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Ruth Brown

Ruth Brown performing in 2005
Background information
Born January 30, 1928(1928-01-30)
Portsmouth, Virginia, USA
Died November 17, 2006 (aged 78)
Henderson, Nevada, USA
Genres Rhythm and Blues
Instruments Vocalist
Years active 1949–1993
Labels Fantasy Records

Ruth Brown (January 30, 1928 – November 17, 2006) was an American R&B singer, and actress noted for bringing a popular music style to rhythm and blues in a series of hit songs for fledgling Atlantic Records in the 1950s, such as "So Long", "Teardrops from My Eyes" and "(Mama) He Treats Your Daughter Mean". For these contributions, Atlantic became known as "The house that Ruth built".

Following a resurgence that began in the mid-1970s and peaked in the eighties, Brown used her influence to press for musicians' rights regarding royalties and contracts, which led to the founding of the Rhythm and Blues Foundation.[1] Her performances in the Broadway musical Black and Blue earned Brown a Tony Award, and the original soundtrack won a Grammy Award.

Contents

Biography

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Early life

Born Ruth Alston Weston in Portsmouth, Virginia, she attended I. C. Norcom High School, a historically black high school. Brown's father was a dockhand who directed the local church choir, but the young Ruth showed more of an interest in singing at USO shows and nightclubs. She was inspired by Sarah Vaughan, Billie Holiday and Dinah Washington.[2] In 1945, Brown ran away from her home in Portsmouth along with a trumpeter, Jimmy Brown, whom she soon married, to sing in bars and clubs. She then spent a month with Lucky Millinder's orchestra, but was fired after she brought drinks to the band for free, and was left stranded in Washington, D.C.

Career

Blanche Calloway, Cab Calloway's sister, also a bandleader, arranged a gig for Brown at a Washington nightclub called Crystal Caverns and soon became her manager. Willis Conover, a Voice of America disc jockey, caught her act and recommended her to Atlantic Records bosses, Ahmet Ertegün and Herb Abramson. Brown was unable to audition as planned though, because of a serious car accident that resulted in a nine-month hospital stay. In 1948, however, Ertegün and Abramson drove to Washington from New York City to hear her sing in the club. Although her repertoire was mostly popular ballads, Ertegün convinced her to switch to rhythm and blues. His productions for her, however, retained her "pop" style, with clean, fresh arrangements and the singing spot on the beat with little of the usual blues singer's embroidery.

In her first audition, in 1949, she sang "So Long", which ended up becoming a hit. This was followed by Teardrops from My Eyes in 1950. Written by Rudy Toombs, it was the first upbeat major hit for Ruth Brown, establishing her as an important figure in R&B. Recorded for Atlantic Records in New York City in September 1950, and released in October, it was on Billboard's List of number-one R&B hits (United States) for 11 weeks. The huge hit earned her the nickname "Miss Rhythm" and within a few months Ruth Brown became the acknowledged queen of R&B.[3]

She followed up this hit with "I'll Wait for You" (1951), "I Know" (1951), "5-10-15 Hours" (1953), "(Mama) He Treats Your Daughter Mean" (1953), "Oh What a Dream" (1954), "Mambo Baby" (1954) and "Don't Deceive Me" (1960). She also became known as "Little Miss Rhythm" and "the girl with the teardrop in her voice". In all, she was on the R&B charts for 149 weeks from 1949 to 1955, with 16 top 10 blues records including 5 number ones, and became Atlantic's most popular artist, earning Atlantic records the proper name of "The House that Ruth Built".

Later life

During the 1960s, Brown faded from public view to become a housewife and mother, and only returned to music in 1975 at the urging of Redd Foxx, followed by a series of comedic acting gigs, including a role in the sitcom Hello, Larry and the John Waters film Hairspray as local DJ Motormouth Maybelle, as well as Broadway appearances in Amen Corner and Black and Blue, which earned her a Tony Award for her performance and a Grammy award for her album Blues on Broadway, featuring hits from the show.

Brown's fight for musicians' rights and royalties in 1987 led to the founding of the Rhythm and Blues Foundation. She was inducted as a Pioneer Award recipient in its first year, 1989. In 1993, she was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame, as "The Queen Mother of the Blues".

She has become an iconic symbol to many black women for later generations, where she is also a favorite artist and inspiration for later blues artists such as Bonnie Raitt. Brown recorded and sang along with fellow rhythm and blues performer Charles Brown, a member of the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame, and toured with Raitt on Raitt's tour in the late 1990s, "Road Tested". Her 1995 autobiography, Miss Rhythm[4], won the Gleason Award for music journalism.

Family life

  • Oldest of seven children.[5]
  • Husband Jimmy Brown (trumpeter): he was found to be already married
  • Earl Swanson (saxophonist), married in 1955; father of her son Earl Swanson Jr.
  • Bill Blunt (police officer), married three years
  • She had a son, Ronald David Jackson ("Ronnie"), with Drew Brown, though he grew up believing that her former companion and accompanist Willis "Gator" Jackson was his father
  • She also had a brief relationship with Clyde McPhatter of the Drifters.
  • Her nephew Rakim is considered one of the most influential rappers in the history of the hip hop genre.[6]

Brown died in a Las Vegas-area hospital on November 17, 2006, from complications following a heart attack and stroke she suffered after surgery in October 2006.[7] A memorial concert for her was held on 22 January 2007 at the Abyssinian Baptist Church in Harlem, New York.[8]

Discography

Singles

Year Single US R&B Singles US Pop Singles Album
1949 "So Long" 4 -
1950 "Teardrops from My Eyes" 1 - Rockin' with Ruth
1951 "I'll Wait for You" 3 -
"I Know" 7 -
1952 "5-10-15 Hours" 1 -
"Daddy Daddy" 3 - Ruth Brown
1953 "(Mama) He Treats Your Daughter Mean" 1 23
"Wild, Wild Young Men" 3 -
"Mend Your Ways" 7 - Ruth Brown & Her Rhythmakers - Sweet Baby of Mine
1954 "Oh What a Dream" 1 - Ruth Brown
"Mambo Baby" 1 -
1955 "As Long As I'm Moving" 4 - Rockin' with Ruth
"Bye Bye Young Men" 13 -
"I Can See Everybody's Baby" 7 -
"It's Love Baby (24 Hours a Day)" 4 - The Best of Ruth Brown
"Love Has Joined Us Together" 8 -
1956 "I Want to Do More" 3 - Sweet Baby of Mine
"Sweet Baby of Mine" 10 -
1957 "Lucky Lips" 6 25 The Best of Ruth Brown
1958 "This Little Girl's Gone Rockin'" 7 24 Rockin' with Ruth
"Why Me" 17 - Miss Rhythm
1959 "I Don't Know" 5 64
"Jack'O Diamonds" 23 96
1960 "Don't Deceive Me" 10 62 Rockin' with Ruth
"Taking Care of Business/Honey Boy"

References

  1. ^ Heatley, Michael (2007). The Definitive Illustrated Encyclopedia of Rock. London, United Kingdom: Star Fire. ISBN 978 1 84451 996 5.  
  2. ^ Bogdanov et al. All Music Guide to the Blues: The Definitive Guide to the Blues p. 79. Backbeat Books. ISBN 0879307366
  3. ^ What Was the First Rock'n'Roll Record. Boston & London: Faber & Faber. 1992. ISBN 0-571-12939-0.  
  4. ^ "Miss Rhythm" by Ruth Brown and Andrew Yule, 1996
  5. ^ Bernstein, Adam. Ruth Brown, 78; R& B Singer Championed Musicians' Rights. Washington Post. November 18, 2006. Page B05. URL retrieved on January 9, 2007.
  6. ^ East Coast Street Poets review. Rhapsody Online. URL retrieved on January 9, 2007.
  7. ^ Clarke, Norm (November 10, 2006). Ruth Brown fights for life at Hospital. Las Vegas Review-Journal
  8. ^ "Memorial Evening to Honor the Legendary Ruth Brown". Rhythm and Blues Foundation press release. Market Wire. January 18, 2007. URL retrieved on February 18, 2007.

External links


Genealogy

Up to date as of February 01, 2010

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This article uses material from the "Ruth Brown" article on the Genealogy wiki at Wikia and is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike License.

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