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  • according to legend, any immigrant to the city of Agroha, established by Emperor Agrasen in ancient India, would receive a hundred thousand bricks to build a home, and a hundred thousand rupees to start a business of his own?

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Encyclopedia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Countries where the rupee is the name of the official currency
rupiya released by Sher Shah Suri, 1540-1545 CE, was the first rupee
French East India Company-issued rupee in the name of Mohammed Shah (1719-1758) for Northern India trade, cast in Pondicherry.
Indian rupee collection

The Rupee (abbreviated as , Re., Rs. or रू.) was originally an Indian silver coin. Nowadays, it is the name for the monetary unit of account in India, Sri Lanka, Burma, Nepal, Pakistan, Mauritius, and Seychelles. All these modern Rupee units descended from the original silver coin. In the Maldives, the unit of currency is known as the rufiyah, which is a cognate word of Hindi rupiya. Both the Pakistani and the Indian rupees are subdivided into one hundred paise (singular paisa) or pice. The Mauritian and Sri Lankan rupees subdivide into 100 cents. The Nepalese rupee subdivides into one hundred paisas (both singular and plural) or four Sukas or two Mohors.

Afghanistan's currency was also denominated in Afghan rupees until 1925, with each Afghan rupee subdividing into 60 paisas. Prior to the introduction of the Afghan rupee in 1891, the legal currency was the Kabuli rupee. Until the middle of the twentieth century, Tibet's official currency was also known as the Tibetan Rupee.[1] The Indian rupee was the official currency of Dubai and Qatar until 1959, when India created a new Gulf rupee (also known as the "External rupee") to hinder the smuggling of gold.[2] The Gulf rupee was legal tender until 1966, when India significantly devalued the Indian rupee and a new Qatar-Dubai Riyal was established to provide economic stability.[2]

Contents

Alternative names and pronunciations

Various languages render the word 'Rupee' slightly differently -

  • Hindi: रुपया rupiya
  • Gujarati: રૂપિયો rupiyo
  • Kannada: ರೂಪಾಯಿ roopayi
  • Malayalam: ശ്രൂപ roopa
  • Sanskrit: रूप्यकम् rupyakam
  • Tamil: ரூபாய் roobai
  • Telugu: రూపాయలు ruupaayalu
  • Urdu: روپیہ, rupiya
  • Sinhala: රුපියල rupiyal (meaning coins of silver)

Etymology

The origin of the word "rupee" is found in the Sanskrit word rūp or rūpyāh, which means "wrought silver," originally "something provided with an image, a coin," from rupah "shape, likeness, image." [3] The Sanskrit word rūpyakam (Devanāgarī: रूप्यकम्) means coin of silver. The word rupiya was coined by Pashtun (Afghan) Emperor Sher Shah Suri during his brief rule of India between (1540-1545). It was used for the silver coin weighing 178 grains. He also introduced copper coins called Dam and gold coins called Mohur that weighed 169 grains.[4] Later on, the Mughal Emperors standardised this coinage of tri-metalism across the sub-continent in order to consolidate the monetary system.

Value

The derivative word Rūpaya was used to denote the coin introduced by Sher Shah Suri during his reign from 1540 to 1545. The original Rūpaya was a silver coin weighing 178 grains (11.534 grams)[citation needed]. The coin has been used since then, even during the times of British India, defined as 11.66 grams at 91.7% silver by weight[5] (that is, silver worth about US$4 at modern prices).[6] At the end of the 19th century the Indian silver rupee went unto a gold exchange standard at a fixed rate of 1 rupee to one shilling and fourpence in British currency, or 15 rupees to 1 pound sterling.

Valuation of the rupee based on its silver content had severe consequences in the nineteenth century, when the strongest economies in the world were on the gold standard. The discovery of vast quantities of silver in the United States and various European colonies resulted in a decline in the relative value of silver to gold. Suddenly the standard currency of India could not buy as much from the outside world. This development was known as "the fall of the rupee."

Denomination

Formerly the rupee (11.66 g, .917 fine silver) was divided into 16 annas, 64 paise, or 192 pies. Early 19th century E.I.C. rupees were used in Australia for a limited period. Decimalisation occurred in Ceylon (Sri Lanka) in 1869, India in 1957 and in Pakistan in 1961. Thus an Indian rupee is now divided into 100 Paise and so is the Pakistani rupee. Paisa is sometimes referred to as Naya-Paisa, meaning the "new-money" in India, a habit continued from when India became independent—when the new country introduced new currency, people used Naya-Paisa to distinguish it from the old currency. The issuance of the currency is controlled by the Reserve Bank of India, whereas in the Pakistan it is controlled by State Bank of Pakistan. The most commonly used symbol for the rupee is Rs. In most parts of India, the rupee is known as rupaya, rupaye, or one of other terms derived from the Sanskrit rupya, meaning silver. However, in the Bengali and Assamese languages, spoken in Assam, Tripura, and West Bengal, the rupee is known as a Taka, and is written as such on Indian banknotes. In India and Pakistan currency is issued in denominations of 1, 2, 5, 10, 20, 50, 100, 500 and 1000 rupees. Pakistan currency is also issued in a denomination of 5000 rupees. Large denominations of rupees are often counted in lakh (100,000 = 1 Lakh, 100 Lakh = 1 Crore/karor, 100 Crore/karor = 1 Arab , 100 Arab = 1 Kharab/khrab, 100 Kharab/khrab = 1 Neel, 100 Neel = 1 Padam, 100 Padam = 1 Rajam, 100 Rajam = 1 Uroos).

The Rupee on the East African Coast and South Arabia

In East Africa, Arabia, and Mesopotamia the Rupee and its subsidiary coinage was current at various times. The usage of the Rupee in East africa extended from Somalia in the north, to as far south as Natal. In Mozambique the British India rupees were overstamped, and in Kenya the British East Africa Company minted the rupee and its fractions as well as pice. The rise in the price of silver immediately after the first world war caused the rupee to rise in value to two shillings sterling. In 1920 in British East Africa, the opportunity was then taken to introduce a new florin coin, hence bringing the currency into line with sterling. Shortly after that, the Florin was split into two East African shillings. This assimilation to sterling did not however happen in British India itself. In Somalia the Italian colonial authority minted 'rupia' to the exact same standard, and called the pice 'besa'.

The Rupee in the Straits Settlements

The Straits Settlements were originally an outier of the British East India Company. The Spanish dollar had already taken hold in the Straits Settlements by the time the British arrived in the nineteenth century, however, the East India Company tried to introduce the Rupee in its place. These attempts were resisted by the locals, and by 1867 when the British government took over direct control of the Straits Settlements from the East India Company, attempts to introduce the Rupee were finally abandoned.

Sign

The rupee is represented by the Unicode character 20A8 (₨). It is common to find a single rupee written as "Re. 1". Other Indian languages such as Bengali and Tamil have their own rupee signs. In March 2009 the Indian Finance Ministry launched a public competition to select a symbol for its rupee.[7]

Fictional use

The rupee is the currency used in the Legend of Zelda and Rappelz video games.

See also

References

  1. ^ Theodore Roosevelt, Kermit Roosevelt (1929), Trailing the giant panda, Scribner, http://books.google.com/books?id=oXZCAAAAIAAJ, "... The currency in general use was what was known as the Tibetan rupee ..." 
  2. ^ a b Richard F. Nyrop (2008), Area Handbook for the Persian Gulf States, Wildside Press, ISBN 1434462102, http://books.google.com/books?id=BPX0h_wbFtEC, "... The Indian rupee was the principal currency until 1959, when it was replaced by a special gulf rupee to halt gold smuggling into India ..." 
  3. ^ etymonline.com (20 September 2008). "Etymology of rupee". http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?search=rupee&searchmode=none. Retrieved 2008-09-20. 
  4. ^ Mughal Coinage at RBI Monetary Museum. Retrieved on 4 May 2008.
  5. ^ Krause, Chester L. and Clifford Mishler (2004). Standard Catalog of World Coins: 1801–1900. Colin R. Bruce II (senior editor) (4th ed. ed.). Krause Publications. ISBN 0873497988. 
  6. ^ xe.com (2 October 2006). "Equivalent of 0.343762855 troy ounce of silver in U.S. dollar". http://xe.com/ucc/convert.cgi?Amount=0.343762855&From=XAG&To=USD. Retrieved 2006-10-02. 
  7. ^ Indian contest for rupee symbol BBC News, 5 March 2009

External links

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1911 encyclopedia

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From LoveToKnow 1911

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Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010
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Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

Contents

English

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Wikipedia

Etymology

From Hindi रुपीया (rupīyā), variant of रुपया (rupayā)

< from Urdu رپيا (rupayā), coined by Mughal emperor Sher Shah Suri (1540–45)
< from Sanskrit रूप्यकं (rūpyakam), silver coin)
< from Sanskrit रूप्य (rūpya), wrought silver)

Noun

Singular
rupee

Plural
rupees

rupee (plural rupees)

  1. The common name for the monetary currencies used in modern India, Pakistan, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Seychelles, or Mauritius.
  2. A silver coin, circulating in India 16th–20th centuries, weighing 170–180 troy grains (180 troy grains from 1833) or one tola.

Related terms

Translations

References

Platts, John T. (1884), A dictionary of Urdu, classical Hindi, and English, London: W. H. Allen & Co., pp. 586, 604.

Anagrams


Gaming

Up to date as of February 01, 2010

From Wikia Gaming, your source for walkthroughs, games, guides, and more!

Rupees are the currency in most Zelda games. The only exception is Holodrum's underworld Subrosia, which uses Ore.

Worth

Green Rupee
Small green Rupees are worth one, and large green Rupees are worth fifty. The green Rupee appears in seven games.

  • 1, small. (A Link to the Past, Ocarina of Time, Majora's Mask, Four Swords, The Wind Waker, The Minish Cap, Twilight Princess.)
  • 50, large. (Four Swords and The Minish Cap.)

Blue Rupee
Small blue Rupees are worth five, and large blue Rupees are worth one hundred. The blue Rupee appears in eight games.

  • 5, small. (The Legend of Zelda, A Link to the Past, Ocarina of Time, Majora's Mask, Four Swords, The Wind Waker, The Minish Cap, Twilight Princess.)
  • 100, large. (Four Swords and The Minish Cap.)

Red Rupee
Small red Rupees are worth twenty, and large red Rupees are worth two hundred. The red Rupee appears in seven games.

  • 20, small. (A Link to the Past, Ocarina of Time, Majora's Mask, Four Swords, The Wind Waker, The Minish Cap, Twilight Princess.)
  • 200, large. (Four Swords and The Minish Cap.)

Purple Rupee
The purple Rupee exists in all four 3D Zelda games.

  • 50 (Ocarina of Time, Majora's Mask, Wind Waker, Twilight Princess.)

Silver Rupee
Debuting in Ocarina of Time, where collecting all five silver Rupees solved a puzzle in a particular room, the silver Rupee exists in all four 3D Zelda titles.

  • 5 (Ocarina of Time)
  • 100 (Majora's Mask)
  • 200 (Wind Waker, Twilight Princess)

Yellow Rupee
Debuting in the original title, the yellow Rupee has appeared in three games.

Orange Rupee
The orange Rupee exists in the three of the four 3D Zelda titles.

  • 100 (The Wind Waker, Twilight Princess)
  • 200 (Ocarina of Time), Large Orange Rupee appears if you kill Skull Kid in the Lost Woods as adult Link.

Huge Rupee
Appearing either gold or dark orange, this Rupee's color is not specified textually and is simply called "huge." It exists in three games.

  • 200 (Ocarina of Time, Majora's Mask, Twilight Princess.)

Other Rupee Types

  • Black: In Four Swords, the black Rupee removes a random, negative amount of Rupees from the team wallet.
  • Rupee Shard: In Four Swords, Rupee shards are individually worthless but collecting eight creates a gem worth 500 Rupees.

This article uses material from the "Rupee" article on the Gaming wiki at Wikia and is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike License.

Simple English

The Rupee is the name of several kinds of money used in several countries: the Republic of India, Pakistan; it was also used in the erstwhile East Pakistan until 1971, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Mauritius, and the Seychelles. In past times, rupees were also the name of the money used in Burma and in the German and British colonies in East Africa. The name comes from a Sanskrit word meaning silver. The rupiah of Indonesia and the rufiyah of the Maldives are kinds of money that also got their name from this word.


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