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Republic of Rwanda
Repubulika y'u Rwanda
République du Rwanda
Flag Coat of arms
MottoUbumwe, Umurimo, Gukunda Igihugu
"Unity, Work, Patriotism"
Anthem"Rwanda nziza"
Capital
(and largest city)
Kigali
1°56.633′S 30°3.567′E / 1.943883°S 30.05945°E / -1.943883; 30.05945
Official language(s) Kinyarwanda, French, English
Vernacular language Swahili
Demonym Rwandan, Rwandese
Government Republic
 -  President Paul Kagame
 -  Prime Minister Bernard Makuza
Independence from Belgium 
 -  Date July 1, 1962 
Area
 -  Total 26,338 km2 (147th)
10,169 sq mi 
 -  Water (%) 5.3
Population
 -  July 2009 estimate 10,473,282[1] (80th)
 -  2010 census 10,264,947[2] 
 -  Density 397.6/km2 (29th)
1,029.9/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2008 estimate
 -  Total $10.004 billion[3] 
 -  Per capita $1,043[3] 
GDP (nominal) 2008 estimate
 -  Total $4.459 billion[3] 
 -  Per capita $465[3] 
Gini (2003) 45.1 (medium
HDI (2007) 0.460 (low) (167th)
Currency Rwandan franc (RWF)
Time zone CAT (UTC+2)
 -  Summer (DST) not observed (UTC+2)
Drives on the right
Internet TLD .rw
Calling code 250
1 Estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected.
.The Republic of Rwanda (English pronunciation: /ruːˈændə/ roo-AN-də or /rəˈwɑːndə/ rə-WAHN-də; Kinyarwanda pronunciation [ɾwanda] or IPA: [ɾɡwanda]), known as the Land of a Thousand Hills, is a landlocked country located in the Great Lakes region of eastern-central Africa, bordered by Uganda, Burundi, the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Tanzania.^ On the shores of Lake Kivu, Rwanda sits to the north of Burundi, the south of Uganda, the east of the Democratic Republic of Congo, and to the west of Tanzania.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Rwanda : Rwanda Overview 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1990 4,000 NRA deserters launched an attack on Rwanda; though initially repulsed, with the help of troops from France, Belgium and the Democratic Republic of Congo (formerly Zaire), the impact was enormous.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Rwanda : Rwanda Overview 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Kabila became president of the newly renamed ‘Democratic Republic of Congo' (DRC), but quickly fell out with his backers in Kigali and Kampala.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Rwanda : Rwanda Overview 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Although close to the equator, the country has a cool temperate climate due to its high elevation. The terrain consists mostly of grassy uplands and gently rolling hills. .Abundant wildlife, including rare mountain gorillas, have resulted in tourism becoming one of the biggest sectors of the country's economy.^ You have the chance to trek to see the rare Mountain Gorilla before our amazing adventure finishes in Kampala.

^ Go on an exciting trek to track the rare Mountain Gorilla in the jungles of Rwanda, and throw yourself off a cliff on an intense bungee over the Nile if you dare!

^ Come face to face with a family of rare Mountain Gorillas in their natural habitat and interact with these beautiful creatures like you were one of their own on this amazing overland expedition.

.Rwanda has received considerable international attention due to its 1994 genocide, in which an estimated 800,000 people were killed.^ Independence in 1962 was accompanied by continuing violence; by 1964 an estimated 150,000 people, virtually all Tutsis, had fled to surrounding countries.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Rwanda : Rwanda Overview 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ From April to June 1994 Rwanda witnessed the most extensive genocide the world had seen in fifty years.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Rwanda : Rwanda Overview 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Kigali estimates that France is home to another eight fugitives, avoiding punishment for their role in the 1994 genocide.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Rwanda : Rwanda Overview 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[4] Since then the country has made a recovery and is now considered as a model for developing countries. In 2009 a CNN report labeled Rwanda as Africa's biggest success story, having achieved stability, economic growth (average income has tripled in the past ten years) and international integration.[5] The government is widely seen as one of the more efficient and honest ones in Africa. Fortune magazine published an article recently titled "Why CEOs Love Rwanda." [6] The capital, Kigali, is the first city in Africa to be bestowed with the Habitat Scroll of Honor Award in the recognition of its "cleanliness, security and urban conservation model." [7] In 2008, Rwanda became the first country to elect a national legislature in which a majority of members were women.[8] .Rwanda joined the Commonwealth of Nations on 29 November 2009 as its fifty-fourth member,[9] making the country one of only two in the Commonwealth without a British colonial past.^ Two or more crimes may be joined in one indictment if the series of acts committed together form the same transaction, and the said crimes were commit-ted by the same accused.
  • International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda, Rules of Procedure and Evidence, U.N. Doc. ITR/3/REV.1 (1995), entered into force 29 June 1995. 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.umn.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Click BACK to return to blog] August 29, 2009, KIGALI, RWANDA – Let me please first cover this blog entry in the Blood of Christ.

^ Click Back to return to block] March 29, 2009, KIGALI, RWANDA – Whew!

[10]

Contents

History

Pre-colonial period

.It is not known when the territory of present day Rwanda was first inhabited, but it is thought that humans moved into the area following the last ice age either in the Neolithic period, around ten thousand years ago, or in the long humid period which followed, up to around 3000 BC.[11][12] Archaeological excavations have revealed evidence of sparse settlement by hunter gatherers in the late stone age, followed by a larger population of early Iron Age settlers, who produced dimpled pottery and iron tools.^ Although no accurate census has been done, Muslims leaders in Rwanda estimate that they have about a million followers, or about 15 percent of the population.

^ We have thought long and hard about this because my family and friends are in the US and JP’s family and friends are in Rwanda/Burundi.

^ State in whose territory or under whose jurisdiction and control the person to be served resides or was last known to him to be; and .
  • International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda, Rules of Procedure and Evidence, U.N. Doc. ITR/3/REV.1 (1995), entered into force 29 June 1995. 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.umn.edu [Source type: Original source]

[11][13][14]
.These early inhabitants were the ancestors of the Twa, a group of aboriginal Pygmy hunter-gatherers, who still live in Rwanda today.^ Populations of these groups are estimated to be: Hutus 8.3 million (84%), Tutsis 1.5 million (15%) and Twa (Batwa) 33,000.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Rwanda : Rwanda Overview 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[11] Eventually these settlers were joined by Bantu farmers from the west, known as the Hutus.[11] The exact dates of this are not certain, with estimates varying from 700 BC up to the beginning of the Christian era, around 1 AD.[11][15][16] The Hutus, with their sedentary farming lifestyle, soon outnumbered the Twas and began to take over their traditional hunting grounds, forcing them to retreat into the forests.[17]
Later a third group, the cattle-raising Tutsi, migrated to the area. .The Tutsi were generally taller than the Hutus and the Twas, and were distinct in physical appearance.^ The destinies of Rwandans remain intertwined; for this reason the principal ethnic groupings of Hutu, Tutsi and Twa are considered together, with a more detailed separate section on the Twa to follow.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Rwanda : Rwanda Overview 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Moderate Hutus were targeted as traitors, and Twa as collaborators with the Tutsi.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Rwanda : Rwanda Overview 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, for the marginalized Batwa community - historically discriminated against by both Hutus and Tutsis - recognition of its distinct identity has been extremely important.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Rwanda : Rwanda Overview 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[17][18] .It is not known when the Tutsi arrived and from where they came, but there is evidence that they were of Cushitic origin, coming from the Horn of Africa.^ Now they have come back, these Tutsi rebels.
  • Hotel Rwanda (2004) 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.imdb.com [Source type: General]

[18] Over time, the distinction between the three groups became blurred and some sources question whether they are truly of separate racial or ethnic stock.[19]
.Considerable controversy surrounds the origins and the organization of Rwandan society before the arrival of Europeans, however, and the Rwandan government disputes European historical records and scientific evidence of migrations and cultural society within the region.^ The standard (if disputed) conception of pre-colonial Rwanda, in which Tutsi pastoralists moved from the north to rule over Hutu agriculturalists four hundred years ago, does little to illuminate the complex hierarchies and regional variations within traditional Rwandan society.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Rwanda : Rwanda Overview 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In January 2006 the government reorganized the Rwandan state, replacing 12 provinces with five new regions (Kigali, North, South, East, and West).
  • Minority Rights Group International : Rwanda : Rwanda Overview 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[20] .Even in pre-colonial Rwanda, however, the Kinyarwanda language was widely spoken.^ Urukundo” means “love” in Kinyarwanda, the native language of Rwanda.

^ I wish I had the Kinyarwanda language fully in my grasp so that I may directly share with the people of Rwanda the full passion I have for Jesus and the full love He has placed in my heart for the people of Rwanda.

A traditional local justice system called Gacaca predominated in much of the region as an institution for resolving conflict and rendering justice. The Tutsi king (mwami) became the ultimate judge and arbiter for those cases over which he had jurisdiction. Through this system, stability was achieved in large areas of what is now Rwanda.[21]

Colonial era

After signing treaties with chiefs in the Tanganyika region in 1884-1885, Germany claimed Tanganyika, Rwanda and Burundi as its own territory. .Count von Götzen met the Tutsi Mwami (king) for the first time in 1894. However, with only 2,500 soldiers in East Africa, Germany did little to change societal structures in much of the region, especially in Rwanda.^ This even was truly a first time historical event for Rwanda.

^ The village was much like the villages in Cyangugu where I first came into Rwanda to evangelize.

^ LINDA HUANG I'm a missionary SENT BY GOD to live and serve in Rwanda, East Africa since June 2007.

After the Mwami's death in 1895, a period of unrest followed. Germans and missionaries then began to enter the country from Tanganyika in 1897-98.
By 1899 the Germans exerted some influence by placing advisors at the courts of local chiefs. Much of the Germans' time was spent fighting uprisings in Tanganyika, especially the Maji Maji war of 1905-1907. On May 14, 1910 the European Convention of Brussels fixed the borders of Uganda, Belgian Congo, and German East Africa which included Tanganyika and Ruanda-Urundi.[22] .In 1911, the Germans helped the Tutsi put down a rebellion of Hutus in the northern part of Rwanda who did not wish to submit to central Tutsi control.^ The true-life story of Paul Rusesabagina, a hotel manager who housed over a thousand Tutsi refugees during their struggle against the Hutu militia in Rwanda.
  • Hotel Rwanda (2004) 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.imdb.com [Source type: General]

^ Throughout most of the 1960s Tutsi refugees launched attacks from abroad; in 1963 an estimated 15,000 Tutsis in Rwanda were massacred in retaliation by Hutu gangs.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Rwanda : Rwanda Overview 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Very few Hutus believed RPF assurances that they were not bent on reasserting Tutsi control, or taking revenge for the genocide.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Rwanda : Rwanda Overview 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In 1916, during World War I, Belgian forces advanced from the Congo into Germany's East African colonies.^ JP was born in Bujumbura, Burundi (south of Rwanda) to a family of means, but the plight of war (the same ethnic tribal conflicts as Rwanda) forced his family into poverty.

After Germany lost the War, Belgium accepted the League of Nations Mandate of 1923 to govern Ruanda-Urundi along with the Congo, while Great Britain accepted Tanganyika and other German colonies. After World War II, Ruanda-Urundi became a United Nations (UN) "trust territory" administered by Belgium. The Belgian involvement in the region was far more direct than German involvement and extended its interests into education and agricultural supervision. The latter was especially important in the face of two droughts and subsequent famines in 1928-29 and in 1943. These famines forced large migrations of Rwandans to neighboring Congo.[23] In 1933 ethnic identification cards were used to classify one's ethnicity.
.The Belgian colonizers also accepted the existing class system, featuring a minority Tutsi upper class and lower classes of Hutus and Tutsi commoners.^ The Tutsi were collaborators for the Belgian colonists, they stole our Hutu land, they whipped us.
  • Hotel Rwanda (2004) 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.imdb.com [Source type: General]

.However, in 1926 the Belgians abolished the local posts of "land-chief", "cattle-chief" and "military chief", and in doing so they stripped the Hutu of their limited local power over land.^ The Tutsi were collaborators for the Belgian colonists, they stole our Hutu land, they whipped us.
  • Hotel Rwanda (2004) 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.imdb.com [Source type: General]

In the 1920s, under military threat, the Belgians finally helped to bring the northwest Hutu kingdoms, who had maintained local control of land not subject to the Mwami, under the Tutsi royalty's central control.[24] These two actions disenfranchised the Hutu. Large, centralized land holdings were then divided into smaller chiefdoms.[25]
The fragmenting of Hutu lands angered Mwami Yuhi IV, who had hoped to further centralize his power enough to rid himself of the Belgians. In 1931 Tutsi plots against the Belgian administration resulted in the Belgians deposing the Tutsi Mwami Yuhi. .This caused the Tutsis to take up arms against the Belgians, but because of their fear of the Belgians' military superiority, they did not openly revolt.^ The Tutsi were collaborators for the Belgian colonists, they stole our Hutu land, they whipped us.
  • Hotel Rwanda (2004) 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.imdb.com [Source type: General]

^ Very few Hutus believed RPF assurances that they were not bent on reasserting Tutsi control, or taking revenge for the genocide.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Rwanda : Rwanda Overview 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[26]
The Roman Catholic Church and Belgian colonial authorities considered the Hutus and Tutsis different ethnic races based on their physical differences and patterns of migration. .However, because of the existence of many wealthy Hutu who shared the financial (if not physical) stature of the Tutsi, the Belgians used an expedient method of classification based on the number of cattle a person owned.^ The true-life story of Paul Rusesabagina, a hotel manager who housed over a thousand Tutsi refugees during their struggle against the Hutu militia in Rwanda.
  • Hotel Rwanda (2004) 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.imdb.com [Source type: General]

^ I have heard many stories of many people who came here with millions of dollars that get stolen from trusting the wrong person.

^ The Tutsi were collaborators for the Belgian colonists, they stole our Hutu land, they whipped us.
  • Hotel Rwanda (2004) 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.imdb.com [Source type: General]

.Anyone with ten or more cattle was considered a member of the aristocratic Tutsi class.^ The destinies of Rwandans remain intertwined; for this reason the principal ethnic groupings of Hutu, Tutsi and Twa are considered together, with a more detailed separate section on the Twa to follow.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Rwanda : Rwanda Overview 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

From 1935 on, "Tutsi", "Hutu" and "Twa" were indicated on identity cards. .The Roman Catholic Church, being the primary educator in the country, subscribed to and reinforced the differences between Hutu and Tutsi, developing separate educational systems for each.^ Help me to raise funds to develop a better education system for them and a future hope in Christ.

^ Help me to stay so I can develop a better education system for them and a future hope in Christ.

In the 1940s and 1950s the vast majority of students were Tutsi. In 1943, Mwami Mutari III became the first Tutsi monarch to convert to Catholicism.
The Belgian colonialists continued to depend on the Tutsi aristocracy to collect taxes and enforce Belgian policies. It maintained the dominance of the Tutsi in local colonial administration and expanded the Tutsi system of labor for colonial purposes. The United Nations later decried this policy and demanded a greater self-representation of the Hutu in local affairs. In 1954 the Tutsi monarchy of Ruanda-Urundi demanded independence from Belgian rule. At the same time it agreed to abolish the system of indentured servitude (ubuhake and uburetwa) the Tutsis had practiced over the Hutu until then.
In the 1950s and early 1960s, a wave of Pan-Africanism swept through Central Africa, with leaders such as Julius Nyerere in Tanzania and Patrice Lumumba in the Congo. Anti-colonial sentiment stirred throughout central Africa, and a socialist platform of African unity and equality for all Africans was forwarded. Nyerere himself wrote about the elitism of educational systems,[27] which Hutus interpreted as an indictment of the elitist educations provided for Tutsis in their own country.
.Encouraged by the Pan-Africanists, Hutu advocates in the Catholic Church, and by Christian Belgians (who were increasingly influential in the Congo), Hutu sentiment against the aristocratic Tutsi was increasingly inflamed.^ The true-life story of Paul Rusesabagina, a hotel manager who housed over a thousand Tutsi refugees during their struggle against the Hutu militia in Rwanda.
  • Hotel Rwanda (2004) 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.imdb.com [Source type: General]

The United Nations mandates, the Tutsi overlord class, and the Belgian colonialists themselves added to the growing unrest. .The Hutu "emancipation" movement was soon spearheaded by Gregoire Kayibanda, founder of Parmehutu, who wrote his "Hutu Manifesto" in 1957. The group quickly became militarized.^ Local elections in 1960, won by the Party of the Movement for Hutu Emancipation (PARMEHUTU), were marred by violent conflict on inter-ethnic lines; hundreds were killed and over 200,000 internally displaced.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Rwanda : Rwanda Overview 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In reaction, in 1959 the UNAR party was formed by Tutsis who desired an immediate independence for Ruanda-Urundi, to be based on the existing Tutsi monarchy. This group also became quickly militarized. Skirmishes began between UNAR and PARMEHUTU groups. Then in July 1959, the Tutsi Mwami (King) Mutara III Charles was believed by Rwandan Tutsis to have been assassinated when he died following a routine vaccination by a Flemish physician in Bujumbura. His younger half-brother then became the next Tutsi monarch, Mwami (King) Kigeli V.
In November 1959, Tutsi forces beat up a Hutu politician, Dominique Mbonyumutwa, and rumors of his death set off a violent backlash against the Tutsi known as "the wind of destruction." Thousands of Tutsis were killed and many thousands more, including the Mwami, fled to neighboring Uganda before Belgian commandos arrived to quell the violence. .Several Belgians were subsequently accused by Tutsi leaders of abetting the Hutus in the violence.^ The Tutsi were collaborators for the Belgian colonists, they stole our Hutu land, they whipped us.
  • Hotel Rwanda (2004) 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.imdb.com [Source type: General]

Tutsi refugees also fled to the South Kivu province of the Congo, where they called themselves Banyamulenge. They eventually became a primary force in the First and Second Congo Wars.
In 1960, the Belgian government agreed to hold democratic municipal elections in Ruanda-Urundi, in which Hutu representatives were elected by the Hutu majorities. This precipitous change in the power structure threatened the centuries-old system by which Tutsi superiority had been maintained through monarchy. An effort to create an independent Ruanda-Urundi with Tutsi-Hutu power sharing failed, largely due to escalating violence. .The Belgian government, with UN urging, therefore decided to divide Ruanda-Urundi into two separate countries, Rwanda and Burundi.^ JP was born in Bujumbura, Burundi (south of Rwanda) to a family of means, but the plight of war (the same ethnic tribal conflicts as Rwanda) forced his family into poverty.

Each had elections in 1961 in preparation for independence.
In 1961, Rwandans voted, by referendum and with the support of the Belgian colonial government, to abolish the Tutsi monarchy and instead establish a republic. Dominique Mbonyumutwa, who had survived his previous attack, was named the first president of the transitional government. This attack was the pretext used to explain that Tutsis were dangerous and had to be killed. Burundi, by contrast, established a constitutional monarchy, and in the 1961 elections leading up to independence, Louis Rwagasore, the son of the Tutsi Mwami and a popular politician and anti-colonial agitator, was elected as Prime Minister. However, he was soon assassinated. The monarchy, with the aid of the military, therefore assumed control of the country, and allowed no further elections until 1965.
Between 1961 and 1962, Tutsi guerrilla groups staged attacks into Rwanda from neighboring countries. .Rwandan Hutu-based troops responded and thousands more were killed in the clashes.^ The destinies of Rwandans remain intertwined; for this reason the principal ethnic groupings of Hutu, Tutsi and Twa are considered together, with a more detailed separate section on the Twa to follow.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Rwanda : Rwanda Overview 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In October 1996 Zairean Tutsi militias supported by Rwandan troops attacked the refugee camps in the Zairean province of North Kivu, provoking the repatriation of several hundred thousand Hutu refugees, though leaving hundreds of thousands more in Zaire.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Rwanda : Rwanda Overview 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The great majority of Rwandan Tutsis, along with a great many Twa and moderate Hutus - as many as 800,000 to one million people all told - were killed.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Rwanda : Rwanda Overview 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.On July 1, 1962, Belgium, with UN supervision, granted full independence to the two countries.^ Independence in 1962 was accompanied by continuing violence; by 1964 an estimated 150,000 people, virtually all Tutsis, had fled to surrounding countries.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Rwanda : Rwanda Overview 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Rwanda was created as a republic governed by the majority Party of the Hutu Emancipation Movement (Parmehutu), which had gained full control of national politics by this time. .In 1963, a Tutsi guerrilla invasion into Rwanda from Burundi unleashed another anti-Tutsi backlash by the Hutu government in Rwanda, and an estimated 14,000 people were killed.^ JP was born in Bujumbura, Burundi (south of Rwanda) to a family of means, but the plight of war (the same ethnic tribal conflicts as Rwanda) forced his family into poverty.

In response, a previous economic union between Rwanda and Burundi was dissolved and tensions between the two countries worsened. Rwanda also now became a Hutu-dominated one-party state. In excess of 70,000 people had been killed.[citation needed] It was thought for a while that British Royal Marines then stationed in Tanzania might be sent to Rwanda to stop the horrific loss of life there.

Post-independence

Juvénal Habyarimana during a visit to the United States, 1980
Gregoire Kayibanda, founder of Parmehutu (and a Hutu) was the first president (from 1962 to 1973), followed by Juvenal Habyarimana (who was president from 1973 to 1994). The latter, also a Hutu (from the northwest of Rwanda), took power from Kayibanda in a 1973 coup, claiming the government to have been ineffective and riddled with favoritism.
He installed his own political party into government. Thereafter political parties were banned and one party rule effected. Rwanda enjoyed relative economic prosperity during the early part of his regime due to rising coffee and tea prices, the country's main exports, however only a small political elite connected to the President and his family would benefit from the country's growing prosperity.

Civil War and Genocide

In the 1980s the economic situation worsened and the incumbent president, Juvénal Habyarimana, began losing popularity. .At the same time, Tutsi refugees in Uganda - supported by some moderate Hutus - were forming the Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF).^ The RPF claimed that only its victory could end the massacres, and its advance precipitated some of the largest and fastest movements of refugees ever recorded.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Rwanda : Rwanda Overview 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The destinies of Rwandans remain intertwined; for this reason the principal ethnic groupings of Hutu, Tutsi and Twa are considered together, with a more detailed separate section on the Twa to follow.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Rwanda : Rwanda Overview 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although the Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF) invaders insisted they were not bent on restoring Tutsi hegemony, and managed to attract an element of Hutu support, Tutsis within the country were automatically suspected of sympathy or collaboration with the invaders, leading to growing abuses.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Rwanda : Rwanda Overview 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Their aim was to secure their right to return to their homeland and threatened to wage an armed struggle. .Habyarimana chose to exploit this threat as a way to bring dissident Hutus back to his side, and Tutsis inside Rwanda were accused of being RPF collaborators.^ The true-life story of Paul Rusesabagina, a hotel manager who housed over a thousand Tutsi refugees during their struggle against the Hutu militia in Rwanda.
  • Hotel Rwanda (2004) 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.imdb.com [Source type: General]

^ Moderate Hutus were targeted as traitors, and Twa as collaborators with the Tutsi.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Rwanda : Rwanda Overview 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Habyarimana's movement represented a consolidation of Hutu domination and anti-Tutsi sentiment, as well as shift in power from the south to the north of the country.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Rwanda : Rwanda Overview 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In 1990 the Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF), a rebel group, composed mostly of the Tutsi refugees, invaded northern Rwanda from Uganda.^ The true-life story of Paul Rusesabagina, a hotel manager who housed over a thousand Tutsi refugees during their struggle against the Hutu militia in Rwanda.
  • Hotel Rwanda (2004) 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.imdb.com [Source type: General]

.The Rwandan Civil War, fought between the Hutu regime, with support from Francophone nations of Africa and France itself,[28][29] and the RPF, with support from Uganda, vastly increased the ethnic tensions in the country and led to the rise of Hutu Power, an ideology that asserted that the Tutsi intended to enslave Hutus and thus must be resisted at all costs.^ The destinies of Rwandans remain intertwined; for this reason the principal ethnic groupings of Hutu, Tutsi and Twa are considered together, with a more detailed separate section on the Twa to follow.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Rwanda : Rwanda Overview 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although the Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF) invaders insisted they were not bent on restoring Tutsi hegemony, and managed to attract an element of Hutu support, Tutsis within the country were automatically suspected of sympathy or collaboration with the invaders, leading to growing abuses.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Rwanda : Rwanda Overview 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This year the government abruptly changed the national language to English (from French and Kinyarwanda) so all subjects must now be taught in English.

Despite continuing ethnic strife, including the displacement of large numbers of Hutu in the north by the rebels and periodic localized extermination of Tutsi to the south, pressure on the government of Juvénal Habyarimana resulted in a cease-fire in 1993 and the preliminary implementation of the Arusha Accords.
On April 6, 1994 Rwandan President Habyarimana and the Burundian President were killed when Habyarimana's plane was shot down near Kigali Airport. Hutu extremists, suspecting that the Rwandan president was finally about to implement the Arusha Peace Accords, are believed to have been behind the attack.[30][31] The shooting down of the plane served as the trigger for the Genocide. .In the course of the next few months the Hutu majority in Rwanda organized and implemented the mass slaughter of the Tutsi minority.^ It has been a long and hard few months, as par for the course here in mission field Rwanda.

.Hundreds of thousands of Rwanda's Tutsis and Hutu political moderates were killed on the orders of the Hutu dominated government under the Hutu Power ideology.^ Within two days most leading opposition politicians (both Hutus and Tutsis, including many serving within the new coalition government) and hundreds of Tutsi civilians had been killed by Hutu soldiers and militiamen.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Rwanda : Rwanda Overview 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Moderate Hutus were targeted as traitors, and Twa as collaborators with the Tutsi.
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^ Habyarimana's movement represented a consolidation of Hutu domination and anti-Tutsi sentiment, as well as shift in power from the south to the north of the country.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Rwanda : Rwanda Overview 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Over the course of approximately 100 days, from the assassination of Juvénal Habyarimana on 6 April through mid-July, at least 500,000 people were killed.^ I trust God that I will be okay.” This was from a hurting nine-year-old.” THE FESTIVAL According to Palau, there were approximately 7,000 people at the two-day festival.

[32] Estimates of the death toll have ranged between 500,000 and 1,000,000,[33] or as much as 20% of the total population of the country.
The assassination of Habyarimana in April 1994 was the proximate cause of the mass killings of Tutsis and pro-peace Hutus. They were carried out primarily by two Hutu militias associated with political parties: the Interahamwe and the Impuzamugambi. The genocide was directed by a Hutu power group known as the Akazu. The killing also marked the end of the peace agreement meant to end the war and the Tutsi RPF restarted their offensive, eventually defeating the army and seizing control of the country.

Post-civil war

.Approximately two million Hutus, participants in the genocide, and the bystanders, with anticipation of Tutsi retaliation, fled from Rwanda, to Burundi, Tanzania, Uganda, and for the most part Zaire.^ Within two days most leading opposition politicians (both Hutus and Tutsis, including many serving within the new coalition government) and hundreds of Tutsi civilians had been killed by Hutu soldiers and militiamen.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Rwanda : Rwanda Overview 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Since the 1994 genocide, when the ruling elite of the majority Hutu group stoked up murderous hatred against minority Tutsis, ethnicity has been a difficult and sensitive area in Rwanda.
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^ On the shores of Lake Kivu, Rwanda sits to the north of Burundi, the south of Uganda, the east of the Democratic Republic of Congo, and to the west of Tanzania.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Rwanda : Rwanda Overview 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Thousands of them died in epidemics of diseases common to the squalor of refugee camps, such as cholera and dysentery.[34] The United States staged the Operation Support Hope airlift from July to September 1994 to stabilize the situation in the camps.[35]
After the victory of the RPF, the size of UNAMIR (henceforth called UNAMIR 2) was increased to its full strength, remaining in Rwanda until March 8, 1996.[36]
.In October 1996, an uprising by the ethnic Tutsi Banyamulenge people in eastern Zaire marked the beginning of the First Congo War, and led to a return of more than 600,000 to Rwanda during the last two weeks of November.^ The true-life story of Paul Rusesabagina, a hotel manager who housed over a thousand Tutsi refugees during their struggle against the Hutu militia in Rwanda.
  • Hotel Rwanda (2004) 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.imdb.com [Source type: General]

^ However, God has taught me two important things in this last year…first, you don’t choose who you love, but you can choose who you spend your life with.

^ Roman Catholicism has been the dominant faith in Rwanda for more than a century.

This massive repatriation was followed at the end of December 1996 by the return of 500,000 more from Tanzania after they were ejected by the Tanzanian government. Various successor organizations to the Hutu militants operated in eastern DR Congo until May 22, 2009.

Political development

After its military victory in July 1994, the Rwandan Patriotic Front organized a coalition government similar to that established by President Juvénal Habyarimana in 1992. Called The Broad Based Government of National Unity, its fundamental law is based on a combination of the constitution, the Arusha accords, and political declarations by the parties. The MRND party was outlawed. Political organizing was banned until 2003. The first post-war presidential and legislative elections were held in August and September 2003 respectively.[citation needed]
The current government prohibits discrimination on the basis of ethnicity, race or religion. The government has also passed laws prohibiting emphasis on Hutu or Tutsi identity in most types of political activity.[citation needed]
.In March 1998, on a visit to Rwanda, U.S. President Bill Clinton spoke to the crowd assembled on the tarmac at Kigali Airport: "We come here today partly in recognition of the fact that we in the United States and the world community did not do as much as we could have and should have done to try to limit what occurred" in Rwanda.^ Click Back to return to block] March 29, 2009, KIGALI, RWANDA – Whew!

^ KIGALI HOPE FESTIVAL (ANDREW PALAU) I have taken on a side project of helping to consult with the Palau festival which is coming to Rwanda in July.

[37] Four years after the genocide, Clinton issued what is now known as the "Clinton apology," acknowledging his failure to efficiently deal with the situation in Rwanda, but not formally apologizing for inaction by the U.S. government or the international community.
In March 2000, after removing Pasteur Bizimungu, Paul Kagame became President of Rwanda. On August 25, 2003 Kagame won the first national elections since the RPF took power in 1994.

Rebuilding

President Paul Kagame in 2006
A new constitution, written by the Kagame government, was then adopted by referendum in 2003. The first post-war presidential and legislative elections were held in August and September 2003, respectively. The stated RPF-led government goals were to promote reconciliation and unity among all Rwandans through the new constitution by forbidding any political activity or discrimination based on race, ethnicity or religion. .Right of return to Rwandans displaced between 1959 and 1994, was enshrined in the constitution and the constitution guarantees "All persons originating from Rwanda and their descendants shall, upon their request, be entitled to Rwandan nationality" and "No Rwandan shall be banished from the country."^ Bridge to Rwanda” is God’s vision of hope in Rwanda and my original call to return to serve indefinitely here in Rwanda.

^ We are praying for all the funds needed to fly to Houston and return to Rwanda to finish out the mission.

[38]
By law, at least a third of the Parliamentary representation must be female. In the parliamentary election of September 2008, 56% of seats were won by women.[39]
The Senate has at least 26 members, each with a term of eight years. Eight posts are appointed by the president. 12 are elected representatives of the former 11 provinces and the city of Kigali. Four members are designated by the Forum of Political Organizations (a quasi-governmental organization that currently is an arm of the dominant political party); one member is a university lecturer or researcher elected by the public universities; one member is a university lecturer or researcher elected by the private universities. Any past President has permanent membership in the Senate. Under this scheme, up to 12 appointees to the Senate are appointed by the President and his party. The elected members must be approved by the Supreme Court. The 14 Supreme Court members are designated by the President and confirmed by the Senate. The Chamber of Deputies has 80 members, each with a 5 year term; 24 posts are reserved for women and are elected by province; 53 posts can be men or women and are also are elected by local elections; 2 posts are elected by the National Youth Council; 1 post is elected by Federation of the Associations of the Disabled.
The President and the Speaker of the Chamber of Deputies must be from different political parties. The President is elected every seven years, and may serve a maximum of two terms. In 2006, however, the structure of the country was reorganized. It is unclear how this affects current elected representation proportions.
The current Rwandan government, led by Paul Kagame, has been praised by many for establishing security and promoting reconciliation and economic development, but is also criticized by some for being overly militant and opposed to dissent. The country now has many international visitors and is regarded as the safest country in East and Central Africa.
With new independent radio stations and other media arising, Rwanda is attempting a free press, but the Government has been criticized for cracking down on journalists who have questioned the government.[40][41]
.On 2 December 2009, Rwanda became the first country to be declared free of landmines under the Ottawa Treaty.^ Click BACK to return to blog] December 25, 2009, KIGALI, RWANDA – Merry Christmas!

^ Click BACK to return to blog] August 29, 2009, KIGALI, RWANDA – Let me please first cover this blog entry in the Blood of Christ.

[42]

Rebuilding the economy

The government initiated an economic stabilization and recovery program in 1994, which led to a major economic turnaround over the period between 1994 and 2001. The government restructured the country's external debt through the Paris Club, secured a three-year support loan from IMF/World Bank, abolished export taxes, initiated rehabilitation of the banking sector, liberalized trade, currency and wage regimes, achieved full current account convertibility, firmed up the independence of the Central Bank, and launched the restructuring and privatisation of public entities.[citation needed]
Between 1994 and 1997, the GDP growth rate rose by nearly 70%. In the following years, growth remained relatively high (between 6% and 9%). The last three years have also seen spectacular GDP growth at an average rate of over 8%. In 2008 Rwanda registered double digit growth at 11.2%.
Map of Rwanda

Administrative divisions

Rwanda is divided into five provinces (intara) and subdivided into thirty districts (akarere). The provinces are:
Prior to 1 January 2006, Rwanda was composed of twelve provinces (known as prefectures up to 2001), but these were abolished in full and redrawn as part of a program of decentralization and reorganization.

Geography

Satellite image of left, generated from raster graphics data supplied by The Map Library
The Nyabarongo river flowing through Rwanda to Lake Victoria and the Nile river.
This small country, slightly smaller than the US state of Massachusetts or half the size of Scotland, is located near the center of Africa, a few degrees south of the Equator. It is separated from the Democratic Republic of the Congo by Lake Kivu and the Ruzizi River valley to the west; it is bounded on the north by Uganda, to the east by Tanzania, and to the south by Burundi. The capital, Kigali, is located in the center of the country.
Rwanda's countryside is covered by grasslands and small farms extending over rolling hills, with areas of rugged mountains that extend southeast from a chain of volcanoes in the northwest. The divide between the Congo and Nile drainage systems extends from north to south through western Rwanda at an average elevation of almost 9,000 feet (2,743 m).
On the western slopes of this ridgeline, the land slopes abruptly toward Lake Kivu and the Ruzizi River valley, and constitutes part of the Great Rift Valley. This western section of the country lies within the Albertine Rift montane forests ecoregion.
The eastern slopes are more moderate, with rolling hills extending across central uplands at gradually reducing altitudes, to the plains, swamps, and lakes of the eastern border region. Therefore the country is also fondly known as "Land of a Thousand Hills" (Pays des mille collines). In 2006, a British-led exploration announced that they had located the longest headstream of the River Nile in Nyungwe Forest.[43]

Transport

The transport system in Rwanda centres primarily around the road network, with paved roads between the capital, Kigali and most other major cities and towns in the country.[44] .Rwanda is also linked by road to other countries in East Africa, notably to the port of Mombasa via Kampala and Nairobi, which provides Rwanda's most important trade route.^ LINDA HUANG I'm a missionary SENT BY GOD to live and serve in Rwanda, East Africa since June 2007.

[45] The country has an international airport at Kigali, serving one domestic and several international destinations.[46][47] There is no public water transport between the port cities on Lake Kivu, although a limited private service exists.[48] A large amount of investment in the transport infrastructure has been made by the government since the 1994 genocide, with aid from the USA, European Union, Japan and others.
.The principal form of public transport in the country is share taxi, with express routes linking the major cities and local services serving most villages along the main roads of the country.^ And the house is safe and near the main road, local stores, and the market.

Coach services are available to various destinations in neighbouring countries.
.In 2006, the Chinese government proposed funding a study for the building of a railway link from Bujumbura in Burundi to Kigali in Rwanda to Isaka in Tanzania.^ JP was born in Bujumbura, Burundi (south of Rwanda) to a family of means, but the plight of war (the same ethnic tribal conflicts as Rwanda) forced his family into poverty.

[49] A delegation from the American railroad BNSF also met with President Paul Kagame to discuss a route from Kigali to Isaka and at the same time the government announced that it had selected a German consulting company to undertake pilot work for the proposed rail line.[50]

Communications

For now, Rwanda leads the region in terms of ICT adoption and infrastructure development. The country has a 100% mobile telecommunication coverage. Three Mobile phone operators (MTN, RwandaTel & TIGO) provide 3G mobile phone and internet services.
In 2009, WiBro technology was launched in Kigali enabling users to access high speed wireless Internet from any part of the city.
.The postal system is mostly reliable.^ The postal system is mostly reliable.
  • Top20Rwanda.com - Your Top20 Guide to Rwanda! 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC top20rwanda.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Those wishing to receive post must register and pay for annually, a Post Office Box at the Post Office.^ Those wishing to receive post Office.
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.There is one national television station: Rwanda Television which broadcasts feeds from various international broadcasters during the day.^ There is one national television station: Rwanda Television which programming repeated in Kinyarwanda, English and French.
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^ There is one government-operated television station.

^ There is a fledgling television station.
  • Rwanda 11 September 2009 9:46 UTC clinton2.nara.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The evening programming largely consists of locally produced news programming repeated in Kinyarwanda, English and French.^ This year the government abruptly changed the national language to English (from French and Kinyarwanda) so all subjects must now be taught in English.

^ A problem that I also see is that the government is changing the national language of the country from French to English – with really no set program in place to accomplish this.
  • How to Cross the Digital Divide, Rwanda-Style 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.techcrunch.com [Source type: General]

^ There is one national television station: Rwanda Television which programming repeated in Kinyarwanda, English and French.
  • Top20Rwanda.com - Your Top20 Guide to Rwanda! 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC top20rwanda.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Subscription-based satellite television is easily available. There are currently two operators: South African based DSTV and China based Star Communications.

Economy

Coffee, such as this bag of Maraba Coffee, is one of Rwanda's major cash crops.
.Rwanda's economy suffered heavily during the 1994 genocide, with widespread loss of life, failure to maintain the infrastructure, looting and neglect of important cash crops causing a large drop in GDP and destroying the country's ability to attract private and external investment.^ And JP’s family suffered through a lot of persecution and life threats during that time.

[51] .The country has since strengthened, with per-capita GDP (PPP) estimated at $951 in 2008,[52] compared with just $390 in 1994.[53] Major export markets include China, Germany and the United States.^ It just makes you think about how lucky we are in the United States to have federal medical aid for the needy.

[51] The currency is the Rwandan franc and the economy is managed by the central National Bank of Rwanda, although Rwanda recently joined the East African Community and there are plans for a common East African shilling, which could be in place by 2010.[54]
Rwanda is a country of few natural resources, and the economy is based mostly on semi-subsistence agriculture by local farmers using simple tools.[55] An estimated 90% of the working population farms, and agriculture comprised an estimated 39.4% of GDP in 2006.[51] Since the mid 1980s, farm sizes have and food production have been decreasing, due in part to the resettlement of displaced people.[56][57] Thus despite Rwanda's fertile ecosystem, food production often does not keep pace with population growth, requiring food imports.[51] Crops grown in the country include coffee, tea, pyrethrum, bananas, beans, sorghum and potatoes. Coffee and tea are the major cash crops for export, with the high altitudes, steep slopes and volcanic soils providing favourable conditions. Reliance on agricultural exports makes Rwanda vulnerable to shifts in their prices.[58]
The mountain gorilla is Rwanda's leading tourist attraction
Livestock are raised throughout the country, with animal husbandry contributing around 8.8% of GDP in 2006.[59] Animals raised in Rwanda include cows, goats, sheep, pigs, chicken and rabbits, with geographical variation in the numbers of each.[59] Production systems are mostly traditional, although there are a few intensive dairy farms around Kigali.[59] Shortage of land, water shortage, insufficient and poor quality feed and regular disease epidemics with insufficient veterinary service are major constraints, restricting output in this sector. Fishing takes place on the country's lakes, but stocks are very depleted and live fish are now being imported in an attempt to revive the industry.[60]
The industrial sector is small and uncompetitive.[61] Products manufactured include cement, agricultural products, small-scale beverages, soap, furniture, shoes, plastic goods, textiles, cigarettes.[51] Despite being a landlocked country of few natural resources, Rwanda's mining industry is an important contributor, generating US$93 million in 2008.[62] Minerals mined include cassiterite, coltan, wolfram, and gold and coltan, which is used in the manufacture of electronic and communication devices such as mobile phones.[62][63]
.Tourism is one of the fastest growing sectors and is now the country's leading foreign exchange earner, generating US$214 million in 2008, up by 54% on the previous year.^ PERSEVERING THE MISSION FIELD: 3rd Year It’s been 2-1/2 years now and its been tough serving in a foreign country all alone where it’s not common for women to be independent and single.

^ Today, in what is still a predominantly Catholic country, Islam is the fastest growing religion .

[64] .Despite the genocide, the country is increasingly perceived internationally as a safe destination,[65][66] and one million people are estimated to have visited the country in 2008, up from 826,374 in 2007.[64] The country's most popular tourist activity is the tracking of mountain gorillas, which takes place in the Volcanoes National Park.^ Independence in 1962 was accompanied by continuing violence; by 1964 an estimated 150,000 people, virtually all Tutsis, had fled to surrounding countries.
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^ The great majority of Rwandan Tutsis, along with a great many Twa and moderate Hutus - as many as 800,000 to one million people all told - were killed.
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^ Most of the country's minority Tutsi population, along with Twa and moderate Hutus - as many as 800,000 to one million people - were systematically massacred by compatriots loyal to the country's then-ruling political party and other extreme Hutu groupings.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Rwanda : Rwanda Overview 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[65][67] .Other attractions include Nyungwe Forest, home to chimpanzees, Ruwenzori colobus and other primates,[68] the resorts of Lake Kivu,[69] and Akagera, a small savanna reserve in the east of the country.^ On the shores of Lake Kivu, Rwanda sits to the north of Burundi, the south of Uganda, the east of the Democratic Republic of Congo, and to the west of Tanzania.
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[70]

Demographics

Rural children.
.Most Rwandans speak Kinyarwanda, one of the country's three official languages, and in market towns many people speak Swahili.^ Setting the over-riding goal as reconciliation, an official from the Ministry of Justice told IRIN in 2006 that ‘ethnic divisions have only caused conflicts between the peoples of the country'.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Rwanda : Rwanda Overview 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The great majority of Rwandan Tutsis, along with a great many Twa and moderate Hutus - as many as 800,000 to one million people all told - were killed.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Rwanda : Rwanda Overview 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most of the country's minority Tutsi population, along with Twa and moderate Hutus - as many as 800,000 to one million people - were systematically massacred by compatriots loyal to the country's then-ruling political party and other extreme Hutu groupings.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Rwanda : Rwanda Overview 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Educated Rwandans speak French and English. .In 2008 the Rwandan government announced that English would become the primary language of instruction in schools, replacing French as the primary language of instruction.^ This year the government abruptly changed the national language to English (from French and Kinyarwanda) so all subjects must now be taught in English.

^ In January 2006 the government reorganized the Rwandan state, replacing 12 provinces with five new regions (Kigali, North, South, East, and West).
  • Minority Rights Group International : Rwanda : Rwanda Overview 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In January 2008, French police arrested a former Rwandan army officer suspected of taking part in the genocide.
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This change was initiated to ensure further integration with the global economic community. Rwanda was admitted in November 2009 to membership of the Commonwealth of Nations.[71]

Religion

Religion in Rwanda[72]
religion percent
Roman Catholic
  
56.5%
Protestant
  
37.1%
Islam
  
4.6%
Irreligious
  
1.7%
Indigenous
  
0.1%
Most Rwandans are Christian, with significant changes since the genocide.
.A 2006 study reported that 56.5 percent of the population were Catholic (with a 6.9% increase since the 2001 survey), 37.1 percent Protestant (of which 11.1 Adventists, and 14,000 Jehovah's Witnesses), 4.6 percent Muslim, 1.7 claimed no religious beliefs, and 0.1 percent practiced traditional indigenous beliefs[73].^ Although no accurate census has been done, Muslims leaders in Rwanda estimate that they have about a million followers, or about 15 percent of the population.

Figures from 2001 survey were 49.6 % Catholic, 43.9 % Protestant, 4.6 % Muslim, 1.7 % no religious beliefs, and 0.1 % traditional indigenous beliefs. This represented a 19.9 percent increase in the number of Protestants, a 7.6 percent drop in the number of Catholics, and a 3.5 percent increase in the number of Muslims from the U.N. Population Fund survey in 1996.
There has been a proliferation of small, usually Christian-linked schismatic religious groups since the 1994 Genocide.[72] The figures for Protestants include the growing number of members of Jehovah's Witnesses and evangelical Protestant groups. There also is a small population of Baha'is and Jews.[74][75]
.The Muslim community may have grown in part because Muslims are suggested to have saved the lives of many Tutsis from Hutu attacks.^ The Muslim community now boasts so many converts that it has had to embark on a crash campaign to build new mosques to accommodate all of the faithful.

[76][77] .Some estimate the Muslim population of the country to be as high as 14%.^ Although no accurate census has been done, Muslims leaders in Rwanda estimate that they have about a million followers, or about 15 percent of the population.

[78][76][77][79]
.According to the World Refugee Survey 2008, published by the U.S. Committee for Refugees and Immigrants, Rwanda hosted 54,200 refugees and asylum seekers in 2007. Approximately 51,300 refugees and asylum seekers were from the Democratic Republic of the Congo and 2,900 from Burundi.^ In 1990 4,000 NRA deserters launched an attack on Rwanda; though initially repulsed, with the help of troops from France, Belgium and the Democratic Republic of Congo (formerly Zaire), the impact was enormous.
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^ Kabila became president of the newly renamed ‘Democratic Republic of Congo' (DRC), but quickly fell out with his backers in Kigali and Kampala.
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^ On the shores of Lake Kivu, Rwanda sits to the north of Burundi, the south of Uganda, the east of the Democratic Republic of Congo, and to the west of Tanzania.
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[80]

Health

Fertility is at about six births per woman.[81] .HIV prevalence was at about 3 % of the 15-49 year olds in 2005.[81] Public expenditure was at 4.3 % of the GDP in 2004, whereas private expenditure was 3.2 %.^ It was a joy to reunite the old Rwandan band about 2 years later for a spectacular event such as Palau festival.

[81] There were 5 physicians per 100,000 people in 2000-2004.[81] Infant mortality was at 118 per 1,000 live births in 2005.[81]

Culture

Music

LGBT rights

.Homosexuality is legal in Rwanda, although no specific laws regarding homosexuality exist.^ Although no accurate census has been done, Muslims leaders in Rwanda estimate that they have about a million followers, or about 15 percent of the population.

[82]
.On December 16, 2009, Rwanda discussed legislation that would criminalize homosexuality, proposing 5–10 years imprisonment.^ Click BACK to return to blog] December 25, 2009, KIGALI, RWANDA – Merry Christmas!

^ That, too, would represent a doubling of their numbers in the past 10 years.

[83] This legislation is similar to the controversial Anti-Homosexuality Bill in the neighboring country of Uganda, which would penalize homosexuals with imprisonment and (in cases of relations with a minor or a disabled person, in cases where the "offender" is HIV-positive and in cases of repeated homosexual acts)[84] the death penalty.

Education

Net primary enrollment rate was at 74 % in 2004.[81] Public expenditure was at 3.8 % of the GDP in 2002-2005.[81] A significant minority of the adult population of Rwanda is illiterate, particularly women.[81] Public primary education has become fee-free.[85] .Kinyarwanda, French and English are taught generally.^ This year the government abruptly changed the national language to English (from French and Kinyarwanda) so all subjects must now be taught in English.

^ Main languages: Kinyarwanda, French, English (all official).
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[86] Rwanda has several universities.[87]

Primary and Secondary

Post Secondary Institutions

There are 20 places of higher education in Rwanda with 6 public and 14 private[88]:
Public
Private
  • Adventist University of Central Africa
  • Kigali Independent University
  • Kigali Lay Adventist University
  • Gitwe Institute of Education
  • Kibungo University of Agriculture, Technology and Education
  • Kabgayi Catholic University
  • Butare Protestant Theological College
  • International College of Accountancy and Management
  • Nyakibanda Major Seminary
  • Byumba Polytechnic Institute
  • Rwanda Pentecostal University
  • Kigali Professional Institute

International rankings

Organization Survey Ranking
Institute for Economics and Peace [1] Global Peace Index[90] 86 out of 144
United Nations Development Programme Human Development Index 167 out of 182
Transparency International Corruption Perceptions Index 89 out of 180

See also

References

  1. ^ Central Intelligence Agency (2009). "Rwanda". The World Factbook. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/rw.html. Retrieved January 12, 2010. 
  2. ^ Department of Economic and Social Affairs Population Division (2009) (.PDF). World Population Prospects, Table A.8. 2008 revision. United Nations. p. 19. http://www.un.org/esa/population/publications/wpp2008/wpp2008_text_tables.pdf. Retrieved 2009-03-12. 
  3. ^ a b c d "Rwanda". International Monetary Fund. http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/weo/2009/02/weodata/weorept.aspx?sy=2006&ey=2009&scsm=1&ssd=1&sort=country&ds=.&br=1&c=714&s=NGDPD%2CNGDPDPC%2CPPPGDP%2CPPPPC%2CLP&grp=0&a=&pr.x=57&pr.y=18. Retrieved 2009-10-01. 
  4. ^ See, e.g., Rwanda: How the genocide happened, BBC, April 1, 2004, which gives an estimate of 800,000, and OAU sets inquiry into Rwanda genocide, Africa Recovery, Vol. 12 1#1 (August 1998), page 4, which estimates the number at between 500,000 and 1,000,000.
  5. ^ CNN: Africa's Biggest Success Story, Zakaria "
  6. ^ Fortune: Why CEO's Love Rwanda. "
  7. ^ UN Habitat. "
  8. ^ Siuberski, Philippe. "
  9. ^ Josh Kron (2009-11-29). "Rwanda Joins British Commonwealth". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2009/11/29/world/africa/29rwanda.html. Retrieved 2009-11-29. 
  10. ^ BBC News - Rwanda becomes a member of the Commonwealth
  11. ^ a b c d e Briggs and Booth 2006 p6
  12. ^ Chrétien p44
  13. ^ Dorsey p36
  14. ^ Chrétien p45
  15. ^ Chrétien p43-44
  16. ^ H. J. M. Claessen, Peter Skalník. "The Study of the State". Mouton, 1981. 17. ISBN 9-0279-3348-0
  17. ^ a b Briggs and Booth 2006 p7
  18. ^ a b Prunier p16
  19. ^ "The Rwandan Conflict: Origin, Development, Exit Strategies". http://www.nurc.gov.rw/documents/researches/rwandan%20_conflict.pdf. 
  20. ^ ""The Origin of Rwandan Conflict". Rwandan Government: National Unity and Reconciliation Committee. http://www.nurc.gov.rw/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=63:the-origin-of-rwandan-conflict&catid=35:reseaches&Itemid=40. 
  21. ^ "RECONCILIATION: AN EXPERIENCE FROM RWANDA (Memorandum submitted by Dr Zac Nsenga, Embassy of the Republic of Rwanda, to Select Committee on Northern Ireland Affairs)". Parliament of the U.K.. 2004-12-29. http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm200405/cmselect/cmniaf/303/303we32.htm. 
  22. ^ "International Boundary Study: Democratic Republic of the Congo (Zaire) -- Rwanda Boundary" (PDF). Department of State, Washington, D.C., US. 1965-06-15. http://www.law.fsu.edu/library/collection/LimitsinSeas/IBS052.pdf. Retrieved 2006-06-05. 
  23. ^ "Re-imagining Rwanda: Conflict, Survival and Disinformation in the Twentieth Century" (PDF). School of Oriental and African Studies, University of England (Cambridge University Press). 2002-03-01. http://assets.cambridge.org/97805218/13662/sample/9780521813662ws.pdf. Retrieved 2006-06-05. 
  24. ^ "Re-imagining Rwanda: Conflict, Survival and Disinformation in the Twentieth Century" (PDF). School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London (Cambridge University Press). 2002-03-01. http://assets.cambridge.org/97805218/13662/sample/9780521813662ws.pdf. Retrieved 2006-06-05. 
  25. ^ "Perspective of Land Reform in Rwanda" (PDF). Ministry of Lands, Human Settlement, and Environmental Protection, Kigali, Rwanda. 2002-04-26. http://www.fig.net/pub/fig_2002/Ts7-7/TS7_7_rurangwa.pdf. Retrieved 2006-06-05. 
  26. ^ "The Teaching of the History of Rwanda: A Participatory Approach (A Reference Book for Secondary Schools in Rwanda)" (PDF). Ministry of Education, Science, Technology and Research, Kigali, Rwanda, and UC Berkeley Human Rights Center, Berkeley, US. 2007-03-01. http://www.hrcberkeley.org/download/Rwanda-Curriculum-English1.pdf. Retrieved 2007-06-05. 
  27. ^ "Julius Nyerere: Lifelong Learning and Informal Education". infed (Informal Education website), London, UK. 2007-05-27. http://www.infed.org/thinkers/et-nye.htm. Retrieved 2007-05-27. 
  28. ^ Wallis, Andrew. Silent accomplice. 2006, page 38-41
  29. ^ Walter, Barbara F. and Snyder, Jack L. Civil Wars, Insecurity, and Intervention. 1999, page 135
  30. ^ New Yorker: The Mutsinzi Report on the Rwandan Genocide, Philip Gourevitch"
  31. ^ PBS: 100 Days of Slaughter, A chronology of US/UN inaction"
  32. ^ Des Forges, Alison (1999). Leave None to Tell the Story: Genocide in Rwanda. Human Rights Watch. ISBN 1-56432-171-1. http://www.hrw.org/reports/1999/rwanda. Retrieved 2007-01-12. 
  33. ^ See, e.g., Rwanda: How the genocide happened, BBC, April 1, 2004, which gives an estimate of 800,000, and OAU sets inquiry into Rwanda genocide, Africa Recovery, Vol. 12 1#1 (August 1998), page 4, which estimates the number at between 500,000 and 1,000,000. 7 out of every 10 Tutsis were killed.
  34. ^ Ch. 10: "The Rwandan genocide and its aftermath"PDF in State of the World's Refugees 2000, United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees
  35. ^ "Operation Support Hope". GlobalSecurity.org. 2005-04-27. http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/ops/support_hope.htm. Retrieved 2008-10-02. 
  36. ^ Homepage for the United Nations Assistance Mission for Rwanda, un.org
  37. ^ Power, Samantha. "Bystanders to Genocide." Atlantic Monthly. Sept. 2001.<http://www.theatlantic.com/doc/200109/power-genocide>.
  38. ^ "The Constitution of the Republic of Rwanda". Government of Rwanda, Kigali. 2003-05-26. http://www.cjcr.gov.rw/eng/constitution_eng.doc. Retrieved 2007-06-04. 
  39. ^ "Rwandan Women Secure 56% of Parliamentary Seats in Historic Election Result". United Nations Development Fund for Women. Retrieved on 2009-01-30.
  40. ^ "Rwanda - 2007 Annual Report". Reporters Without Borders, Paris, France. 2007-05-02. http://www.rsf.org/article.php3?id_article=20737. 
  41. ^ "OPC Letter to Rwanda". Overseas Press Club of America, New York, USA. 2007-02-15. http://www.opcofamerica.org/press_freedom/letters/080207_rwandaletter.php. 
  42. ^ "Rwanda – first landmine-free country". BBC News. 2 December 2009. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/africa/8388822.stm. Retrieved 2 December 2009. 
  43. ^ "Team reaches Nile's 'true source'". BBC News. 2006-03-31. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/england/hampshire/4864782.stm. Retrieved 2006-12-04. 
  44. ^ Briggs and Booth 2006, p63
  45. ^ TRANSIT TRANSPORT COORDINATION AUTHORITY OF THE NORTHERN CORRIDOR TRANSIT TRANSPORT COORDINATION AUTHORITY OF THE NORTHERN CORRIDOR
  46. ^ Briggs and Booth 2006, p35
  47. ^ Briggs and Booth 2006, p62
  48. ^ Briggs and Booth 2006, p64
  49. ^ "China to Assist Rwanda". Railways Africa, Gauteng, South Africa. 2006-09-07. http://railwaysafrica.com/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=563&Itemid=35. 
  50. ^ "Rwanda: Kagame Meets Railway Expert". The New Times. Kigali, Rwanda. 2007-04-27. http://allafrica.com/stories/200704250668.html. 
  51. ^ a b c d e https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/rw.html The World Factbook - Rwanda] United States Central Intelligence Agency
  52. ^ Gross domestic product based on purchasing-power-parity (PPP) per capita GDP, Rwanda, 1994 World Economic Outlook Database, April 2008, International Monetary Fund
  53. ^ Gross domestic product based on purchasing-power-parity (PPP) per capita GDP, Rwanda, 2008 World Economic Outlook Database, April 2008, International Monetary Fund
  54. ^ East African currency coming News24, South Africa
  55. ^ "Special Report on Rwanda, July 97". CROP AND FOOD SUPPLY ASSESSMENT MISSION TO RWANDA. FAO/WFP. 1997-07-01. http://www.fao.org/docrep/004/w5836e/w5836e00.htm. Retrieved 2009-02-04. 
  56. ^ "Agriculture and Food COUNTRY PROFILE - Rwanda". EarthTrends: The Environmental Information Portal. Earth Resources Institute. 2006. http://earthtrends.wri.org/text/agriculture-food/country-profile-153.html. Retrieved 2009-02-04. 
  57. ^ "Rwanda - Economy". Travel Document Systems, Inc. http://www.traveldocs.com/rw/economy.htm. Retrieved 2009-02-04. 
  58. ^ "Continued reforms and technical assistance should help Rwanda in its efforts to achieve a dynamic economy". TRADE POLICY REVIEW: RWANDA. World Trade Organization. 2004-09-30. http://www.wto.org/english/tratop_e/tpr_e/tp236_e.htm. Retrieved 2009-02-04. 
  59. ^ a b c "Livestock production". Rwanda Ministry of Agriculture. 2006-06-10. http://www.minagri.gov.rw/article.php3?id_article=23. Retrieved 2009-02-05. 
  60. ^ Namata, Berna (2008-12-28). "Rwanda to restock water bodies with fisheries". The New Times. http://www.newtimes.co.rw/index.php?issue=13758&article=1108&week=45. Retrieved 5 February 2009. 
  61. ^ "World Hunger - Rwanda". World Food Program. http://www.wfp.org/country_brief/indexcountry.asp?country=646. Retrieved 2006-12-04. 
  62. ^ a b "Mining industry generated $93 million in 2008". The New Times. 2009-01-15. http://www.newtimes.co.rw/index.php?issue=13776&article=12470. Retrieved 2009-02-04. 
  63. ^ Imtiyaz Delawala (2001-09-07). "What Is Coltan?". Nightline. ABC news. http://www.un.int/drcongo/war/coltan.htm. Retrieved 2009-02-04. 
  64. ^ a b "Tourism and Conservation Performance in 2008". Rwanda Tourist Board (ORTPN). 2009-01-06. http://www.rwandatourism.com/tourism_performance_2008.htm. Retrieved 2009-02-07. 
  65. ^ a b Briggs and Booth 2001, Introduction viii
  66. ^ "Rwanda - Country Specific Information". International Travel Information. U.S. Department of State. 2009-02-06. http://travel.state.gov/travel/cis_pa_tw/cis/cis_1007.html. Retrieved 2009-02-07. 
  67. ^ Briggs and Booth 2006, p204
  68. ^ Briggs and Booth 2006, p140-141
  69. ^ Briggs and Booth 2006, p165
  70. ^ Briggs and Booth 2006, p229
  71. ^ Stephanie McCrummen (2008-10-28). "Rwandans Say Adieu to Français". The Washington Post (Washington, D.C.): p. A10. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2008/10/27/AR2008102703165.html. Retrieved 2008-11-08. 
  72. ^ a b U.S. Department of State
  73. ^ U.S. Department of State, International Religious Freedom Report 2007
  74. ^ Thousands Outraged at Aquittal [sic] in '94 Bombing of Jewish Community Center (Argentina)
  75. ^ Rwandan genocide survivor visits Canada | Canadian Bahá’í News Service
  76. ^ a b Emily Wax (2002-11-23). "Islam Attracting Many Survivors of Rwanda Genocide". Washington, D.C.: The Washington Post. p. A10. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A53018-2002Sep22.html. Retrieved 2007-12-04. 
  77. ^ a b Tiemessen, Alana (2005) From Genocide to Jihad: Islam and Ethnicity in Post-Genocide Rwanda. Paper presented at the Annual General Meeting of the Canadian Political Science Association, London, Ontario.
  78. ^ Robert Walke (2004-04-01). "Rwanda's religious reflections". BBC. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/africa/3561365.stm. Retrieved 2008-08-23. 
  79. ^ Times Daily
  80. ^ "World Refugee Survey 2008". U.S. Committee for Refugees and Immigrants. 2008-06-19. http://www.refugees.org/survey. 
  81. ^ a b c d e f g h Human Development Report 2009 - Rwanda
  82. ^ Spartacus International Gay Guide, page 1216. Bruno Gmunder Verlag, 2007.
  83. ^ Africa’s Culture War: The Fight Over Uganda’s Anti-Gay Bill - The World Newser
  84. ^ Anti-gay bill in Uganda challenges Catholics to take a stand | National Catholic Reporter
  85. ^ Republic Of Rwanda - Ministry of Education
  86. ^ Site en travaux
  87. ^ Site en travaux
  88. ^ Rwandan Development Gateway
  89. ^ Kigali Institute of Science and Technology
  90. ^ "Vision of Humanity". Vision of Humanity. http://www.visionofhumanity.org/gpi/home.php. Retrieved 2010-02-04. 

Cited texts

  • Briggs, Philip & Booth, Janice (2006) Rwanda - The Bradt Travel Guide. 3rd ed. London: Bradt Travel Guides. ISBN 1841621803
  • Chrétien, Jean-Pierre (2003) The Great Lakes of Africa: Two Thousand Years of History Hardcover ed. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. ISBN 189095134X
  • Dorsey, Learthen (1994) Historical Dictionary of Rwanda. Scarecrow Press. ISBN 0810828200
  • Munyakazi, Augustine & Ntagaramba, Johnson Funga (2005). Atlas of Rwanda French ed. Oxford: Macmillan Education. ISBN 0333954513

External links

Government
General
Travel
Ceremony site

Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

noframe
Location
noframe
Flag
Image:rw-flag.png
Quick Facts
Capital Kigali
Government Republic; presidential, multiparty system
Currency Rwandan franc (RWF)
Area total: 26,338 km2
water: 1,390 km2
land: 24,948 km2
Population 9,038,000 (2005 UN Estimate)
Language Kinyarwanda (official) universal Bantu vernacular, French (official), English (official), Kiswahili (Swahili) used in commercial centers
Religion Roman Catholic 56.5%, Protestant 26%, Adventist 11.1%, Muslim 4.6%, indigenous beliefs 0.1%, none 1.7% (2001)
Electricity 220V/50Hz (European plug)
Calling Code +250
Internet TLD .rw
Time Zone UTC+2
.Rwanda [1] is a relatively stable Central African country, and easily accessible from Kenya and Uganda, it is relatively easy, safe and simple to travel around.^ Staying Safe on Your Trip Before you travel, it's always a good practice to investigate the local conditions, laws, political landscape, and culture of the country.

^ Even Rwanda , our example of stable governance, is ranked 158 out of 177 countries on the 2006 U.N. Development Program’s Human Development Index.

^ We then fly from Dulles to Philadelphia arriving at 1:00PM and hope to be back in Bloomsburg by 4:00PM! Please pray for our safe travels and for all the people of the Urukundo family, and Rwanda.

.It is landlocked, surrounded by Uganda to the north, Tanzania to the east, Burundi to the south, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the west.^ Burundi 290 km, Democratic Republic of the Congo 217 km, Tanzania 217 km, Uganda 169 km .
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Rwanda 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Central Africa, east of Democratic Republic of the Congo .
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Rwanda 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Known as the "land of a thousand hills," Rwanda is a mountainous country located on the far western edge of the Rift Valley, bordering on Burundi, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Uganda, and Tanzania.
  • Culture of Rwanda - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 20 November 2009 22:17 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Rwanda is not only the land of a thousand hills, but also a country rich in flora and fauna and stunning natural beauty in its scenic rolling and breathtaking green savannah.^ Known as the "land of a thousand hills," Rwanda is a mountainous country located on the far western edge of the Rift Valley, bordering on Burundi, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Uganda, and Tanzania.
  • Culture of Rwanda - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 20 November 2009 22:17 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ How could I forget the warm greetings and effuse salutations of le pays de milles collines , the land of a thousand hills?

^ It’s one of the only things that’s cheap in a land-locked country that has to import most everything it consumes.
  • How to Cross the Digital Divide, Rwanda-Style 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.techcrunch.com [Source type: General]

.The country hosts some rare species of animals like the silverback mountain Gorillas as well as unique birds and insects in the tropical forest of Nyungwe.^ You have the chance to trek to see the rare Mountain Gorilla before our amazing adventure finishes in Kampala.

^ Go on an exciting trek to track the rare Mountain Gorilla in the jungles of Rwanda, and throw yourself off a cliff on an intense bungee over the Nile if you dare!

^ Come face to face with a family of rare Mountain Gorillas in their natural habitat and interact with these beautiful creatures like you were one of their own on this amazing overland expedition.

Understand

.It's been over a decade since the civil war and genocide of 1994 that devastated this tiny country, and it's come a long way.^ Although it continues to recover from the 1994 civil war and genocide in which up to one million people were killed, it is currently safe, clean, and well-organized.
  • Rwanda 11 September 2009 9:46 UTC travel.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Broad-based government of national unity formed after the 1994 civil war.
  • Rwanda (12/09) 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Since the victory of the RPF rebel movement in the war in 1994, the military has dominated the political system, even though it remains officially a civilian regime.
  • Culture of Rwanda - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 20 November 2009 22:17 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Shake off your memories of war and expect a warm and friendly welcome to a beautiful country.^ We have seen first hand a truly devoted people, a friendly people, and a country which is stunningly beautiful.

Map of Rwanda
Map of Rwanda
Kigali district
The area surrounding the capital
Northern Rwanda
Gorillas in the Mist
Western Rwanda
Eastern Rwanda
Southern Rwanda

Other destinations

Rwanda has 3 national parks:
  • Akagera National Park
  • Nyungwe National Park

Get in

.A passport is required to enter Rwanda and a certificate of vaccination for yellow fever is normally required to return back to the country of origin.^ Yellow fever can cause serious medical problems, but the vaccine is very effective in preventing the disease.
  • Rwanda 11 September 2009 9:46 UTC travel.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some 34% of Rwanda's imports originate in Africa, 90% from COMESA countries.
  • Rwanda (12/09) 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Visas are not required for American citizens entering Rwanda for less than 90 days.
  • Rwanda 11 September 2009 9:46 UTC travel.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A 90 day visa is issued on arrival free of charge for nationals of the US, UK, Canada, Congo (Dem Rep), Germany, Hong Kong, Kenya, Mauritius, South Africa, Sweden, Tanzania, and Uganda.^ Closely related to Kirundi (spoken in Burundi), Mashi (spoken in the South Kivu region of Congo), and Kiha (spoken in northwestern Tanzania), Kinyarwanda is a Bantu language.
  • Culture of Rwanda - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 20 November 2009 22:17 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ NOTE: Immigrant visas for Rwandan citizens, including adopted orphans, are issued at the U.S. Embassy in Nairobi, Kenya .

^ Please select one or more of the following destinations: Cape Town Botswana Mozambique Kruger Park Zambia Kenya Garden Route Malawi Tanzania Mauritius Zimbabwe Zanzibar Seychelles Namibia Rwanda Uganda .
  • Byumba | Rwanda | Rwanda | Go 2 Africa 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.go2africa.com [Source type: General]

.If arriving by air, citizens of many other European countries may get an 8 day single entry visa on arrival for USD$60, which can be extended by the immigration office in Kigali, although this process is sometimes tedious.^ Visas are not required for American citizens entering Rwanda for less than 90 days.
  • Rwanda 11 September 2009 9:46 UTC travel.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is therefore very important to note that while an act may be called a crime in other country, it may not be called a crime here in Rwanda, the reverse being true.
  • Rwandan Criminal Code - Kigali, Rwanda 20 November 2009 22:17 UTC rwanda.usembassy.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ TRAFFIC SAFETY AND ROAD CONDITIONS: While in a foreign country, U.S. citizens may encounter road conditions that differ significantly from those in the United States.
  • Rwanda 11 September 2009 9:46 UTC travel.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Generally Rwandan embassy and consulates can issue 3 month tourist visas for around the same price without much hassle.^ Overseas, inquiries may be made at the nearest Rwandan Embassy or Consulate.
  • Rwanda 11 September 2009 9:46 UTC travel.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ NOTE: Immigrant visas for Rwandan citizens, including adopted orphans, are issued at the U.S. Embassy in Nairobi, Kenya .

^ Communications were sent by cable, e-mail, and secure telephone from the U.S. embassy in Kigali informing the State Department about General Dallaire's premonitions months before April 6.
  • COULD THE RWANDAN GENOCIDE HAVE BEEN PREVENTED 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.genocidewatch.org [Source type: Original source]

.Contact your nearest embassy or consulate for more information.^ Overseas, inquiries may be made at the nearest Rwandan Embassy or Consulate.
  • Rwanda 11 September 2009 9:46 UTC travel.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Once your Form I-600 application has been approved, you should contact the consular section at the U.S. Embassy in Nairobi to schedule an immigrant visa interview.

^ REGISTRATION / EMBASSY LOCATION: Americans living or traveling in Rwanda are encouraged to register with the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate through the State Department’s travel registration website so that they can obtain updated information on travel and security within Rwanda.
  • Rwanda 11 September 2009 9:46 UTC travel.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

If you are traveling overland, is is no longer possible to obtain a visa at the border. However, visa application can easily be made at www.migration.gov.rw/singleform.php. You will within a few days receive a entry visa acceptance by email. Bringing this acceptance letter, the visa will be issued at the border. The US$60 visa fee is paid at the border.
I'm not a plastic bag!
Thin plastic bags are prohibited in Rwanda. .Luggage will be searched at the border and even at police checkpoints throughout the country to make sure you are not carrying plastic bags.^ Travelers may be stopped at police roadblocks throughout the country, where their vehicles and luggage may be searched.
  • Rwanda 11 September 2009 9:46 UTC travel.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The article makes a lot more sense if you say she's bringing AIDs to the country.
  • The Superficial - Paris Hilton making humanitarian trip to Rwanda 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC thesuperficial.com [Source type: General]

^ Sure good comedies like Hotel Rwanda can make you laugh, but a socialite whore really makes you sit up and think.
  • The Superficial - Paris Hilton making humanitarian trip to Rwanda 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC thesuperficial.com [Source type: General]

Prior to the ban, one-time use plastic bags plagued city streets and threatened the delicate environment. Today, Rwandan cities are almost litter-free and some of the cleanest in Africa!

By plane

There are direct international flights into Kigali from Brussels (twice per week). There are also daily flights from Entebbe airport in Uganda, Johannesburg and Addis Ababa. Additionally there are connections twice a day from Nairobi, and several flights a week to Bujumbura. Note that the Rwandan capital is also easily accessible (3hrs by road) from Goma airstrip in DRC. [Rwanda Flights Travel] [2]
  • Uganda several bus companies make the 8 hour journey from Kampala in Uganda to Kigali. .The bus costs 15,000 or 20,000 /= (roughly US$7.50-10) depending on the time you chose to travel, early morning being cheaper.
  • Tanzania has one open border with Rwanda, but this is a far more difficult way to enter Rwanda due to the remoteness and lack of roads in western Tanzania.^ The divide between the Congo and Nile drainage systems extends from north to south through western Rwanda at an average elevation of almost 9,000 feet.
    • Rwanda (12/09) 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Rwanda’s export revenues tripled between 2003 and 2007 to US$170 million, while the share of traditional exports, coffee and tea, declined to about 50%.
    • Rwanda - African Development Bank 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.afdb.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Rwanda, a country with 10 million people, has about 500 doctors — a ratio of one doctor per 20,000 people.

    A bus runs from Mwanza to Benako (both Tanzania) and from Benako buses run onto Kigali. .Another town to consider on this route is Ngara (Tanzania).
  • Burundi there are two ways to enter from Rwanda, and security in the border areas varies.^ Twice in 2008, the FDLR launched mortar rounds into Rwanda, near the border town of Gisenyi, and in a separate incident FDLR cadre crossed the border and killed a local official in the same area.
    • Rwanda 11 September 2009 9:46 UTC travel.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Known as the "land of a thousand hills," Rwanda is a mountainous country located on the far western edge of the Rift Valley, bordering on Burundi, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Uganda, and Tanzania.
    • Culture of Rwanda - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 20 November 2009 22:17 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The Rwandan Army was quickly defeated by the RPF and fled across the border to Zaire followed by some 2 million refugees who fled to Zaire, Tanzania, and Burundi.
    • Rwanda (12/09) 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    For the intrepid there is a daily direct service from Kigali to Bujumbura operated by Yahoo Car, and since 2007, a new "luxury" service operated by Belvedere Lines.
  • Democratic Republic of the Congo much of the country remains off limits to many tourists due to instability, though Goma and Bukavu can be visited easily from Rwanda.

By train

.In 2009, Rwanda & Tanzania announced a plan to build a train between Isaka, Tanzania and Kigali.^ Rwanda has no railway system for port access in Tanzania, although the nearest railhead from Kigali is 380 kilometers away at Isaka, Tanzania.
  • Rwanda (12/09) 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Click BACK to return to blog] December 25, 2009, KIGALI, RWANDA – Merry Christmas!

^ Click BACK to return to blog] August 29, 2009, KIGALI, RWANDA – Let me please first cover this blog entry in the Blood of Christ.

Get around

Short distances can be travelled either on foot, or by taxi-velo (bicycle taxi). Taxi-velos are widespead, and are relatively inexpensive but not allowed in urban areas. A taxi-velo driver will cycle, and the passenger will sit rather precariously on the back.
Motorcycle taxis (taxi-moto) are also popular, especially in Kigali, a normal journey will cost from 40c-$1.
Slightly longer distances, indeed the whole country, can be travelled by Matatu (or Twegerane, literaly let get closer). .These white minibuses are found throughout East Africa, and are crammed full of adults, children, and anything else you can think of (bags, chickens).^ I pray for funds to be able to return soon to see these loved ones, to further organize Urukundo for the Children , and to see you all.

^ With more wildlife than you can point your camera at, this corner of East Africa is truly remarkable .

^ You people are uninformed idiots and the reason why the world thinks Americans don’t know anything about the issues outside their own borders.
  • The Superficial - Paris Hilton making humanitarian trip to Rwanda 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC thesuperficial.com [Source type: General]

Talk

.Kinyarwanda is the chief spoken language in Rwanda.^ Ambassador Rawson had grown up in Burundi with the Tutsi Hutu conflict and he spoke Kirundi, the language of Burundi, which is closely related to Kinyarwanda, the language of Rwanda.
  • COULD THE RWANDAN GENOCIDE HAVE BEEN PREVENTED 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.genocidewatch.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Closely related to Kirundi (spoken in Burundi), Mashi (spoken in the South Kivu region of Congo), and Kiha (spoken in northwestern Tanzania), Kinyarwanda is a Bantu language.
  • Culture of Rwanda - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 20 November 2009 22:17 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Kinyarwanda is a unifying factor within Rwanda, since it is spoken almost universally.
  • Culture of Rwanda - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 20 November 2009 22:17 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It is also spoken in the east of D.R. Congo and in the south of Uganda (Bufumbira-area).^ Closely related to Kirundi (spoken in Burundi), Mashi (spoken in the South Kivu region of Congo), and Kiha (spoken in northwestern Tanzania), Kinyarwanda is a Bantu language.
  • Culture of Rwanda - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 20 November 2009 22:17 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Kinyarwanda is a tonal language of the Bantu language family (Guthrie D61).^ Closely related to Kirundi (spoken in Burundi), Mashi (spoken in the South Kivu region of Congo), and Kiha (spoken in northwestern Tanzania), Kinyarwanda is a Bantu language.
  • Culture of Rwanda - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 20 November 2009 22:17 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Kinyarwanda is closely related to Kirundi spoken in the neighboring country, Burundi and to Giha of western Tanzania.^ Known as the "land of a thousand hills," Rwanda is a mountainous country located on the far western edge of the Rift Valley, bordering on Burundi, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Uganda, and Tanzania.
  • Culture of Rwanda - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 20 November 2009 22:17 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ambassador Rawson had grown up in Burundi with the Tutsi Hutu conflict and he spoke Kirundi, the language of Burundi, which is closely related to Kinyarwanda, the language of Rwanda.
  • COULD THE RWANDAN GENOCIDE HAVE BEEN PREVENTED 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.genocidewatch.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Closely related to Kirundi (spoken in Burundi), Mashi (spoken in the South Kivu region of Congo), and Kiha (spoken in northwestern Tanzania), Kinyarwanda is a Bantu language.
  • Culture of Rwanda - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 20 November 2009 22:17 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.English and French are also official languages, and many residents (particularly in urban areas) will speak one or the other in addition to Kinyarwanda.^ This year the government abruptly changed the national language to English (from French and Kinyarwanda) so all subjects must now be taught in English.

^ The Rwandan culture includes not only the population of Rwanda but people in neighboring states, particularly Congo and Uganda, who speak the Kinyarwanda language.
  • Culture of Rwanda - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 20 November 2009 22:17 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Rwanda's government-run radio broadcasts 15 hours a day in Kinyarwanda, English, and French, the national languages.
  • Rwanda (12/09) 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Due to the mass movement of people over the past fifty years, a result of the country's war torn history, you will likely encounter several people who speak a handful of other languages spoken in the East African region (Kiswahili, Lingala, Luganda...^ I am also meeting new people and ministries to form a network of friends in Christ Jesus who support each other’s missions in prayer and service.

^ They say he is a man of the people, being the only President who literally gets his hands dirty and does manual work with the people of his country.

^ The media can no longer just depict “Africans as people holding bowls in our hand asking for people to put something in it.” The President concluded that the Rwandan people are effecting results and these “huge differences (from the time of the genocide 13 years ago) need to be captured.” .

). Most traders in Rwanda will speak enough Kiswahili to make a sale!
.
  • National Museum of Butare in Butare
  • Lake Kivu in Western Rwanda – a large lake bordering the DRC, it's a nice place to relax for a week or so
  • The Genocide Memorial in Kigali – fantastic insight into one of the world's greatest tragedies
  • The Nyamata Genocide Memorial is a worthwhile complement to the Gisozi Memorial Centre in Kigali.^ Rwanda has one national university based in Butare, with branches in Kigali and Ruhengeri.
    • Culture of Rwanda - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 20 November 2009 22:17 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ In December 2008, April 2008 and April 2007, unknown assailants detonated small explosive devices in Kigali, twice at genocide memorial sites.
    • Rwanda 11 September 2009 9:46 UTC travel.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ On Sunday, Sabra, Selma, Loretta and Julia, accompanied by John our driver, visited the genocide memorial museum in Kigali.

    .Located in the town of Nyamata, 40 minutes south of Kigali on a newly paved road, the memorial is in a church where over 5000 people were killed during the 1994 genocide.^ Although it continues to recover from the 1994 civil war and genocide in which up to one million people were killed, it is currently safe, clean, and well-organized.
    • Rwanda 11 September 2009 9:46 UTC travel.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ In January 2008, an earthquake centered in eastern Congo killed 39 people and injured about 700, including residents of the Rwandan border town of Cyangugu.
    • Rwanda 11 September 2009 9:46 UTC travel.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ During the genocide, ID cards became facilitators of killing, because they permitted the killers to quickly determine who was Tutsi.
    • COULD THE RWANDAN GENOCIDE HAVE BEEN PREVENTED 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.genocidewatch.org [Source type: Original source]

    .Visitors take a short tour and see the evidence of the genocide that remains there today - victims' clothing piled on benches, the roof pockmarked with bullet holes, and the open crypts behind the church that hold the remains of over 40,000 people from the area.^ The vast majority of the area’s 50,000 people are returnees who came back after the genocide.

    ^ I trust God that I will be okay.” This was from a hurting nine-year-old.” THE FESTIVAL According to Palau, there were approximately 7,000 people at the two-day festival.

    ^ Insecurity is not limited just to war-torn areas; there are destructive people and destructive values that exist in our own backyard.

    .An extremely moving look into one of the places where the genocide was carried out.
  • The Ntarama Genocide Memorial, just 20 minutes away from the Nyamata memorial, is also worth visiting.^ On Sunday, Sabra, Selma, Loretta and Julia, accompanied by John our driver, visited the genocide memorial museum in Kigali.

    ^ However, the most recent count of the dead, carried out locality by locality, yields a figure of over one million dead from 1990 through 1994, with 800,000 dead during the genocide.
    • COULD THE RWANDAN GENOCIDE HAVE BEEN PREVENTED 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.genocidewatch.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ And a special and moving day for all of us is promised as we visit the Gisozi Genocide Memorial together with all of our associates for the first time.

    .Like the Nyamata memorial, this site was a church before the genocide, and was nationalized to serve as a memorial after thousands of people were killed within its walls.^ Although it continues to recover from the 1994 civil war and genocide in which up to one million people were killed, it is currently safe, clean, and well-organized.
    • Rwanda 11 September 2009 9:46 UTC travel.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ In December 2008, April 2008 and April 2007, unknown assailants detonated small explosive devices in Kigali, twice at genocide memorial sites.
    • Rwanda 11 September 2009 9:46 UTC travel.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Latrines and lakes were stuffed with bodies, and churches were filled by the bodies of thousands of parishioners whose killings were facilitated by their own ministers.

    The church itself is similar to Nyamata, with victims' clothing and remains visible to offer proof of what happened there, but Ntarama also has a peaceful memorial garden and wall of names in the back of its compound. .Ask the resident guide for a tour in English or French, and remember to give them a donation for the site afterwards; it gets almost no support from the government.^ This year the government abruptly changed the national language to English (from French and Kinyarwanda) so all subjects must now be taught in English.

    ^ Rwanda's government-run radio broadcasts 15 hours a day in Kinyarwanda, English, and French, the national languages.
    • Rwanda (12/09) 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .To get there, take the highway from Kigali to Nyamata and follow the signs for the Ntarama memorial, before you reach Nyamata.
  • Parc National des Volcans, home of the mountain gorillas, and the setting for Gorillas in the Mist author Dian Fossey's research.^ You have the chance to trek to see the rare Mountain Gorilla before our amazing adventure finishes in Kampala.

    ^ Go on an exciting trek to track the rare Mountain Gorilla in the jungles of Rwanda, and throw yourself off a cliff on an intense bungee over the Nile if you dare!

    ^ You have the chance to trek to see the rare Mountain Gorilla before our amazing adventure fi nishes in Kampala.

    If you can afford it it's an excellent experience... even possible as a daytrip from Kigali. .Enquire at the Rwandan Office for Tourism and National Parks (ORTPN), Boulevard de la Révolution n° 1, Kigali, +(250) 576514 or 573396, reservation@rwandatourism.com, [3].^ The U.S. Embassy is located at 2657 Avenue de la Gendarmerie; the mailing address is B.P. 28, Kigali, Rwanda; tel.
    • Rwanda 11 September 2009 9:46 UTC travel.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ For specific information concerning Rwandan driving permits, vehicle inspection, road tax, and mandatory insurance, please contact the Rwandan Office of Tourism and National Parks , B.P. 905, Kigali, Rwanda, telephone [250] (252) 576-514, fax [250] (252) 576-515 or see the website of the Government of Rwanda .
    • Rwanda 11 September 2009 9:46 UTC travel.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Travelers need a permit to visit the Volcanoes National Park, which is available from Rwanda's Office of Tourism and National Parks (ORTPN).
    • Rwanda 11 September 2009 9:46 UTC travel.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    US$500 cash, or it is possible to use your Mastercard.

Eat

The local "Brochettes" (goat kebabs) are delicious and are available in most bars and restaurants. Many restaurants also serve grilled fish and chicken, and frites and frites-banane (fried plantain) are ubiquitous.
In urban areas a local buffet known as "Melange" is sold at lunchtime. .This consists of a buffet of mostly carbohydrates such as potatoes, bananas, beans, rice, cassava accompanied with some vegetables and a small amount of meat or fish with sauce.^ There are not many choices besides rice, beans, plantains and potatoes.

^ The vegetation is lush and green, and roads are lined with banana trees, cassava plants, maize, and coffee.

^ Rwandan food is quite simple, with beans, bananas, sweet potatoes, potatoes, and sorghum being the most common foods.
  • Culture of Rwanda - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 20 November 2009 22:17 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Note that Rwandan buffets are not all you can eat! .You may fill your plate only once, and with practice you'll be able to stack your plate high like the locals do.^ Educate others Once you understand the issues and have spent time abroad, use your social and professional networks to educate others and share ideas.

Prices range from just over a USD$1 to USD$5 or even USD$10 depending on the grade of the eatery and the variety of food available. Most of the upper segment buffets ($3 and above) offer a salad buffet too. Note that many of the cheaper Melange places are unmarked.
Kigali has a much better range of restaurants than the rest of the country. Here you can find several Indian and Chinese restaurants, as well as Italian, Greek, French and multi-cuisine establishments charging around $10 for dinner.

Sleep

.Accommodation is usually fairly basic and significantly more expensive than neighboring Uganda and Tanzania.^ Rwanda's landlocked situation necessitates strong highway infrastructure maintenance, and good transport linkages to neighboring countries, especially Uganda and Tanzania, are critical.
  • Rwanda (12/09) 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During the 1959 revolt and its aftermath, more than 160,000 Tutsis fled to neighboring countries.
  • Rwanda (12/09) 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Very basic accommodation will cost $8-$20.
.A few nice hotels can be found in Kigali - including the famous "Hotel des Milles Collines" as featured in the movie Hotel Rwanda.^ Radio Tlvision Libres des Milles Collines amplified the hate propaganda from 1993 onward, and brought it to every corner of Rwanda using repeater antennae provided by Radio Rwanda, the government network.
  • COULD THE RWANDAN GENOCIDE HAVE BEEN PREVENTED 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.genocidewatch.org [Source type: Original source]

^ How could I forget the warm greetings and effuse salutations of le pays de milles collines , the land of a thousand hills?

^ We ended the evening with dinner with Mary, Peter and Penina of the Rwanda Women's Network at Hotel Mille Colline.

Movie buffs hoping to stay in the film set will be disappointed though, as the film was produced in South Africa. (Note: as of October 2008, the Mille Collines is temporarily closed for renovation. Reopening date currently unknown.) .Most hotels in Kigali are in the $50 and above range although there are a few bargains to be had if you look around.^ For a short week, there really was no color, only the most beautiful people you can imagine.

^ So, by November 20 or something I was getting frustrated and wrote, look, I know it is you Paris, quit playing around (I wrote it on top of the YouTube space where you can search.
  • The Superficial - Paris Hilton making humanitarian trip to Rwanda 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC thesuperficial.com [Source type: General]

^ There are few independent newspapers; most newspapers publish in Kinyarwanda on a weekly, biweekly, or monthly basis.
  • Rwanda (12/09) 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Drink

Bralirwa in the north of the Rwanda produces most of the beer and soft drinks available in Rwanda. In most bars the choice is limited to their offering of about 5 different sodas and 3 different beers, Primus, Mützig and Amstel. Primus and Mützig are available in small and large sizes, wheras Amstel is available only in 330ml bottles. .Note that Rwandans are known for their fondness for large beers and when you order Amstel, it is common for a server to bring out 2 bottles at a time.^ I pray that God is bringing you such joy and love this time of year.

.There are also local banana beer preparations called Urgwagwa, normally brewed at home and available only in unappetising plastic containers but now also sold in bottles at some shops and bars.^ Some have started small shops, and there are goats and chickens running around the village.

^ There is also now a local radio advertisement for the hotel and street signs with the new Ku Itaba logo, which Bpeace helped design, can be found around town.

Stay safe

Tourists are usually welcomed warmly in Rwanda, and the country is largely considered safe for visitors. The possible exceptions are certain places along the Congolese and Burundian borders. .Rwandan troops rumoured to be involved in the civil war that still plagues the north-east of Democratic Republic of the Congo, mainly due to the presence of Interhamwe who fled after the 1994 genocide.^ Central Africa, east of Democratic Republic of the Congo .
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Rwanda 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Meanwhile, several hundred thousand Hutu also died in the genocide and war and from diseases like cholera that spread in refugee camps when, at the end of the war, several million Hutu fled to Tanzania and Congo.
  • Culture of Rwanda - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 20 November 2009 22:17 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Kigali's increasing centralization and intolerance of dissent, the nagging Hutu extremist insurgency across the border, and Rwandan involvement in two wars in recent years in the neighboring Democratic Republic of the Congo continue to hinder Rwanda's efforts to escape its bloody legacy.
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Rwanda 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Whilst Gisenyi and Kibuye are considered safe, the border situation can change at any time - check Foreign Office information and local sources for further advice.
.The gorilla trekking is near to the DRC border it is generally considered safe, due to the large and continuous Rwandan army presence.^ The Rwandan Army was quickly defeated by the RPF and fled across the border to Zaire followed by some 2 million refugees who fled to Zaire, Tanzania, and Burundi.
  • Rwanda 11 September 2009 9:46 UTC www.factmonster.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Rwanda (12/09) 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The presence of the Rwandan government representative at the very U.N. Security Council meetings that considered the situation provided an ideal forum for such denial.
  • COULD THE RWANDAN GENOCIDE HAVE BEEN PREVENTED 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.genocidewatch.org [Source type: Original source]

^ As a result, Rwanda has the highest rate of fecundity in the world, and Rwandan families are generally quite large.
  • Culture of Rwanda - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 20 November 2009 22:17 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

While travelling in matutus (taxis) in the countryside, don't be surprised if the matutu drives through several Police/Military check-points. .This is done to check IDs, car registration and insurance, so it would be wise to bring at least a photocopy of passport with you everywhere you go in Rwanda.^ Go on an exciting trek to track the rare Mountain Gorilla in the jungles of Rwanda, and throw yourself off a cliff on an intense bungee over the Nile if you dare!

Stay healthy

The following is an excerpt from the U.S. State Department's Consular Information Sheet on Rwanda, last updated on 1-12-2006:
Medical and dental facilities are limited, and some medicines are in short supply or unavailable. .Travelers should bring their own supplies of prescription drugs and preventive medicines.^ To prevent brain drain to developed countries, we should strive to retain qualified and trained doctors to serve their own country.

.In Kigali, Americans may go to King Faycal Hospital, a private facility that offers limited services.^ My friend Dr. Dan Rudasingwa is a general practitioner (GP) at King Faisal Hospital in Kigali, Rwanda.

^ American business interests have been small; currently, private U.S. investment is limited to the tea industry, franchising (FedEx, Coca-Cola, Western Union, and Moneygram) and small holdings in service and manufacturing concerns.
  • Rwanda (12/09) 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

There is also a missionary dental clinic in Kigali staffed by an American dentist. An American-operated missionary hospital with some surgical facilities is in Kibagora, in southwestern Rwanda. .Another hospital with American physicians is in Ruhengeri, near the gorilla trekking area, and a Chinese hospital is in southeastern Rwanda in Kibungo.^ Mountain gorillas serve as a potentially important source of tourism revenue, but Rwanda’s tourism and hospitality sector requires further development.

.There is also a very good hospital near Lac Muhazi, where even people from Kigali go to.^ Covering only the good is abdicating a critical social responsibility: to inform the world of what is going on, and to incite people to action.

^ There are functional hospitals and even a plan to provide universal healthcare.

^ So it is very good PR work ,but it is so sad to see that there are some people who try to make cash out of the others' sufferings.
  • The Superficial - Paris Hilton making humanitarian trip to Rwanda 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC thesuperficial.com [Source type: General]

.The U.S. Embassy maintains a current list of healthcare providers and facilities in Rwanda.^ Rwanda maintains an embassy in the United States at 1714 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20009 (tel.
  • Rwanda 11 September 2009 9:46 UTC www.factmonster.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Rwanda (12/09) 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

This list is included in the Consular Section’s welcome packets for American citizens. There are periodic outbreaks of meningitis in Rwanda. Yellow fever can cause serious medical problems, but the vaccine, required for entry, is very effective in preventing the disease.
.HIV/AIDS is high among adults at 9% or 1 in 11.^ HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: .
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Rwanda 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

PRACTICE SAFE SEX. AVOID RISKY INTRAVENOUS DRUG USE.
Memorial of the 1994 genocide
Memorial of the 1994 genocide
.Rwanda is a very conservative society; most people dress modestly, especially women.^ These men and women who came to serve their people were the most humble, gentle loving people you could ever ask for.

^ I think most people in Rwanda with diabetes don’t get help and just die.

Wearing shorts or tight skirts and skimpy tops is likely to get you stared at twice as much as normal.
.It is unusual for a couple to make public displays of affection, even though many men walk hand in hand with male friends.^ Because he is Hutu and had a cousin in the government, his family was targeted as genocide sympathesizers even though they were actually helping to shelter Tutsi friends.

^ In precolonial Rwanda—even as most positions of public authority were reserved for men—women enjoyed a modicum of political and economic power, as exemplified by the powerful position of queen mother.
  • Culture of Rwanda - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 20 November 2009 22:17 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Also, Rwandans will generally never eat or drink in public, apart from at restaurants.^ In recent years, the taboo on eating in public has diminished significantly, and restaurants have appeared in most urban areas.
  • Culture of Rwanda - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 20 November 2009 22:17 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Rwandans traditionally eat food in public settings only for ceremonial purposes, but otherwise eat only in the home.
  • Culture of Rwanda - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 20 November 2009 22:17 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Rwandan women are rarely seen smoking in public or out in bars unaccompanied.
.Rwandans are very private, reserved people and loud public confrontations (shouting matches) or obvious displays of emotion (such as crying) are also frowned upon.^ The presence of the Rwandan government representative at the very U.N. Security Council meetings that considered the situation provided an ideal forum for such denial.
  • COULD THE RWANDAN GENOCIDE HAVE BEEN PREVENTED 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.genocidewatch.org [Source type: Original source]

If you feel you are being overcharged by a trader, quietly persisting with the negotiation (or your complaint!) is likely to produce results much faster than an angry outburst!
It is also impolite to make eye contact with an elder.
.Please understand that Rwanda is still recovering from a civil war and genocide in which over 800,000 people, perhaps a million, were killed.^ Elia Varela Serra · 06:10, April 14th, 2009 · Ethnicity , History lingua → fr · es · it · sw Today marks the end of a week of national mourning in Rwanda to commemorate the 15 anniversary since the genocide which killed 800,000 people.

^ Kuperman disputes the commonly accepted death toll of 800,000, claiming that Rwandas pre-genocide Tutsi population was only 650,000, 8.27 percent of the population, based on the 1991 census.
  • COULD THE RWANDAN GENOCIDE HAVE BEEN PREVENTED 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.genocidewatch.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Aloys Ntabakuze and Colonel Anatole Nsengiyumva were sentenced to life imprisonment for “genocide, crimes against humanity and war crimes” by the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda today.

Many Rwandese lost relatives and friends. Remember to be sensitive to this sad fact when dealing with Rwandese. .Most people today are trying to forget the tribal divisions and would rather be referred to as Rwandese than Hutu or Tutsi.^ The occupational lines were not, however, strictly enforced, as Hutu could own cattle and goats and most Tutsi engaged in at least some cultivation.
  • Culture of Rwanda - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 20 November 2009 22:17 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Within Rwanda the myth that Tutsi were a distinct race that arrived recently and established its dominance over Hutu and Tutsi through conquest came to be embraced by most of the population.
  • Culture of Rwanda - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 20 November 2009 22:17 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, boundaries of race and class were somewhat fluid, with most rural Tutsis enjoying few advantages over the Hutu.
  • Rwanda (12/09) 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

It is considered impolite to ask someone about their ethnic origin.
.There is not much political discourse in Rwanda, unlike in many neighboring countries such as Uganda and Kenya where people talk freely about the government and political issues, people in Rwanda will be uncomfortable if asked their views or even if seated at a table where national politics is discussed.^ Since then, most of the refugees have returned to Rwanda, but about 10,000 that remain in the neighboring Democratic Republic of the Congo have formed an extremist insurgency bent on retaking Rwanda, much as the RPF tried in 1990.
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Rwanda 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ History # katch up discusses economic and socio-political situation in Rwanda after genocide: “Polically Kigali is stable.

^ The Rwandan culture includes not only the population of Rwanda but people in neighboring states, particularly Congo and Uganda, who speak the Kinyarwanda language.
  • Culture of Rwanda - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 20 November 2009 22:17 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Contact

Office Rwandaise du Tourisme et des Parcs Nationaux (ORTPN)
Street Address: Boulevard de la Révolution no 1, Kigali, Rwanda
Postal Address: BP 905, Kigali, Rwanda
Tel: (250) 576 514 or (250) 573 396
[4]
Embassy of the Republic of Rwanda in Canada
53 Gilmour Street, Ottawa, ON K2P 0N8, Canada
Tel: (613) 569-5420
[5]
Embassy of the Republic of Rwanda in the UK
120-22 Seymour Place, London W1H 1NR, UK
Tel: (020) 7224 9832
[6]
Embassy of the Republic of Rwanda in the USA
1714 New Hampshire Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20009, USA
Tel: (202) 232 2882
[7]
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Study guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiversity

See also

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Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

Contents

English

Proper noun

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Wikipedia has an article on:
Rwanda
  1. Country in Eastern Africa.
  2. A Bantu language of Rwanda; also known as Kinyarwanda.

Derived terms

Translations

See also

External links


Czech

Proper noun

Rwanda f.
  1. Rwanda

Norwegian

Proper noun

Rwanda
  1. Rwanda

Related terms


Polish

Alternative spellings

Pronunciation

  • IPA: /ruˈanda/

Proper noun

Rwanda f.
  1. Rwanda (country)

Declension

Singular only
Nominative Rwanda
Genitive Rwandy
Dative Rwandzie
Accusative Rwandę
Instrumental Rwandą
Locative Rwandzie
Vocative Rwando

Derived terms

  • Rwandyjczyk m., Rwandyjka f.
  • adjective: rwandyjski

Swedish

Proper noun

Rwanda
  1. Rwanda

Simple English

[[File:|right|]] Rwanda is a country in Africa, located near Burundi, Congo-Kinshasa, Uganda, and Tanzania. The official language is Kinyarwanda. The country has three ethnic(though there is debate about whether or not these groups really are tribes): Bahutu, Batutsi and Batwa. It is now known mostly because it is the place where the most efficient genocide in history happened.

Contents

= Colonialism

=

During the Scramble for Africa, Belgium conquered Rwanda. The Belgians then began to divide Rwandans into groups: Bahutu, and Batutsi. The Belgians picked people that they thought looked more European to be abatutsi. The rest became abahutu. The Belgians told Rwandans that Batutsi were superior to Bahutu. They allowed Batutsi to rule over Bahutu.

Post-Independence

In 1962, Rwanda became independent and Bahutu were given power. Thus, anti-Tutsi purges occurred frequently. Many abatutsi fled to Uganda, where they formed the Rwandan Patriotic Front, or RFP, which tried to invade Rwanda in 1990.

Genocide

On the night of April 6 1994, dictator Juvénal Habyarimana's plane was shot down, but it is still not clear who did it. Within a half hour, roadblocks manned by the Interahamwe militia were seen all over the capital, Kigali. The Rwandan Genocide had begun. It would last for about 100 days, and it would leave over one million, (1,000,000), Tutsi and moderate Hutu dead. The main weapon used was the machete, or umupanga. Other countries paid little attention to the killing. On July 2 1994, the RPF captured Kigali.

Tourism

Rwanda has now put behind its genocide history and now concentration on building the economy through tourism and other means. Rwanda is famous for the mountain gorillas in Parc De Volcans. Tourism is one of the top foreign exchange earners in Rwanda. More information on Rwanda Safaris Guide,

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Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 20, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Rwanda, which are similar to those in the above article.








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