264 vs. 271)
  • 1979 Lewis and Clark:
  • 1979 Portland State University: 6-5 (377 vs. 271)
  • 1979 Williamette[4]:
  • 1980 Florida: 8-4 (256 vs. 186) - Won Tangerine Bowl
  • 1980 Minnesota:
  • 1980 Portland State: 8-3 (541 vs. 209)
  • 1981 California: 2-7
  • 1981 Florida: 7-5 (284 vs. 166) - Lost Peach Bowl
  • 1982 Florida: 8-4 (296 vs. 228) - Lost Bluebonnet Bowl
  • 1982 Toronto Argonauts: 9-6-1 (426 vs. 426) - Lost Grey Cup
  • 1983 Florida: 9-2-1 (304 vs. 156) - Won Gator Bowl
  • 1983 Toronto Argonauts[5]: 12-4 (452 vs. 328) - Won Grey Cup
  • 1984 Georgia Southern: 8-3 (342 vs. 215)
  • 1984 Houston Gamblers: 13-5 (618 vs. 400) - Lost Division Game
  • 1984 Rice: 1-10 (213 vs. 382)
  • 1984 Widener[6]:
  • 1985 California-State Northridge[7]:
  • 1985 Denver Gold: 11-7 (433 vs. 385) - Lost Division Game
  • 1985 Georgia Southern: 13-2 (460 vs. 293) - Won Division I-AA Championship
  • 1985 Houston Gamblers: 10-8 (544 vs. 388) - Lost Division Game
  • 1985 New Mexico State: 1-10 (190 vs. 369)
  • 1985 Rice: 3-8 (233 vs. 404)
  • 1985 Widener[8]:
  • 1986 Cincinnati: 5-6 (267 vs. 345)
  • 1986 East Carolina: 3-8 (187 vs. 364)
  • 1986 Holy Cross: 10-1 (314 vs. 148)
  • 1986 New Haven: 8-2 (266 vs. 161)
  • 1986 New Mexico: 4-8 (317 vs. 338)
  • 1986 Oregon Tech:
  • 1986 Pittsburgh: 6-4-1 (253 vs. 209)
  • 1986 Rutgers: 6-4-1 (221 vs. 189)
  • 1986 South Carolina[9]: 3-6-2 (313 vs. 286)
  • 1986 Wyoming[10]: 6-6 (299 vs. 272)
  • 1987 Holy Cross: 11-0 (511 vs. 110) - Patriot League Champions
  • 1987 Houston: 4-6-1 (284 vs. 292)
  • 1987 New Haven: 8-2 (267 vs. 134)
  • 1987 Oregon Tech:
  • 1987 South Carolina: 8-4 (341 vs. 141) - Lost Gator Bowl
  • 1987 Wyoming: 10-3 (426 vs. 271) - Lost Holiday Bowl
  • 1988 Boston: 4-7 (230 vs. 285)
  • 1988 East Carolina[11]:
  • 1988 Holy Cross: 9-2 (334 vs. 182) - Patriot League Champions
  • 1988 Houston: 9-3 (474 vs. 219) - Lost Aloha Bowl
  • 1988 Kentucky: 5-6 (217 vs. 208)
  • 1988 Oregon Tech:
  • 1988 South Carolina: 8-4 (232 vs. 224) - Lost Liberty Bowl
  • 1988 Southwest Louisiana:
  • 1988 Stanford: 3-6-2 (238 vs. 216)
  • 1988 Wyoming: 11-2 (511 vs. 280) - Lost Holiday Bowl
  • 1989 Arizona (Flexbone): 8-4 (248 vs. 178) - Won Copper Bowl
  • 1989 Boston: 4-7 (292 vs. 271)
  • 1989 Detroit Lions: 7-9 (312 vs. 364)
  • 1989 Hawaii (Spread): 9-3-1 (470 vs. 281) - Lost Aloha Bowl
  • 1989 Holy Cross: 10-1 (396 vs. 161) - Patriot League Champions
  • 1989 Houston: 9-2 (589 vs. 150)
  • 1989 Merchant Marine: 5-4 (202 vs. 200)
  • 1989 Pacific:
  • 1989 Purdue: 3-8 (172 vs. 281)
  • 1989 Southern Methodist[12]: 2-9 (187 vs. 499)
  • 1989 Southwest Louisiana:
  • 1989 Tennessee-Martin:
  • 1989 Texas Christian: 4-7 (183 vs. 301)
  • 1989 Wyoming: 5-6 (281 vs. 299)
  • 1990 Atlanta Falcons: 5-11 (348 vs. 365)
  • 1990 Brown: 2-8 (160 vs. 299)
  • 1990 Detroit Lions: 6-10 (373 vs. 413)
  • 1990 Hofstra: 12-1 (555 vs. 122) - Lost Division III Semifinal Game
  • 1990 Holy Cross: 9-1-1 (339 vs. 106) - Patriot League Champions
  • 1990 Houston: 10-1 (511 vs. 303) - Won Coca-Cola Classic
  • 1990 Houston Oilers: 9-7 (405 vs. 307) - Lost Wildcard Game
  • 1990 Howard[13]: 6-5 (261 vs. 205)
  • 1990 Indianapolis Colts: 7-9 (281 vs. 353)
  • 1990 Pacific:
  • 1990 Purdue[14]: 2-9 (177 vs. 337)
  • 1990 Seattle Seahawks[15]: 0-3[16] (44 vs. 68)
  • 1990 Southern Methodist: 1-10 (197 vs. 426)
  • 1990 Texas Christian: 5-6 (292 vs. 353)
  • 1990 Wesleyan:
  • 1990 Wyoming: 9-4 (327 vs. 297) - Lost Copper Bowl
  • 1991 Atlanta Falcons: 10-6 (361 vs. 338) - Lost Division Game
  • 1991 Brown: 1-9 (227 vs. 372)
  • 1991 Detroit Lions: 12-4 (339 vs. 295) - Lost NFC Championship Game
  • 1991 Hofstra: 8-2 (380 vs. 224)
  • 1991 Holy Cross: 11-0 (372 vs. 174) - Patriot League Champions
  • 1991 Houston: 4-7 (353 vs. 344)
  • 1991 Houston Oilers: 11-5 (386 vs. 251) - Lost Division Game
  • 1991 Indianapolis Colts (Games 1-5): 0-5 (40 vs. 113)
  • 1991 New Mexico: 3-9 (240 vs. 473)
  • 1991 New York/New Jersey Knights: 5-5 - Won North American East Division
  • 1991 Pacific:
  • 1991 San Diego Chargers[17]: 4-12 (274 vs. 342)
  • 1991 Southern Methodist: 1-10 (141 vs. 359)
  • 1991 Texas Christian: 7-4 (279 vs. 264)
  • 1992 Atlanta Falcons: 6-10 (327 vs. 414)
  • 1992 Georgia Tech: 5-6 (237 vs. 286)
  • 1992 Hofstra: 4-6 (177 vs. 261)
  • 1992 Houston: 4-7 (378 vs. 386)
  • 1992 Houston Oilers: 10-6 (352 vs. 258) - Lost Wildcard Game
  • 1992 Maryland: 3-8 (292 vs. 365)
  • 1992 Minnesota: 2-9 (200 vs. 313)
  • 1992 New Haven: 12-1 (613 vs. 289) - Lost Division II Semifinal Game
  • 1992 New York/New Jersey Knights: 6-4
  • 1992 Pacific:
  • 1992 Southern Methodist: 5-6 (212 vs. 276)
  • 1993 Atlanta Falcons: 6-10 (316 vs. 385)
  • 1993 Boston: 12-1 (436 vs. 211) - Lost Division I-AA Quarterfinal Game
  • 1993 California-Davis: 10-2 (460 vs. 297) - Lost Division II Quarterfinal Game
  • 1993 Georgia Tech: 5-6 (260 vs. 286)
  • 1993 Hofstra: 6-3-1 (271 vs. 189)
  • 1993 Houston Oilers: 12-4 (368 vs. 238) - Lost Division Game
  • 1993 Long Island-C.W. Post:
  • 1993 Maryland: 2-9 (243 vs. 479)
  • 1993 Minnesota: 4-7 (253 vs. 354)
  • 1993 New Haven:
  • 1993 Pacific:
  • 1993 Southern Methodist: 2-7-2 (206 vs. 277)
  • 1994 Atlanta Falcons: 7-9 (317 vs. 385)
  • 1994 Boston: 9-3 (396 vs. 252) - Lost Division I-AA 1st Round Game
  • 1994 George Mason:
  • 1994 Hofstra: 8-1-1 (371 vs. 162)
  • 1994 Houston Oilers: 1-9 w/Jack Pardee (147 vs. 218)
  • 1994 Maryland: 4-7 (270 vs. 326)
  • 1994 Pacific:
  • 1994 Southern Methodist: 1-9-1 (197 vs. 343)
  • 1995 Atlanta Falcons: 9-7 (362 vs. 349) - Lost Wildcard Game
  • 1995 Emporia State[18]:
  • 1995 Hofstra: 10-2 (393 vs. 150) - Lost Division I-AA 1st Round Game
  • 1995 Jacksonville Jaguars[19]: 4-12 (275 vs. 404)
  • 1995 Maryland: 6-5 (210 vs. 251)
  • 1995 Pacific:
  • 1995 Southern Methodist: 1-10 (132 vs. 352)
  • 1995 Wake Forest: 1-10 (190 vs. 360)
  • 1996 Atlanta Falcons: 3-13 (309 vs. 461)
  • 1996 California-Santa Barbara:
  • 1996 California University of Pennsylvania[20]:
  • 1996 Georgetown: 7-3 (303 vs. 167)
  • 1996 Hofstra: 5-6 (203 vs. 138)
  • 1996 Jacksonville Jaguars: 9-7 (325 vs. 335) - Lost AFC Championship Game
  • 1996 Marshall: 15-0 (658 vs. 210) - Won Division I-AA Championship
  • 1996 Southern Methodist: 5-6 (246 vs. 267)
  • 1996 Washington State (Spread): 5-6 (314 vs. 317)
  • 1997 Butler:
  • 1997 California-State Northridge:
  • 1997 Georgetown: 8-3 (276 vs. 178) - Lost Eastern Athletic Conference College Bowl
  • 1997 Hofstra: 9-3 (397 vs. 295) - Lost Division I-AA 1st Round Game
  • 1997 Marshall: 10-3 (484 vs. 259) - Lost Motor City Bowl
  • 1997 San Diego Chargers: 4-12 (266 vs. 425)
  • 1997 Washington State (Spread): 10-2 (483 vs. 296) - Lost Rose Bowl
  • 1998 Georgetown: 9-2 (325 vs. 163) - Metro Atlantic Athletic Conference Co-Champions
  • 1998 Hofstra: 8-3 (426 vs. 297)
  • 1998 Marshall: 12-1 (405 vs. 236) - Won Motor City Bowl
  • 1998 San Diego Chargers: 5-11 (241 vs. 342)
  • 1999 Georgetown: 9-2 (364 vs. 166) - Metro Atlantic Athletic Conference Champions
  • 1999 Hawaii: 9-4 (371 vs. 349) - Won Oahu Classic
  • 1999 Hofstra: 11-2 (419 vs. 224) - Lost Division I-AA Quarterfinal Game
  • 1999 Jackson State[21]: 9-3 (448 vs. 220) - Lost SWAC Championship
  • 1999 Marshall: 13-0 (463 vs. 137) - Won Motor City Bowl
  • 1999 Tulane[22]: 3-8 (279 vs. 399)
  • 1999 Georgetown College: NAIA National Runner-Up
  • 2000 Hawaii: 3-9 (294 vs. 399)
  • 2000 Hofstra: 9-4 (445 vs. 384) - Lost Division I-AA Quarterfinal Game
  • 2000 Marshall: 8-5 (367 vs. 297) - Won Motor City Bowl
  • 2000 Tulane: 6-5 (329 vs. 346)
  • 2000 Virginia Military Institute: 2-9 (227 vs. 434)
  • 2000 Georgetown College: NAIA National Champion
  • 2001 Georgetown College: NAIA National Champion
  • 2001 Hawaii: 9-3 (483 vs. 318)
  • 2001 Hofstra: 9-3 (441 vs. 294) - Lost Division I-AA 1st Round Game
  • 2001 Marshall: 11-2 (512 vs. 369) - Won GMAC Bowl
  • 2001 Tulane: 3-9 (344 vs. 495)
  • 2001 Virginia Military Institute: 1-10 (164 vs. 446)
  • 2002 Hawaii: 10-4 (502 vs. 389) - Lost Hawaii Bowl
  • 2002 Marshall: 11-2 (457 vs. 315) - Won GMAC Bowl
  • 2002 Virginia Military Institute: 6-6 (314 vs. 415)
  • 2003 Bickley Bison: 10-1
  • 2003 Butler[23]:
  • 2003 Hawaii: 9-5 (486 vs. 427) - Won Hawaii Bowl
  • 2003 Marshall: 8-4 (350 vs. 278)
  • 2003 Saint Mary's[24]: 1-11 (162 vs. 471)
  • 2003 Southwest Texas State (Triple Shoot)[25]: 4-8 (315 vs. 417)
  • 2003 Virginia Military Institute: 6-6 (359 vs. 257)
  • 2004 Hawaii: 8-5 (467 vs. 499) - Won Hawaii Bowl
  • 2004 Marshall: 6-6 (291 vs. 266) - Lost Fort Worth Bowl
  • 2005 Hawaii: 5-7 (368 vs. 428)
  • 2005 New Mexico State: 0-12 (198 vs. 465)
  • 2006 Hawaii: 11-3 (656 vs. 337) - Won Hawaii Bowl
  • 2006 New Mexico State: 4-8 (374 vs. 369)
  • 2007 Hawaii: 12-1 (564 vs. 331) - Lost Sugar Bowl
  • 2007 New Mexico State: 4-9 (312 vs. 471)
  • 2007 Portland State[26]: 3-8 (338 vs. 418)
  • 2008 Hawaii: 7-7 (345 vs. 404) - Lost Hawaii Bowl
  • 2008 New Mexico State: 3-9 (266 vs. 409)
  • 2008 Portland State: 4-7 (284 vs. 357)
  • 2008 Southern Methodist: 1-11 (256 vs. 458)
  • 2009 Hawaii:
  • 2009 Portland State:
  • 2009 Southern Methodist:

NFL Passing Game Success

NFL Running Game Success

NFL Receiving Game Success

Canadian Football League (CFL) Passing Game Success

  • 1982 Toronto Argonauts: Condredge Holloway - 299/507 (60%) for 4,661 yards and 31 TD vs. 12 INT

College Football Passing Game Success

  • 1986 New Mexico: Ned James - 125/215 (58.1%) for 1,777 yards and 14 TD
  • 1986 South Carolina: Todd Ellis - 205/340 (60.3%) for 3,020 yards and 20 TD - Drafted by Denver Broncos in 9th Round
  • 1987 Holy Cross: Jeff Wiley - 265/400 (66.3%) for 3,677 yards and 34 TD vs. 17 INT
  • 1989 Holy Cross: Tom Ciaccio - 230/363 (63.4%) for 2,982 yards and 23 TD vs. 14 INT
  • 1990 Holy Cross: Tom Ciaccio - 196/324 (60.5%) for 2,611 yards and 24 TD vs. 14 INT
  • 1991 Holy Cross: Tom Ciaccio - 232/385 (60.3%) for 3,010 yards and 25 TD vs. 18 INT
  • 1988 Houston: Andre Ware - 212/356 (59.6%) for 2,507 yards and 25 TD vs. 8 INT - Drafted by Detroit Lions in 1st Round
  • 1989 Houston: Andre Ware - 365/578 (63.1%) for 4,699 yards and 46 TD vs. 15 INT - Drafted by Detroit Lions in 1st Round
  • 1990 Houston: David Klingler - 374/643 (58.2%) for 5,140 yards and 54 TD vs. 20 INT - Drafted by Cincinnati Bengals in 1st Round
  • 1991 Houston: David Klingler - 278/498 (55.8%) for 3,388 yards and 29 TD vs. 17 INT - Drafted by Cincinnati Bengals in 1st Round
  • 1992 Houston: Jimmy Klingler - 303/504 (60.1%) for 3,818 yards and 32 TD vs. 18 INT
  • 1990 SMU: Mike Romo - 250/412 (60.7%) for 2,434 yards and 19 TD vs. 13 INT
  • 1992 Maryland: John Kaleo - 286/482 (59.3%) for 3,392 yards and 17 TD
  • 1993 Maryland: Scott Milanovich - 279/431 (64.7%) for 3,499 yards and 26 TD
  • 1994 Maryland: Scott Milanovich - 229/333 (68.8%) for 2,394 yards and 20 TD
  • 1997 Georgetown: Bill Ward - 161/309 (52.1%) for 2,081 yards and 19 TD vs. 11 INT
  • 1998 Georgetown: J.J. Mont - 191/367 (52.0%) for 2,712 yards and 26 TD vs. 19 INT
  • 1999 Georgetown: J.J. Mont - 154/298 (51.7%) for 2,424 yards and 25 TD vs. 12 INT
  • 1995 Hofstra: Kharon Brown - 152/320 (47.5%) for 1,860 yards and 17 TD vs. 2 INT
  • 1997 Hofstra: Giovanni Carmazzi - 288/408 (70.6%) for 3,554 yards and 27 TD vs. 8 INT - Drafted by San Francisco 49ers in 3rd Round
  • 1998 Hofstra: Giovanni Carmazzi - 227/367 (61.9%) for 2,751 yards and 18 TD vs. 12 INT - Drafted by San Francisco 49ers in 3rd Round
  • 1999 Hofstra: Giovanni Carmazzi - 216/346 (62.4%) for 2,651 yards and 21 TD vs. 10 INT - Drafted by San Francisco 49ers in 3rd Round
  • 2000 Hofstra: Rocky Butler - 162/286 (56.6%) for 2,341 yards and 22 TD vs. 9 INT
  • 2002 Brett Gilliland: University of West Alabama 62.1% 280/451 3,213 yards
  • 2001 Hofstra: Rocky Butler - 206/335 (61.5%) for 3,311 yards and 30 TD vs. 4 INT
  • 2004 Hawaii: Timmy Chang - 358/602 (59.5%) for 4,258 yards and 38 TD vs. 13 INT
  • 2005 Hawaii: Colt Brennan - 350/515 (68.0%) for 4,301 yards and 35 TD vs. 13 INT - Drafted by Washington Redskins in 6th Round
  • 2006 Hawaii: Colt Brennan - 406/559 (72.6%) for 5,549 yards and 58 TD vs. 12 INT - Drafted by Washington Redskins in 6th Round
  • 2007 Hawaii: Colt Brennan - 359/510 (70.4%) for 4,343 yards and 38 TD vs. 17 INT - Drafted by Washington Redskins in 6th Round
  • 2007 Portland State: Drew Hubel - 123/217 (56.7%) for 1,470 yards and 15 TD vs. 11 INT

College football Running Game Success

  • 1979 Minnesota: Garry White - 135 carries for 861 yards (6.38) - Drafted by San Francisco 49ers in 8th Round
  • 1982 Florida: James Jones - 150 carries for 752 yards (5.01) - Drafted by Detroit Lions in 1st Round
  • 1983 Florida: Neal Anderson - 162 carries for 835 yards (5.15) - Drafted by Chicago Bears in 1st Round
  • 1985 Rice: Antonio Brinkley - 168 carries for 860 yards (5.12)
  • 1986 Cincinnati: Reggie Taylor - 256 carries for 1325 yards (5.18) - Drafted by Tampa Bay Buccaneers in 11th Round
  • 1986 New Mexico: Kevin Burgess - 181 carries for 1023 yards (5.65)
  • 1987 Houston: Kimble Anders - 158 carries for 791 yards (5.01) - Signed with Kansas City Chiefs as UDFA
  • 1988 Houston: Chuck Weatherspoon - 118 carries for 1004 yards (8.51) - Drafted by Philadelphia Eagles in 9th Round
  • 1989 Houston: Chuck Weatherspoon - 119 carries for 1146 yards (9.63) - Drafted by Philadelphia Eagles in 9th Round
  • 1990 Houston: Chuck Weatherspoon - 158 carries for 1097 yards (6.94) - Drafted by Philadelphia Eagles in 9th Round
  • 1992 Houston: Lamar Smith - 111 carries for 845 yards (7.61) - Drafted by Seattle Seahawks in 3rd Round
  • 1989 Arizona: David Eldridge - 143 carries for 788 yards (5.51)
  • 1989 Hawaii: Jamal Farmer - 199 carries for 986 yards (4.95)
  • 1993 Georgia Tech: Dorsey Levens - 114 carries for 823 yards (7.22) - Drafted by Green Bay Packers in 5th Round
  • 1996 Washington State: Michael Black - 182 carries for 948 yards (5.21)
  • 1997 Kentucky: Anthony White - 129 carries for 723 yards (5.60) and 4 TD
  • 2004 Hawaii: Michael Brewster - 113 carries for 722 yards (6.39) and 6 TD
  • 2006 Hawaii: Nate Ilaoa - 131 carries for 990 yards (7.56) and 13 TD - Drafted by Philadelphia Eagles in 7th Round

College football Receiving Game Success

  • 1980 Florida: Cris Collinsworth - 40 catches for 599 yards - Drafted by Cincinnati Bengals in 2nd Round
  • 1981 California: Mariet Ford - 45 catches for 600 yards
  • 1983 Toronto Argonauts: Terry Greer - 116 catches for 2,003 yards
  • 1985 Rice: Darrick Wells - 36 catches for 612 yards
  • 1986 New Mexico: Terance Mathis - 53 catches for 955 yards - Drafted by New York Jets in 6th Round
  • 1986 South Carolina: Sterling Sharpe - 74 catches for 1,106 yards - Drafted by Green Bay Packers in 1st Round
  • 1987 South Carolina: Sterling Sharpe - 62 catches for 915 yards - Drafted by Green Bay Packers in 1st Round
  • 1988 Houston: Jason Phillips - 108 catches for 1,444 yards - Drafted by Detroit Lions in 10th Round
  • 1989 Houston: Manny Hazard - 142 catches for 1,689 yards
  • 1989 Hawaii: Chris Roscoe - 47 catches for 1,043 yards
  • 1990 TCU: Kelly Blackwell - 64 catches for 832 yards
  • 1991 New Mexico: Carl Winston - 76 catches for 1,177 yards
  • 1992 Georgia Tech: Andre Hastings - 52 catches for 860 yards
  • 1992 SMU: Korey Beard - 64 catches for 813 yards
  • 1992 Maryland: Marcus Badgett - 75 catches for 1,240 yards
  • 1993 Maryland: Jermaine Lewis - 52 catches for 957 yards - Drafted by Baltimore Ravens in 5th Round
  • 1995 Maryland: Jermaine Lewis - 66 catches for 937 yards - Drafted by Baltimore Ravens in 5th Round
  • 1993 Minnesota: Omar Douglas - 60 catches for 880 yards
  • 1997 Washington State: Kevin McKenzie - 55 catches for 911 yards
  • 1998 Kentucky: Craig Yeast - 85 catches for 1,311 yards - Drafted by Cincinnati Bengals in 4th Round
  • 2000 Hawaii: Ashley Lelie - 74 catches for 1,110 yards - Drafted by Denver Broncos in 1st Round
  • 2001 Hawaii: Ashley Lelie - 84 catches for 1,713 yards - Drafted by Denver Broncos in 1st Round
  • 2006 Hawaii: Davone Bess - 96 catches for 1,220 yards
  • 2006 Hawaii: Jason Rivers - 72 catches for 1,178 yards
  • 2007 Hawaii: Ryan Grice-Mullen - 106 catches for 1,372 yards
  • 2007 Hawaii: Davone Bess - 108 catches for 1,266 yards

Teams That Considered Using the Run & Shoot But Decided Against It

  • Bruce Coslet has a working knowledge of the Oilers' offense because he studied the run-and-shoot offense last year, thinking that he might want to install it for the Jets. He decided against it, because it didn't fit his personnel. (1991)[27]
  • The Redskins' head coach, Joe Gibbs, said that his offense has adopted some run-and-shoot principles, but that his organization has never considered using that offense because it prefers power football. (1992)[28]
  • Kevin Gilbride was a HC finalist along with Joe Greene, Dave Wannstedt, and Bill Cowher for the Pittsburgh Steelers. (1992)[29]
  • "I wanted the option of the two-back or the power game with fullback and tight ends. I didn't feel the run-and-shoot was flexible enough with what we wanted to do with our offense." - Jimmy Johnson (1993)[30]
  • "We do have some of the run-and-shoot principles, but we're not rolling out as much,' he said, adding that the Jets would not often go to four wide receivers in a run and shoot." - Boomer Esiason (1993)[31]

External links

Run & Shoot News and Highlights

Run & Shoot Playbooks

Quotes about the Run & Shoot

  • "He doesn't need a whole lot of hole, and that stretched-out offense can create holes." - Bill Belichick (1989)[32]
  • "When the league switches totally to the run-and-shoot, I'm gone. Retiring. I can't tell you what a nightmare it is." - Howie Long (1991)[33]
  • "It was "like walking through a minefield. We could play them again next week and give up 500 yards. If everything's clicking in that thing, it's hard to stop." - Richie Petitbon (1991)[34]
  • "The way they throw, I think they can hold up. I know from a defensive standpoint, the run-and-shoot gives me nightmares." - Rusty Tillman (1994)
  • "The run-and-shoot got the Oilers where they are. I think defenses all over the league are going to be very relieved." - Rod Woodson (1994)
  • "I've seen them beat everyone on their schedule. Look at the numbers they've posted. They've won more games than a lot of conventional offenses. I just don't see how you can change something that works." - Derrick Thomas (1994)
  • "Their offense always puts a lot of pressure on any defense." - Rich Kotite (1994)[35]
  • "The biggest misconception about the run- and-shoot is that it's a totally passing offense. It's really not. It's a one-back, spread offense, but it's not a passing offense completely." - Bill Parcells (1995)[36]
  • "As a matter of fact, we use some the exact routes from the run-and-shoot scheme in our offense. And just about everybody does. That's just the truth." - Chan Gailey (2001)[37]
  • "People couldn't stop the run-and-shoot and then they figured out that you better just find ways to get to the quarterback." - Cam Cameron (2001)
  • "Originally, there was no tight end, four wides, a lot of motion, a lot of trips (formation), sometimes five-receiver sets. But our connotation of it involved the reading of coverages and varying routes accordingly." - Mouse Davis (2004)[38]
  • "It's just evolved to where everybody in the United States now runs it, including everyone in the NFL. A portion of all packages has been developed out of it. You don't see the pure Run 'n' Shoot much anymore. It's been incorporated into other offenses." - Mouse Davis (2004)
  • "Sometimes, we'll do some run-and-shoot. We'll sit back with one back and four wide receivers and do that. I remember the run-and-shoot in Atlanta. We always had a 1,000-yard rusher every year. We had a 1,000-yard rusher because we spread the field." - Robbie Tobeck (2006)[39]
  • "Yeah. The offense makes average quarterbacks a whole lot better than they would be in another scheme. But when we have a great one, they’re better in what we do. . . . All the quarterbacks I’ve worked with had their best seasons in this offense." - June Jones (2006)[40]
  • "I always used to think the Run-and-Shoot was one of the toughest offenses to stop." - Jim Johnson (2006)[41]
  • "I just feel that you can’t play without a tight end. At times, when the situation presents itself, I would use four wide receivers and take out the tight end. But certainly not on a regular basis." - Sid Gillman (2007)[42]
  • "It’s really a fun offense to watch and very difficult to defend. The different situations they can put you in based on down and distance really can raise havoc with a defense." - Chris Ault (2007)[43]
  • "As far as read routes and timing and leverage, all those things he teaches, it’s all very current. His systems are simple, yet very complicated to the defensive side. And Mouse started the whole thing right there at Portland State." - Marty Mornhinweg (2008)
  • ""Now I look around, and the Patriots and the Colts and people like that are running what we ran and saying, 'That's how you play the game.' Knowing I was a part of that with Jerry and Mouse (Davis) gives me a lot of satisfaction. Now everybody in the National Football League does what we do now. It just so happens that New England does it every play." - June Jones (2008)[44]

Run & Shoot in Videogames

In the Sega Genesis version of Tecmo Super Bowl, there were five pass plays designated with the Run and Shoot. Here's a quick look at the plays and the routes designed for them.

  • Name: Flare C
    • X runs a streak. W runs a square in. SB runs a delayed streak next to the X receiver. A Switch Route is shown, with the Y receiver and Z receiver both running streaks. The QB moves back initially, then rolls right and waits.
  • Name: Z Fly
    • X runs a little square in. W runs a streak. SB blocks left while QB rolls right. Y runs a square out and Z runs a streak.
  • Name: 3-Wing
    • X runs a streak. A Trips Formation to the right is shown with the W running a square in before switching into a streak. Y runs a square in and Z runs a streak. The SB is offset right and swings left to block while the QB rolls out right.
  • Name: Y Up
    • X runs a square in. W runs a skinny post inside. W runs a streak and Z runs a skinny corner post. The SB swings out to the left into a streak while the QB rolls out to the right.
  • Name: Redgun Z Slant
    • X runs a streak. This features a Trips Formation to the left where Y runs a rounded square in, W motions and runs a sharp square in just past the defensive line, and Z runs a streak. The SB is offset right and runs horizontal to the line of scrimmage while the QB sits in shotgun.

In the Sega Genesis version of Madden '95, there is a run and shoot formation with eight different plays.

  • In & Out
  • PA Pass
  • HB Counter (Starts left and counters right)
  • Posts Corner
  • HB Toss (Pitch to the right)
  • Hooks
  • Deep Posts
  • WR Screen

References

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  2. ^ [United Press International], "[Power in Northwest where it was last year]", [2], [1978-08-30], [Retrieved on 2009-06-03]
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  24. ^ [Curtis, Jake], "[New coach, new approach at St. Mary's]", [24], [2003-08-29], [Retrieved on 2008-08-07]
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  34. ^ [Justice, Richard], "[Oilers Toss Redskins Change of Pace;Moon-Operated, 7-1 Run-and-Shoot Has Petitbon Digging Deep]", [34], [1991-10-31], [Retrieved on 2009-06-29]
  35. ^ [George, Thomas], "[PRO FOOTBALL; Run-and-Shoot Falcons Find Better Way to Win]", [35], [1994-11-28], [Retrieved on 2008-08-12]
  36. ^ [Price, Terry], "[FIRST THING IS THE RUN PATRIOTS WILL FOCUS ON THAT HALF OF RUN AND SHOOT]", [36], [1995-09-29], [Retrieved on 2009-06-29]
  37. ^ [George, Thomas], "[PRO FOOTBALL; To Juice the Offense, Teams Turn to the Slot]", [37], [2001-09-01], [Retrieved on 2008-08-07]
  38. ^ [Canepa, Nick], "[Forget his age; Riptide hires perfect Mouse]", [38], [2004-01-22], [Retrieved on 2008-08-13]
  39. ^ [Clayton, John], "[Spreading field creates running room for Alexander]", [39], [2006-01-18], [Retrieved on 2008-08-08]
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  42. ^ [Stoltz, Jeremy], "[Chalk Talk: the Run-and-Shoot]", [42], [2007-05-31], [Retrieved on 2008-08-09]
  43. ^ [Kendall, Josh], "[Hawaii's offense may look familiar]", [43], [2007-12-20], [Retrieved on 2008-08-09]
  44. ^ [Clarkson, Roger], "[Offense is finally in favor]", [44], [2008-01-02], [Retrieved on 2009-01-05]

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