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Russell Alexander Alger


In office
September 27, 1902 – January 24, 1907
Preceded by James McMillan
Succeeded by William A. Smith

In office
March 5, 1897 – August 1, 1899
President William McKinley
Preceded by Daniel S. Lamont
Succeeded by Elihu Root

In office
January 1, 1885 – January 1, 1887
Lieutenant Archibald Buttars
Preceded by Josiah Begole
Succeeded by Cyrus G. Luce

Born February 27, 1836(1836-02-27)
Medina County, Ohio, U.S.
Died January 24, 1907 (aged 70)
Washington, D.C., U.S.
Political party Republican
Spouse(s) Annette H. Henry
Children Fay Alger
Caroline Alger
Frances Alger
Russell A. Alger, Jr.
Fred Alger
Allan Alger
Profession General, Politician
Military service
Service/branch Union Army
Rank Colonel (Brevet Major General)
Battles/wars American Civil War

Russell Alexander Alger (February 27, 1836 – January 24, 1907) was the 20th Governor and U.S. Senator from the state of Michigan and also U.S. Secretary of War during the Presidential administration of William McKinley. He was supposedly a distant relation of Horatio Alger; although Russell Alger lived his own "rags-to-riches" success tale, eventually becoming a financier, lumber baron, railroad owner, and government official in several high offices.[1]

Contents

Early life and career

Alger was born in Lafayette Township in Medina County, Ohio. He was orphaned at age 12 and worked on a farm to support himself and two siblings. He attended Richfield Academy in Summit County, Ohio, and taught country school for two winters. He studied law in Akron, Ohio, and was admitted to the bar in March 1859. He first began to practice law in Cleveland and moved to Grand Rapids, Michigan, in 1860, where he engaged in the lumber business. On April 2, 1861, he married Annette H. Henry of Grand Rapids. They had six children; Fay, Caroline, Frances, Russell Jr., Fred and Allan. He was the scion of a prominent family, many of whom became involved in 20th Century Michigan politics and active in the Republican Party.[2] His son, Russell A. Alger, Jr., was instrumental in persuading the Packard Motor Car Company to move to Michigan from Ohio; he also built in Grosse Pointe, Michigan, a palatial Italian Renaissance style estate, "The Moorings", which was donated in 1949 and became the Grosse Pointe War Memorial, honoring veterans of World War II.[3] Russell A. Alger had a home in Black River which is in Alcona Township, Michigan, which he maintained while overseeing his lumbering operations.

Civil War

He enlisted as a private soldier in the American Civil War in 1861. He was commissioned and served as a captain and major in the 2nd Michigan Cavalry Regiment. At the Battle of Boonesville, July 11, 1862, he was sent by Colonel Philip Sheridan to attack the enemy's rear with ninety picked men. The Confederate forces were soundly defeated, and although Alger was wounded and taken prisoner, he escaped the same day. On October 16, he was made lieutenant colonel of the 6th Michigan Cavalry.

On February 28, 1863, he was promoted to colonel of the 5th Michigan Cavalry. His command was the first to enter Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, on June 28, and he was specially mentioned in the report of General George Armstrong Custer on cavalry operations there. Alger was considered a military strategist and stood with President Lincoln on the battlefield surveying the Union supplies and while pursuing the enemy on July 8, he was severely wounded at Boonesborough, Maryland. He participated in General Sheridan’s Valley Campaigns of 1864 in Virginia. On June 11, 1864, at Trevillian Station, he captured a large force of Confederates with a brilliant cavalry charge. One year later, on June 11, 1865, he was brevetted brigadier general and major general of volunteers.

In three years, he served in 66 different battles and skirmishes. In 1868, he was elected the first commander of the Michigan department of the Grand Army of the Republic, and in 1879 became its national Commander-in-chief.[1]

After the war, Alger settled in Detroit as head of Alger, Smith & Company and the Manistique Lumbering Company. His great pine forest on Lake Huron comprised more than 100 square miles and produced annually more than 75,000,000 feet of lumber.[4]

Russell A. Alger

In the mid- to-late 1800s, and even all the way into the mid 1900s, the pine forests of South Alabama were prime sources of lumber for the booming economy of the United States and much of the world. Lumber producing mills seemed to spring up all over. The Alger-Sullivan Lumber Company was located in Century, Florida.

April 8, 2001, marked the one hundredeth known date of the use of the name, "Century," for the little sawmill town in northwest Florida. The term was taken to describe the beginnings of the community. Lore has it at that time the area was called "Teaspoon," the origin of which has several possible explanations. It is unlikely the area where the mill and the town were built was ever called "Teaspoon," since that entire 80 or so acres were the Mayo farm. The town was built at the turn of the 20th century (hence the town's name) by Yankee (northern) speculators General R. A. Alger of Detroit and Martin Sullivan, residing in Pensacola, but originally from New York state.

Sullivan and his brother had bought up large tracts of timber during the previous decades and after a small mill at Foshee, near Brewton, Escambia County, Alabama, proved profitable, this larger mill just across the State line in Florida was built. The original notion was that the timber would only last about 10 years or so.

The manager, E.A. Hauss, also from Detroit, planned for and allowed creative cutting and replanting in the forests, thus the mill in Century ran for almost 50 additional years! It produced more southern pine board feet per year than any other mill in the entire south for many years of its existence. See other photos for a little more of the life around this thriving industry of Northwest Florida and South Alabama.

The mill has now been closed for many years.

Politics

In 1884, Alger was elected Governor of Michigan , serving from January 1, 1885, to January 1, 1887. He declined renomination in 1886 and was a presidential elector on the Republican ticket in 1888. In 1888, he was elected as the first Commander of the Michigan Department of the Grand Army of the Republic and as the 18th Commander-in-Chief of the GAR in 1889.

Alger was appointed Secretary of War in the Cabinet of U.S. President William McKinley on March 5, 1897. As Secretary, he recommended pay increases for military personnel serving at foreign embassies and legations. He recommended legislation to authorize a Second Assistant Secretary of War and recommended a constabulary force for Cuba, Puerto Rico, and the Philippines. He was criticized for the inadequate preparation and inefficient operation of the department during the Spanish-American War, especially for his appointment of William R. Shafter as leader of the Cuban expedition.[5] "Algerism" became an epithet to describe the claimed incompetence of the army, especially as compared to the more stellar performance of the navy.[6] Alger resigned at President McKinley’s request, August 1, 1899, though he perhaps got the last word on his critics by publishing The Spanish-American War in 1901.[7]

On September 27, 1902, Alger was appointed by Michigan Governor Aaron T. Bliss to the United States Senate to fill the vacancy caused by the death of James McMillan. He was subsequently elected by the Michigan State Legislature to the Senate in January 1903. He served until his death in Washington, D.C. in 1907. During a memorial address in rememberance of Senator Alger, Senator John Spooner of Wisconsin said of the late senator: "No man without nobel purpose, well-justified ambitions, strong fiber, and splendid qualities in abundance could have carved out an left behind him such a career."[8] He was chairman of the Senate Committee on Pacific Railroads during the 59th Congress.[9] He is interred in Elmwood Cemetery in Detroit, Michigan.[10]

Legacy

Russell A. Alger Memorial Fountain at Grand Circus Park in Detroit, Michigan.

Alger County, Michigan is named for him. A monument by Detroit sculptor Carlo Romanelli, consisting of a bronze bust of Alger mounted on a stone pedestal, is located on the grounds of the William G. Mather Building in Munising, Michigan. It was erected in June, 1909, with funds provided by the heirs of Alger and by the Board of Education of the Munising Township Schools. A memorial fountain by sculptor Daniel Chester French and architect Henry Bacon was dedicated in Detroit in 1921.

In 1898, a movie was made, entitled General Wheeler and Secretary of War Alger at Camp Wikoff that documents an official visit as Secretary of War.[11] Camp Wikoff was in New Jersey, and this was an early event that permitted the McKinley administration to garner support from the New York newspapers.[12]

Established in May, 1898, Camp Russell A. Alger was named for the Secretary of War. It was placed on a 1,400-acre farm called "Woodburn Manor". 23,000 men trained there for service in the Spanish-American War. The large military population greatly impacted the lives of the residents of the small communities of Falls Church and Dunn Loring, Virginia. Faced with a typhoid fever epidemic, it was abandoned in August 1898, and sold the following month. It is commenorated by an official Virginia historical marker. [13]

Alger, Michigan is also named after him. It is a small community founded in the late-1800's located in the lower peninsula of the state. It was named after Russell Alger as he oversaw lumbering and railroad operations in that area at the time. See also, Black River, Michigan.

The Grosse Pointe War Memorial is housed in one of the Alger family's former homes.[14]

The Southeast side Grand Rapids, Michigan neighborhood Alger Heights is named after him. [15]

In 1942, a United States Liberty ship named the SS Russell A. Alger was planned. She was cancelled before construction.

Bibliography

See also

References

External links

Political offices
Preceded by
Josiah Begole
Governor of Michigan
1885 – 1887
Succeeded by
Cyrus G. Luce
Preceded by
Daniel Scott Lamont
United States Secretary of War
1897 – 1899
Succeeded by
Elihu Root
United States Senate
Preceded by
James McMillan
United States Senator (Class 2) from Michigan
1902–1907
Served alongside: Julius C. Burrows
Succeeded by
William A. Smith
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1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

RUSSELL ALEXANDER ALGER (1836-1907), American soldier and politician, was born in Lafayette township, Medina (disambiguation)|Medina county, Ohio, on the 27th of February 1836. Left an orphan at an early age, he worked on a farm to pay his expenses at Richfield (Ohio) Academy, was a schoolmaster for two winters, and, having studied law in the meantime, was admitted to the bar in 1859. He began practice at Cleveland, Ohio, but early in 1860 he removed to Michigan, where he abandoned his profession and engaged in the lumber business. Enlisting in a Michigan cavalry regiment in September 1861, he rose from captain to colonel, distinguished himself in the Gettysburg campaign and under Sheridan in the Shenandoah Valley, and in 1864 and 1865 respectively received the brevets of brigadier-general and major-general of volunteers. After the war he invested extensively in pine lands in Michigan, and accumulated a large fortune in the lumber business. In 1884 he was elected governor of Michigan on the Republican ticket, serving from 1885 to 1887. In1889-1890he was commander-in-chief of the Grand Army of the Republic. From 1897 to 1899 he was secretary of war in President McKinley's cabinet. His administration of the war department during the Spanish-American War was severely criticized for extravagance in army contracts, for unpreparedness, and for general inefficiency, charges which he answered in his The Spanish-American War (1901). The extent of his personal responsibility is at least uncertain. In 1902 he was appointed by the governor of Michigan, and in 1903 was elected by the state legislature, as United States senator to complete the unexpired term of James McMillan (1838-1902). He died at Washington, D.C., on the 24th of January 1907.


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