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Rupert Brooke
Born 3 August 1887(1887-08-03)
Rugby, Warwickshire, England
Died 23 April 1915 (aged 27)
Aegean Sea, off the island of Skyros
Cause of death Sepsis
Resting place Skyros, Greece
Nationality English
Education Rugby School, King's College, University of Cambridge (fellow)
Occupation Poet
Employer Sidgwick and Jackson (Publisher)
Known for Poetry

Rupert Chawner Brooke (middle name sometimes given as Chaucer)[1] (3 August 1887 – 23 April 1915[2]) was an English poet known for his idealistic war sonnets written during the First World War (especially The Soldier); however, he never experienced combat at first hand. He was also known for his boyish good looks, which prompted the Irish poet William Butler Yeats to describe him as "the handsomest young man in England".

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Biography

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English poet

Brooke was born at 5 Hillmorton Road in Rugby, Warwickshire,[3] the second of the three sons of William Parker Brooke, a Rugby schoolmaster, and Ruth Mary Brooke, née Cotterill. He attended Hillbrow Prep School before being educated at Rugby School. While travelling in Europe he prepared a thesis entitled "John Webster and the Elizabethan Drama", which won him a scholarship to King's College, Cambridge where he became a member of the Cambridge Apostles, helped found the Marlowe Society drama club and acted in plays including the Cambridge Greek Play.

Brooke made friends among the Bloomsbury group of writers, some of whom admired his talent while others were more impressed by his good looks. Virginia Woolf boasted to Vita Sackville-West of once going skinny-dipping with Brooke in a moonlit pool when they were at Cambridge together.[4]

Brooke belonged to another literary group known as the Georgian Poets and was one of the most important of the Dymock poets, associated with the Gloucestershire village of Dymock where he spent some time before the war. He also lived in the Old Vicarage, Grantchester (a house now occupied by Cambridge chemist Mary Archer and her husband, the novelist Jeffrey Archer).

Brooke suffered from a severe emotional crisis in 1913, some say caused by sexual confusion and jealousy, resulting in the breakdown of his long relationship with Ka Cox (Katherine Laird Cox).[5] Intrigue by both Virginia Woolf and Lytton Strachey is said[citation needed] to have played a part in Brooke's nervous collapse and subsequent rehabilitation trips to Germany.

As part of his recuperation Brooke toured the United States and Canada to write travel diaries for the Westminster Gazette. He took the long way home, sailing across the Pacific and staying some months in the South Seas. Much later it was revealed that he may have fathered a daughter with a Tahitian woman named Taatamata with whom he seems to have enjoyed his most complete emotional relationship.[6] Brooke fell heavily in love several times with both men and women, although his bisexuality was edited out of his life by his first literary executor. Many more people were in love with him.[7] Brooke was romantically involved with the actress Cathleen Nesbitt and was once engaged to Noel Olivier, whom he met while she was a 15-year-old at the progressive Bedales School.

Brooke was an inspiration to poet John Gillespie Magee, Jr., author of the poem "High Flight". Magee idolised Brooke and wrote a poem about him ("Sonnet to Rupert Brook"). Magee also won the same poetry prize at Rugby School that Brooke had won 34 years prior.

Corner of a Foreign Field

A statue of Rupert Brooke in Rugby

Brooke's accomplished poetry gained many enthusiasts and followers and he was taken up by Edward Marsh who brought him to the attention of Winston Churchill, then First Lord of the Admiralty. He was commissioned into the Royal Naval Volunteer Reserve as a temporary Sub-Lieutenant[8] shortly after his 27th birthday and took part in the Royal Naval Division's Antwerp expedition in October 1914. He sailed with the British Mediterranean Expeditionary Force on 28 February 1915 but developed sepsis from an infected mosquito bite. He died at 4:46 pm on 23 April 1915 in a French hospital ship moored in a bay off the island of Skyros in the Aegean on his way to a battle at Gallipoli. As the expeditionary force had orders to depart immediately, he was buried at 11 pm in an olive grove on Skyros, Greece.[1][2][9] The site was chosen by his close friend, William Denis Browne, who wrote of Brooke's death:[10]

...I sat with Rupert. At 4 o’clock he became weaker, and at 4.46 he died, with the sun shining all round his cabin, and the cool sea-breeze blowing through the door and the shaded windows. No one could have wished for a quieter or a calmer end than in that lovely bay, shielded by the mountains and fragrant with sage and thyme.
Grave of Rupert Brooke on Skyros Island, Greece

His grave remains there today. On 11 November 1985, Brooke was among 16 First World War poets commemorated on a slate monument unveiled in Westminster Abbey's Poet's Corner.[11] The inscription on the stone was written by a fellow war poet, Wilfred Owen. It reads: "My subject is War, and the pity of War. The Poetry is in the pity."[12]

Brooke's brother, 2nd Lt. William Alfred Cotterill Brooke, was a member of the 8th Battalion London Regiment (Post Office Rifles) and was killed in action near Le Rutoire Farm on 14 June 1915 aged 24. He is buried in Fosse 7 Military Cemetery (Quality Street), Mazingarbe, Pas de Calais, France. He had only joined the battalion on 25 May.[13]

In popular culture

The beginning of This Side of Paradise by F. Scott Fitzgerald opens with the quote "... Well this side of Paradise!... There's little comfort in the wise. -Rupert Brooke" This Side of Paradise www.gutenberg.org from Brooke's poem Tiare Tahiti final line. Brooke's poem "A Channel Passage," with its vivid description of seasickness, is used for comic effect in a third season episode, "Springtime", of the television series M*A*S*H. Corporal Radar O'Reilly reads the poem to a nurse he hopes to impress, with surprising results. Radar pronounces the poet's name as "Ruptured Brooke". Part of Brooke's poem "Dust" is used as the lyric for a song by the same title, composed by Danny Kirwan and recorded by Fleetwood Mac on their 1972 album Bare Trees. Brooke is not credited on the album. On Pink Floyd's war-themed album The Final Cut, the song "The Gunner's Dream" contains the lyrics "in the space between the heavens and the Corner of Some Foreign Field." Portions of Brooke's poem "The Hill" appear at the beginning of the video for the Pet Shop Boys song "Se a vida é (That's the way life is)".

Brooke's poetry is used as character and plot device in the 1981 movie Making Love and the child ultimately born to Kate Jackson's character "Claire" is named after him.

In the 1970s television series Upstairs, Downstairs, the character of Lawrence Kirbridge is based largely on Rupert Brooke.

References

  1. ^ a b "Royal Naval Division service record (extract)". The National Archives. http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/dol/popups/rndofficer1.htm. Retrieved 2007-11-11. 
  2. ^ a b The date of Brooke's death and burial under the Julian calendar that applied in Greece at the time was 10 April. The Julian calendar was 13 days behind the Gregorian calendar.
  3. ^ "Poet Brooke's birthplace for sale". BBC News. 2007-08-21. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/england/coventry_warwickshire/6956623.stm. Retrieved 2008-08-08. 
  4. ^ Vita Sackville-West letter to Harold Nicolson, 8 April 1941, reproduced in Nigel Nicolson (ed.), Harold Nicolson: The War Years 1939-1945, Vol. II of Diaries and Letters, Atheneum, New York, 1967, p. 159
  5. ^ Caesar, Adrian (2004). "‘Brooke, Rupert Chawner (1887–1915)’" (subscription required). Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/32093. http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/32093?docPos=1. Retrieved 2008-01-12. 
  6. ^ Mike Read: Forever England (1997)
  7. ^ Biography at GLBTQ encyclopedia by Keith Hale, editor of Friends and Apostles: The Correspondence of Rupert Brooke-James Strachey, 1905-1914
  8. ^ London Gazette: no. 28906, p. 7396, 18 September 1914. Retrieved on 2007-11-12.
  9. ^ "Royal Naval Division service record (extract)". The National Archives. http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/dol/popups/rndofficer2.htm. Retrieved 2007-11-11. 
  10. ^ Blevins, Pamela (2000). "William Denis Browne (1888–1915)". Musicweb International. http://www.musicweb-international.com/classrev/2002/May02/WDBrown.htm. Retrieved 2007-11-09. 
  11. ^ http://net.lib.byu.edu/english/wwi/poets/poets.html
  12. ^ http://net.lib.byu.edu/english/wwi/poets/Preface.html
  13. ^ RUPERT BROOKE at www.1914-18.co.uk

Further reading

  • Keith Hale,ed. Friends and Apostles: The Correspondence of Rupert Brooke-James Strachey, 1905-1914.
  • Arthur Springer. Red Wine of Youth—A Biography of Rupert Brooke (New York: Bobbs-Merrill, 1952). Partly based on extensive correspondence between American travel writer Richard Halliburton and the literary and salon figures who had known Brooke.
  • Christopher Hassall. "Rupert Brooke: A Biography" (Faber and Faber 1964)
  • Sir Geoffrey Keynes, ed. "The Letters of Rupert Brooke" (Faber and Faber 1968)
  • Colin Wilson. "Poetry & Mysticism" (City Lights Books 1969). Contains a chapter about Rupert Brooke.
  • John Lehmann. "Rupert Brooke: His Life and His Legend" (George Weidenfield and Nicolson Ltd 1980)
  • Mike Read. "Forever England: The Life of Rupert Brooke" (Mainstream Publishing Company Ltd 1997)
  • Nigel Jones. "Rupert Brooke: Life, Death and Myth" (Metro Books,1999)

External links


Quotes

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiquote

Rupert Brooke (August 3, 1887April 23, 1915) was an English poet.

Sourced

  • We are earth’s best,
    that learnt her lesson here,
    Life is our cry.
    We have kept the faith!
    And when we die,
    All’s over that is ours;
    and life burns on
    Through other lovers, other lips,
    Heart of my heart,
    heaven is now, is won!
    • 1910[citation needed]
  • And in my flower-beds,
    I think,
    Smile the carnation
    and the pink.
    • "The Old Vicarage; Granchester" (1912)
  • If I should die think only this of me:
    That there's some corner of a foreign field
    That is for ever England.
    • "The Soldier" (1914)

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