Rutherfordium: Wikis


Note: Many of our articles have direct quotes from sources you can cite, within the Wikipedia article! This article doesn't yet, but we're working on it! See more info or our list of citable articles.


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia



General properties
Name, symbol, number rutherfordium, Rf, 104
Element category transition metal
Group, period, block 47, d
Standard atomic weight [267]g·mol−1
Electron configuration [Rn] 5f14 6d2 7s2
Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 10, 2
(predicted) (Image)
Physical properties
Phase Unknown
Atomic properties
Oxidation states 4
CAS registry number 53850-36-5
Most stable isotopes
Main article: Isotopes of rutherfordium
iso NA half-life DM DE (MeV) DP
267Rf syn 1.3 h SF
263aRf? syn ~15 m SF
α 7.90 ?
263bRf syn 8 s SF
262Rf syn 210 ms SF
261aRf syn 1.1 m α 8.28 257No
261bRf syn 3.0 s 91% SF
9% α 8.51 257No
260Rf syn 22.2 ms SF
259Rf syn 2.5 s ~85% α 8.87,8.77 255No
~15% EC (SF?) 259Lr
258Rf syn 14.7 ms 31% α 9.05,8.96 254No
69% SF
257mRf syn 4.0 s α 9.02,8.97 253No
257gRf syn 3.5 s 89% α 8.90,8.78,8.52,8.28 253No
11% ε 257Lr
256gRf syn 6.2 ms 99.7% SF
0.3% α 8.79 252No
256m1Rf syn 25 µs γ 256gRf
256m2Rf syn 17 µs γ 256m1Rf
256m3Rf syn 27 µs γ 256m2Rf
255Rf syn 1.8 s ~50% α 8.81,8.77,8.74,8.71 251No
~50% SF
254Rf syn 22 µs SF
253Rf syn 48 µs SF
Problems listening to this file? See media help.

Rutherfordium (pronounced /ˌrʌðərˈfɔrdiəm/ RUDH-ər-FOR-dee-əm) is a chemical element with the symbol Rf and atomic number 104. This is a radioactive synthetic element whose most stable known isotope is 267Rf with a half-life of approximately 1.3 hours. Chemistry experiments have confirmed that rutherfordium behaves as the heavier homologue to hafnium in group 4 (see below).





Element 104 was reportedly first detected in 1966 at the Joint Institute of Nuclear Research at Dubna (then in U.S.S.R.). Researchers there bombarded 242Pu with accelerated 22Ne ions and separated the reaction products by gradient thermochromatography after conversion to chlorides by interaction with ZrCl4. The team identified a spontaneous fission activity contained within a volatile chloride portraying eka-hafnium properties. Although a half-life was not accurately determined, later calculations indicated that the product was most likely 259Rf:[1]

24294Pu + 2210Ne264-x104Rf264-x104RfCl4

In 1969 researchers at the University of California, Berkeley conclusively synthesized the element by bombarding a californium-249 target with carbon-12 ions and measured the alpha decay of 257104, correlated with the daughter decay of 253102. [2]

24998Cf + 126C257104Rf + 4 n

The American synthesis was independently confirmed in 1973 and secured the identification of element 104 as the parent by the observation of K X-rays in the elemental signature of the daughter 253No. [3]

Naming controversy

The Russian scientists proposed the name Kurchatovium for the new element. The American scientists proposed the name Rutherfordium for the new element.

In 1992 the IUPAC/IUPAP Transfermium Working Group (TWG) assessed the claims of discovery and concluded that both teams provided contemporaneous evidence to the synthesis of element 104 and that credit should be shared between the two groups.[1]

The American group wrote a scathing response to the findings of the TWG, stating that they had given too much emphasis on the results from the Dubna group. In particular they pointed out that the Russian group had altered the details of their claims several times over a period of 20 years, a fact that the Russian team does not deny. They also stressed that the TWG had given too much credence to the chemistry experiments performed by the Russians and accused the TWG of not having appropriately qualified personnel on the committee. The TWG responded by saying that this was not the case and having assessed each point raised by the American group said that they found no reason to alter their conclusion regarding priority of discovery. [4] The IUPAC finally used the name suggested by the American team (rutherfordium) which may in some way reflect a change of opinion.[5]

As a consequence of the initial competing claims of discovery, an element naming controversy arose. Since the Soviets claimed to have first detected the new element they suggested the name kurchatovium, Ku, in honor of Igor Vasilevich Kurchatov (1903-1960), former head of Soviet nuclear research. This name had been used in books of the Soviet Bloc as the official name of the element. The Americans, however, proposed rutherfordium (Rf) for the new element to honor Ernest Rutherford, who is known as the "father" of nuclear physics. The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) adopted unnilquadium , Unq, as a temporary, systematic element name, derived from the Latin names for digits 1, 0, and 4. In 1994, IUPAC suggested the name dubnium to be used since rutherfordium was suggested for element 106 and IUPAC felt that the Dubna team should be rightly recognised for their contributions. However, there was still a dispute over the names of elements 104-107. However in 1997 the teams involved resolved the dispute and adopted the current name rutherfordium.[5]

Future experiments

The team at GSI are planning to perform first detailed spectroscopic studies on the isotope 259Rf. It will be produced in the new reaction:

23892U + 2412Mg259104Rf + 3 n

Isotopes and nuclear properties


Cold fusion

208Pb(50Ti,xn)258-xRf (x=1,2,3)

This reaction was first studied in 1974 by the team at Dubna. They measured a spontaneous fission activity assigned to 256Rf. [6] The reaction was further studied in 1985 by the GSI team who measured the decay properties of the isotopes 257Rf and 256Rf. The team were able to determine some initial spectroscopic properties of 257Rf and found that the alpha decay pattern was very complicated. [7]

After an upgrade of their facilities, they repeated the reaction in 1994 with much higher sensitivity and detected some 1100 atoms of 257Rf and 1900 atoms of 256Rf along with 255Rf in the measurement of the 1n,2n and 3n excitation functions. The large amount of decay data for 257Rf allowed the detection of an isomeric level and the construction of a partial decay level structure which confirmed the very complicated alpha decay pattern. They also found evidence for an isomeric level in 255Rf. [8] The GSI team continued in 2001 with the measurement of the 3n excitation function. In 2002, scientists at the Argonne University in Illinois began their first studies of translawrencium elements with the synthesis and alpha-gamma spectroscopy of 257Rf.[9] In 2004, the GSI began their spectroscopic studies of the 257Rf isotope. In 2007, the LBNL studied the 2n product, 256Rf, in a search for K-isomers and discovered three such isomers.[10]

Currently suggested decay level scheme for 255Rf from the study reported in 2007 by Hessberger et al. at GSI[citation needed]
207Pb(50Ti,xn)257-xRf (x=2)

This reaction was first studied in 1974 by the team at Dubna. They measured a spontaneous fission activity assigned to 255Rf. The reaction was further studied in 1985 by the GSI team who measured the decay properties of the isotope 255Rf. A further spectroscopic study was reported in 2000 which led to a first decay level scheme for the isotope.[11] The isomeric level proposed in 1994 was not found. In 2006, the spectroscopy was continued and the decay scheme was confirmed and improved. [12]

206Pb(50Ti,xn)256-xRf (x=1,2)

The team at GSI first studied this reaction in 1994 in an effort to study neutron deficient isotopes of rutherfordium. They were able to detect 255Rf and 144 atoms of the new isotope 254Rf, which decayed by spontaneous fission.[8]

204Pb(50Ti,xn)254-xRf (x=1)

The team at GSI first studied this reaction in 1994 in an effort to study neutron deficient isotopes of rutherfordium. They were able to detect 14 atoms of the new isotope 253Rf, which decayed by spontaneous fission.[8]

208Pb(48Ti,xn)256-xRf (x=1)

In 2006, as part of a program looking at the effect of isospin on the mechanism of cold fusion, the team at LBNL studied this reaction. They measured the 1n excitation function and determined that the change of a Ti-50 projectile to a Ti-48 one significantly reduced the yield, in agreement with predictions. [13]


In an important study, in May 2004, the team at GSI attempted the symmetric synthesis of rutherfordium by attempting to fuse two fission fragments. Theory suggests that there may be an enhancement of the yield. No product atoms were detected and a limit of 1000 pb was calculated.

Hot fusion

238U(26Mg,xn)264-xRf (x=3,4,5,6)

The hot fusion reaction using a uranium target was first reported in 2000 by Yuri Lazarev and the team at the Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions (FLNR). They were able to observe decays from 260Rf and 259Rf in the 4n and 5n channels. [14] They measured yields of 240 pb in the 4n channel and 1.1 nb in the 5n channel. In 2006, as part of their program on the study of uranium targets in hot fusion reactions, the team at LBNL measured the 4n,5n and 6n excitation functions for this reaction and observed 261Rf in the 3n exit channel.[15][16]

244Pu(22Ne,xn)266-xRf (x=4,5)

This reaction was reported in 1996 at LBNL in an attempt to study the fission characteristics of 262Rf. The team were able to detect the spontaneous fission (SF) of 262Rf and determine its half-life as 2.1 s, in contrast to earlier reports of a 47 ms activity. It was suggested that the two half-lives may be related to different isomeric states. [17] The reaction was further studied in 2000 by Yuri Lazarev and the team at Dubna. They were able to observe 69 alpha decays from 261Rf and spontaneous fission of 262Rf. [18] Later work on hassium has allowed a reassignment of the 5n product to 261mRf.

242Pu(22Ne,xn)264-xRf (x=3,4?,5?)

The synthesis of element 104 was first attempted in 1964 by the team at Dubna using this reaction. The first study produced evidence for a 0.3 s SF activity tentatively assigned to 260104 or 259104 and an unidentified 8 s SF activity. The former activity was later retracted and the latter activity associated with the now-known 259104.[1] In 1966, in their discovery experiment, the team repeated the reaction using a chemical study of volatile chloride products. The group was able to identify a volatile chloride decaying by short spontaneous fission with eka-hafnium properties. This gave strong evidence for the formation of [104]Cl4 and the team suggested the name kurchatovium. Although a half-life was not accurately measured, later evidence suggested that the product was most likely 259104. [1] In 1968, the team searched for alpha decay from 260104 but were unable to detect such activity. In 1970, the team repeated the reaction once again and confirmed the ~0.2 s SF activity. They also repeated the chemistry experiment and obtained identical results to their 1966 experiment and calculated a likely half-life of ~0.5 seconds for the SF activity. In 1971, the reaction was repeated again and 0.1 s and 4.5 s SF activities were found. The 4.5 s activity was correctly assigned to 259104.[1] A chemistry experiment in the same year reaffirmed the formation of a 0.3 SF activity for an eka-hafnium product.[1] Later, the 0.1-0.3 s SF activity was retracted as belonging to a kurchatovium isotope but the observation of eka-hafnium reactivity remained and was the basis of their successful claim to discovery.[1] The reaction was further studied in 2000 by Yuri Lazarev at Dubna. They were able to observe 261Rf in the 3n channel, later reassigned to 261mRf.


This reaction was first studied in 1964 to assist in the assignments using the analogous reaction with a Ne-22 beam. The Dubna team were unable to detect any 0.3 s spontaneous fission activities.[1] The reaction was later studied in 2003 at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) in Bern, Switzerland. They detected some spontaneous fission activities but were unable to confirm the formation of 259Rf.[19]

248Cm(22Ne,αxn)266-xRf (x=3?)

This reaction was studied in 1999 at the University of Bern, Switzerland in order to search for the new isotope 263Rf. A rutherfordium fraction was separated and several SF events with long lifetimes and alpha decays with energy 7.8 MeV and 7.9 MeV were observed. A second experiment using a study of the fluoride of rutherfordium products also produced 7.9 MeV alpha decays.[20]

248Cm(18O,xn)266-xRf (x=3?,5)

This reaction was first studied in 1970 by Albert Ghiorso at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). The team identified 261Rf in the 5n channel using the method of correlation of genetic parent-daughter decays. A half-life of 65 s was determined. [21] A repeat later that year using cation exchange chromatography indicated that the product did not form a +2 or +3 cation and behaved as eka-hafnium. A study of the properties of rutherfordium isotopes was performed in 1981 at the LBNL. In a series of reactions, a 1.5 s SF activity was identified and assigned to a fermium descendant although later evidence indicates a possible assignment to 262Rf. In contrast, in a subsequent review of isotope properties by Somerville et al. at LBNL in 1985, a 47 ms SF activity was assigned to 262Rf. This assignment has not been verified. [22] The reaction was further studied in 1991 by Czerwinski et al. at the LBNL. In this experiment, spontaneous fission activities with long lifetimes were observed in rutherfordium fractions and tentatively assigned to 263Rf. In 1996, chemical studies on the chloride of rutherfordium was published by the LBNL. In this experiment, the half-life was improved to 78 s. A repeat of the experiment in 2000 assessing the volatility of the bromide further refined the half-life to 75 s.

248Cm(16O,xn)264-xRf (x=4)

This reaction was studied in 1969 by Albert Ghiorso at the University of California. The aim was to detect the 0.1-0.3 s SF activity reported at Dubna, assigned to 260104. They were unable to do so, only observing a 10-30 ms SF activity, correctly assigned to 260104. The failure to observe the 0.3 s SF activity identified by Dubna gave the Americans the incentive to name this element rutherfordium.[1]


In an attempt to unravel the properties of spontaneous fission activities in the formation of rutherfordium isotopes, this reaction was performed in 1976 by the FLNR. They observed an 80 ms SF activity. Subsequent work led to the complete retraction of the 0.3s - 0.1s - 80 ms SF activities observed by the Dubna team and associated with background signals.[1]

249Bk(15N,xn)264-xRf (x=4)

This reaction was studied in 1977 by the team in Dubna. They were able to confirm the detection of a 76 ms SF activity. The assignment to rutherfordium isotopes was later retracted. The LBNL re-studied the reaction in 1980 and in 1981 they reported that they were unable to confirm the ~80 ms SF activity. The Dubna team were able to measure a 28 ms SF activity in 1985 and assigned the isotope correctly to 260104.[1]

249Cf(13C,xn)262-xRf (x=4)

This use of californium-249 as a target was first studied by Albert Ghiorso and the team at the University of California in 1969. They were able to observe a 11 ms SF activity which they correctly assigned to 258104.[2]

Currently suggested decay level scheme for 257Rfg,m from the study performed in 2004 by Hessberger et al. at GSI[citation needed]
249Cf(12C,xn)261-xRf (x=3,4)

In their 1969 discovery experiments, the team at University of California also used a C-12 beam to irradiate a Cf-249 target. They were able to confirm the 11 ms SF activity found with a C-13 beam and again correctly assigned to 258104. The actual discovery experiment was the observation of alpha decays genetically linked to 253102 and therefore positively identified as 257104.[2] In 1973, Bemis and his team at Oak Ridge confirmed the discovery by measuring coincident X-rays from the daughter 253102.[3]

As decay product

Isotopes of rutherfordium have also been identified in the decay of heavier elements. Observations to date are summarised in the table below:

Evaporation Residue Observed Rf isotope
288Uup 268Rf (possible EC of 268Db)
291Uuh , 287Uuq , 283Cn 267Rf
282Uut 266Rf (EC of 266Db)
271Hs 263gRf
263Db 263mRf (EC of 263Db)
266Sg (possibly 266mSg) 262Rf (possibly 262mRf)
277Cn , 273Ds , 269Hs , 265Sg 261mRf , 261Rf
271Ds , 267Hs , 263Sg 259Rf
269Ds , 265Hs , 261Sg 257Rf
264Hs , 260Sg 256Rf
259Sg 255Rf

Chronology of Isotope Discovery

Isotope Discovered Reaction
253Rf 1994 204Pb(50Ti,n) [8]
254Rf 1994 206Pb(50Ti,2n) [8]
255Rf 1974? 1985 207Pb(50Ti,2n)
256Rfg 1974? 1985 208Pb(50Ti,2n)
256Rfm1 2007 208Pb(50Ti,2n)
256Rfm2 2007 208Pb(50Ti,2n)
256Rfm3 2007 208Pb(50Ti,2n)
257Rfg,m 1969 249Cf(12C,4n) [2]
258Rf 1969 249Cf(13C,4n) [2]
259Rf 1969 249Cf(13C,3n) [2]
260Rf 1969 248Cm(16O,4n)
261Rfa 1970 248Cm(18O,5n) [21]
261Rfb 1996 208Pb(70Zn,n) [23]
262Rf 1996 244Pu(22Ne,4n) [17]
263Rfa 1990? 248Cm(18O,3n)
263Rfb 2004 248Cm(26Mg,3n) [24]
264Rf unknown
265Rf unknown
266Rf? 2006 237Np(48Ca,3n) [25]
267Rf 2003/2004 238U(48Ca,3n) [23]
268Rf? 2003 243Am(48Ca,3n) [26]

Unconfirmed and retracted isotopes


In the synthesis of ununpentium, the isotope 288115 has been observed to decay to 268Db which undergoes spontaneous fission with a half life of 29 hours. Given that the electron capture of 268Db cannot be detected, these SF events may in fact be due to the SF of 268Rf, in which case the half-life of this isotope cannot be extracted. [26]


In the synthesis of ununtrium, the isotope 282113 has been observed to decay to 266Db which undergoes spontaneous fission with a half life of 22 minutes. Given that the electron capture of 266Db cannot be detected, these SF events may in fact be due to the SF of 266Rf, in which case the half-life of this isotope cannot be extracted. [25]


In 1999, American scientists at the University of California, Berkeley, announced that they has succeeded in synthesizing three atoms of 293118. These parent nuclei successively emitted seven alpha particles to form 265Rf nuclei. Their claim was retracted in 2001. As such, this rutherfordium isotope is unconfirmed or unknown.[27]


A detailed spectroscopic study of the production of 255Rf nuclei using the reaction 206Pb(50Ti,n)255Rf allowed the tentative identification of an isomeric level in 255Rf. A more detailed study later confirmed that this was not the case.

Nuclear isomerism


Initial work on the synthesis of rutherfordium isotopes by hot fusion pathways focussed on the synthesis of 263Rf. Several studies have indicated that this nuclide decays primarily by spontaneous fission with a long half-life of 10–20 minutes. Alpha particles with energy 7.8-7.9 MeV have also been associated with this nucleus. More recently, a study of hassium isotopes allowed the synthesis of an atom of 263Rf decaying by spontaneous fission with a short half-life of 8 seconds. These two different decay modes must be associated with two isomeric states. Specific assignments are difficult due to the low number of observed events. Further studies are required to allow definite assignments.


Early research on the synthesis of rutherfordium isotopes utilised the 244Pu(22Ne,5n)261Rf reaction. The product was found to undergo exclusive 8.28 MeV alpha decay with a half-life of 78 seconds. Later studies by the GSI team on the synthesis of element 112 and hassium isotopes produced conflicting data. In this case, 261Rf was found to undergo 8.52 MeV alpha decay with a short half-life of 4 seconds. Later results indicated a predominant fission branch. These contradictions led to some doubt on the discovery of element 112. The first isomer is currently denoted 261aRf whilst the second is denoted 261bRf. However, it is thought that the first nucleus belongs to a high-spin ground state and the latter to a low-spin metastable state. [28] The discovery and confirmation of 261bRf provided proof for the discovery of copernicium in 1996.


A detailed spectroscopic study of the production of 257Rf nuclei using the reaction 208Pb(50Ti,n)257Rf allowed the identification of an isomeric level in 257Rf. The work confirmed that 257gRf has a very complicated spectrum with as many as 15 alpha lines. A level structure diagram was calculated for both isomers.

Chemical yields of isotopes

Cold fusion

The table below provides cross-sections and excitation energies for cold fusion reactions producing rutherfordium isotopes directly. Data in bold represents maxima derived from excitation function measurements. + represents an observed exit channel.

Projectile Target CN 1n 2n 3n
50Ti 208Pb 258Rf 38.0 nb , 17.0 MeV 12.3 nb , 21.5 MeV 660 pb , 29.0 MeV
50Ti 207Pb 257Rf 4.8 nb
50Ti 206Pb 256Rf 800 pb , 21.5 MeV 2.4 nb , 21.5 MeV
50Ti 204Pb 254Rf 190 pb , 15.6 MeV
48Ti 208Pb 256Rf 380 pb , 17.0 MeV

Hot fusion

The table below provides cross-sections and excitation energies for hot fusion reactions producing rutherfordium isotopes directly. Data in bold represents maxima derived from excitation function measurements. + represents an observed exit channel.

Projectile Target CN 3n 4n 5n
26Mg 238U 264Rf 240 pb 1.1 nb
22Ne 244Pu 266Rf + 4.0 nb
18O 248Cm 266Rf + 13.0 nb

Chemical properties

Electronic structure

Rutherfordium is element 104 in the Periodic Table. The two forms of the projected electronic structure are:

Bohr model 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 10, 2
Quantum mechanical model 1s2 2s22p6 3s23p6 4s23d104p6 5s24d105p6 6s24f145d106p6 7s25f146d2

Extrapolated properties

Oxidation states

Element 104 is projected to be the first member of the 6d series of transition metals and the heaviest member of group IV in the Periodic Table, below titanium, zirconium and hafnium. It may also be named eka-hafnium or dvi-zirconium and some of its properties may be extrapolated from the group trends of elements. The IV oxidation state is the only stable state for the latter two elements and therefore rutherfordium should also portray a stable +4 state.


In an analogous manner to zirconium and hafnium, rutherfordium is projected to form a very stable, high melting point oxide, RfO2. It should also react with halogens to form tetrahalides, RfX4, which hydrolyse on contact with water to form oxyhalides RfOX2. The tetrahalides should be volatile solids existing as monomeric tetrahedral molecules in the vapour phase.

In the aqueous phase, the Rf4+ ion should hydrolyse less than titanium(IV) and to a similar extent to zirconium and hafnium, thus leading to the rutherfordyl oxyion, RfO22+. Treatment of the halides with halide ions promotes the formation of complex ions. The use of chloride and bromide ion should form the hexahalide complexes RfCl62- and RfBr62-. For the fluoride complexes, zirconium and hafnium tend to form hepta- and octa- complexes. Thus, for the larger rutherfordium ion, the complexes RfF62-, RfF73- and RfF84- are possible.

Experimental chemistry

Gas phase

Summary of compounds and complex ions
Formula Names
RfCl4 rutherfordium tetrachloride ; rutherfordium(IV) chloride
RfBr4 rutherfordium tetrabromide ; rutherfordium(IV) bromide
RfOCl2 rutherfordium oxychloride ; rutherfordyl(IV) chloride;
rutherfordium(IV) dichloride oxide
[RfCl6]2- hexachlororutherfordate(IV)
[RfF6]2- hexafluororutherfordate(IV)
K2[RfCl6] potassium hexachlororutherfordate(IV)
The tetrahedral molecule RfCl4

Early work on the study of the chemistry of rutherfordium focused on gas thermochromatography and measurement of relative deposition temperature adsorption curves. The initial work was carried out at Dubna in an attempt to reaffirm their discovery of the element. Recent work is more reliable regarding the identification of the parent rutherfordium radioisotopes. The isotope 261mRf has been used for these studies. The experiments relied on the expectation that rutherfordium would begin the new 6d series of elements and should therefore from a volatile tetrachloride due to the tetrahedral nature of the molecule.

As series of experiments have confirmed that rutherfordium behaves as a typical member of group 4 forming a tetravalent chloride (RfCl4) and bromide (RfBr4) as well as an oxychloride (RfOCl2).[29]

Aqueous phase

Rutherfordium is expected to have the electron configuration [Rn]5f14 6d2 7s2 and therefore behave as the heavier homologue of hafnium in group 4 of the Periodic Table. It should therefore readily form a hydrated Rf4+ ion in strong acid solution and should readily form complexes in hydrochloric acid, hydrobromic or hydrofluoric acid solutions.

The most conclusive aqueous chemistry studies of rutherfordium have been performed by the Japanese team at JAERI using the radioisotope 261mRf. Extraction experiments from hydrochloric acid solutions using isotopes of rutherfordium, hafnium, zirconium and thorium have proved a non-actinide behaviour. A comparison with its lighter homologues placed rutherfordium firmly in group 4 and indicated the formation of a hexachlororutherfordate complex in chloride solutions, in a manner similar to hafnium and zirconium. [30]

261mRf4+ + 6 Cl- → [261mRfCl6]2-

Very similar results were observed in hydrofluoric acid solutions. Differences in the extraction curves were interpreted as a weaker affinity for fluoride ion and the formation of the hexafluororutherfordate ion, whereas hafnium and zirconium ions complex seven or eight fluoride ions at the concentrations used:

261mRf4+ + 6 F- → [261mRfF6]2-


  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Barber, R. C.; Greenwood, N. N.; Hrynkiewicz, A. Z.; Jeannin, Y. P.; Lefort, M.; Sakai, M.; Ulehla, I.; Wapstra, A. P.; Wilkinson, D. H. (1993). "Discovery of the transfermium elements. Part II: Introduction to discovery profiles. Part III: Discovery profiles of the transfermium elements". Pure and Applied Chemistry 65 (8): 1757–1814. doi:10.1351/pac199365081757. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f Ghiorso, A.; Nurmia, M.; Harris, J.; Eskola, K.; Eskola, P. (1969). "Positive Identification of Two Alpha-Particle-Emitting Isotopes of Element 104". Physical Review Letters 22: 1317–1320. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.22.1317. 
  3. ^ a b Bemis, C. E. C. E. Bemis, Jr., Silva, R. J.; Hensley, D. C.; Keller Jr., O. L.; Tarrant, J. R.; Hunt, L. D.; Dittner,P. F.; Hahn, R. L.; Goodman, C. D. (1973). "X-Ray Identification of Element 104". Physical Review Letters 31: 647–650. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.31.647. 
  4. ^ Ghiorso, A.; Seaborg, G. T.; Organessian, Yu. Ts.; Zvara, I.; Armbruster, P.; Hessberger, F. P.; Hofmann, S.; Leino, M.; Munzenberg, G.; Reisdorf W.; Schmidt, K.-H. (1993). "Responses on 'Discovery of the transfermium elements' by Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, California; Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna; and Gesellschaft fur Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt followed by reply to responses by the Transfermium Working Group". Pure and Applied Chemistry 65 (8): 1815–1824. doi:10.1351/pac199365081815. 
  5. ^ a b "Names and symbols of transfermium elements (IUPAC Recommendations 1997)". Pure and Applied Chemistry 69 (12): 2471–2474. 1997. doi:10.1351/pac199769122471. 
  6. ^ Oganessian, Yu.Ts.; Demin, A. G.; Il'inov, A. S.; Tret'yakova, S. P.; Pleve, A. A.; Penionzhkevich, Yu. É.; Ivanov M. P.; Tret'yakov, Yu. P. (1975). "Experiments on the synthesis of neutron-deficient kurchatovium isotopes in reactions induced by 50Ti Ions". Nuclear Physics A 38 (6): 492–501. doi:10.1016/0375-9474(75)91140-9. 
  7. ^ Heßberger, F. P.; Münzenberg, G.; Hofmann, S.; Reisdorf, W.; Schmidt, K. H.; Schött, H. J.; Armbruster, P.; Hingmann, R.; Thuma, B.; Vermeulen, D. (1985). "Study of evaporation residues produced in reactions of 207,208Pb with 50Ti". Zeitschrift für Physik a Atoms and Nuclei 321: 19–26. doi:10.1007/BF01493453. 
  8. ^ a b c d e Heßberger, F. P.; Hofmann, S.; Ninov, V.; Armbruster, P.; Folger, H.; Münzenberg, G.; Schött, H. J.; Popeko, A. K.; Yeremin, A. V. ; Andreyev, A. N.; Saro, S. (1997). "Spontaneous fission and alpha-decay properties of neutron deficient isotopes 257-253104 and 258106". Zeitschrift für Physik a Hadrons and Nuclei 359: 415. doi:10.1007/s002180050422. 
  9. ^ Qian, J.; Heinz, A.; Winkler, R.; Vinson, J.; Janssens, R. V. F.; Peterson, D.; Seweryniak, D.; Back, B.; Carpenter, M. P.; Savard, G.; Hecht, A. A.; Jiang, C. L.; Khoo, T. L.; Kondev, F. G.; Lauritsen, T.; Lister, C. J.; Robinson, A.; Wang, X.; Zhu, S.; Gansworthy, A. B.; Asai, M.. "Alpha decay of 257Rf". American Physical Society, 2007 Annual Meeting of the Division of Nuclear Physics: JG.010. 
  10. ^ Jeppesen, H.B. et al. (2009). "Multi-quasiparticle states in 256Rf". Physical Review C 79: 031303(R). 
  11. ^ Heßberger, F.P.; Hofmann, S.; Ackermann, D.; Ninov, V.; Leino, M.; Münzenberg, G.; Saro, S.; Lavrentev, A.; Popeko, A.G.; Yeremin, A.V.; Stodel, Ch. (2001). "Decay properties of neutron-deficient isotopes 256,257Db, 255Rf, 252,253Lr""]. European Physical Journal A 12: 57–67. 
  12. ^ Heßberger, F.P.; Hofmann, S.; Ackermann, D.; Antalic, S.; Kindler, B.; Kojouharov, I.; Kuusiniemi, P.; Leino, M.; Lommel, B.;Mann, R.; Nishio K.; Popeko, A. G.; Sulignano B.; Saro, S.; Streicher, B.; Venhart, M.; Yeremin, A. V. (2006). "Alpha-gamma decay studies of 255Rf, 251No and 247Fm". European Physical Journal A 30: 561–569. 
  13. ^ Dragojević, I.; Gregorich, K. E.; Düllmann, Ch.E.; Garcia, M.A. (2005). "Measurement of 208Pb(48Ti,n)255Rf excitation function". LBNL annual report. Retrieved 2008-02-29. 
  14. ^ Lazarev, Yu. A.; Lobanov, Yu. V.; Oganessian, Yu. Ts.; Utyonkov, V. K.; Abdullin, F. Sh.; Polyakov, A. N.; Rigol, J.; Shirokovsky, I. V.; Tsyganov, Yu. S.; Iliev, S.; Subbotin, V. G.; Sukhov, A. M.; Buklanov, G. V.; Mezentsev, A. N.;Subotic, K.; Moody, K. J.; Stoyer, N. J.; Wild, J. F.; Lougheed, R. W. (2000). "Decay properties of 257No, 261Rf, and 262Rf". Physical Review C 62 (6): 064307. doi:10.1103/PhysRevC.62.064307. 
  15. ^ Gregorich, K.E.; Ch.E. Düllmann, C.M. Folden III, R. Sudowe, S.L. Nelson, J.M. Gates, I. Dragojević, M.A. Garcia, Y.H. Chung, R. Eichler, G.K. Pang, A. Türler, A. Yakushev, D.C. Hoffman, H. Nitsche (2005). "Systematic Study of Heavy Element Production in Compound Nucleus Reactions with 238U Targets". LBNL annual report. Retrieved 2008-02-29. 
  16. ^ Gates, J. M. et al. (2008). "Synthesis of rutherfordium isotopes in the 238U(26Mg,xn)264-xRf reaction and study of their decay properties". Physical Review C 77: 034603. doi:10.1103/PhysRevC.77.034603. 
  17. ^ a b Lane, M. R. et al. (1996). "Spontaneous fission properties of 104262Rf". Physical Review C 53 (6): 2893–2899. doi:10.1103/PhysRevC.53.2893. 
  18. ^ Lazarev, Yu. A. et al. (1996). "Decay properties of 257No, 261Rf, and 262Rf". Physical Review C 62 (6): 064307. doi:10.1103/PhysRevC.62.064307. 
  19. ^ "20Ne On 244Pu - First Preliminary Results". 
  20. ^ "An EC-branch in the decay of 27-s 263Db: Evidence for the new isotope 263Rf", Kratz et al., GSI Annual report 2001. Retrieved on 2008-02-29
  21. ^ a b Ghiorso, A.; Nurmia, M.; Eskola, K.; Eskola P. (1970). "261Rf; new isotope of element 104". Physics Letters B 32 (2): 95–98. doi:10.1016/0370-2693(70)90595-2. 
  22. ^ Somerville, L. P.; M. J. Nurmia, J. M. Nitschke, and A. Ghiorso E. K. Hulet and R. W. Lougheed (1985). "Spontaneous fission of rutherfordium isotopes". Physical Review C 31 (5): 1801–1815. doi:10.1103/PhysRevC.31.1801. 
  23. ^ a b see copernicium
  24. ^ see hassium
  25. ^ a b see ununtrium
  26. ^ a b see ununpentium
  27. ^ see ununoctium
  28. ^ "Evidence for isomeric states in 261Rf", Dressler et al., PSI Annual Report 2001. Retrieved on 2008-01-29
  29. ^ (Gas Chem 2007 Review)
  30. ^ Nagame, Y. et al. (2005). "Chemical studies on rutherfordium (Rf) at JAERI". Radiochimica Acta 93: 519. doi:10.1524/ract.2005.93.9-10.519. 

External links


Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

See also rutherfordium


Chemical Element: Rf (atomic number 104)


Rutherfordium n

  1. rutherfordium

Simple English

Rutherfordium is a chemical element. It has also been named eka-hafnium and unnilquadium. It has the symbol Rf. It has the atomic number 104. It is a very radioactive element that does not exist in nature. It has to be made. Rutherfordium is the first transactinide element.. The isotope that has the longest half-life is 265Rf. Rutherfordium-265 only has a half life of about 13 hours.

The amount of rutherfordium that has been made is not enough to give much information about it. The element has no present uses. It is thought that the chemistry of rutherfordium will be like the chemistry of hafnium.



Rutherfordium was named after Ernest Rutherford. It was reported that it was first made in 1964 at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research at Dubna, Russia. The scientists reported that they bombarded a different chemical element 242Pu with the element 22Ne. The neon-22 particles were accelerated to an energy of 113 to 115 MeV. They claim they detected nuclear fission tracks in a special type of glass with a microscope showing that a new element was there.

In 1969 scientists at the University of California, Berkeley made rutherfordium by banging together 249Cf and 12C at very high energies. These scientists said that when they tried to make rutherfordium in the same way as the scientists at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research none of the element was produced.

The scientists at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research claimed that it was first detected in Dubna. They thought it should be named dubnium (Db) or kurchatovium (Ku) for Igor Vasilevich Kurchatov (1903-1960).

The scientists at the University of California, Berkeley thought it should be named rutherfordium (Rf).

The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) decide the name of elements that should be used by everyone. They used unnilquadium (Unq) as a temporary name. Unnilquadium is the systematic element name. In 1997 they resolved the dispute and used the current name of rutherfordium. The chemical element with atomic number 105 was named dubnium.


Other websites

Error creating thumbnail: sh: convert: command not found
Wikimedia Commons has images, video, and/or sound related to:

Other pages


Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address