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Rutherford B. Hayes

President Rutherford Birchard Hayes taken in 1877 by Mathew Brady and Levin Handy

In office
March 4, 1877 – March 4, 1881
Vice President William A. Wheeler
Preceded by Ulysses S. Grant
Succeeded by James A. Garfield

In office
January 10, 1876 – March 2, 1877
Lieutenant Thomas Lowry Young
Preceded by William Allen
Succeeded by Thomas Lowry Young

In office
January 13, 1868 – January 8, 1872
Lieutenant John C. Lee
Preceded by Jacob Dolson Cox
Succeeded by Edward Follansbee Noyes

Member of the U.S. House of Representatives from Ohio's 2nd district
In office
March 4, 1865 – July 20, 1867
Preceded by Alexander Long
Succeeded by Samuel F. Cary

Born October 4, 1822(1822-10-04)
Delaware, Ohio
Died January 17, 1893 (aged 70)
Fremont, Ohio
Political party Republican
Spouse(s) Lucy Hayes
Children Birchard Austin Hayes
James Webb Cook Hayes
Rutherford Platt Hayes
Joseph Thompson Hayes
George Crook Hayes
Fanny Hayes
Scott Russell Hayes
Manning Force Hayes
Alma mater Kenyon College
Harvard Law School
Occupation Lawyer
Religion Christian
Signature
Military service
Allegiance United States of America
Union
Service/branch United States Army
Union Army
Years of service 1861-1865
Rank Brevet Major General
Unit 23rd Regiment, Ohio Volunteer Infantry
Kanawha Division
Battles/wars American Civil War

Rutherford Birchard Hayes (October 4, 1822 – January 17, 1893) was an American politician, lawyer, military leader and the 19th President of the United States (1877–1881). Hayes was elected President by one electoral vote after the highly disputed election of 1876. Losing the popular vote to his opponent, Samuel Tilden, Hayes was the only president whose election was decided by a congressional commission.

During his otherwise uneventful presidency, he ordered federal troops to suppress The Great Railroad Strike of 1877 and he ended the Reconstruction.

Contents

Early life

Hayes was born in Delaware, Ohio[1], on October 4, 1822. His parents were Rutherford Hayes (January 4, 1787 Brattleboro, Vermont – July 20, 1822 Delaware, Ohio) and Sophia Birchard (April 15, 1792 Wilmington, Vermont – October 30, 1866 Columbus, Ohio). His father, a storekeeper, died ten weeks before his birth,[2] thus making Hayes the second U.S. president born after the death of his father, Andrew Jackson being the first. An uncle, Sardis Birchard, lived with the family and served as Hayes' guardian. Birchard schooled a young Hayes in Latin and Ancient Greek, and contributed much to his early education. Birchard was close to him throughout his life and became a father figure to him.

Hayes attended the common schools and the Methodist Academy in Norwalk. He graduated from Kenyon College in Gambier, Ohio in August 1842 at the top of his class[3]. He was an honorary member of Delta Kappa Epsilon fraternity (Delta Chi chapter at Cornell), though he had already graduated after the Fraternity Chapter was Chartered. After briefly reading the law in Columbus, he graduated in 2 years from Harvard Law School in January 1845. He was admitted to the bar on May 10, 1845, and commenced practice in Lower Sandusky (now Fremont). After dissolving the partnership in Fremont in 1849, he moved to Cincinnati and resumed the practice of law.

Rutherford and Lucy Hayes on their wedding day, December 30, 1852.

On December 30, 1852, Hayes married Lucy Ware Webb.[4] They had eight children (Sardis, James, Rutherford, Frances, Scott, and three died young). In 1856, he was nominated for but declined a municipal judgeship, but in 1858 accepted appointment as Cincinnati city solicitor by the city council and won election outright to that position in 1859, losing a reelection bid in 1860.

Military service

Upon moving to Cincinnati, Hayes had become a member[5] of a prominent social organization, the Cincinnati Literary Club[5], whose members included Salmon P. Chase and Edward Noyes among others, and upon outbreak of the Civil War the Literary Club made a military company. He was also a member of the Independent Order of Odd Fellows (I.O.O.F).[6] Appointed a major[7] in the 23rd Regiment, Ohio Volunteer Infantry, by Ohio Governor William Dennison Jr.[8], he originally served as regimental judge-advocate, but was promoted to Lieutenant Colonel and proved competent enough at field command that by August 1862, he had been promoted to Colonel and soon after received command of his original regiment after being wounded in action at the Battle of South Mountain, Maryland on September 14. Though other presidents served in the Civil War, Hayes was the only one who was wounded (five times in all).[9]

Brevetted to Brigadier General in December 1862, he commanded the First Brigade of the Kanawha Division of the Army of West Virginia and turned back several raids. In 1864, Hayes showed gallantry in spearheading a frontal assault and temporarily taking command from George Crook at the Battle of Cloyd's Mountain and continued with Crook on to Charleston. Hayes continued commanding his Brigade during the Valley Campaigns of 1864, participating in such major battles as the Battle of Opequon, the Battle of Fisher's Hill, and the Battle of Cedar Creek.[8] At the end of the Shenandoah campaign, Hayes was promoted to Brigadier General in October 1864 and brevetted Major General. Hayes had been wounded three more times and had four horses shot from under him during his campaigning.[10]

Hayes and McKinley

While commanding the 23rd Regiment of the Ohio Volunteer Infantry, Hayes met William McKinley Jr.[11], who would later become the 25th President of the United States. The two become fraternal brothers of the Independent Order of Odd Fellows (I.O.O.F.).[12] Hayes promoted McKinley twice under his military command, including once for an act of bravery at Antietam. During Hayes' first Ohio gubernatorial race, McKinley engaged in political campaigning and rallying for Hayes' election by "making speeches in the Canton area".[13] Later, as Governor of Ohio, Hayes provided political support for his fellow Republican and Ohioan during McKinley's bid for congressional election.

Political service

Hayes began political life as a Whig[14], but in 1853 joined the Free Soil[15] party as a delegate, nominating Salmon P. Chase for Governor of Ohio.[15]

While still in the Shenandoah in 1864, Hayes received the Republican nomination to Congress from Cincinnati. Hayes refused to campaign, stating "I have other business just now. Any man who would leave the army at this time to electioneer for Congress ought to be scalped." Despite this, Hayes was elected and served in the Thirty-ninth and again to the Fortieth Congresses and served from March 4, 1865, to July 20, 1867, when he resigned, having been nominated for Governor of Ohio. Through the powerful voice of his friend and Civil War subordinate James M. Comly's Ohio State Journal (one of the state's most influential newspapers), Hayes won the election and served as governor from 1868 to 1872. He was an unsuccessful candidate in 1872 for election to the Forty-third Congress, and had planned to retire from public life, but was drafted by the Republican convention in 1875 to run for governor again and served from January 1876 to March 2, 1877. Hayes received national notice for leading a Republican sweep of a previously Democratic Ohio government.

Election of 1876

A dark horse nominee (James G. Blaine had led the previous six ballots) by his convention, Hayes became president after the tumultuous, scandal-ridden years of the Grant administration. He had a reputation for honesty dating back to his Civil War years. Hayes was noted for his ability not to offend anyone. Henry C. Adams, a prominent political journalist and Washington insider, asserted that Hayes was "a third rate nonentity, whose only recommendation is that he is obnoxious to no one." Because of Hayes' relative anonymity and perceived insignificance, his opponent in the presidential election, Democrat Samuel J. Tilden, was expected to win the presidential election. He won the popular vote by about 250,000 votes (with about 8.5 million voters in total).

Hayes/Wheeler campaign poster

Four states' electoral college votes were contested. To win, the candidates had to muster 185 votes: Tilden was short just one, with 184 votes, Hayes had 165, with 20 votes representing the four states which were contested. To make matters worse, three of these states (Florida, Louisiana and South Carolina) were in the South, which was still under military occupation (the fourth was Oregon). Additionally, historians note, the election was not fair because of the fraud and intimidation perpetrated from both sides. A popular phrase of the day called it an election without "a free ballot and a fair count." For the next four years, Democrats would refer to Hayes as "Rutherfraud B. Hayes" for his allegedly illegitimate election, as he had lost the popular vote by roughly 250,000 votes.

To peacefully decide the results of the election, the two houses of Congress set up the bi-partisan Electoral Commission to investigate and decide the winner. The commission consisted of 15 members: five from the House, five from the Senate and five from the Supreme Court. The Commission consisted of 7 Democrats, 7 Republicans, and Justice David Davis, an Independent. After his election to the Senate, Davis resigned his seat on the Court and on the Commission. Joseph P. Bradley, a Supreme Court Justice, replaced him. Bradley was a Republican and the commission voted 8 to 7 – along party lines – to award Hayes all the contested electoral votes.

Key Ohio Republicans like James A. Garfield and the Democrats, however, agreed at a Washington hotel on the Wormley House Agreement. Southern Democrats were given assurances, in the Compromise of 1877, that if Hayes became president, he would pull federal troops out of the South and end Reconstruction. An agreement was made between them and the Republicans: if Hayes' cabinet consisted of at least one Southerner and he withdrew all Union troops from the South, then he would become President. This agreement restored local control over the Southern states, and ended national control over the state and local organs of government in the former Confederate states.

Presidency 1877–1881

Chief Justice Morrison R. Waite administering the oath of office to Rutherford B. Hayes , March 5, 1877. Photo by Brady

Because March 4, 1877 was a Sunday, Hayes took the oath of office in the Red Room of the Executive Mansion (White House)[16], becoming the first president to take the oath of office in the White House. This ceremony was held in secret, because the previous year's election had been so bitterly divisive that outgoing President Grant feared an insurrection by Tilden's supporters and wanted to ensure that any Democratic attempt to hijack the public inauguration ceremony would fail, Hayes having been sworn in already in private.[16] Hayes took the oath again publicly on March 5 on the East Portico of the United States Capitol, and served until March 4, 1881. Hayes' best known quotation, "He serves his party best who serves his country best," is from his 1877 Inaugural Address.

Civil service reform

Hayes ordered an executive order that forbade federal office holders from taking part in party politics and protected them from receiving party contributions. When Hayes enforced this order at the New York Customs House, the nation's largest revenue collection agency, it created conflict with Senator Roscoe Conkling, who was in charge of civil service employment in New York state and leader of a Republican faction known as the "Stalwarts". Hayes removed many employees at the New York Customs House, including Chester A. Arthur, to "clean house" and eliminate party corruption. Conflict between Hayes and Conkling exacerbated when Hayes made efforts to reconcile with old Confederate states. [17][18]

Domestic policy

Hayes kicking Chester A. Arthur out of the New York Customs House.

Hayes' most controversial domestic act – apart from ending Reconstruction – came with his response to the Great Railroad Strike of 1877. Employees of the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad[19] walked off the job and were joined across the country by thousands of workers in their own and sympathetic industries. When the labor disputes exploded into riots in several cities, Hayes called in federal troops, who, for the first time in U.S. history, fired on the striking workers, killing more than 70. Although the troops eventually managed to restore the peace, working people and industrialists alike were displeased with the military intervention. Workers feared that the federal government had turned permanently against them, while industrialists feared that such brutal action would spark revolution similar to the European Revolutions of 1848.

Foreign policy

In 1878, Hayes was asked by Argentina to act as arbitrator following the War of the Triple Alliance between Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay against Paraguay. The Argentines hoped that Hayes would give the Gran Chaco region to them; however, he decided in favor of the Paraguayans. His decision made him a hero in Paraguay, and a city (Villa Hayes) and a department (Presidente Hayes) were named in his honor. Schools, roads, a soccer team (the Los Yanquis, Spanish for the Yankees), and a regional historical museum were named for him. At the Rutherford B. Hayes elementary school in Villa Hayes is a bronze bust of Hayes, which was donated by the Hayes family in the 1950s.[20][21]

Hayes attempted to build the Panama Canal, as he thought that a Central American canal should be under US-control.[22] The French were then making plans to build a canal designed by Ferdinand de Lesseps. De Lesseps would later be forced to appear in a congressional committee to testify about the international connections of his company.[23] However, the canal was delayed due to political reasons, including the Clayton-Bulwer Treaty. The canal would be built under American-control years later under Theodore Roosevelt.

Left
An 1881 Puck cartoon show James A. Garfield, Hayes' successor in the presidency, finding a baby at his front door with a tag marked "Civil Service Reform, compliments of R.B. Hayes". Hayes is seen in the background dressed as a woman and holding a bag marked "R.B. Hayes' savings, Fremont, Ohio".

Civil Rights

Hayes withdrew troops from the Reconstructive states and as a gesture of good will decorated Confederate war graves on Memorial Day, 1877. Hayes wanted to assimilate African Americans into White society with paternalistic protection by encouraging the growth of Republican Reconstruction ideals in states that were reluctant to enforce civil rights. Hayes did not regard making deals with Democrats as abandoning civil rights agenda for African Americans. However, by 1878, Hayes' opinions about Reconstruction had changed: "My task was to wipe out the color line, to abolish sectionalism; to end the war and bring peace...I am reluctantly forced to admit that the experiment was a failure."[24] During the Hayes administration "Jim Crow" laws spread around the country that prevented African Americans from voting. Hayes was reluctant to redeploy federal troops to enforce the 15th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution.

The withdrawal of federal troops within the first two months of the Hayes Presidency is considered by many historians as "the great betrayal" to African Americans. Without federal protection for them, segregation of public accommodations and white supremacy in politics was permitted in many states throughout the country. Republicans abandoned African voters who were left to fend for themselves.[24]

Hayes vetoed bills repealing civil rights enforcement four times before finally signing one that satisfied his requirement for black rights. However, his subsequent attempts to reconcile with his Southern Democrat opposition by handing them prestigious civil service appointments alienated fellow Republicans and undermined his own previous attempts at civil service reform. Hayes also vetoed a bill that would have prevented further Chinese immigration into the United States. [24]

During his presidency, Hayes signed many bills, including one that for the first time allowed female attorneys to argue cases before the Supreme Court of the United States.

Notable legislation

Other acts include:

Significant events during his presidency

Administration and Cabinet

Official White House portrait of Rutherford B. Hayes
The Hayes Cabinet
Office Name Term
President Rutherford B. Hayes 1877–1881
Vice President William A. Wheeler 1877–1881
Secretary of State William M. Evarts 1877–1881
Secretary of Treasury John Sherman 1877–1881
Secretary of War George W. McCrary 1877–1879
Alexander Ramsey 1879–1881
Attorney General Charles Devens 1877–1881
Postmaster General David M. Key 1877–1880
Horace Maynard 1880–1881
Secretary of the Navy Richard W. Thompson 1877–1880
Nathan Goff, Jr. 1881
Secretary of the Interior Carl Schurz 1877–1881


Supreme Court appointments

Hayes appointed two Associate Justices of the Supreme Court of the United States:

Post-Presidency

The Hayes' home called Spiegel Grove in Fremont, Ohio.
Rutherford and Lucy Hayes' grave at Spiegel Grove.

Hayes did not seek re-election in 1880, keeping his pledge that he would not run for a second term. He had, in his inaugural address, proposed a one-term limit for the presidency combined with an increase in the term length to six years.

Hayes served on the Board of Trustees of Ohio State University, the school he helped found during his time as governor of Ohio, from the end of his Presidency until his death.

Rutherford Birchard Hayes died of complications of a heart attack in Fremont, Sandusky County, Ohio, at 12:00 p.m. on Tuesday January 17, 1893. His last words were "I know that I'm going where Lucy is." Interment was in Oakwood Cemetery[26]. Following the gift of his home to the state of Ohio for the Spiegel Grove State Park, he was reinterred there in 1915.

Family

Hayes was the youngest of four children. Two of his siblings, Lorenzo Hayes (1815–1825) and Sarah Sophia Hayes (1817–1821), died in childhood, as was common then. Hayes was close to his surviving sibling, Fanny Arabella Hayes (1820–1856), as can be seen in this diary entry, written just after her death:

July, 1856. My dear only sister, my beloved Fanny, is dead! The dearest friend of childhood, the affectionate adviser, the confidante of all my life, the one I loved best, is gone; alas! never again to be seen on earth.

With Lucy Ware Webb, Hayes had the following children:

  • Birchard Austin Hayes (1853–1926)
  • James Webb Cook Hayes (1856–1934)
  • Rutherford Platt Hayes (1858–1927)
  • Joseph Thompson Hayes (1861–1863)
  • George Crook Hayes (1864–1866)
  • Fanny Hayes (1867–1950)
  • Scott Russell Hayes (1871–1923)
  • Manning Force Hayes (1873–1874)

Writings and speeches

Monday, March 5, 1877 Inaugural Address:

I shall not undertake to lay down irrevocably principles or measures of administration, but rather to speak of the motives which should animate us, and to suggest certain important ends to be attained in accordance with our institutions and essential to the welfare of our country.[27]
Many of the calamitous efforts of the tremendous revolution which has passed over the Southern States still remain. The immeasurable benefits which will surely follow, sooner or later, the hearty and generous acceptance of the legitimate results of that revolution have not yet been realized. Difficult and embarrassing questions meet us at the threshold of this subject.[27]
With respect to the two distinct races whose peculiar relations to each other have brought upon us the deplorable complications and perplexities which exist in those States, it must be a government which guards the interests of both races carefully and equally.[27]

See also

References

External links

Political offices
Preceded by
Ulysses S. Grant
President of the United States
March 4, 1877 – March 4, 1881
Succeeded by
James A. Garfield
Preceded by
William Allen
Governor of Ohio
1876 – 1877
Succeeded by
Thomas L. Young
Preceded by
Jacob D. Cox
Governor of Ohio
1868 – 1872
Succeeded by
Edward F. Noyes
United States House of Representatives
Preceded by
Alexander Long
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Ohio's 2nd congressional district

March 4, 1865 – July 20, 1867
Succeeded by
Samuel F. Cary
Party political offices
Preceded by
Ulysses S. Grant
Republican Party presidential candidate
1876
Succeeded by
James A. Garfield
Honorary titles
Preceded by
Ulysses S. Grant
Oldest U.S. President still living
July 23, 1885 – January 17, 1893
Succeeded by
Benjamin Harrison

Quotes

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiquote

For honest merit to succeed amid the tricks and intrigues which are now so lamentably common, I know is difficult; but the honor of success is increased by the obstacles which are to be surmounted. Let me triumph as a man or not at all.

Rutherford Birchard Hayes (October 4, 1822January 17, 1893) was an American politician, lawyer, military leader and 19th President of the United States (1877-1881).

Contents

Sourced

The melancholy thing in our public life is the insane desire to get higher.
He serves his party best who serves the country best.
Fighting battles is like courting girls: those who make the most pretensions and are boldest usually win.
  • We all agree that neither the Government nor political parties ought to interfere with religious sects. It is equally true that religious sects ought not to interfere with the Government or with political parties. We believe that the cause of good government and the cause of religion both suffer by all such interference.
  • Let me assure my countrymen of the Southern States that it is my earnest desire to regard and promote their truest interest — the interests of the white and of the colored people both and equally — and to put forth my best efforts in behalf of a civil policy which will forever wipe out in our political affairs the color line and the distinction between North and South, to the end that we may have not merely a united North or a united South, but a united country.
  • The President of the United States of necessity owes his election to office to the suffrage and zealous labors of a political party, the members of which cherish with ardor and regard as of essential importance the principles of their party organization; but he should strive to be always mindful of the fact that he serves his party best who serves the country best.
  • It will be the duty of the Executive, with sufficient appropriations for the purpose, to prosecute unsparingly all who have been engaged in depriving citizens of the rights guaranteed to them by the Constitution.
    • Fourth State of the Union Address (1880-12-06)
  • The only road, the sure road to unquestioned credit and a sound financial condition is the exact and punctual fulfilment of every pecuniary obligation, public and private, according to its letter and spirit.
    • Speech at New England Society Dinner, Brooklyn (1880-12-21)
  • In avoiding the appearance of evil, I am not sure but I have sometimes unnecessarily deprived myself and others of innocent enjoyments.
    • As quoted in Rutherford B. Hayes, and His America (1954) by Harry Barnard. p. 481
  • That's an amazing invention, but who would ever want to use one of them?
    • To Alexander Graham Bell after a demonstration of the telephone, as quoted in Future Mind : The Microcomputer-New Medium, New Mental Environment (1982) by Edward J. Lias, p. 2
  • Fighting battles is like courting girls: those who make the most pretensions and are boldest usually win.
    • As quoted in The Complete Book of U.S. Presidents (1991) by William A. DeGregorio, p. 290

Diary and Letters of Rutherford Birchard Hayes (1922 - 1926)

Diary and Letters of Rutherford Birchard Hayes: Nineteenth President of the United States (5 vols. 1922 - 1926) edited by Charles Richard Williams, The Ohio State Archaeological and Historical Society
Is there anything in which the people of this age and country differ more from those of other lands and former times than in this — their ability to preserve order and protect rights without the aid of government?
Disunion and civil war are at hand; and yet I fear disunion and war less than compromise.
The man who thinks that the perpetuity of slavery is essential to the existence of the Union, is unfit to be trusted. The deadliest enemy the Union has is slavery…
War is a cruel business and there is brutality in it on all sides...
Perhaps the happiest moment of my life was then, when I saw that our line didn’t break and that the enemy’s did.
His success in his great office, his hold upon the confidence and affections of his countrymen, we shall all say are only second to Washington’s; we shall probably feel and think that they are not second even to his.
I have a talent for silence and brevity. I can keep silent when it seems best to do so, and when I speak I can, and do usually, quit when I am done.
My policy is trust, peace, and to put aside the bayonet.
As knowledge spreads, wealth spreads. To diffuse knowledge is to diffuse wealth. To give all an equal chance to acquire knowledge is the best and surest way to give all an equal chance to acquire property.
We are both physically very healthy.... Our tempers are cheerful. We are social and popular. But it is one of our greatest comforts that the pledge not to take a second term relieves us from considering it. That was a lucky thing.
Coming in, I was denounced as a fraud by all the extreme men of the opposing party, and as an ingrate and a traitor by the same class of men in my own party. Going out, I have the good will, blessings, and approval of the best people of all parties and sections.
Constitutional statutes ... which embody the settled public opinion of the people who enacted them and whom they are to govern — can always be enforced. But, if they embody only the sentiments of a bare majority…they are likely to injure the cause they are framed to advance.
Personally I do not resort to force — not even the force of law — to advance moral reforms. I prefer education, argument, persuasion, and above all the influence of example... Until these resources are exhausted I would not think of force.
We can travel longer, night and day, without losing our spirits than almost any persons we ever met.
  • For honest merit to succeed amid the tricks and intrigues which are now so lamentably common, I know is difficult; but the honor of success is increased by the obstacles which are to be surmounted. Let me triumph as a man or not at all.
  • Virtue is defined to be mediocrity, of which either extreme is vice.
  • Youth, however, is a defect that she is fast getting away from and may perhaps be entirely rid of before I shall want her.
    • About Lucy Webb, nine years his junior, whom he later married, in a letter to his sister, Fanny Hayes Platt (1847-10-23)
  • We have now become pretty well acquainted with the sugar-growing part of Texas. The life of a planter who has a fair start in the world is one of the most independent imaginable. We here find the pleasures of fashionable life without its tyranny. I doubt, however, whether a person of Northern education could so far forget his home-bred notions and feelings as ever to be thoroughly Southern on the subject of slavery. We have seen none of “the horrors” so often described, but on the other hand I have seen nothing to change my Northern opinions.
    • Letter to his mother, Sophia Birchard Hayes (1849-01-27)
  • Is there anything in which the people of this age and country differ more from those of other lands and former times than in this — their ability to preserve order and protect rights without the aid of government? ... We are realizing the paradox, “that country is governed best which is governed least.” I no longer fear lynch law. Let the people be intelligent and good, and I am not sure but their impulsive, instinctive verdicts and sentences and executions, unchecked by the rules and technicalities of law, are more likely to be according to substantial justice than the decisions of courts and juries.
  • Disunion and civil war are at hand; and yet I fear disunion and war less than compromise. We can recover from them. The free States alone, if we must go on alone, will make a glorious nation.
  • I never enjoyed any business or mode of life as much as I do this. I really feel badly when I think of several of my intimate friends who are compelled to stay at home. These marches and campaigns in the hills of western Virginia will always be among the pleasantest things I can remember. I know we are in frequent perils, that we may never return and all that, but the feeling that I am where I ought to be is a full compensation for all that is sinister, leaving me free to enjoy as if on a pleasure tour.
  • I still feel just as I told you, that I shall come safely out of this war. I felt so the other day when danger was near. I certainly enjoyed the excitement of fighting our way out of Giles to the Narrows as much as any excitement I ever experienced. I had a good deal of anxiety the first hour or two on account of my command, but not a particle on my own account. After that, and after I saw that we were getting on well, it was really jolly. We all joked and laughed and cheered constantly.
  • These semi-traitors [Union generals who were not hostile to slavery] must be watched. — Let us be careful who become army leaders in the reorganized army at the end of this Rebellion. The man who thinks that the perpetuity of slavery is essential to the existence of the Union, is unfit to be trusted. The deadliest enemy the Union has is slavery — in fact, its only enemy.
  • We have dancing ... from soon after sundown until a few minutes after nine o’clock.... Occasionally the boys who play the female partners in the dances exercise their ingenuity in dressing to look as girlish as possible. In the absence of lady duds they use leaves, and the leaf-clad beauties often look very pretty and always odd enough.
    • Letter to Sophia Birchard Hayes (1862-07-10)
  • You use the phrase “brutal Rebels.” Don’t be cheated in that way. There are enough “brutal Rebels” no doubt, but we have brutal officers and men too. I have had men brutally treated by our own officers on this raid [to Lynchburg, Va.]. And there are plenty of humane Rebels. I have seen a good deal of it on this trip. War is a cruel business and there is brutality in it on all sides, but it is very idle to get up anxiety on account of any supposed peculiar cruelty on the part of Rebels. Keepers of prisons in Cincinnati, as well as in Danville, are hard-hearted and cruel.
  • We now talk of our killed and wounded. There is however a very happy feeling. Those who escape regret of course the loss of comrades and friends, but their own escape and safety to some extent modifies their feelings.
  • When the weather is bad as it was yesterday, everybody, almost everybody, feels cross and gloomy. Our thin linen tents — about like a fish seine, the deep mud, the irregular mails, the never to-be-seen paymasters, and “the rest of mankind,” are growled about in “old-soldier” style. But a fine day like today has turned out brightens and cheers us all. We people in camp are merely big children, wayward and changeable.
  • General Crook gave me a very agreeable present this afternoon — a pair of his old brigadier-general straps. The stars are somewhat dimmed by hard service, but will correspond pretty well with my rusty old blouse. Of course I am very much gratified by the promotion. I know perfectly well that the rank has been conferred on all sorts of small people and so cheapened shamefully, but I can’t help feeling that getting it at the close of a most bloody campaign on the recommendation of fighting generals like Crook and Sheridan is a different thing.
  • We had an inspection today of the brigade. The Twenty-third was pronounced the crack regiment in appearance, ... [but] I could see only six to ten in a company of the old men. They all smiled as I rode by. But as I passed away I couldn’t help dropping a few natural tears. I felt as I did when I saw them mustered in at Camp Chase.
  • Perhaps the happiest moment of my life was then, when I saw that our line didn’t break and that the enemy’s did.
    • About the success of the crucial charge he led at Opequon, in a letter to Sardis Birchard (1864-12-20)
  • While your rheumatism stays with you I naturally feel anxious to hear often. If you should be so unlucky as to become a cripple, it will certainly be bad, but you may be sure I shall be still a loving husband, and we shall make the best of it together.
  • As to Mr. Lincoln’s name and fame and memory, — all is safe. His firmness, moderation, goodness of heart; his quaint humor, his perfect honesty and directness of purpose; his logic his modesty his sound judgment, and great wisdom; the contrast between his obscure beginnings and the greatness of his subsequent position and achievements; his tragic death, giving him almost the crown of martyrdom, elevate him to a place in history second to none other of ancient or modern times. His success in his great office, his hold upon the confidence and affections of his countrymen, we shall all say are only second to Washington’s; we shall probably feel and think that they are not second even to his.
  • I feel the desire to be with you all the time. Oh, an occasional absence of a week or two is a good thing to give one the happiness of meeting again, but this living apart is in all ways bad. We have had our share of separate life during the four years of war. There is nothing in the small ambition of Congressional life, or in the gratified vanity which it sometimes affords, to compensate for separation from you. We must manage to live together hereafter. I can’t stand this, and will not.
  • I am a freeman and jolly as a beggar.
    • On retiring as governor of Ohio, in a letter to William Johnston (1872-01-07)
  • I have a talent for silence and brevity. I can keep silent when it seems best to do so, and when I speak I can, and do usually, quit when I am done. This talent, or these two talents, I have cultivated. Silence and concise, brief speaking have got me some laurels, and, I suspect, lost me some. No odds. Do what is natural to you, and you are sure to get all the recognition you are entitled to.
  • I regard the inflation acts as wrong in all ways. Personally I am one of the noble army of debtors, and can stand it if others can. But it is a wretched business.
    • Letter to Austin Birchard (1874-04-21), when he was approximately $46,000 in debt.
  • My only objection to the arrangements there is the two-in-a-bed system. It is bad.... But let your words and conduct be perfectly pure — such as your mother might know without bringing a blush to your cheek.... If not already mentioned, do not tell your mother of the doubling in bed.
    • Letter to his son, Rutherford P. Hayes (1875-02-26)
  • I hope you will be benefitted by your churchgoing. Where the habit does not Christianize, it generally civilizes. That is reason enough for supporting churches, if there were no higher.
  • Every age has its temptations, its weaknesses, its dangers. Ours is in the line of the snobbish and the sordid.
  • My speaking is irregular. Sometimes quite good, sometimes not, but generally will do... I am too far along in experience and years both for this business. I do not go into [it] with the zest of old times. Races, baseball, and politics are for the youngsters.
  • My policy is trust, peace, and to put aside the bayonet. I do not think the wise policy is to decide contested elections in the States by the use of the national army.
  • I am not liked as a President by the politicians in office, in the press, or in Congress. But I am content to abide the judgment — the sober second thought — of the people.
  • General education is the best preventive of the evils now most dreaded. In the civilized countries of the world, the question is how to distribute most generally and equally the property of the world. As a rule, where education is most general the distribution of property is most general.... As knowledge spreads, wealth spreads. To diffuse knowledge is to diffuse wealth. To give all an equal chance to acquire knowledge is the best and surest way to give all an equal chance to acquire property.
  • There can be no complete and permanent reform of the civil service until public opinion emancipates congressmen from all control and influence over government patronage. Legislation is required to establish the reform. No proper legislation is to be expected as long as members of Congress are engaged in procuring offices for their constituents.
  • We can travel longer, night and day, without losing our spirits than almost any persons we ever met.
  • I am heartily tired of this life of bondage, responsibility, and toil. I wish it was at an end.... We are both physically very healthy.... Our tempers are cheerful. We are social and popular. But it is one of our greatest comforts that the pledge not to take a second term relieves us from considering it. That was a lucky thing. It is a reform — or rather a precedent for a reform, which will be valuable.
  • Let every man, every corporation, and especially let every village, town, and city, every county and State, get out of debt and keep out of debt. It is the debtor that is ruined by hard times.
  • Nobody ever left the presidency with less regret, less disappointment, fewer heart burnings, or any general content with the result of his term (in his own heart, I mean) than I do. Full of difficulty and trouble at first, I now find myself on smooth waters and under bright skies.
  • Coming in, I was denounced as a fraud by all the extreme men of the opposing party, and as an ingrate and a traitor by the same class of men in my own party. Going out, I have the good will, blessings, and approval of the best people of all parties and sections.
  • One of its [James A. Garfield’s assassination] lessons, perhaps its most important lesson, is the folly, the wickedness, and the danger of the extreme and bitter partisanship which so largely prevails in our country. This partisan bitterness is greatly aggravated by that system of appointments and removals which deals with public offices as rewards for services rendered to political parties or to party leaders. Hence crowds of importunate place-hunters of whose dregs Guiteau is the type. The required reform [of the civil service] will be accomplished whenever the people imperatively demand it, not only of their Executive, but also of their legislative officers. With it, the class to which the assassin belongs will lose their occupation, and the temptation to try “to administer government by assassination” will be taken away.
  • The debt was the most sacred obligation incurred during the war. It was by no means the largest in amount. We do not haggle with those who lent us money. We should not with those who gave health and blood and life. If doors are opened to fraud, contrive to close them. But don’t deny the obligation, or scold at its performance.
    • About the Arrears of Pensions Act (1879) for disabled Union veterans, which Hayes cheerfully signed, which was roundly criticized as too expensive and too open to fraud by unscrupulous veterans fabricating service-related injuries.
    • Letter to William Henry Smith (1881-12-19)
  • Constitutional statutes ... which embody the settled public opinion of the people who enacted them and whom they are to govern — can always be enforced. But if they embody only the sentiments of a bare majority, pronounced under the influence of a temporary excitement, they will, if strenuously opposed, always fail of their object; nay, they are likely to injure the cause they are framed to advance.
  • The general review of the past tends to satisfy me with my political life. No man, I suppose, ever came up to his ideal. The first half [of] my political life was first to resist the increase of slavery and secondly to destroy it.... The second half of my political life has been to rebuild, and to get rid of the despotic and corrupting tendencies and the animosities of the war, and other legacies of slavery.
  • Personally I do not resort to force — not even the force of law — to advance moral reforms. I prefer education, argument, persuasion, and above all the influence of example — of fashion. Until these resources are exhausted I would not think of force.
    • On attempts at an alcohol prohibition amendment, in his Diary (1883-10-09)
  • Every good cause gained a victory when the Union troops were triumphant. Our final victory was the triumph of religion, of virtue, of knowledge.... During those four years, whatever our motives, whatever our lives, we were fighting on God’s side. We were doing His work. What would this country have been if we had failed?
  • The [Loyal] legion has taken the place of the club — the famous Cincinnati Literary Club — in my affections.... The military circles are interested in the same things with myself, and so we endure, if not enjoy, each other.
  • Strikes and boycotting are akin to war, and can be justified only on grounds analogous to those which justify war, viz., intolerable injustice and oppression.
  • The real difficulty is with the vast wealth and power in the hands of the few and the unscrupulous who represent or control capital. Hundreds of laws of Congress and the state legislatures are in the interest of these men and against the interests of workingmen. These need to be exposed and repealed. All laws on corporations, on taxation, on trusts, wills, descent, and the like, need examination and extensive change. This is a government of the people, by the people, and for the people no longer. It is a government of corporations, by corporations, and for corporations. — How is this?
  • The sacred obligation to the Union soldiers must not — will not be forgotten nor neglected.... But those who fought against the Nation cannot and do not look to it for relief.... Confederate soldiers and their descendants are to share with us and our descendants the destiny of America. Whatever, therefore, we their fellow citizens can do to remove burdens from their shoulders and to brighten their lives is surely in the pathway of humanity and patriotism.
  • Unjust attacks on public men do them more good than unmerited praise.
  • Abolish plutocracy if you would abolish poverty. As millionaires increase, pauperism grows. The more millionaires, the more paupers.
  • The progress of society is mainly ... the improvement in the condition of the workingmen of the world.
  • Do not let your bachelor ways crystallize so that you can’t soften them when you come to have a wife and a family of your own.
  • Wars will remain while human nature remains. I believe in my soul in cooperation, in arbitration; but the soldier’s occupation we cannot say is gone until human nature is gone.
  • The unrestricted competition so commonly advocated does not leave us the survival of the fittest. The unscrupulous succeed best in accumulating wealth.
  • Partisanship should be kept out of the pulpit... The blindest of partisans are preachers. All politicians expect and find more candor, fairness, and truth in politicians than in partisan preachers. They are not replied to — no chance to reply to them.... The balance wheel of free institutions is free discussion. The pulpit allows no free discussion.
  • Conscience is the authentic voice of God to you.
    • Letter to his son, Scott R. Hayes (1892-03-08)
  • One of the tests of the civilization of people is the treatment of its criminals.
  • All appointments hurt. Five friends are made cold or hostile for every appointment; no new friends are made. All patronage is perilous to men of real ability or merit. It aids only those who lack other claims to public support.

Quotes about Hayes

Torpedoes in His Path: Can he, with that load, get through without exploding them?
  • His public service extended over many years and over a wide range of official duty. He was a patriotic citizen, a lover of the flag and of our free institutions, an industrious and conscientious civil officer, a soldier of dauntless courage, a loyal comrade and friend, a sympathetic and helpful neighbor, and the honored head of a happy Christian home. He has steadily grown in the public esteem, and the impartial historian will not fail to recognize the conscientiousness, the manliness, and the courage that so strongly characterized his whole public career.
  • Torpedoes in His Path: Can he, with that load, get through without exploding them?
  • The purity of his private and personal life was never questioned, and during his term of office at Washington there was a distinct elevating of the tone and standard of official life. There is no doubt that his Administrations served a very useful purpose in the transition from sectional antagonism to national harmony, and from the old methods of dealing with the public service as party spoils to the new method of placing ascertained merit and demonstrated fitness above party service or requirements. It was an inevitable consequence that he should lose popularity and political influence in serving these important ends, but the value of his services will nevertheless be permanently recognized.

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(Redirected to Rutherford B. Hayes (1822) article)

From Familypedia

Rutherford Hayes 
Birth October 4, 1822 in "Delaware"
Death: January 17, 1893 in "Fremont"
Skill(s): Lawyer
Companion: Lucy Webb Hayes
Sex:
Signature:
Edit facts

Rutherford Hayes was born 4 October 1822 and died 17 January 1893 at the age of 70 years of unspecified causes.

Rutherford Birchard Hayes (October 4, 1822 – January 17, 1893) was an American politician, lawyer, military leader and the 19th President of the United States (1877–1881). Hayes was elected President by one electoral vote after the highly disputed election of 1876. Losing the popular vote to his opponent, Samuel Tilden, Hayes was the only president whose election was decided by a congressional commission.


For a detailed biography, see the Biography tab.

1880 US Census

President Hayes was president of the US during the 1880 US Census, and oddly enough, his household was improperly counted twice in the Federal Census of that year - once in Ohio and again in D.C.

1880 US Census - Ohio

Transcription of Federal Census - Fremont, Sandusky, Ohio

 

Household:

 Name  Relation Marital Status Gender Race Age Birthplace Occupation Father's Birthplace Mother's Birthplace
Rutherford B. HAYES   Self   M   Male   W   57   OH   President Of U.S.   VT   VT 
Lucy Webb HAYES   Wife   M   Female   W   48   OH      KY   OH 
Webb C. HAYES   Son   S   Male   W   24   OH   Sec'Y.   OH   OH 
Rutherford P. HAYES   Son   S   Male   W   21   OH   Student   OH   OH 
Fanny HAYES   Dau   S   Female   W   12   OH   At Home   OH   OH 
Scott R. HAYES   Son   S   Male   W   9   OH   At Home   OH   OH 
Winnie MONROE   Other   M   Female   B   35   OH   Domestic Servant   ---   --- 
Mary F. MONROE   Other   S   Female   B   18   ---   Domestic Servant   ---   --- 
Isaiah LANCASTER   Other   S   Male   B   27   OH   Domestic Servant   ---   --- 

1880 US Census - Washington DC

Transcription of US Census -Census Place Washington, Washington, D.C., District of Columbia

 

Household:

 Name  Relation Marital Status Gender Race Age Birthplace Occupation Father's Birthplace Mother's Birthplace
Rutherford B. HAYES   Self   M   Male   W   57   OH   President Of The U.S.   VT   VT 
Lucy W. HAYES   Wife   M   Female   W   48   OH   Keeping House   KY   OH 
Fanny R. HAYES   Dau   S   Female   W   12   OH   Attends School   OH   OH 
Scott R. HAYES   Son   S   Male   W   9   OH   Attends School   OH   OH 
Winnie MONROE   Other   W   Female   MU   50   KY   Servant   KY   KY 
Mary MONROE   Other   S   Female   MU   23   OH   Servant   KY   KY 
Anna E. O'BRIEN   Other   S   Female   W   45   IRE   Servant   IRE   IRE 
Mary A. BURNS   Other   M   Female   W   36   SCO   Servant   SCO   SCO 
Mary J. BURNS   Other   S   Female   W   3   DC   At Home   MA   SCO 

Citations and remarks

‡ General

Contributors

 

This article uses material from the "Rutherford B. Hayes (1822)" article on the Genealogy wiki at Wikia and is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike License.

Simple English

Rutherford B. Hayes
File:President Rutherford Hayes 1870 -


In office
March 4, 1877 – March 3, 1881
Vice President William Wheeler
Preceded by Ulysses S. Grant
Succeeded by James A. Garfield

Born October 4, 1822
Delaware, Ohio
Died January 17, 1893
Fremont, Ohio
Nationality American
Political party Republican
Spouse Lucy Webb Ware Hayes

Rutherford Birchard Hayes (October 4, 1822 - January 17, 1893) was the 19th President of the United States. He served only one term, from 1877 to 1881. Hayes was a Republican. He was elected governor of Ohio three times before becoming president. Hayes barely won the election of 1876, only defeating Democratic opponent Samuel Tilden after a Congressional committee gave Hayes some disputed electoral votes.

Contents

Early life

Hayes was born in Delaware, Ohio. He went to Kenyon College in Gambier, Ohio, and then went to Harvard Law School. After graduating from law school, he became a lawyer.[1] In 1849, he joined the Republican Party, which was new then, because he was against slavery.[2] In 1852, he married Lucy Webb, a woman who was also against slavery. In the 1860s, he served in the American Civil War on the Union side, and became a major general. After the war ended, he was elected to the U.S. House of Representatives as a part of the Republican Party. In 1867, he became the governor of Ohio.

The election of 1876

Ulysses S. Grant had been president since 1869, and was not going to run for president a third time in 1876. Grant was a member of the Republican Party, and while he was president, became known for allowing corruption to go on around him. The Republican Party did not want people to think that everybody in the party was corrupt, so they decided to make Hayes their candidate. They thought he was a good candidate because he had made many changes in Ohio while he was governor there that people thought were good, and because he was thought to have been a hero in the Civil War.

Grant ran against Samuel Tilden, whom the Democratic Party nominated. The election was close, and many people who did not think that Hayes fairly won the election called him "His Fraudulency".[3] Tilden actually got more votes than Hayes, but Hayes got 185 votes in the Electoral College, while Tilden got 184, so Hayes won the election.[4]

As president

While he was president, Hayes ended the Reconstruction period that followed the American Civil War. He ordered military forces that had been in the Southern states to leave. He also sent federal troops to end a railroad strike. Hayes refused to seek a second term as president.

After being president

After being president, Hayes retired to Fremont, Ohio. He spent time talking about his beliefs that all children should have the chance to go to school, that people who had been in the military should get their fair payments for their service, and that people in prisons should be treated better.[5]

Other websites

References

  1. Rawley, James. To The Best of My Abilities: The American Presidents. ed. James McPherson
  2. "The Rutherford B. Hayes Presidential Center". rbhayes.org. http://www.rbhayes.org/hayes/president/. Retrieved July 1, 2010. 
  3. "Rutherford B. Hayes". npg.si.edu. http://www.npg.si.edu/exh/hall2/ruthers.htm. Retrieved July 1, 2010. 
  4. "American Experience . The Presidents . Rutherford Birchard Hayes". pbs.org. http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/presidents/19_hayes/index.html. Retrieved July 1, 2010. 
  5. "The Rutherford B. Hayes Presidential Center". rbhayes.org. http://www.rbhayes.org/hayes/president/. Retrieved July 1, 2010. 
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