Rutland: Wikis

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Coordinates: 52°39′20.00″N 0°39′30.00″W / 52.65556°N 0.65833°W / 52.65556; -0.65833

Rutland
Flag Of Rutland.jpg
Flag of Rutland
Motto of County Council: “Multum in parvo” (“Much in little”)
EnglandRutland.png
Geography
Status Unitary district
Ceremonial county
Origin Historic
Region East Midlands
Area
- Total
- Admin. council
Ranked 45th
382 km2 (147 sq mi)
Ranked 105th
Admin HQ Oakham
ISO 3166-2 GB-RUT
ONS code 00FP
NUTS 3 UKF22
Demography
Population
- Total (2008 est.)
- Density
- Admin. council
Ranked 47th
39,200
103 /km2 (267/sq mi)
Ranked 323rd
Ethnicity 98.1% White
Politics

Rutland County Council
http://www.rutland.gov.uk
Executive  
Members of Parliament

Alan Duncan (C)

Districts

N/A

Oakham Castle
Rutland Water

Rutland (pronounced /ˈrʌtlənd/) is a county of mainland England, bounded on the west and north by Leicestershire, northeast by Lincolnshire, and southeast by Peterborough (a unitary authority ceremonially in Cambridgeshire) and Northamptonshire.

Its greatest length north to south is only 18 miles (29.0 km), greatest breadth east to west, 17 miles (27.4 km). It is the smallest (in terms of population) normal unitary authority in mainland England (only the City of London is smaller in terms of area), and is 348th of the 354 districts in terms of population. It is the smallest historic English county, leading to the adoption of the Latin motto Multum In Parvo or "much in little" by the county council in 1950.[1] Among modern ceremonial counties the Isle of Wight, City of London and City of Bristol are all smaller. The former County of London, in existence 1889 to 1965, also had a smaller area.

The only towns in Rutland are Oakham, the county town, and Uppingham. At the centre of the county is the large artificial reservoir, Rutland Water, with a similar surface area to Windermere. It is an important nature reserve serving as an overwintering site for wildfowl and a breeding site for ospreys. The town of Stamford is just over the border in a protruding part of Lincolnshire.

Rutland's older cottages are built from limestone or ironstone and many have roofs of Collyweston stone slate or thatch.

Contents

Etymology

The origin of the name of the county is unclear. In a 1909 edition of Notes and Queries Harriot Tabor suggested "that the name should be Ruthland, and that there is a part of Essex called the Ruth, and that the ancient holders of it were called Ruthlanders, since altered to Rutland",[2] however responses suggest "that Rutland, as a name, was earlier than the Norman Conquest. Its first mention, as "Roteland", occurs in the will of King Edward the Confessor; in Domesday it is "the King's soc of Roteland", not being then a shire; and in the reign of John it was assigned as a dowry to Queen Isabella.[3]

The northwestern part of the county was recorded as Rutland, a detached part of Nottinghamshire, in the Domesday Book; the south-eastern part as the wapentake of Wicelsea in Northamptonshire. It was first mentioned as a separate county in 1159, but as late as the 14th century it was referred to as the 'Soke of Rutland'. Historically it was also known as Rutlandshire, but in recent times only the shorter name is common.

Rutland may be from Old English hryþr/ hrythr "cattle" and land "land", as a record from 1128 as Ritelanede shows.

History

Earl of Rutland and Duke of Rutland are titles in the peerage of England, derived from the historic county of Rutland. The Earl of Rutland was elevated to the status of Duke in 1703 and the titles were merged. The family seat is Belvoir Castle.

The office of High Sheriff of Rutland was instituted in 1129, and there has been a Lord Lieutenant of Rutland since at least 1559.

By the time of the 19th century it had been divided into the hundreds of Alstoe, East, Martinsley, Oakham and Wrandike.

Rutland covered parts of three poor law unions and rural sanitary districts: those of Oakham, Uppingham and Stamford. The registration county of Rutland contained the entirety of Oakham and Uppingham RSDs, which included several parishes in Leicestershire and Northamptonshire – the eastern part in Stamford RSD was included in the Lincolnshire registration county.

In 1894 under the Local Government Act 1894 the rural sanitary districts were partitioned along county boundaries to form three rural districts. The part of Oakham and Uppingham RSDs in Rutland formed the Oakham Rural District and Uppingham Rural District, with the two parishes from Oakham RSD in Leicestershire becoming part of the Melton Mowbray Rural District, the nine parishes of Uppingham RSD in Leicestershire becoming the Hallaton Rural District, and the six parishes of Uppingham RSD in Northamptonshire becoming Gretton Rural District. Meanwhile, that part of Stamford RSD in Rutland became the Ketton Rural District.

Oakham was split out from Oakham Rural District in 1911 as an urban district.[4]

Rutland was included in the "East Midlands General Review Area" of the 1958–67 Local Government Commission for England. Draft recommendations would have seen Rutland split, with Ketton Rural District going along with Stamford to a new administrative county of Cambridgeshire, and the western part added to Leicestershire. The final proposals were less radical and instead proposed that Rutland become a single rural district within the administrative county of Leicestershire.[5]

This action was to prove only temporary, with Rutland being included in the new non-metropolitan county of Leicestershire under the Local Government Act 1972, from 1 April 1974. Under proposals for non-metropolitan districts Rutland would have been paired with what now constitutes the Melton district – the revised and implemented proposals made Rutland a standalone non-metropolitan district (breaking the 40,000 minimum population barrier).

In 1994, the Local Government Commission for England, which was conducting a structural review of English local government, recommended that Rutland become a unitary authority. This was implemented on April 1, 1997, with Rutland regaining a separate Lieutenancy and shrievalty as well as its council regaining control of county functions such as education and social services.

Royal Mail included Rutland in the Leicestershire postal county in 1974. After a lengthy and well organised campaign,[6] and despite a code of practice which excludes amendments to former postal counties,[7] the Royal Mail agreed to create a postal county of Rutland in 2007. This was achieved in January 2008 by amending the former postal county for all of the Oakham (LE15) post town and a small part of the Market Harborough (LE16) post town.[8]

The council remained formally a non-metropolitan district council, with wards rather than electoral divisions, but has renamed the district to 'Rutland County Council' to allow it to use that name. This means the full legal name of the council is Rutland County Council District Council.

Under the Poor Laws, Oakham Union workhouse was built in 1836–37 at a site to the north-east of the town, with room for 100 paupers. The building later operated as the Catmose Vale Hospital, and now forms part of the Oakham School. Workhouses website

Politics

There are 26 councillors representing 16 wards on Rutland County Council (unitary authority).

Rutland formed a Parliamentary constituency on its own until 1918, when it became part of the Rutland and Stamford constituency, along with Stamford in Lincolnshire. Since 1983 it has formed part of the Rutland and Melton constituency along with Melton borough and part of Harborough district from Leicestershire.

Alan Duncan has been the Conservative Member of Parliament for Rutland and Melton since 1992.

Demographics

The population in the 2001 Census was 34,560, a rise of 4% on the 1991 total of 33,228. This is a population density of 87 people per square kilometre. 1.9% of the population are from ethnic minority backgrounds[9] compared to 9.1% nationally.

Year Population
1831 19,380
1861 21,861
1871 22,073
1881 21,434
1891 20,659
1901 19,709
1991 33,228
2001 34,560

In 2006 it was reported that Rutland has the highest fertility rate of any English county - the average woman having 2.81 children, compared with only 1.67 in Tyne and Wear [10]

In December 2006, Sport England published a survey which revealed that residents of Rutland were the 6th most active in England in sports and other fitness activities. 27.4% of the population participate at least 3 times a week for 30 minutes.[11]

Geography

The particular geology of the area has given its name to the Rutland Formation which was formed from muds and sand carried down by rivers and occurring as bands of different colours, each with many fossil shells at the bottom. At the bottom of the Rutland Formation is a bed of dirty white sandy silt. Under the Rutland Formation is a formation called the Lincolnshire Limestone. The best exposure of this limestone (and also the Rutland Formation) is at the Castle Cement quarry just outside Ketton.[12]

Rutland is dominated by Rutland Water, a large artificial lake formerly known "Empingham Reservoir", in the middle of the county, which is almost bisected by a large spit of land. The west part is in the Vale of Catmose. Rutland Water, when construction started in 1971, became Europe's largest man-made lake; construction was completed in 1975, and filling the lake took a further four years. This has now been voted Rutland's favourite tourist attraction.

The highest point of the county is at Flitteris: Flitteriss Park (a farm east of Cold Overton Park) at 197 m (646 ft) above sea level. Grid Reference: SK8271708539 The lowest point is a section of secluded farmland near Belmesthorpe, 17 m (56 feet) above sea level. Grid Reference: TF056611122

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Rivers

Economy

There are 17,000 people of working age in Rutland, of which the highest percentage (30.8%) work in Public Administration, Education and Health, closely followed by 29.7% in Distribution, Hotels and Restaurants and 16.7% in Manufacturing industries. Significant employers include Lands' End in Oakham and Castle Cement in Ketton. Other employers in Rutland include two Ministry of Defence bases - RAF Cottesmore and St George's Barracks (previously RAF North Luffenham), two public schools - Oakham and Uppingham - and two prisons - Ashwell and Stocken. The county used to supply iron ore to Corby steel works but these quarries closed in the 1960s. Agriculture thrives with much wheat farming on the rich soil. Tourism continues to grow. The Ruddles brewery was Langham's biggest industry until the brewery was closed in 1997.

It is 348th out of 354 on the Indices of Deprivation for England, showing it to be one of the least economically deprived areas in the country.[9]

In March 2007 Rutland became only the fourth Fairtrade County.

This is a chart of trend of regional gross value added of the non-metropolitan county of Leicestershire and Rutland at current basic prices published (pp. 240–253) by Office for National Statistics with figures in millions of British Pounds Sterling.

Year Regional Gross Value Added[1] Agriculture[2] Industry[3] Services[4]
1995 6,666 145 2,763 3,758
2000 7,813 112 2,861 4,840
2003 9,509 142 3,045 6,321

^ includes hunting and forestry

^ includes energy and construction

^ includes financial intermediation services indirectly measured

^ Components may not sum to totals due to rounding

Trivia

  • Rutland is the supposed home of the satirical rock band The Rutles.
  • The castle in Oakham is little more than an old Great Hall. It features a large collection of horseshoes. These have been presented over the years by royalty, and some are significantly more elaborate than others. The horseshoe features prominently on the county coat of arms.
  • Rutlanders were proverbially called Raddlemen.
  • The events in several Peter F. Hamilton books (like Misspent Youth and Mindstar Rising) are situated in Rutland, where the author lives.
  • The county's small size has led to a number of joke references such as Rutland Weekend Television, a television series hosted by Eric Idle.
  • In the first episode of The Black Adder, the title character claims that if his side loses the Battle of Bosworth, Rutland would become the new location of part of his anatomy:

If we lose I'll be chopped to pieces. My arms will end up in Essex, my torso in Norfolk, and my genitalia stuck in a tree somewhere in Rutland.

  • Rutland was the last county in England without a direct rail service to London (apart from the Isle of Wight and several administrative counties which are unitary authorities). East Midlands Trains commenced a single service to London St Pancras via Corby on 27 April 2009.[13]
  • The Jackson Stops Inn at Stretton hosts the World Nurdling Championships every Late May Bank Holiday, in which 13 old pennies are hurled into a hole drilled into the seat of an oaken settle. The tradition game of Nurdling dates back to the Middle Ages. The 2009 Champion, or 'Best Tosser' is Don Bentley.

Traditions

Rutland has many varied traditions.

  • Letting of the Banks (Whissendine): Banks are pasture land, this traditionally occurs on the third week of March
  • Rush Bearing & Rush Strewing (Barrowden): Reeds are gathered in the church meadow on the eve of St Peter’s Day and placed on the church floor (late June, early July)
  • Uppingham Market was granted by Charter in 1281 by Edward I.
  • Nurdling - see above section for a description of this ancient sport.

Schools

The above colleges are for pupils in years 7-11 (ages 11–16), they are not FE or Sixth Form colleges.

Places of interest

See also

References

  1. ^ C Wilfrid Scott-Giles, Civic Heraldry of England and Wales, 2nd edition, London, 1953
  2. ^ Tabor, Harriot (February 1909). "Rutland: Origin of the Name". Notes and Queries: 170. 
  3. ^ W.B.H. (April 1909). "Rutland: Origin of the Name". Notes and Queries: 294. 
  4. ^ http://www.visionofbritain.org.uk/relationships.jsp?u_id=10106620
  5. ^ Little Rutland To Go It Alone - No Merger with Leicestershire. The Times, 2 August 1963.
  6. ^ Stamford Mercury, MP wins seven-year postal address battle, 5 November 2007.
  7. ^ Royal Mail, Postcode Address File Code of Practice, (2004)
  8. ^ AFD Software - Latest PAF Data News
  9. ^ a b "Geographical Statistical Information". Government Office for the East Midlands. http://www.go-em.gov.uk/geography-skin.php. Retrieved 2006-10-03. 
  10. ^ http://www.statistics.gov.uk/downloads/theme_population/Table_5_Area_Local_Authority.xls.
  11. ^ Sports England
  12. ^ "The Geology of the Peterborough Area". Peterborough RIGS. http://web.apu.ac.uk/geography/rigs/peterboro.html. Retrieved 2006-10-03. 
  13. ^ "Corby train delays labelled 'shambolic'". Northants Evening Telegraph. 25 November 2008. http://www.northantset.co.uk/corby/Corby-train-delays-labelled-39shambolic39.4675913.jp. 

Bibliography

  • Phillips, George (1912). Cambridge County Geography of Rutland. University Press. ASIN B00085ZZ5M. 
  • Rycroft, Simon (1996). "Landscape and Identity at Ladybower Reservoir and Rutland Water". Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers 21 (3): 534–551. doi:10.2307/622595. 

External links

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Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

There is more than one place called Rutland:

United Kingdom

United States of America

  • Rutland (Illinois)
  • Rutland (Iowa)
  • Rutland (Massachusetts) - a town in Central Massachusetts.
  • Rutland (New York)
  • Rutland (North Dakota)
  • Rutland (Ohio)
  • Rutland (South Dakota)
  • Rutland (Vermont) - the second-largest city in Vermont.
  • Rutland (Wisconsin)
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1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

="">See Rutland (disambiguation) for articles sharing the title Rutland.


RUTLAND, a midland county of England, bounded N. and E. by Lincolnshire, N. and W. by Leicestershire, and S.E. by Northamptonshire. It is the smallest county in England, having an area of 152 sq. m. The surface is pleasantly undulating, ridges of high ground running E. and W., separated by rich valleys. The principal of these valleys is the vale of Catmose, in the Oakham district, to the N. of which rises a tableland commanding wide views into Leicestershire. The vale maintains its reputation for richness of soil assigned to it by Drayton in his Poly-Olbion. This, the N.W. part of the county, is also the district of the well-known Cottesmore hunt.

The royal forest of Lyfield, or Leafield, which included the greater part of the hundreds of Oakham and Martinsley, once extended over the county between Oakham and Uppingham, and patches of it still exist. To the S. of Uppingham it was known as Beaumont Chase. The river Welland, flowing N.E., forms the S.E. boundary of Rutland with Northamptonshire. The Gwash, or Wash, which rises in Leicestershire, flows eastward through the centre of the county, and just beyond its borders in Lincolnshire joins the Welland The Chater, also rising in Leicestershire and flowing E., enters the Welland about 2 m. from Stamford. The Eye, forming part of the S.W. boundary, is also tributary to the Welland.

Table of contents

Geology

The county consists entirely of Jurassic formations, viz. of Liassic and Oolitic strata - the harder beds, chiefly limestone containing iron, forming the hills and escarpments, and the claybeds the slopes of the valleys. The oldest rocks are those belonging to the Lower Lias in the N.W. The bottom of the vale of Catmose is formed of marlstone rock belonging to the Middle Lias, and its sides are composed of long slopes of Upper Lias clay. The Upper Lias also covers a large area in the W. of the county, and is worked for bricks at Luffenham and Seaton. The lowest of the Oolitic formations is the Northampton sand, which has yielded iron ore at Manton and Cottesmore. The Lincolnshire Oolitic limestone prevails in the E. of the county N. of Stamford. It is largely quarried for building purposes, the quarries at Ketton, Clipsham, and Casterton being famous beyond the boundaries of the county. The Great Oolite and Estuarine beds prevail towards the S.E. Glacial deposits of boulder clay, sand and gravel, mask the older strata in many places.

Industries

In the E. and S.E. districts the soil is light and shallow. In the other districts it consists chiefly of a tenacious but fertile loam, and in the vale of Catmose the soil is either clay or loam, or a mixture of the two. The prevailing redness, which colours even the streams, is owing to the ferruginous limestone carried down from the slopes of the hills. The name of the county is by some authorities derived from this characteristic of the soil, but the explanation is doubtful. The E. of the county is chiefly under tillage and the W. in grass. Nearly nine-tenths of the total area (a high proportion) is under cultivation, wheat being by far the most important grain crop. Turnips and swedes occupy the greater part of the area under green crops. The rearing of sheep (Leicesters and South Downs) and cattle (Shorthorns) occupies the chief attention of the farmer. Large quantities of cheese are manufactured and sold as Stilton. Agriculture is practically the only industry of importance, but there is some quarrying and boot-making.

The main line of the Great Northern railway intersects the N.E. corner, and branches of that system, of the London & NorthWestern, and of the Midland railways, serve the remainder of the county.

Population and Administration

The area of the ancient and administrative county is 97,273 acres, with a population in 1891 of 20,659, and in 1901 of 19,709. The county contains five hundreds. There are no municipal boroughs or urban districts. The county town. is Oakham (pop. 3294), and other towns are Uppingham (2588) and Ketton (1041). The county is in the midland circuit, and assizes are held at Oakham. It has one court of quarter sessions, but is not divided for petty-sessional purposes. There are 58 civil parishes. The county is in the diocese of Peterborough, and contains 42 ecclesiastical parishes or districts, wholly or in part. It returns one member to parliament.

History

The district which is now Rutland was probably occupied by a tribe of Middle Angles in the 6th or 7th century, and was subsequently absorbed in the kingdom of Mercia. Although mentioned by name in the will of Edward the Confessor, who bequeathed it to his queen Edith for life with remainder to Westminster Abbey, Rutland did not rank as a county at the time of the Domesday Survey, in which the term Rutland is only applied to that portion assessed under Nottinghamshire, while the S.E. portion of the modern county is surveyed under Northamptonshire, where it appears as the wapentake of Wiceslea. Rutland is first mentioned as a distinct county under the administration of a separate sheriff in the pipe roll of 1159, but as late as the 14th century it is designated "Rutland Soke" in the Vision of Piers Plowman, and the curious connexion with Nottinghamshire, a county which does not adjoin it at any point, was maintained up to the reign of Henry III., when the sheriff of Nottingham was by statute appointed also escheator in Rutland. Of the five modern hundreds of Rutland, Alstoe and Martinsley appear in the Domesday Survey of Nottinghamshire as wapentakes, Martinsley at that date including the modern hundred of Oakham Soke; East hundred and Wrangdike hundred are mentioned in the middle of the 12th century, the latter formerly including the additional hundred of Little Casterton. The shire-court for Rutland was held at Oakham.

Rutland was originally included in the diocese of Lincoln, and in 1291 formed a rural deanery within the archdeaconry of Northampton; but on the erection of Peterborough to an episcopal see by Henry VIII. in 1541, the archdeaconry of Northampton, with the deanery of Rutland, was transferred to that diocese. In 1879 the deanery of Rutland was subdivided into three portions, and in 1876 it was placed within the newly= founded archdeaconry of Oakham.

Among the most conspicuous of the Norman lords connected with this county was Walkelin de Ferrers, who founded Oakham Castle in the 12th century. The castle was subsequently bestowed by Richard II., together with the earldom of Rutland (see above), on Edward, son of Edmund, duke of York. Essendine (Essenden or Essingdon) was purchased in 1545 by Richard Cecil of Burleigh, and the title of baron of Essenden bestowed on his grandson is retained by the earls of Salisbury. Sir Everard Digby, one of the conspirators in the Gunpowder plot, belonged to the family of Digby, of Stoke Dry. Burleyon-the-hill was held by Henry Despenser, the warlike bishop of Norwich, in the reign of Richard II., and was purchased by George Villiers, duke of Buckingham, who entertained James I. there with Ben Jonson's Mask of the Gypsies. The battle of Stamford was fought at Horn, near Exton, in March 1470 between Edward IV. and the Lancastrians, when from the precipitate flight of the latter the engagement became known as Losecoat Field. On the outbreak of the Civil War Rutland displayed a strong puritanical and anti-royalist sentiment, and in 1642 the sheriff and a large number of the gentry and nobility of the county forwarded a petition to the House of Lords begging that the county might be placed in a state of defence, and that the votes of papists and prelates might be disallowed; and again, in 1648, a memorial addressed to Lord Fairfax protested against the design of the parliament to treat with Charles.

Rutland has always been mainly an agricultural county. The Domesday Survey mentions numerous mills in Rutland, and a fishery at Ayston rendered 325 eels. In the 14th century the county exported wool. Stilton cheese has long been made in Leyfield Forest and the vale of Catmose, and limestone is dug in many parts of the county. The development of the economic resources of Rutland was helped in 1793 by the extension of the Melton Mowbray canal to Oakham.

Two members were returned to parliament for the county of Rutland from 1295 until under the Redistribution of Seats Act of 1885 the representation was reduced to one member.

The only old castle of which there are important remains is Oakham, dating from the time of Henry II. and remarkable for its Norman hall. Of Essendine Castle only the moat remains. The Bede-house at Liddington dates from the end of the 14th century. Hambleton Hall, now a farm-house, is a good specimen of Jacobean architecture. Many old houses of the 17th and 18th centuries are to be met with in the villages. An interesting feature of the ecclesiastical architecture of the county is the frequent continuation of the round-headed arch after the Early English style had become fully developed; as, for instance, in the Early English churches at Great Casterton, Stretton, Empingham, Clipsham (Early English and Decorated), and St Peter's, Preston, where the nave arcade is Norman on one side and Early English on the other, but yet retains round-headed arches on both sides. Tickencote church is a remarkable specimen of late Norman work, with one of the finest chancel-arches extant in this style. Ketton church is transitional Norman, Early English, and early Decorated, the broach spire being of later date. St Mary's, Greetham, is a good example of Decorated, with fine tower and spire.

See Victoria County History, Rutland; James Wright, History and Antiquities of the County of Rutland (London, 1684); T. Blore, History and Antiquities of the County of Rutland, vol. i. pt. 2 (containing the East hundred and including the hundred of Casterton Parva; Stamford, 1811); C. G. Smith, A Translation of that portion of Domesday Book which relates to Lincolnshire and Rutland (London, 1870).


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Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

English

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Wikipedia

Proper noun

Singular
Rutland

Plural
-

Rutland

  1. A small inland county of England bordered by Leicestershire, Lincolnshire and Northamptonshire.
  2. A habitational surname.

Genealogy

Up to date as of February 01, 2010

From Familypedia

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Rutland

<tr><td colspan="2" style="text-align: center; background: white;">Motto: “Multum in parvo” (“Much in little”)</td></tr>

File:EnglandRutland.png
Geography
Status Unitary district
Ceremonial county

<tr><th>Origin</th><td>Historic</td></tr>

Region East Midlands
Area
- Total
- Admin. council
Ranked 45th
382 km² (147.5 sq mi)
Ranked 118th

<tr><th>Admin HQ</th><td class="label">Oakham</td></tr><tr><th>ISO 3166-2</th><td>GB-RUT</td></tr>

ONS code 00FP
NUTS 3 UKF22
Demographics
Population
- Total (2006 est.)
- Density
- Admin. council
Ranked 47th Image:Wp_globe_tiny.gif
38,300
97/km² (251.2/sq mi)
Ranked 348th Image:Wp_globe_tiny.gif
Ethnicity 98.1% White
Politics
File:Arms-rutland.jpg
Rutland County Council
http://www.rutland.gov.uk

<tr><th>Executive</th><td>  </td></tr>

Members of Parliament

Alan Duncan (C)

Districts

N/A

File:Oakham Castle.jpg File:Rutland water.jpg

Rutland is a county of mainland England, bounded on the west and north by Leicestershire, northeast by Lincolnshire, and southeast by Peterborough and Northamptonshire.

Its greatest length north to south is only 18 miles (29.0 km), greatest breadth east to west, 17 miles (27.4 km). It is the smallest (in terms of population) normal unitary authority in mainland England (only the City of London is smaller), and is 348th of the 354 districts in terms of population. Normally thought to be the smallest English county, researchers on the TV panel show QI recently discovered, in collaboration with Rutland and the Isle of Wight councils, that the latter is in fact the smaller county - but only at high tide.

The only towns in Rutland are Oakham, the county town, and Uppingham. At the centre of the county is the large reservoir Rutland Water, with a similar surface area to Windermere, and it is an important nature reserve serving as an overwintering site for wildfowl and is a breeding site for ospreys. The town of Stamford is just over the border in a protruding part of Lincolnshire.

Rutland's older cottages are built from limestone or ironstone and many have roofs of Collyweston slate or thatch. The county used to supply iron ore to Corby steel works but these quarries closed in the 1960s. Agriculture thrives with much wheat farming on the rich soil. Tourism continues to grow.

Contents

Etymology

The origin of the name of the county is unclear. In a 1909 edition of "Notes and Queries" Harriot Tabor suggested "that the name should be Ruthland, and that there is a part of Essex called the Ruth, and that the ancient holders of it were called Ruthlanders, since altered to Rutland",[1] however responses suggest "that Rutland, as a name, was earlier than the Norman Conquest. Its first mention, as "Roteland", occurs in the will of King Edward the Confessor ; in Domesday it is " the King's soc of Roteland", not being then a shire; and in the reign of John it was assigned as a dowry to Queen Isabella."[2]

The northwestern part of the county was recorded as Rutland, a detached part of Nottinghamshire, in the Domesday Book; the south-eastern part as the wapentake of Wicelsea in Northamptonshire. It was first mentioned as a separate county in 1159, but as late as the 14th century it was referred to as the 'Soke of Rutland'. Historically it was also known as Rutlandshire, but in recent times only the shorter name is common.

Rutland may be from Old English hryþr/ hrythr "cattle" and land "land", as a record from 1128 as Ritelanede shows.

History

Main article: History of Rutland

Earl of Rutland and Duke of Rutland are titles in the peerage of England, derived from the historic county of Rutland. The Earl of Rutland was elevated to the status of Duke in 1703 and the titles were merged. The family seat is at Belvoir Castle.

The office of High Sheriff of Rutland was instituted in 1129, and there has been a Lord Lieutenant of Rutland since at least 1559.

By the time of the 19th century it had been divided into the hundreds of Alstoe, East, Martinsley, Oakham and Wrandike.

Rutland covered parts of three poor law unions and rural sanitary districts : those of Oakham, Uppingham and Stamford. The registration county of Rutland contained the entirety of Oakham and Uppingham RSDs, which included several parishes in Leicestershire and Northamptonshire - the eastern part in Stamford RSD was included in the Lincolnshire registration county.

In 1894 under the Local Government Act 1894 the rural sanitary districts were partitioned along county boundaries to form three rural districts. The part of Oakham and Uppingham RSDs in Rutland formed the Oakham Rural District and Uppingham Rural District, with the two parishes from Oakham RSD in Leicestershire becoming part of the Melton Mowbray Rural District, the 9 parishes of Uppingham RSD in Leicestershire becoming the Hallaton Rural District, and the 6 parishes of Uppingham RSD in Northamptonshire becoming Gretton Rural District. Meanwhile, that part of Stamford RSD in Rutland became the Ketton Rural District.

Oakham was split out from Oakham Rural District in 1911 as an urban district. [1]

Rutland was included in the "East Midlands General Review Area" of the 1958-1967 Local Government Commission for England. Draft recommendations would have seen Rutland split, with Ketton Rural District going along with Stamford to a new administrative county of Cambridgeshire, and the western part be added to Leicestershire. The final proposals were less radical and instead proposed that Rutland become a single rural district within the administrative county of Leicestershire. [3]

This victory was to prove only temporary, with Rutland being included in the new non-metropolitan county of Leicestershire under the Local Government Act 1972, from April 1, 1974. Under proposals for non-metropolitan districts Rutland would have been paired with what now constitutes the Melton district - the revised and implemented proposals made Rutland a standalone non-metropolitan district (breaking the 40,000 minimum population barrier).

In 1994, the Local Government Commission for England, which was conducting a structural review of English local government, recommended that Rutland become a unitary authority. This was implemented on April 1, 1997, with Rutland regaining a separate Lieutenancy and shrievalty as well as its council regaining control of county functions such as education and social services. It was not until November 2007, however, that Rutland residents regained the right to be a separate postal county: addresses from now on will be listed as being in Rutland, not Leicestershire.[4]

The council remained formally a non-metropolitan district council, with wards rather than electoral divisions, but has renamed the district to 'Rutland County Council' to allow it to use that name. This means the full legal name of the council is Rutland County Council District Council.

Under the Poor Laws, Oakham Union workhouse was built in 1836-7 at a site to the north-east of the town, with room for 100 paupers. The building later operated as the Catmose Vale Hospital, and now forms part of the Oakham School. Workhouses website

Politics

There are 26 councillors representing 16 wards on Rutland County Council (unitary authority).

Rutland formed a Parliamentary constituency on its own until 1918, when it became part of the Rutland and Stamford constituency, along with Stamford in Lincolnshire. Since 1983 it has formed part of the Rutland and Melton constituency along with Melton borough and part of Harborough district from Leicestershire.

Demographics

The population in the 2001 Census was 34,560 a rise of 4% on the 1991 total of 33,228. This is a population density of 87 people per square kilometre. 1.9% of the population are from ethnic minority backgrounds[5] compared to 9.1% nationally.

Year Population
1831 19,380
1861 21,861
1871 22,073
1881 21,434
1891 20,659
1901 19,709
1991 33,228
2001 34,560

In December 2006, Sport England published a survey which revealed that residents of Rutland were the 6th most active in England in sports and other fitness activities. 27.4% of the population participate at least 3 times a week for 30 minutes.[6]

With a Total Fertility Rate of 2.81, Rutland is the county in England with the highest TFR. [2]

Geography

See also: list of places in Rutland and List of civil parishes in Rutland

The particular geology of the area has given its name to the Rutland Formation which was formed from muds and sand carried down by rivers and occurring as bands of different colours, each with many fossil shells at the bottom. At the bottom of the Rutland Formation is a bed of dirty white sandy silt. Under the Rutland Formation is a formation called the Lincolnshire Limestone. The best exposure of this limestone (and also the Rutland Formation) is at the Castle Cement quarry just outside Ketton.[7]

Rutland is dominated by Rutland Water, a large artificial lake formerly known "Empingham Reservoir", in the middle of the county, which is almost bisected by a large spit of land. The west part is in the Vale of Catmose.

The highest point of the county is at Flitteris (a farm east of Cold Overton Park) at 197m (646 ft) above sea level. Grid Reference: SK8271708539 The lowest point is a section of secluded farmland near Belmesthorpe, 17m (56 feet) above sea level. Grid Reference: TF056611122

Oakham itself is built on an incline, and varies from 99m above sea level (Ladywell area) to 122m above sea level (Brooke School area).

Rivers

Economy

There are 17,000 people of working age in Rutland, of which the highest percentage (30.8%) work in Public Administration, Education and Health, closely followed by 29.7% in Distribution, Hotels and Restaurants and 16.7% in Manufacturing industries. Significant employers include Lands' End in Oakham and Castle Cement in Ketton. It is 348th out of 354 on the Indices of Deprivation for England, showing it to be one of the least deprived areas in the country.[8]

The Ruddles brewery was Langham's biggest industry until the brewery was closed in 1997.

In March 2007 Rutland became only the fourth Fairtrade County.

Other employers in Rutland include two Ministry of Defence bases - RAF Cottesmore and St George's Barracks (previously RAF North Luffenham), two public schools - Oakham and Uppingham - and two prisons - Ashwell and Stocken.

This is a chart of trend of regional gross value added of the non-metropolitan county of Leicestershire and Rutland at current basic prices published (pp.240-253) by Office for National Statistics with figures in millions of British Pounds Sterling.

Year Regional Gross Value Added[3] Agriculture[4] Industry[5] Services[6]
1995 6,666 145 2,763 3,758
2000 7,813 112 2,861 4,840
2003 9,509 142 3,045 6,321

^  includes hunting and forestry

^  includes energy and construction

^  includes financial intermediation services indirectly measured

^  Components may not sum to totals due to rounding

Trivia

  • The castle in Oakham is little more than an old Great Hall, but features a large collection of horse-shoes. These have been presented over the years by royalty, and some are significantly more elaborate than others. The horseshoe features prominently on the County coat of arms.
  • Rutlanders were proverbially called Raddlemen.
  • The events in several Peter F Hamilton books (like Misspent Youth and Mindstar Rising) are situated in Rutland, where the author lives.
  • The county's small size has led to a number of joke references such as Rutland Weekend Television, a solo television series by ex-Monty Python man, Eric Idle.
  • In the first episode of the British comedy series Blackadder, the title character claims that if he loses a battle "I'll be chopped to pieces...my genitalia stuck up a tree somewhere in Rutland". From this point on in the episode, there are continuous references to this notion.

Traditions

Rutland has many varied traditions.

  • Letting of the Banks (Whissendine): Banks are pasture land, this traditionally occurs on the third week of March
  • Rush Bearing & Rush Strewing (Barrowden): Reeds are gathered in the church meadow on the eve of St Peter’s Day and placed on the church floor (late June, early July)
  • Uppingham Market was granted by Charter in 1281 by Edward I.

Schools

The above Colleges are for pupils in years 7-11 (ages 11-16), they are not FE or Sixth Form colleges.

Places of interest

Key
Image:AP_Icon.PNG Abbey/Priory/Cathedral
Accessible open space Accessible open space
Amusement/Theme Park
Image:CL_icon.PNG Castle
Country Park Country Park
Image:EH icon.png English Heritage
Image:FC icon.png Forestry Commission
Heritage railway Heritage railway
Historic house Historic House
Museum (free)
Museum
Museums (free/not free)
National Trust National Trust
Zoo

References

  1. ^ Tabor, Harriot (Feb 1909). "Rutland:Origin of the Name". Notes and Queries: 170. 
  2. ^ W. B. H. (April 1909). "Rutland:Origin of the Name". Notes and Queries: 294. 
  3. ^ Little Rutland To Go It Alone - No Merger with Leicestershire. The Times. August 2, 1963.
  4. ^ {{subst:#ifexist:Sunday Telegraph|[[Sunday Telegraph|]]|[[Wikipedia:Sunday Telegraph|]]}} Issue 2,422 dated 11th November, 2007 p8
  5. ^ Geographical Statistical Information. Government Office for the East Midlands. Retrieved on 2006-10-03.
  6. ^ Sports England
  7. ^ The Geology of the Peterborough Area. Peterborough RIGS. Retrieved on 2006-10-03.
  8. ^ Geographical Statistical Information. Government Office for the East Midlands. Retrieved on 2006-10-03.

Bibliography

  • Phillips, George (1912). Cambridge County Geography of Rutland. University press. ASIN B00085ZZ5M. 
  • Rycroft, Simon (1996). "Landscape and Identity at Ladybower Reservoir and Rutland Water". Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers 21 (3): 534-551. 

External links

This page uses content from the English language Wikipedia. The original content was at Rutland. The list of authors can be seen in the page history. As with this Familypedia wiki, the content of Wikipedia is available under the Creative Commons License.

This article uses material from the "Rutland" article on the Genealogy wiki at Wikia and is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike License.

Simple English

[[File:|thumb|Rutland in England]] Rutland is the smallest county of England. It is surrounded by the counties of Leicestershire, Lincolnshire and Northamptonshire.

The main towns of Rutland are Oakham and Uppingham.

In the mid-1970s, it was the inspiration for Eric Idle's TV show, Rutland Weekend Television.


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