Rwandan genocide: Wikis

  
  

Did you know ...


More interesting facts on Rwandan genocide

Include this on your site/blog:

Encyclopedia

(Redirected to Rwandan Genocide article)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

.The Rwandan Genocide was the 1994 mass killing of hundreds of thousands of Rwanda's Tutsis and Hutu political moderates by the Hutu dominated government under the Hutu Power ideology.^ Mass killings genocide begins.
  • �����Rwanda Massacre and Genocide � Clinton and the world, Rwanda government genocide ������The WE News Archives ������ 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.thewe.cc [Source type: Original source]

^ The Rwanda genocide refers to the third type of killing, that of Tutsi by Hutu.
  • Sample Chapter for Mamdani, M.: When Victims Become Killers: Colonialism, Nativism, and the Genocide in Rwanda. 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC press.princeton.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The Rwandan genocide began on April 6, 1994.
  • Rwanda marks 15th anniversary of genocide - Telegraph 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: News]

.Over the course of approximately 100 days, or more, from the assassination of Juvénal Habyarimana on April 6 through mid-July, at least 800,000 people were killed.^ Day 100 An estimated 800,000 Rwandans have been killed .
  • frontline: ghosts of rwanda: timeline | PBS 19 September 2009 0:39 UTC www.pbs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In just 100 days, 800,000 Tutsi were slaughtered.

^ Between April and July some 800,000 Rwandans are slaughtered.

[1] .Estimates of the death toll have ranged between 500,000 and 1,000,000,[2] or as much as 20% of the total population of the country.^ Some estimates put the death toll between 800,000 and 1,000,000.
  • Rwanda's genocide question? - Yahoo! Answers 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC answers.yahoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Estimates of the number of people killed ranged from 500,000 to 1 million.
  • Rwanda: Genocide and the Continuing Cycle of Violence 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC commdocs.house.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ The death toll had reached 800,000.
  • Genocide in Rwanda 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC mediafilter.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Genocide in Rwanda 20 September 2009 14:38 UTC mediafilter.org [Source type: Original source]

.In 1990 the Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF), a rebel group, composed mostly of Tutsi refugees, invaded northern Rwanda from Uganda.^ In 1990, the predominantly Tutsi Rwandan Patriotic Front ( rpf ) invaded Rwanda from Uganda.
  • The Walrus » Rwanda Genocide » A Ridiculously Brief History of Rwanda » world affairs 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC mail.walrusmagazine.com [Source type: General]
  • The Walrus » Rwanda Genocide » A Ridiculously Brief History of Rwanda » world affairs 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.walrusmagazine.com [Source type: General]

^ The Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF), a militia of Rwandan Tutsi exiles and Hutu dissidents based in Uganda, invades Rwanda.
  • Timeline: Propaganda of the Rwandan genocide 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.trumanwebdesign.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The RPF was a rebel group composed primarily of Tutsi refugees seeking the right to return to Rwanda.
  • Rwanda: Genocide and Crimes Against Humanity 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.enotes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Rwandan Civil War, fought between the Hutu regime, with support from Francophone nations of Africa and France itself,[3][4] and the RPF, with support from Uganda, vastly increased the ethnic tensions in the country and led to the rise of Hutu Power, an ideology that asserted that the Tutsi intended to enslave Hutus and thus must be resisted at all costs.^ Ethnic tensions led to civil war, forcing many Tutsi into exile.
  • Rwanda: History, Geography, Government, and Culture — Infoplease.com 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.infoplease.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although led by Tutsis the RPF was 40% Hutu in composition.
  • 1990-1994: The genocide and war in Rwanda | libcom.org 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC libcom.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Ethnic rivalry between Hutu and Tutsi tribal factions is also a major factor in the Burundi Civil War.
  • AfrikaDating.com - Country Information Rwanda - Information on Rwanda 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.afrikadating.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Despite continuing ethnic strife, including the displacement of large numbers of Hutu in the north by the rebels and periodic localized extermination of Tutsi to the south, pressure on the government of Juvénal Habyarimana resulted in a cease-fire in 1993 and the preliminary implementation of the Arusha Accords.^ Allegations that Tutsis are exterminating Hutus .
  • The Media and the Rwanda Genocide 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.idrc.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A large number of Tutsis left the country for neighbouring Burundi, among them Tutsi rebels.
  • Reporting on Genocide in Rwanda - School of Journalism and Creative Writing @ UOW 20 September 2009 14:38 UTC www.uow.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

^ The purpose was to exterminate the Tutsis and opponents of the government among the Hutus.
  • Prosecuting Genocide in Rwanda 20 September 2009 14:38 UTC donika.com [Source type: Original source]

.The assassination of Habyarimana in April 1994 was the proximate cause of the mass killings of Tutsis and pro-peace Hutus.^ They looted the Hutu and killed the Tutsi?"
  • �����Rwanda Massacre and Genocide � Clinton and the world, Rwanda government genocide ������The WE News Archives ������ 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.thewe.cc [Source type: Original source]

^ Allegations that Tutsis killed Habyarimana .
  • The Media and the Rwanda Genocide 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.idrc.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By April 1994 the peace agreement had stalled.
  • The Media and the Rwanda Genocide 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.idrc.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.They were carried out primarily by two Hutu militias associated with political parties: the Interahamwe and the Impuzamugambi.^ They clearly requested Interahamwe [Hutu militia] ...
  • France accused of complicity in Rwanda genocide - Telegraph 19 September 2009 0:39 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ The Rwandan genocide was the mass killing of hundreds of thousands of Rwanda's Tutsis and Hutu political moderates by militias of the Hutu-dominated government.
  • Rwanda genocide witnesses to testify - UPI.com 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.upi.com [Source type: News]

^ This genocide was mostly carried out by two extremist Hutu militia groups, the Interahamwe and the Impuzamugambi , during about 100 days from April 6 through mid-July, 1994.
  • Category:Rwandan Genocide - Wikimedia Commons 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Reference]
  • Category:Rwandan Genocide - Wikimedia Commons 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Reference]

.The genocide was directed by a Hutu power group known as the Akazu.^ They almost never named the ethnic groups involved in the 1994 genocide -- the Hutu perpetrators and the Tutsi victims.
  • David Ignatius - A Past at Rest in Rwanda - washingtonpost.com 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.washingtonpost.com [Source type: News]

^ In the course of a hundred days, beginning on April 6, 1994, nearly a million people from the Tutsi minority were massacred in the name of an ideology known as Hutu Power.
  • Paul Kagame and the Rwandan genocide : The New Yorker 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.newyorker.com [Source type: General]

^ [The “agreement between the parties” was the 1993 peace agreement, known as the Arusha agreement, between Rwanda's Hutu-led government and the Tutsi-led Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF), a rebel group.
  • Selections from the UN Panel’s Report on the Genocide in Rwanda - Sidebar - MSN Encarta 20 September 2009 14:38 UTC ca.encarta.msn.com [Source type: Original source]

.The killing also marked the end of the peace agreement meant to end the war and the Tutsi RPF restarted their offensive, eventually defeating the army and seizing control of the country.^ The RPF took control of a country ravaged by war and genocide.

^ The killings ended when a Tutsi army, the Rwanda Patriotic Front (RPF), seized control.
  • Genocide in Rwanda 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC wwww.hmh.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The genocide only ended when the RPF eventually defeated the Rwandan government’s armies and took control of the country.
  • Rwanda — Global Issues 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.globalissues.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Contents

Background

.In 1957, the Hutu Emancipation Movement (Parmehutu) published the Hutu Manifesto (sometimes called "Bahutu Manifesto"), in which it alleged a monopoly of power held by the Tutsi minority.^ Photo from the Hutu Power movement.

^ In 1957, the Hutu Manifesto was published, calling for majority rule and blaming Rwandan problems on Tutsi superiority.

^ Kangura revived the Bahutu Manifesto of 1957.
  • The Media and the Rwanda Genocide 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.idrc.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the 1960s, these denunciations led to the overthrow of the monarchy and the establishment of the Republic headed by Gregoire Kayibanda.^ Under these circumstances, Rwanda became independent and Gregoire Kayibanda, a Hutu teacher, became president.

^ In 1962, when the country gained independence, Gregoire Kayibanda headed the first recognized Hutu government.

^ Through secret ballots the abolition of the monarchy is voted upon and wins Belgium declares the end of the monarchy 1962 Belgium officially grants independence to Rwanda Gregoire Kayibanda becomes the President and prime minister of the new republic.
  • �����Rwanda Massacre and Genocide � Clinton and the world, Rwanda government genocide ������The WE News Archives ������ 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.thewe.cc [Source type: Original source]

.This was a regime which persecuted the Tutsi, who in many cases were forced to flee.^ Kamilindi was among the many liberal Hutus accused of sympathising with the Tutsi led rebel forces of the Rwandan Patriotic Front and narrowly escaped death during the genocide.
  • The Rwanda Initiative :: School of Journalism and Communication :: Carleton University 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.rwandainitiative.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many of the new Hutu mayors used their power to persecute the Tutsi, thousands of whom were forced to abandon their homes and flee abroad to neighboring countries.
  • Free Essay American Passivity: Rwanda Genocide 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.echeat.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Though a minority, the Tutsi had ruled until the late 1950s when the Hutu took power and forced many Tutsi to flee as refugees.
  • Commentary: How the Media Missed Rwandan Genocide 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.hawaii.edu [Source type: News]

.The persecution also went on under the regime of Juvénal Habyarimana who had seized power in 1973 and promised progress.^ In 1973 General Juvenal Habyarimana seized power and became President.

^ In 1973, the Rwandan President Gregoire Kayibanda was overthrown by his army commander Juvenal Habyarimana, a moderate Hutu who managed to keep the Hutu-Tutsi hatred under control for the next 18 years.
  • Reporting on Genocide in Rwanda - School of Journalism and Creative Writing @ UOW 20 September 2009 14:38 UTC www.uow.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

^ Amid international inaction, the genocide was finally ended by Rwanda's President Paul Kagame, who led a rebel army from Uganda to seize power.
  • Club Afrika Information Portal - Rwanda Survivors Say Hollywood Has Got It Wrong 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.clubafrika.com [Source type: News]

.In neighboring Burundi, since its independence in 1962, there were two preceding genocides.^ Since the recent thaw in Rwanda-DR Congo relations, Kinshasa has been under pressure to hand over to the ICTR suspected organisers of the genocide hiding there.
  • Top Rwanda genocide suspect arrested - World - Javno 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.javno.com [Source type: News]
  • Top Rwanda genocide suspect arrested 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC news.theage.com.au [Source type: News]

^ The continuing conflict in neighboring Congo involves many of the same ethnic tensions — and some of the people — as Rwanda’s genocide, and Kagame’s government has a troubled history there.
  • Bush honors Rwanda genocide victims - Africa - msnbc.com 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.msnbc.msn.com [Source type: News]

^ (Actually, the plane carrying the presidents of Rwanda and Burundi crashed on April 6, 1994, and there was some killing that night; but April 7 was the first day of organized genocide.
  • Obsidian Wings: Rwanda: Remembering Genocide And A Hero 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC obsidianwings.blogs.com [Source type: General]

.The 1972 mass-killings of Hutu by the Tutsi army, [5] and the 1994 killing of Tutsi by the Hutu population.^ Then the army and Interahamwe were unleashed on the Tutsi population.
  • 1990-1994: The genocide and war in Rwanda | libcom.org 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC libcom.org [Source type: Original source]

^ They looted the Hutu and killed the Tutsi?"
  • �����Rwanda Massacre and Genocide � Clinton and the world, Rwanda government genocide ������The WE News Archives ������ 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.thewe.cc [Source type: Original source]

^ This is where the defeated Hutu army fled in 1994.
  • http://blogs.reuters.com/africanews/2009/04/03/rwanda-legacy-of-a-genocide-15-years-on/ 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC blogs.reuters.com [Source type: News]

Civil war

.The Tutsi refugee diaspora was by the late 1980s a coherent political and military organization.^ It named François Mitterand, France's late former president, and former prime minister Dominique de Villepin among 33 military and political leaders.
  • France accused of complicity in Rwanda genocide - Telegraph 19 September 2009 0:39 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ Some joined the Rwandan Patriotic Front—the RPF, commonly referred to as the Inkotanyi—a political and military movement formed by Tutsi refugees in Uganda to demand Rwandan unity.
  • Survivors of the Genocide: Rwandan Women Speak Out | Herizons Magazine 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.herizons.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Though a minority, the Tutsi had ruled until the late 1950s when the Hutu took power and forced many Tutsi to flee as refugees.
  • Commentary: How the Media Missed Rwandan Genocide 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.hawaii.edu [Source type: News]

.Large numbers of Tutsi refugees in Uganda had joined the victorious rebel National Resistance Movement during the Ugandan Bush War and made themselves a separate movement.^ A large number of Tutsis left the country for neighbouring Burundi, among them Tutsi rebels.
  • Reporting on Genocide in Rwanda - School of Journalism and Creative Writing @ UOW 20 September 2009 14:38 UTC www.uow.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

^ By the late 1950s to early 1960s, the Hutu demanded, and won, Rwanda’s independence, but not before several unprecedented anti-Tutsi pogroms led to many deaths and large-scale refugee movements into neighbouring countries.
  • The Walrus » Rwanda Genocide » A Ridiculously Brief History of Rwanda » world affairs 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC mail.walrusmagazine.com [Source type: General]
  • The Walrus » Rwanda Genocide » A Ridiculously Brief History of Rwanda » world affairs 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.walrusmagazine.com [Source type: General]

^ In 1994, Kagame was leader of the Tutsi rebel group, the Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF), which was training in Uganda.
  • Georgianne Nienaber: Remembering The Rwandan Genocide 15 Years Later (SLIDESHOW) 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.huffingtonpost.com [Source type: General]

.The journal Kangura, a Hutu counteraction towards the Tutsi journal Kanguka, active from 1990 to 1993, was instrumental in incitement of Hutu disdain for Tutsis,[6] on the basis of their ethnicity, rather than their previous economic advantages.^ But these are for the most part Hutus rather than Tutsis.

^ Rwanda, rather than to the Hutu massacre of Tutsi in Rwanda earlier.
  • The Media and the Rwanda Genocide 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.idrc.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Members of the Hutu majority group began massacring the Tutsi minority in early April, and at the end of the month dead Tutsis were easier to find in Rwanda than live Tutsis.
  • Letter from Rwanda: After the Genocide : The New Yorker 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.newyorker.com [Source type: General]

.Hassan Ngeze, founder and editor of Kangura, published the widely read Hutu Ten Commandments, which called for the formal installment of Hutu Power ideology in schools and the establishment of an exclf the transitional government, was open to all parties, including the RPF. The extremist Hutu Coalition for the Defence of the Republic (CDR), nominally controlled by President Habyarimana, was strongly opposed to sharing power with the RPF, however, and refused to sign the accords.^ Hutus who showed any openness to power-sharing with the RPF were at great risk from Hutu extremists.

^ And editors can refuse to publish your reports.
  • The Media and the Rwanda Genocide 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.idrc.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hutu extremists, however, were also angry.
  • Everything Is Everything » Rwandan Genocide 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC blog.penncharter.com [Source type: Original source]

.When at last it decided to agree to the terms, the accords were opposed by the RPF.[citation needed] UN Peacekeepers were deployed to patrol ceasefire and assist in demilitarization and demobilization.^ When at last it decided to agree to the terms, the accords were opposed by the RPF. The situation remained unchanged until the genocide.
  • AfrikaDating.com - Country Information Rwanda - Information on Rwanda 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.afrikadating.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The agreement paved the way for the deployment of a UN peacekeeping force, the United Nations Assistance Mission in Rwanda, or UNAMIR, which was sent to monitor the ceasefire at the heart of the peace accords.
  • WikiAnswers - What caused the Rwanda genocide 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: General]

^ The day after Habyarimana's death, the RPF renewed their assault on government forces, and numerous attempts by the UN to negotiate a ceasefire came to nothing.
  • BBC NEWS | Africa | Rwanda: How the genocide happened 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC news.bbc.co.uk [Source type: News]

.A March 1993 report found that 10,000 Tutsi had been detained and 2,000 murdered since RPF 1990 invasion.^ In 1994, in April, May and June, Rwanda experienced a bloodbath in which Hutu extremists murdered more than 800,000 Tutsis and moderate Hutus.
  • Rwanda's genocide | Rwanda 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.globalpost.com [Source type: News]

^ On April 30, 1994, 250,000 Hutus fleeing the onslaught of the Tutsi RPF, crossed the border into Tanzania (Frontline/WBGH).
  • The Tragedy in Rwanda 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC aquabrat.tripod.com [Source type: Original source]

^ As a consequence of these acts of commission and omission, 800,000 Tutsi and thousands of moderate Hutu were murdered in a period of 100 days.
  • Rwanda Ten Years after the Genocide 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.nathanielturner.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Rwanda/UN: Acknowledging Failure 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.africafocus.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • AfricaFiles | Rwanda ten years after the genocide 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.africafiles.org [Source type: Original source]

.In August 1993, Lieutenant General Romeo Dallaire, commander of the UN forces, made a reconnaissance trip to evaluate the situation and requested 5,000 troops; he was given 2,548 military personnel and 60 civilian police.^ This includes the UN Force Commander, General Romeo Dallaire, despite Dallaire saying he wants to be allowed to testify.
  • ABC Radio National - Background Briefing: 21 February  1999  - The UN & Rwanda: Abandoned to Genocide? 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.abc.net.au [Source type: Original source]

^ Roméo Dallaire is a retired Lieutenant-General.
  • The Media and the Rwanda Genocide 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.idrc.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He commanded troops, military observers, and civilian personnel from twenty-six countries.

[7] He saw the situation as a standard peacekeeping mission.

Preparations for the genocide

.The killing was well organized[8] and by the time it had started, the Rwandan militia numbered around 30,000 — one militia member for every ten families — and was organized nationwide, with representatives in every neighborhood.^ At the time of the genocide there was one Hutu militia to ten families, 30,000 people in the government organized and paid militia.
  • �����Rwanda Massacre and Genocide � Clinton and the world, Rwanda government genocide ������The WE News Archives ������ 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.thewe.cc [Source type: Original source]

^ By the time the killing started, the militia in Rwanda was 30,000 strong one militia member for every ten families and organized nationwide, with representatives in every neighbourhood.
  • AfrikaDating.com - Country Information Rwanda - Information on Rwanda 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.afrikadating.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By that time, the Red Cross estimated that 500,000 Rwandans had been killed.
  • �����Rwanda Massacre and Genocide � Clinton and the world, Rwanda government genocide ������The WE News Archives ������ 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.thewe.cc [Source type: Original source]
  • AfrikaDating.com - Country Information Rwanda - Information on Rwanda 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.afrikadating.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Some militia members were able to acquire AK-47 assault rifles by completing requisition forms.^ Some militia members were able to acquire AK-47 assault rifles by completing requisition forms.
  • AfrikaDating.com - Country Information Rwanda - Information on Rwanda 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.afrikadating.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They were armed with simple weaponry: AK-47 assault rifles, grenades and machetes.
  • RwandaGenocideHISTORY 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some militia leaders were issued with AK 47s, for which they had to fill in requisition forms; the distribution of grenades required no such paperwork.
  • The Arming of Rwanda, and the Genocide - African Security Review Vol 13 No 2, 2004 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.iss.co.za [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Other weapons, such as grenades, required no paperwork and were widely distributed.^ Other weapons such as grenades required no paperwork and were widely distributed.
  • AfrikaDating.com - Country Information Rwanda - Information on Rwanda 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.afrikadating.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some militia leaders were issued with AK 47s, for which they had to fill in requisition forms; the distribution of grenades required no such paperwork.
  • The Arming of Rwanda, and the Genocide - African Security Review Vol 13 No 2, 2004 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.iss.co.za [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There is no moral requirement for journalists to make such a personal sacrifice.
  • The Media and the Rwanda Genocide 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.idrc.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Many members of the Interahamwe and Impuzamugambi were armed only with machetes.^ Many members of the Interahamwe and Impuzamugambi were armed only with machetes, but these were some of the most effective killers.
  • AfrikaDating.com - Country Information Rwanda - Information on Rwanda 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.afrikadating.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most of the Interahamwe and Impuzamugambi were armed only with machetes.
  • �����Rwanda Massacre and Genocide � Clinton and the world, Rwanda government genocide ������The WE News Archives ������ 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.thewe.cc [Source type: Original source]

^ Nkurunziza had escaped death only by chance as he moved around the country from one hiding place to another, and he had lost many family members.
  • Stories from Rwanda by Philip Gourevitch 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.historyplace.com [Source type: Original source]

Rwandan Prime Minister Jean Kambanda revealed, in his testimony before the International Criminal Tribunal, that the genocide was openly discussed in cabinet meetings and that "one cabinet minister said she was personally in favor of getting rid of all Tutsi; without the Tutsi, she told ministers, all of Rwanda's problems would be over."[9] In addition to Kambanda, the genocide's organizers included Colonel Théoneste Bagosora, a retired army officer, and many top ranking government officials and members of the army, such as General Augustin Bizimungu. .On the local level, the genocide's planners included Burgomasters, or mayors, and members of the police.^ On the local level, the Genocide's planners included Burgomasters, or mayors, and members of the police.
  • �����Rwanda Massacre and Genocide � Clinton and the world, Rwanda government genocide ������The WE News Archives ������ 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.thewe.cc [Source type: Original source]
  • AfrikaDating.com - Country Information Rwanda - Information on Rwanda 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.afrikadating.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Another high-level fugitive from the genocide, Gregoire Ndahimana, a former mayor, was captured in August and appeared before the tribunal last week.
  • Major Suspect in '94 Rwanda Genocide Is Caught - WSJ.com 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC online.wsj.com [Source type: News]

^ He had suggested a number of measures that would better equip the United Nations and its Member States to meet genocide with resolve, including a special rapporteur on the subject.
  • Rwanda/UN: Acknowledging Failure 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.africafocus.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Both Hutus and Tutsis were given ID cards which specified an ethnic group.^ Identity cards issued to Tutsi, Hutu and Twa groups.

^ Ethnic groups: Hutu, Tutsi, Twa .
  • Preventing Genocide - Who is at Risk? - Rwanda 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.ushmm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The identity cards included each individuals group identity, Tutsi, Hutu, or Twa.
  • COULD THE RWANDAN GENOCIDE HAVE BEEN PREVENTED 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.genocidewatch.org [Source type: Original source]

.These cards served as symbols in which the Interhamwe could check via the threat of force.^ American or British attorneys, for example, would likely be less useful in these roles, but they could serve productively as investigators and monitors.
  • Rwanda: Accountability for War Crimes and Genocide | United States Institute of Peace 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.usip.org [Source type: Original source]

^ It used these notions to describe to the ordinary population the 'threat' posed by RPA and an amorphous group of supporters that ranged from innocent Tutsis to the commander of the UNAMIR forces.
  • The Media and the Rwanda Genocide 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.idrc.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.November 2009" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] Skin color was a general physical trait which was typically used in "ethnic" identification.^ The Belgians classified them by their physical traits, too: they considered Tutsi to be tall, thin and light-skinned and Hutu to be short, stout and darker skinned.
  • Survivors of the Genocide: Rwandan Women Speak Out | Herizons Magazine 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.herizons.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Alison Des Forge: The blatant proclamation of an attempt to use ethnic violence to short-circuit the peace came at the beginning of November and early December.
  • ABC Radio National - Background Briefing: 21 February  1999  - The UN & Rwanda: Abandoned to Genocide? 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.abc.net.au [Source type: Original source]

^ General Physics - Condensed Matter - Optics & Photonics - Superconductivity - Plasma Physics - Soft Matter - Quantum Physics Space & Earth News .
  • Rwanda's Forest of Hope to expand by 21 percent, begin corridor for endangered chimpanzees 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.physorg.com [Source type: News]

.The lighter colored Rwandans were typically Tutsi, the minority group, while the darker skinned Rwandans were typically Hutu, the majority group in Rwanda.^ Ethnic groups: Hutu, Tutsi, Twa .
  • Preventing Genocide - Who is at Risk? - Rwanda 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.ushmm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are no more Hutu and Tutsi in Rwanda, only Rwandans.
  • CONVENTIONAL WISDOM AND RWANDA'S GENOCIDE 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC web.africa.ufl.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Rwanda is made of Hutus and Tutsi.
  • The Media and the Rwanda Genocide 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.idrc.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In many cases, Tutsi men, women, and children were separated from the general population and sometimes forced to be Hutu slaves.^ The propaganda warned Hutu men to beware of Tutsi women.
  • The Media and the Rwanda Genocide 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.idrc.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "Tutsi women married to Hutu were killed.
  • Sample Chapter for Mamdani, M.: When Victims Become Killers: Colonialism, Nativism, and the Genocide in Rwanda. 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC press.princeton.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Many of the victims were women and children, it said.
  • Rwandan genocide trial opens: News24: Africa: News 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.news24.com [Source type: News]

.As for the Tutsi women, they were often referred to as "gypsies" and frequently fell victim to sexual violence.^ The sexual identity of Tutsi women was itself a key to the violence.
  • KeyText: Why Rape Was a Key Part of Genocide in Rwanda 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC clg.portalxm.com [Source type: Original source]

^ "French soldiers committed many rapes, forced sexual intercourse specifically with surviving Tutsi women.
  • France accused of complicity in Rwanda genocide - Telegraph 19 September 2009 0:39 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ Programma Magazzino : Sexual violence against Tutsi women was also widespread, and the United Nations only conceded that "acts of genocide" had likely happened after an estimated half-million Rwandans had already been killed.
  • The Walrus » The Rwanda Genocide: A Reconciliation » By Jina Moore 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC walrusmagazine.com [Source type: General]
  • The Walrus » The Rwanda Genocide: A Reconciliation » By Jina Moore 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.walrusmagazine.com [Source type: General]

.Government leaders communicated with figures among the population to form and arm militias called Interahamwe, "those who stand (fight, kill) together", and Impuzamugambi, "those who have the same (or a single) goal". These groups, particularly their youth wings, were responsible for much of the violence.^ Those who are responsible, know they are responsible.
  • France accused in 1994 genocide: Rwandan report // Current 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC current.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The CDR had a youth wing, called the Impuzamugambi , which became the CDR militia.
  • The Media and the Rwanda Genocide 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.idrc.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Interhamwe means ”those who stand together in fight”.
  • Prosecuting Genocide in Rwanda 20 September 2009 14:38 UTC donika.com [Source type: Original source]

[10]

Media propaganda

.According to recent commentators the news media played a crucial role in the genocide: local print and radio media fueled the killings, while the international media either ignored or seriously misconstrued events on the ground.^ But it is not so clear, or at least not as universally accepted, that international media played a role in the genocide as well.
  • The Media and the Rwanda Genocide 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.idrc.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "Although the crash, the killing of the presidents, plays a role, it is not the cause of the genocide."

^ Examining the media's role in the Rwanda genocide .
  • Examining the media's role in the Rwanda genocide (Student Adventures) 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC blog.smu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[11] .The print media in Rwanda is believed to have started hate speech against Tutsis which was later continued by radio stations.^ Part 1: Hate media in Rwanda • Call to genocide: radio in Rwanda, 1994 .
  • Part 1: Hate media in Rwanda• Call to genocide: radio in Rwanda, 1994: International Development Research Centre 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.idrc.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The print media of the Rwandan Tutsi diaspora.
  • The Media and the Rwanda Genocide 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.idrc.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The country's radio stations and newspapers were used to disseminate information and ethnic hate propaganda that helped the coordinate the violence and killing that were the genocide.
  • RwandaGenocideHISTORY 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.According to commentators anti-Tutsi hate speech "became so systemic as to seem the norm."^ The most prominent is Felicien Kabuga, who allegedly financed Hutu militias and funded the radio station that broadcast hate speeches against Tutsis.
  • Key Rwandan genocide suspect arrested - Africa - msnbc.com 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.msnbc.msn.com [Source type: News]
  • Key Rwandan genocide suspect arrested - Africa - msnbc.com 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC rss.msnbc.msn.com [Source type: News]
  • Nation & World | Key Rwandan genocide suspect pleads not guilty | Seattle Times Newspaper 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC seattletimes.nwsource.com [Source type: News]
  • Top Rwanda genocide suspect caught in Uganda | New Orleans Metro Crime and Courts News - - NOLA.com 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.nola.com [Source type: News]

^ One Hutu woman commented, 'According to the propaganda, the Tutsi were hiding the enemy.
  • The Media and the Rwanda Genocide 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.idrc.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hate speeches against Tutsis There were about a dozen alleged masterminds of the genocide, many of whom are still at large.
  • Key Rwandan genocide suspect arrested - Africa - msnbc.com 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.msnbc.msn.com [Source type: News]
  • Key Rwandan genocide suspect arrested - Africa - msnbc.com 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC rss.msnbc.msn.com [Source type: News]

.The state-owned newspaper Kangura had a central role, starting an anti-Tutsi and anti-RPF campaign in October 1990. In the ongoing International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda, the individuals behind Kangura have been accused of producing leaflets in 1992 picturing a machete and asking "What shall we do to complete the social revolution of 1959?" - a reference to the Hutu revolt that overthrew the Tutsi monarchy and the subsequent politically orchestrated communal violence that resulted in thousands of mostly Tutsi casualties and forced roughly 300,000 Tutsis to flee to neighboring Burundi and Uganda.^ This was during the so-called “Hutu Revolution” after the Tutsi monarchy was removed.
  • Rwanda genocide | Uganda 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC freeuganda.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Rwanda genocide refers to the third type of killing, that of Tutsi by Hutu.
  • Sample Chapter for Mamdani, M.: When Victims Become Killers: Colonialism, Nativism, and the Genocide in Rwanda. 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC press.princeton.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The Tutsis in Burundi attacked Rwanda in 1963.
  • AMONHOTEP.COM - Rwandan Genocide: Crisis in Central Africa 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.amonhotep.com [Source type: Original source]

.Kangura also published the infamous "10 Hutu Commandments," which regulated all dealings with Tutsis and how Hutus are to treat them, and generally communicated the message that the RPF had a devious grand strategy (one feature article was titled "Tutsi colonization plan").^ Allegations that Tutsis plan to subjugate the Hutu .
  • The Media and the Rwanda Genocide 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.idrc.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Allegations that Tutsis plan to subjugate Hutu .
  • The Media and the Rwanda Genocide 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.idrc.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ All Tutsis were RPF soldiers?
  • The Harvard Law Record - Release of Rwanda's mastermind of death promotes genocide denial 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.hlrecord.org [Source type: Original source]

[12]
.Due to high rates of illiteracy at the time of the genocide, radio was an important way for the government to deliver messages to the public.^ Radio was the most effective way for the government to deliver messages to the public.
  • �����Rwanda Massacre and Genocide � Clinton and the world, Rwanda government genocide ������The WE News Archives ������ 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.thewe.cc [Source type: Original source]

^ The first was the high illiteracy rate.
  • The Media and the Rwanda Genocide 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.idrc.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The 1994 genocide saw government troops, Hutu militia and ordinary villagers spurred on by hate messages broadcast on the radio going from village to village, butchering men, women and children.
  • Rwandan genocide mastermind convicted - USATODAY.com 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.usatoday.com [Source type: News]
  • Justice Puts a Small Dent into Genocide with Rwandan Conviction | 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.thelangreport.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Two radio stations key to inciting violence before and during the genocide were Radio Rwanda and Radio Télévision Libre des Mille Collines (RTLM).^ Wellers Bizumuremyi was a receptionist at the Hotel des Mille Collines during the genocide.
  • Rwanda Hotel Ndahiro Privat 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.orwelltoday.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Radio stations Radio Rwanda and Radio Tlvision Libre des Mille Collines (RTLM) were key in inciting violence before and during the genocide acts of killing.
  • �����Rwanda Massacre and Genocide � Clinton and the world, Rwanda government genocide ������The WE News Archives ������ 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.thewe.cc [Source type: Original source]

^ One of the most central and infamous participants was the radio station RLTM (Radio Télévision Libre des Mille Collines).
  • Prosecuting Genocide in Rwanda 20 September 2009 14:38 UTC donika.com [Source type: Original source]

.In March 1992, Radio Rwanda was first used in directly promoting the killing of Tutsi in Bugesera, south of the national capital Kigali.^ March 1992, Radio Rwanda was used to directly create hysteria and promote the killing of Tutsi in Bugesera, south of the national capital Kigali.
  • �����Rwanda Massacre and Genocide � Clinton and the world, Rwanda government genocide ������The WE News Archives ������ 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.thewe.cc [Source type: Original source]

^ In March 1992, Radio Rwanda was first used in directly promoting the killing of Tutsi in a place called Bugesera, south of the national capital.
  • Part 1: Hate media in Rwanda• Call to genocide: radio in Rwanda, 1994: International Development Research Centre 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.idrc.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • The Media and the Rwanda Genocide 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.idrc.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Capital Radio, South Africa 400 .
  • The Media and the Rwanda Genocide 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.idrc.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Radio Rwanda repeatedly broadcast a communiqué warning that Hutu in Bugesera would be attacked by Tutsi, a message used by local officials to convince Hutu that they needed to protect themselves by attacking first.^ On 3 March, the radio repeatedly broadcast a communiqu supposedly sent by a human rights group based in Nairobi warning that Hutu in Bugesera would be attacked by Tutsi.
  • Part 1: Hate media in Rwanda• Call to genocide: radio in Rwanda, 1994: International Development Research Centre 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.idrc.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Tutsis in Burundi attacked Rwanda in 1963.
  • AMONHOTEP.COM - Rwandan Genocide: Crisis in Central Africa 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.amonhotep.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Tutsi (so the jingoistic message claimed) thought of themselves as “above” the Hutu.
  • KeyText: Why Rape Was a Key Part of Genocide in Rwanda 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC clg.portalxm.com [Source type: Original source]

.Led by soldiers, Hutu civilians and members of the Interahamwe subsequently attacked and killed hundreds of Tutsi.^ The minister was a Hutu, a member of the majority tribe that was killing the Tutsis.
  • Rwandan Genocide Survivor Recalls Horror - 60 Minutes - CBS News 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.cbsnews.com [Source type: General]

^ They looted the Hutu and killed the Tutsi?"
  • �����Rwanda Massacre and Genocide � Clinton and the world, Rwanda government genocide ������The WE News Archives ������ 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.thewe.cc [Source type: Original source]

^ So it began: Hutu civilians and members of the Interahamwe led by Rwanda soldiers began to attack and kill ethnic Tutsi.
  • �����Rwanda Massacre and Genocide � Clinton and the world, Rwanda government genocide ������The WE News Archives ������ 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.thewe.cc [Source type: Original source]

[13] .At the end of 1993, the RTLM's highly sensationalized reporting on the assassination of the Burundi president, a Hutu, was used to underline supposed Tutsi brutality.^ RTLM reported the assassination of the Burundi president in a highly sensationalized way to underline supposed Tutsi brutality and heighten Hutu fears of Tutsi (RTLM transcripts: 25 October; 20, 29, 30 November; 12 December 1993).
  • Part 1: Hate media in Rwanda• Call to genocide: radio in Rwanda, 1994: International Development Research Centre 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.idrc.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • The Media and the Rwanda Genocide 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.idrc.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In August of 1993, when the Hutu President Juvénal Habyarimana signed a power-sharing peace accord with the R.P.F., extremist Hutus began to speculate whether the President himself had become an accomplice.
  • Letter from Rwanda: After the Genocide : The New Yorker 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.newyorker.com [Source type: General]

^ In the spring of 1994, after a plane carrying President Juvenal Habyarimana was shot down, roving gangs of ethnic Hutus began attacking ethnic minority Tutsis and moderate Hutus.
  • Major Suspect in '94 Rwanda Genocide Is Caught - WSJ.com 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC online.wsj.com [Source type: News]

.The RTLM falsely reported that the president had been tortured, including castration of the victim (in pre-colonial times, some Tutsi kings castrated defeated enemy rulers).^ The president was actually killed by a bayonet blow to the chest, but RTLM reported details of supposed torture, including castration of the victim.
  • Part 1: Hate media in Rwanda• Call to genocide: radio in Rwanda, 1994: International Development Research Centre 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.idrc.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • The Media and the Rwanda Genocide 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.idrc.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In pre-colonial times, some Tutsi kings castrated defeated enemy rulers and decorated their royal drums with the genitalia.
  • Part 1: Hate media in Rwanda• Call to genocide: radio in Rwanda, 1994: International Development Research Centre 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.idrc.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • The Media and the Rwanda Genocide 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.idrc.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some believe the order came from Rwanda's current president, Paul Kagame, who was then leader of The Rwandan Patriotic Front, a Tutsi-controlled rebel group.
  • Ellis Cose: Rwanda 15 Years After Genocide 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.huffingtonpost.com [Source type: General]

.From late October 1993, the RTLM repeatedly broadcast themes developed by the extremist written press, underlining the inherent differences between Hutu and Tutsi, the foreign origin of Tutsi, the disproportionate share of Tutsi wealth and power, and the horrors of past Tutsi rule.^ RTLM started broadcasting in July 1993.
  • The Media and the Rwanda Genocide 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.idrc.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ An RTLM broadcast on this day claimed a victory for Hutu Power: .
  • 100 Days of Rwanda: June 2004 Archives 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.silent-edge.org [Source type: News]

^ From late October on, RTLM repeatedly and forcefully underlined many of the themes developed for years by the extremist written press, including the inherent differences between Hutu and Tutsi, the foreign origin of Tutsi and, hence, their lack of rights to claim to be Rwandan, the disproportionate share of wealth and power held by Tutsi and the horrors of past Tutsi rule.
  • Part 1: Hate media in Rwanda• Call to genocide: radio in Rwanda, 1994: International Development Research Centre 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.idrc.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • The Media and the Rwanda Genocide 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.idrc.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.RTLM also repeatedly stressed the need to be alert to Tutsi plots and possible attacks and called upon Hutu to prepare to 'defend' themselves against the Tutsi.^ Against Tutsi vs. Hutu Ignorance .
  • MBEAW: Rwanda 20 September 2009 14:38 UTC www.mbeaw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It continually stressed the need to be alert to Tutsi plots and possible attacks and demanded that Hutu prepare to 'defend' themselves against the Tutsi threat (RTLM transcripts: 25 October; 12, 20, 24 November 1993; 29 March; 1, 3 June 1994).
  • Part 1: Hate media in Rwanda• Call to genocide: radio in Rwanda, 1994: International Development Research Centre 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.idrc.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • The Media and the Rwanda Genocide 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.idrc.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The genocide, the worst in the 1990s, was primarily the action of Hutu extremists against Rwanda’s Tutsi minority and moderate Hutus.
  • Kay Warren Stresses Forgiveness for Rwanda Genocide | Christianpost.com 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.christianpost.com [Source type: General]
  • Kay Warren Stresses Forgiveness for Rwanda Genocide | Christianpost.com 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.christianpost.com [Source type: General]

[13] .After April 6, 1994, authorities used RTLM and Radio Rwanda to spur and direct killings, specifically in areas where the killings initially were resisted.^ Call to Genocide: Radio in Rwanda, 1994 .
  • The Media and the Rwanda Genocide 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.idrc.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Radio Rwanda was the voice of authority, and authority is respected in Rwanda.
  • The Media and the Rwanda Genocide 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.idrc.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Radio Rwanda/RTLM broadcasts .
  • The Media and the Rwanda Genocide 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.idrc.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Both radio stations were used to incite and mobilize, then to give specific directions for carrying out the killings.^ Authorities used both radio stations to give instructions and orders to listeners.
  • Part 1: Hate media in Rwanda• Call to genocide: radio in Rwanda, 1994: International Development Research Centre 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.idrc.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • The Media and the Rwanda Genocide 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.idrc.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They relied on both radio stations to incite and mobilize, then to give specific directions for carrying out the killings (RTLM transcripts: 13, 29 April; 15, 20 May; 1, 5, 9, 19 June 1994).
  • Part 1: Hate media in Rwanda• Call to genocide: radio in Rwanda, 1994: International Development Research Centre 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.idrc.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • The Media and the Rwanda Genocide 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.idrc.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They relied on both radio stations to incite and mobilize, then to give specific directions for carrying out the killings.
  • Georgianne Nienaber: Remembering The Rwandan Genocide 15 Years Later (SLIDESHOW) 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.huffingtonpost.com [Source type: General]

[13]
.The RTLM had used terms such as inyenzi (cockroach in Kinyarwandan) and Tutsi interchangeably with others referring to RPF combatants and warned specifically that RPF combatants dressed in civilian clothes were mingling among displaced people fleeing combat zones.^ RTLM used terms like inyenzi and Tutsi interchangeably with others referring to RPF combatants, leading listeners to believe that all Tutsi were necessarily supporters of the RPF force fighting against the government.
  • Part 1: Hate media in Rwanda• Call to genocide: radio in Rwanda, 1994: International Development Research Centre 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.idrc.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • The Media and the Rwanda Genocide 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.idrc.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Inyenzi became a generic term for Tutsis.
  • The Media and the Rwanda Genocide 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.idrc.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In addition, Hutu extremists on Radio-Television Libre des Milles Collines (RTMC) had spewed violent, racist propaganda daily for months, urging its listeners to "get to work" and exterminate all the " inyenzi " (cockroaches in Kinyarwanda and a derogatory term used to describe Tutsis).

.These broadcasts gave the impression that all Tutsi were necessarily supporters of the RPF force fighting against the government.^ They were fighting for the rights of all Tutsi.
  • The Walrus » The Rwanda Genocide: A Reconciliation » By Jina Moore 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC walrusmagazine.com [Source type: General]

^ RADIO BROADCAST: "All Tutsis will perish.
  • �����Rwanda Massacre and Genocide � Clinton and the world, Rwanda government genocide ������The WE News Archives ������ 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.thewe.cc [Source type: Original source]

^ All Tutsis were RPF soldiers?
  • The Harvard Law Record - Release of Rwanda's mastermind of death promotes genocide denial 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.hlrecord.org [Source type: Original source]

[13] .Women were part of the anti-Tutsi propaganda prior the 1994 genocide, for example the "Ten Hutu Commandments" published in December 1990 by "Kangura" included four commandments which portrayed Tutsi women as tools of the Tutsi people, as sexual weapons that would be used by the Tutsi to weaken and ultimately destroy the Hutu men.^ The country's most fervently racist newspaper publishes in December the Hutu Ten Commandments.

^ "People used to be Tutsi or Hutu, depending on the proximity to the king.
  • AMONHOTEP.COM - Rwandan Genocide: Crisis in Central Africa 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.amonhotep.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The propaganda warned Hutu men to beware of Tutsi women.
  • The Media and the Rwanda Genocide 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.idrc.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[14] .Gender-based propaganda also include cartoons printed in newspapers depicting Tutsi women as sex objects.^ The targeting of Tutsi girls and women was spurred in part by anti-Tutsi propaganda preceding the 1994 genocide, which alleged that the minority Tutsi population was a threat to the Hutu community.
  • Survivors of the Genocide: Rwandan Women Speak Out | Herizons Magazine 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.herizons.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When the violence began in 1994, not surprisingly, aggression against Tutsi women targeted their sexuality and was fuelled by both ethnic and gender stereotypes.
  • The Media and the Rwanda Genocide 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.idrc.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Twenty other extremist newspapers also published regular hate propaganda against Tutsis.
  • COULD THE RWANDAN GENOCIDE HAVE BEEN PREVENTED 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.genocidewatch.org [Source type: Original source]

Examples of gender-based hate propaganda used to incite war rape include statements by perpetrators such as "You Tutsi women think that you are too good for us" and "Let us see what a Tutsi woman tastes like ".[14]
There were 50,000 civilian deaths in Burundi in 1993.

United Nations

.On January 11, 1994 Canadian Lieutenant General Romeo Dallaire (United Nations Force Commander in Rwanda) notified Military Advisor to the Secretary-General, Major-General Maurice Baril of four major weapons caches and plans by the Hutus for extermination of Tutsis.^ Beardsley was the staff officer of the force commander, Major General Roméo Dallaire.
  • The Media and the Rwanda Genocide 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.idrc.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On January 11, 1994, Major General Romeo Dallaire, the Canadian commander of the United Nations peacekeeping force in Rwanda (UNAMIR), sent a fax to the United Nations providing details of the genocide to come.
  • The 1994 Rwandan Genocide and U.S. Policy 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.globalpolicy.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Rwanda: Genocide and U.S. Policy, 1/2, 5/26/98 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.africa.upenn.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Roméo Dallaire is a retired Lieutenant-General.
  • The Media and the Rwanda Genocide 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.idrc.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The telegram from Dallaire stated that an informant who was a top level Interahamwe militia trainer was in charge of demonstrations carried out a few days before.^ The Bishop is also said to have paid the militias who carried out the killings.
  • Anglican Complicity in the Genocide in Rwanda 20 September 2009 14:38 UTC www.rci.rutgers.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Informant is a top-level trainer in the Cadre of Interhamwe armed militia.
  • ABC Radio National - Background Briefing: 21 February  1999  - The UN & Rwanda: Abandoned to Genocide? 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.abc.net.au [Source type: Original source]

^ The telegram from Dallaire stated that an informant who was top level Interahamwe militia trainer was in charge of demonstrations carried out a few days before.
  • �����Rwanda Massacre and Genocide � Clinton and the world, Rwanda government genocide ������The WE News Archives ������ 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.thewe.cc [Source type: Original source]

.The goal of the demonstrations was to provoke an RPF battalion in Kigali into firing upon demonstrators and Belgian United Nations Assistance Mission for Rwanda (UNAMIR) troops into using force.^ The United Nations (UN) Assistance Mission in Rwanda (UNAMIR) stationed international troops in the country to oversee the transition; a battalion of six hundred RPF troops was stationed in Kigali.
  • Rwanda: Genocide and Crimes Against Humanity 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.enotes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ UNAMIR troops were already in Rwanda.
  • COULD THE RWANDAN GENOCIDE HAVE BEEN PREVENTED 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.genocidewatch.org [Source type: Original source]

^ At the same time, the United Nations troops were pulling out of Rwanda.
  • ABC Radio National - Background Briefing: 21 February  1999  - The UN & Rwanda: Abandoned to Genocide? 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.abc.net.au [Source type: Original source]

.Under such a scenario the Interhamwe would have an excuse to engage the Belgian troops and the RPF battalion.^ Under such scenario the Interhamwe would have an excuse to engage the Belgian troops and the RPF battalion.
  • �����Rwanda Massacre and Genocide � Clinton and the world, Rwanda government genocide ������The WE News Archives ������ 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.thewe.cc [Source type: Original source]

^ The United Nations (UN) Assistance Mission in Rwanda (UNAMIR) stationed international troops in the country to oversee the transition; a battalion of six hundred RPF troops was stationed in Kigali.
  • Rwanda: Genocide and Crimes Against Humanity 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.enotes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Troops from other countries that were less well trained and less well armed filled the remaining places, producing a force that was weaker than it would have been with a full Belgian batallion.
  • Rwanda — Global Issues 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.globalissues.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Several Belgians were to be killed, which would guarantee a withdrawal of the Belgian contingent, which was the backbone of the peacekeeping mission.^ Several Belgians were to be killed which would guarantee a withdrawal of the Belgian contingent.
  • �����Rwanda Massacre and Genocide � Clinton and the world, Rwanda government genocide ������The WE News Archives ������ 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.thewe.cc [Source type: Original source]

^ The killings began about six months after U.S. Marines on a peacekeeping mission had been killed in Mogadishu, Somalia, and U.S. officials opposed sending more troops to Africa.

^ The tribunal found Bagosora responsible for the assassination of Habyarimana's moderate Hutu prime minister Agathe Uwilingiyimana, as well as the killing of 10 Belgian peacekeepers and several politicians.
  • Tribunal Sentences Rwandan 'Genocide Mastermind' to Life | CommonDreams.org 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.commondreams.org [Source type: General]

The Tutsis would then be eliminated. .According to the informant, 1,700 Interhamwe militiamen were trained in Governmental Forces camps and he was ordered to register all the Kigali Tutsis.^ According to the informant 1,700 Interhamwe militiamen were trained in Governmental Forces camps and he was ordered to register all the Kigali Tutsis.
  • �����Rwanda Massacre and Genocide � Clinton and the world, Rwanda government genocide ������The WE News Archives ������ 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.thewe.cc [Source type: Original source]

^ He has been ordered to register all Tutsi in Kigali.
  • ABC Radio National - Background Briefing: 21 February  1999  - The UN & Rwanda: Abandoned to Genocide? 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.abc.net.au [Source type: Original source]

^ CABLE: "He has been ordered to register all Tutsi in Kigali.
  • �����Rwanda Massacre and Genocide � Clinton and the world, Rwanda government genocide ������The WE News Archives ������ 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.thewe.cc [Source type: Original source]

.Dallaire made immediate plans for UNAMIR troops to seize the arms caches and advised UN Headquarters of his intentions, believing these actions lay within his mission's mandate.^ Dallaire made immediate plans for UNAMIR troops to seize the arms caches and advised UN Headquarters of his intentions, believing these actions lay within his mission's mandate.
  • �����Rwanda Massacre and Genocide � Clinton and the world, Rwanda government genocide ������The WE News Archives ������ 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.thewe.cc [Source type: Original source]

^ The UN refused to do even that, although it was clearly within UNAMIRs mandate.
  • COULD THE RWANDAN GENOCIDE HAVE BEEN PREVENTED 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.genocidewatch.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The U.N. headquarters answered that the action he was planning to take was not authorized because it was not within the U.N. mandate.
  • Rwanda: Genocide and the Continuing Cycle of Violence 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC commdocs.house.gov [Source type: Original source]

.The following day headquarters stated in another cable that the outlined actions went beyond the mandate granted to UNAMIR under Security Council Resolution 872.^ The following day headquarters stated in another cable that the outlined actions went beyond the mandate granted to UNAMIR under the Security Council Resolution 872.
  • �����Rwanda Massacre and Genocide � Clinton and the world, Rwanda government genocide ������The WE News Archives ������ 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.thewe.cc [Source type: Original source]

^ Security Council Resolution 955 .
  • Rwanda: Accountability for War Crimes and Genocide | United States Institute of Peace 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.usip.org [Source type: Original source]

^ We are given a specific mandate by the Security Council.
  • frontline: the triumph of evil: interviews: iqbal riza 20 September 2009 14:38 UTC www.pbs.org [Source type: Original source]

.Instead, President Habyarimana was to be informed of possible Arusha Accords violations and the discovered concerns and report back on measures taken.^ Instead, President Habyarimana was to be informed of possible Arusha Accords violations and the discovered concerns and report back on measures taken.
  • �����Rwanda Massacre and Genocide � Clinton and the world, Rwanda government genocide ������The WE News Archives ������ 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.thewe.cc [Source type: Original source]

^ Higaniro admits he wrote a letter to President Habyarimana referring to the Arusha peace accords with the Tutsi opposition in 1993 as a "civilian coup d'etat," but claims the letter proves he was not involved in politics or a Habyarimana supporter.
  • The American Society of International Law ASIL Insights - Belgian Jury to Decide Case Concerning Rwandan Genocide 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.asil.org [Source type: Original source]

^ At the time of his death, Habyarimana was on the brink of implementing the Arusha Accords, a power-sharing peace agreement with the Rwandan Patriotic Front, a rebel army led by Paul Kagame (who is now Rwanda’s president).
  • The Mutsinzi Report on the Rwandan Genocide: News Desk : The New Yorker 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.newyorker.com [Source type: News]

.The January 11 telegram later played an important role in discussion about what information was available to the United Nations prior to the genocide.^ The United Nations is often condemned for its role during the genocide.
  • 1990-1994: The genocide and war in Rwanda | libcom.org 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC libcom.org [Source type: Original source]

^ We still think about the genocide as a nation.'

^ The dis-United Nations has played the same baneful role as always.
  • AMONHOTEP.COM - Rwandan Genocide: Crisis in Central Africa 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.amonhotep.com [Source type: Original source]

[15] .On February 21 extremists assassinated the Minister of Public Works, and UNAMIR failed to gain approval to investigate the murder.^ On the morning of April 7, the presidential guard assassinated the Prime Minister, Agathe Uwilingiyimana, a moderate Hutu, along with ten Belgian UNAMIR troops who had been guarding her.
  • Rwanda: Genocide and Crimes Against Humanity 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.enotes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Rwandan government released a report Monday concluding that the 1994 assassination of then-president Juvenal Habyarimana was the work of Hutu extremists.
  • Rwandan Genocide - Blogrunner 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.blogrunner.com [Source type: News]

^ The court had set his original hearing for February 21 but had to postpone it until March when his lawyer failed to appear.

.On April 6, 1994 the RTLM accused the Belgian peacekeepers of having shot down – or helping to shoot down – the president's plane.^ As RTLM had forewarned, it turned its full force against the Belgian peacekeepers, accusing them of having shot down – or helping to shoot down – the president's plane.
  • The Media and the Rwanda Genocide 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.idrc.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In April 1994, the plane carrying Habyarimana and the President of Burundi was shot down.

^ On April 6, 1994, a plane carrying Hutu President Juvenal .
  • Ingando Solidarity Camps:Reconciliation and Political Indoctrination in Post-Genocide Rwanda 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.law.harvard.edu [Source type: Original source]

.This broadcast has been linked to the killing of ten Belgian UN troops by soldiers of the Rwandan army.^ On day two of the crisis, ten Belgian soldiers were murdered by Rwandan soldiers.
  • The Media and the Rwanda Genocide 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.idrc.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Under the stimulus of these broadcasts, some soldiers of the Rwandan army brutally murdered ten UN troops of the Belgian contingent.
  • Part 1: Hate media in Rwanda• Call to genocide: radio in Rwanda, 1994: International Development Research Centre 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.idrc.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • The Media and the Rwanda Genocide 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.idrc.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The prime minister was guarded by a detachment of Belgian soldiers; these were arrested, disarmed, tortured, and murdered, prompting Belgium -- as intended -- to withdraw the remainder of its U.N. troops from Rwanda.
  • Gendercide Watch: Rwanda 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.gendercide.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Gendercide Watch: Rwanda 19 September 2009 0:39 UTC gendercide.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[16]
.The situation proved too "risky" for the United Nations to attempt to help[citation needed].^ Bronwyn Adcock: The United Nations has consistently refused access to their files and blocked any attempts to investigate their actions in Rwanda.
  • ABC Radio National - Background Briefing: 21 February  1999  - The UN & Rwanda: Abandoned to Genocide? 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.abc.net.au [Source type: Original source]

^ The report attempts to improve the United Nations capacity in the field of peacekeeping, he said.
  • United Nations report on the 1994 Rwanda genocide 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.antisemittisme.no [Source type: Original source]

^ He said the recommendations warranted further study by the departments concerned and needed to be comprehensively considered in the context of strengthening the role of the United Nations in the twenty-first century.
  • United Nations report on the 1994 Rwanda genocide 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.antisemittisme.no [Source type: Original source]

.The RPF successfully brought the country under their sway, although their efforts towards a conclusion to the conflict were delayed after the UN-mandated French-led force, under Operation Turquoise, established and maintained a "safe zone" for Hutu refugees to flee to in the southwest.^ Operation Turquoise – the French intervene .
  • The Media and the Rwanda Genocide 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.idrc.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But rapes were also committed by Presidential Guards, military soldiers of the Rwandan Armed Forces (FAR), the Rwandan police and civilians, as well as by international soldiers—most notably the French, who were stationed in the southwest of the country under a UN mandate to supposedly establish and maintain a continuing physical and psychological trauma from the indescribable brutality they suffered and witnessed.
  • Survivors of the Genocide: Rwandan Women Speak Out | Herizons Magazine 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.herizons.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Amid a confusion of conflicting motives, the driving force of UN policy was French concern that their allies were losing the civil war, and that if action was not taken the RPF would soon smash the old regime altogether and capture its leadership.
  • 1990-1994: The genocide and war in Rwanda | libcom.org 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC libcom.org [Source type: Original source]

.Eventually, after the UN Mandate of the French mission was at an end, millions of refugees left Rwanda, mainly headed to Zaire (Now the Democratic Republic of Congo).^ Dalliare, head of the UN peacekeepers in Rwanda.
  • Rwanda Genocide Resources - Prevent Genocide International 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC preventgenocide.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Thugs ruling UN sanctioned refugee camps in Congo Democratic Republic.
  • MBEAW: Rwanda 20 September 2009 14:38 UTC www.mbeaw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A series of massive population displacements, a nagging Hutu extremist insurgency, and Rwandan involvement in the First and Second Congo Wars in the neighbouring Democratic Republic of the Congo continue to hinder Rwanda's efforts.
  • AfrikaDating.com - Country Information Rwanda - Information on Rwanda 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.afrikadating.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The presence of Hutu refugees (see Great Lakes refugee crisis) on the border with Rwanda was the cause for the First and Second Congo Wars with clashes between these groups and the Rwandan government continuing.^ The government of Rwanda becomes involved in the first Congo territories war.
  • �����Rwanda Massacre and Genocide � Clinton and the world, Rwanda government genocide ������The WE News Archives ������ 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.thewe.cc [Source type: Original source]

^ Rwanda has closed its border with Congo.
  • 100 Days of Rwanda: June 2004 Archives 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.silent-edge.org [Source type: News]

^ It became Africa's first great war.
  • The Media and the Rwanda Genocide 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.idrc.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[1]
.The UN's mandate forbids intervening in the internal politics of any country unless the crime of genocide is being committed.^ Several countries have passed laws allowing their courts to try those accused of genocide, regardless of where the crime was committed.
  • danieldrezner.com :: Daniel W. Drezner :: The ten-year anniversary of the Rwandan genocide 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.danieldrezner.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The country was completely devastated after the genocide but increasingly there is important work being undertaken by Rwandans, such as Gacaca and an understanding of Rwandas politics at the colline level that can only properly be explained by Rwandans.
  • The New Times - Rwandas First Daily :: Issue 14162 :: So much still needs to be done to uncover Genocide-Linda Melvern 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.newtimes.co.rw [Source type: Original source]

^ It was clear in two of the gacaca trials that I observed that a prisoner was reluctant in one case to admit to being the leader of a group, and in the other case to having committed a sexual crime.
  • Transitional Justice Forum: Rwanda: Challenges of the post-genocide 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC tj-forum.org [Source type: Original source]

.France has been accused of aiding the Hutu regime to flee by creating what is known as Operation Turquoise.^ "Paul Kagame, the Rwandan President, has accused France of helping to prepare the genocide by supporting the Hutu-dominated regime.
  • Can We Learn the Lessons from the Genocide in Rwanda? 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.larouchepub.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Rusesabagina created a political party known as PDR-Ihumure which is largely composed of Hutu extremists.
  • Deborah Lipstadt’s Blog: Rwanda: A new form of genocide denial 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC lipstadt.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ten years ago today : France's controversial "Operation Turquoise" began with the arrival of French troops from Goma in Zaire.
  • 100 Days of Rwanda: June 2004 Archives 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.silent-edge.org [Source type: News]

.Canada, Ghana, and the Netherlands provided consistent support for the UN mission under the command of Roméo Dallaire although it was left without an appropriate mandate for the capacity to intervene from the U.N. Security Council.^ We have to go by the mandate that we are given by the Security Council.
  • frontline: the triumph of evil: interviews: iqbal riza 20 September 2009 14:38 UTC www.pbs.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The UN Security Council rejected the plan.
  • Deborah Lipstadt’s Blog: Rwanda: A new form of genocide denial 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC lipstadt.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We are given a specific mandate by the Security Council.
  • frontline: the triumph of evil: interviews: iqbal riza 20 September 2009 14:38 UTC www.pbs.org [Source type: Original source]

.Despite emphatic demands from UNAMIR's commanders in Rwanda before and throughout the genocide, its requests for authorization to end it were refused and its intervention-capacity was even reduced.^ Canadian Romeo Dallaire, the U.N. force commander in Rwanda , had repeatedly warned of the looming slaughter and sought more troops and authority to stop it, but was refused.
  • Justice Puts a Small Dent into Genocide with Rwandan Conviction | 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.thelangreport.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The RPF (Rwanda Patriotic Front), which stands as Rwanda’s government until present day, mobilized while in exile in Uganda and entered Rwanda to end the genocide in 1994.

^ On January 11, 1994, after communicating details of the coming cataclysm, Major General Romeo Dallaire, the Canadian commander of U.N. peacekeeping forces in Rwanda (UNAMIR), requested U.N. authorization to confiscate arms caches.

Religion

.The Roman Catholic Church affirms that genocide took place but argues that those who took part in it did so without the permission of the Church.^ The church at Nyamata became the final resting place for 10,000 people who sought refuge there.
  • Much progress made, but many challenges face a post-genocide Rwanda | desmoinesregister.com | The Des Moines Register 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.desmoinesregister.com [Source type: News]
  • Much progress made, but many challenges face a post-genocide Rwanda | desmoinesregister.com | The Des Moines Register 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.desmoinesregister.com [Source type: General]

^ As soon as it becomes apparent, publicly call and condemn by name -- genocide -- acts with intent to destroy in whole or in part, a national, ethnical, racial or religious group, and condemn those who are engaged in directing or participating in it.
  • The 1994 Rwandan Genocide and U.S. Policy 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.globalpolicy.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Seminega said he believes it is his responsibility to tell his story and that it is the responsibility of those who listen to understand and then question why genocide is allowed to continue.
  • Rwanda genocide horrors told » Evansville Courier & Press 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.courierpress.com [Source type: News]

[17]
.Though religious factors were not prominent (the event was ethnically motivated) the Human Rights Watch reported that a number of religious authorities, particularly Roman Catholic, in Rwanda failed to condemn the genocide.^ Human Rights Watch - "Uprooting the Rural Poor in Rwanda" Full text report.
  • Rwanda on the Internet - Stanford University 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC library.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Rwanda Human Rights Practices 1993 ” Country Reports on Human Rights Practices for 1993.
  • LAND CONFLICT AND GENOCIDE IN RWANDA - EJSD Journal of Sustainable Development 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.ejsd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The most exhaustive study of the genocide was done by Human Rights Watch: .
  • Anglican Complicity in the Genocide in Rwanda 20 September 2009 14:38 UTC www.rci.rutgers.edu [Source type: Original source]

[18] .Some in its religious hierarchy have been brought to trial by the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda and convicted.^ The tapes that remain are part of the documentation of the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda.
  • The Media and the Rwanda Genocide 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.idrc.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ ICTR-97–32-DP (International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda).
  • The Media and the Rwanda Genocide 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.idrc.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He has twice served as an expert witness for the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda.
  • Rwanda: Genocide and the Continuing Cycle of Violence 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC commdocs.house.gov [Source type: Original source]

[17] .Bishop Misago was accused of corruption and complicity in the genocide but was cleared of all charges in 2000.[19] The majority of Rwandans, and of Tutsis in particular, are Catholic.^ The Accused are charged with genocide.
  • The Media and the Rwanda Genocide 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.idrc.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Accused are charged with conspiracy to commit genocide.
  • The Media and the Rwanda Genocide 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.idrc.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Anglican Bishop charged with genocide .
  • Anglican Complicity in the Genocide in Rwanda 20 September 2009 14:38 UTC www.rci.rutgers.edu [Source type: Original source]

Catalyst and initial events

Memorial for the dead Belgian UNAMIR personnel in Kigali.
.On April 6, 1994, the airplane carrying Rwandan President Juvénal Habyarimana, and Cyprien Ntaryamira, the Hutu president of Burundi, was shot down as it prepared to land in Kigali.^ On April 6 1994, a plane carrying the presidents of Rwanda and Burundi, was shot down.
  • ZNet - Rwandan Genocide 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.zmag.org [Source type: Original source]
  • ZNet - Rwandan Genocide 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.zmag.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The plane carrying Hutu Rwandan President Juvénal Habyarimana and Burundi President Cyprien Ntaryamira was shot down on April 6, 1994, o...
  • Georgianne Nienaber: Remembering The Rwandan Genocide 15 Years Later (SLIDESHOW) 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.huffingtonpost.com [Source type: General]

^ When the Rwandan President's plane was shot down, we should try to remember that the Burundian President Cyprien Ntaryamira was also on that plane.
  • Genocide in Rwanda: "A Distinctly Modern Tragedy" | Stop Genocide | Change.org 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC genocide.change.org [Source type: General]

.Both presidents died when the plane crashed.^ April - President Habyarimana dies in a plane crash.
  • Rwanda Works :: Rwanda's History 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC rwandaworks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Both presidents were killed when the plane crashed.
  • AfrikaDating.com - Country Information Rwanda - Information on Rwanda 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.afrikadating.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (Actually, the plane carrying the presidents of Rwanda and Burundi crashed on April 6, 1994, and there was some killing that night; but April 7 was the first day of organized genocide.
  • Obsidian Wings: Rwanda: Remembering Genocide And A Hero 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC obsidianwings.blogs.com [Source type: General]

.Responsibility for the attack was initially disputed, with both the RPF and Hutu extremists being blamed.^ Most Hutus blamed the crash on the RPF, although the RPF denied responsibility.
  • The Media and the Rwanda Genocide 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.idrc.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Apologists for the RPF have tried hard to blame the attack upon hardline Hutu conspirators, but they have produced nothing of substance to back up this claim.
  • Rwanda: obscuring the truth about the genocide | spiked 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.spiked-online.com [Source type: Original source]
  • �����Rwanda Massacre and Genocide � Clinton and the world, Rwanda government genocide ������The WE News Archives ������ 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.thewe.cc [Source type: Original source]

^ This bogus attack was used to justify the arrest of thousands of prominent Tutsi and moderate Hutu, under the accusation of their being RPF accomplices.
  • Rwanda: Genocide and Crimes Against Humanity 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.enotes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A later investigation by the Rwandan government blamed Hutu extremists in the Rwandan army.^ The landmark deal would have ended years of conflict by creating a broad-based transitional government and an integrated Rwandan army.
  • newsbox : Message: Rwanda: Beyond Reasonable Doubt 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC finance.groups.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Rwandan government, which had accused extremist Hutus of assassinating Habyarimana and which also was investigating what it said was French complicity in the massacres that followed the crash, angrily denounced the judge's action and expelled the French ambassador.
  • Rwanda News - Breaking World Rwanda News - The New York Times 19 September 2009 0:39 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: News]

^ I would also like to pay tribute to the unprecedented access which the Rwandan government gave me to the documentary evidence which was abandoned when the Hutu Power so-called Interim Government fled the country.
  • The New Times - Rwandas First Daily :: Issue 14162 :: So much still needs to be done to uncover Genocide-Linda Melvern 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.newtimes.co.rw [Source type: Original source]

[20] .But in spite of disagreements about the identities of its perpetrators, the attack on the plane is to many observers the catalyst for the genocide.^ Despite unresolved uncertainty about the actual identities of its perpetrators, many observers view the dramatic airplane attack as a catalyst triggering the subsequent Genocide.
  • AfrikaDating.com - Country Information Rwanda - Information on Rwanda 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.afrikadating.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In many ways, the perpetrators of the genocide have succeeded.
  • Rwanda: Genocide Anniversary Reflections 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.africafocus.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I also believe the court should stay open; there many planners and perpetrators of genocide still at large.
  • The New Times - Rwandas First Daily :: Issue 14162 :: So much still needs to be done to uncover Genocide-Linda Melvern 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.newtimes.co.rw [Source type: Original source]

.On April 6 and April 7 the staff of the Rwandan Armed Forces (FAR) and Colonel Theoneste Bagosora clashed verbally with the UNAMIR Force commander Lieutenant General Dallaire, who stressed the legal authority of the Prime Minister, Agathe Uwilingiyimana, to take control of the situation as outlined in the Arusha Accords.^ Beardsley was the staff officer of the force commander, Major General Roméo Dallaire.
  • The Media and the Rwanda Genocide 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.idrc.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ General Dallaire put the arms under joint UNAMIR-Rwandan army guard.
  • AfrikaDating.com - Country Information Rwanda - Information on Rwanda 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.afrikadating.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Roméo Dallaire is a retired Lieutenant-General.
  • The Media and the Rwanda Genocide 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.idrc.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Bagosora disputed the authority, and Dallaire gave an escort of Belgian and Ghanaian personnel to Mrs. Uwilingiyimana to protect her and to allow her to send a calming message on the radio the next morning. But by then, the presidential guard had occupied the radio station and Mrs. Uwilingiyimana had to cancel her speech. .When the Rwandan army stormed the building, the peacekeepers were taken prisoner and their weapons were confiscated.^ He rescued the children of the moderate Prime Minster Agathe Uwilingiyimana, after 25 well-armed Belgian and Ghanaian U.N. peacekeepers surrendered their weapons to Rwandan troops.
  • Obsidian Wings: Rwanda: Genocide And A Hero 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC obsidianwings.blogs.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Obsidian Wings: Rwanda: Genocide And A Hero 19 September 2009 0:39 UTC obsidianwings.blogs.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The build-up of the Ugandan UPDF Forces and of the Rwandan Patriotic Army (RPA) had been supported by the US and Britain.
  • The Geopolitics behind the Rwandan Genocide: Paul Kagame accused of War Crimes 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.globalresearch.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In the middle of the day, Mrs. Uwilingiyimana was assassinated by the presidential guard. .The Ghanaian soldiers were released, but the ten Belgian soldiers were led away and killed; Major Bernard Ntuyahaga was convicted of the murders in 2007. Other moderate officials who favored the Arusha Accords were quickly assassinated.^ Other moderate officials who favored the Arusha Accords were quickly assassinated.
  • �����Rwanda Massacre and Genocide � Clinton and the world, Rwanda government genocide ������The WE News Archives ������ 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.thewe.cc [Source type: Original source]
  • AfrikaDating.com - Country Information Rwanda - Information on Rwanda 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.afrikadating.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The ten Belgian UNAMIR soldiers sent to protect her were later found killed; Major Bernard Ntuyahaga was convicted of the murders in 2007.
  • �����Rwanda Massacre and Genocide � Clinton and the world, Rwanda government genocide ������The WE News Archives ������ 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.thewe.cc [Source type: Original source]

^ On day two of the crisis, ten Belgian soldiers were murdered by Rwandan soldiers.
  • The Media and the Rwanda Genocide 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.idrc.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Protected by UNAMIR, Faustin Twagiramungu escaped execution.^ Protected by UNAMIR, Faustin Twagiramungu escaped execution.
  • �����Rwanda Massacre and Genocide � Clinton and the world, Rwanda government genocide ������The WE News Archives ������ 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.thewe.cc [Source type: Original source]
  • AfrikaDating.com - Country Information Rwanda - Information on Rwanda 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.afrikadating.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In February Faustin Twagiramungu, the transitional prime minister named in the Arusha Accords, narrowly escaped an assassination attempt, while Félicien Gatabazi, the executive secretary of the moderate Social Democratic Party, was assassinated.
  • Rwanda: Genocide and Crimes Against Humanity 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.enotes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In his book Shake Hands with the Devil, Dallaire recalled the events from April 7, the first day of the genocide:
.I called the Force HQ and got through to Ghanaian Brigadier General Henry Anyidoho.^ In his book Shake Hands with the Devil, Dallaire recalled the events from April 7, the first day of the genocide: I called the Force HQ and got through to [Ghanaian Brigadier General] Henry [Anyidoho].
  • �����Rwanda Massacre and Genocide � Clinton and the world, Rwanda government genocide ������The WE News Archives ������ 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.thewe.cc [Source type: Original source]

^ Following the withdrawal of the Belgian forces, General Dallaire consolidated his contingent of Canadian, Ghanaian and Dutch soldiers in urban areas and focused on providing areas of "safe control".
  • AfrikaDating.com - Country Information Rwanda - Information on Rwanda 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.afrikadating.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

He had horrifying news. The UNAMIR-protected VIPs - Lando Ndasingwa
[the head of the Parti libéral], Joseph Kavaruganda [president of the constitutional court], and many other moderates had been abducted by the Presidential Guard and had been killed, along with their families [...] UNAMIR had been able to rescue Prime Minister Faustin, who was now at the Force HQ.[21][22]

Genocide

Skulls in Murambi Technical School
.Numerous elite Hutu politicians have been found guilty for the organization of the genocide.^ TIG is a Rwandan program allowing people found guilty of participating in the genocide to serve all or part of their sentences doing community service.
  • Photo journalism from Rwanda. Photographs by Adam Bacher 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC bachersblog.com [Source type: News]

^ However, individual defendants were found guilty under command responsibility for genocidal crimes committed by troops under their command.
  • Rwanda: No Conspiracy, No Genocide Planning ... No Genocide? | CommonDreams.org 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.commondreams.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Under the RPF regime, Tutsi elite labelled Hutus ' genocidaires ' or genocide perpetrators.
  • The Media and the Rwanda Genocide 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.idrc.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Rwandan Military and Hutu militia groups, notably the Interahamwe, systematically set out to murder all the Tutsis they could capture, irrespective of their age or sex, as well as the political moderates.^ Military and Hutu militia groups began rounding up and killing all Tutsis they could capture as well as the political moderates irrespective of their ethnic backgrounds.
  • AfrikaDating.com - Country Information Rwanda - Information on Rwanda 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.afrikadating.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They looted the Hutu and killed the Tutsi?"
  • �����Rwanda Massacre and Genocide � Clinton and the world, Rwanda government genocide ������The WE News Archives ������ 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.thewe.cc [Source type: Original source]

^ Why are they saying all these people were Tutsis or `moderate` Hutus?
  • Rwanda genocide | Uganda 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC freeuganda.com [Source type: Original source]

.Hutu civilians were forced to participate in the killings or be shot, and were instructed to kill their Tutsi neighbours.^ They looted the Hutu and killed the Tutsi?"
  • �����Rwanda Massacre and Genocide � Clinton and the world, Rwanda government genocide ������The WE News Archives ������ 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.thewe.cc [Source type: Original source]

^ "Tutsi women married to Hutu were killed.
  • Sample Chapter for Mamdani, M.: When Victims Become Killers: Colonialism, Nativism, and the Genocide in Rwanda. 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC press.princeton.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ An estimated 800,000 people were killed in 100 days, mainly members of the Tutsi ethnic minority by Hutu soldiers and militia.
  • Rwandan refugee allegedly linked to family’s killing in sixth appeal 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.nationalpost.com [Source type: General]

.Most nations evacuated their nationals from Kigali and abandoned their embassies in the initial stages of the violence.^ Many nations evacuated their nationals from Kigali and closed their embassies as violence escalated.
  • �����Rwanda Massacre and Genocide � Clinton and the world, Rwanda government genocide ������The WE News Archives ������ 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.thewe.cc [Source type: Original source]
  • AfrikaDating.com - Country Information Rwanda - Information on Rwanda 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.afrikadating.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Fourth, the initial focus was almost exclusively on Kigali, a relatively small city, and failed to note the broader scope of the violence.
  • COULD THE RWANDAN GENOCIDE HAVE BEEN PREVENTED 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.genocidewatch.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Perhaps the most telling refutation of his view is the fact that over 1000 heavily armed French and Belgian troops flew into Kigali by April 10 to evacuate their own nationals.
  • COULD THE RWANDAN GENOCIDE HAVE BEEN PREVENTED 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.genocidewatch.org [Source type: Original source]

.National radio, with the exacerbation of the situation, advised people to stay in their homes, and the Hutu power station RTLM broadcast vitriolic propaganda against Tutsis and Hutu moderates.^ Radio Rwanda/RTLM broadcasts .
  • The Media and the Rwanda Genocide 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.idrc.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ An RTLM broadcast on this day claimed a victory for Hutu Power: .
  • 100 Days of Rwanda: June 2004 Archives 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.silent-edge.org [Source type: News]

^ They intensified their propaganda efforts, creating a new radio station, Radio-Télévision Libre des Milles Collines (RTLM) to broadcast propaganda against Tutsi and moderate Hutu.
  • Church&Genocide.html 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC faculty.vassar.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Hundreds of roadblocks were put up by the militia around the country.^ Hundreds of roadblocks were set up by the militia in the capital Kigali and around the country.
  • AfrikaDating.com - Country Information Rwanda - Information on Rwanda 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.afrikadating.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hundreds of roadblocks were set up by the militia around the country.
  • �����Rwanda Massacre and Genocide � Clinton and the world, Rwanda government genocide ������The WE News Archives ������ 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.thewe.cc [Source type: Original source]

^ The Rwandan authorities quickly announced a curfew, and Hutu militias and government soldiers erected roadblocks around the capital.
  • BILL CLINTON: BYSTANDER TO GENOCIDE 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.papillonsartpalace.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Bystanders to Genocide - The Atlantic(September 2001) 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.theatlantic.com [Source type: News]

.Lieutenant-General Dallaire and UNAMIR were in Kigali, escorting Tutsis, and were unable to stop the Hutus from escalating their attacks.^ Roméo Dallaire is a retired Lieutenant-General.
  • The Media and the Rwanda Genocide 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.idrc.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Lieutenant-General Dallaire and UNAMIR, escorting Tutsis in Kigali, were unable to do anything as Hutus kept escalating the violence and even started targeting, via RTLM, UNAMIR personnel and Lieutenant-General Dallaire.
  • AfrikaDating.com - Country Information Rwanda - Information on Rwanda 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.afrikadating.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Lieutenant-General Dallaire and UNAMIR, escorting Tutsis in Kigali, were unable to do anything as Hutus kept escalating the violence and even started targeting, via RTLM, UNAMIR personnel and Lieutenant-General Dallaire himself.
  • �����Rwanda Massacre and Genocide � Clinton and the world, Rwanda government genocide ������The WE News Archives ������ 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.thewe.cc [Source type: Original source]

.During this time, the Hutus also targeted Lieutenant-General Dallaire, and UNAMIR personnel through the RTLM.^ Roméo Dallaire is a retired Lieutenant-General.
  • The Media and the Rwanda Genocide 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.idrc.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Lieutenant-General Romo Dallaire co-wrote a book, Shake Hands with the Devil: The Failure of Humanity in Rwanda (2003) describing his experiences during his months in Rwanda.
  • AfrikaDating.com - Country Information Rwanda - Information on Rwanda 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.afrikadating.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ UNAMIR’s (the United Nations ‘Assistance’ Mission For Rwanda) Force Commander Lieutenant-General Dallaire became aware of plans for the genocide in January of 1994.
  • It's Almost Supernatural: Rwanda Genocide 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC supernatural.blogs.com [Source type: General]

.On April 8 Dallaire sent cable to NY indicating ethnicity was the driving force of killings.^ In April of 2000 Dallaire was forced out of the Canadian armed services and given a medical discharge.

^ Unilateral decisions to withdraw troops or indications to that effect meant a significant risk that the peacekeeping force would disintegrate in the wake of the killing of the Belgian troops, the report states.
  • United Nations report on the 1994 Rwanda genocide 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.antisemittisme.no [Source type: Original source]

^ While General Dallaire was sending cables about the coming extermination of the Tutsi, the UN Secretary General's representative in Rwanda, Jacques-Roger Booh-Booh, sent upbeat cables about the situation.
  • Remembering Rwanda: Ten Years after the Massacres, UCLA International Institute 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.international.ucla.edu [Source type: News]

.The cable detailed killings of politicians and peacekeepers (Chairman of Liberal party, Minister of Labor, Minister of Agriculture and dozens more).^ The first people killed in the genocide were the opposition Prime Minister, the president of the constitutional court, priests, leaders of the Liberal Party ad Social Democratic Party, the Informational Minister, and the negotiator of the Arusha Accords.
  • RwandaGenocideHISTORY 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ His trial should illuminate the planning, structure and implementation of the genocide, and provide more details on the murder of the Prime Minister and the Belgian peacekeepers, as well as possibly revealing the roles of the other senior "intellectual authors" of the genocide.

^ The Catholic Church also experiencing a more 'liberal' attitude encourages Gregoire Kayibanda and his associates to form political parties.
  • �����Rwanda Massacre and Genocide � Clinton and the world, Rwanda government genocide ������The WE News Archives ������ 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.thewe.cc [Source type: Original source]

.Dallaire informed the UN that campaign of violence is well organized, deliberate—conducted primarily by presidential guard.^ Sufficient evidence exists to confirm that the slaughter that ensued was not chaotic, uncontrolled violence, but rather a planned and organized campaign of genocide.
  • Rwanda: Accountability for War Crimes and Genocide | United States Institute of Peace 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.usip.org [Source type: Original source]

^ UN officers said they appealed to the presidential guard to stop the killing, but failed.
  • The Media and the Rwanda Genocide 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.idrc.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On the same day, Kavaruganda wrote a letter to President Habyarimana informing him of these death threats and asking for protection against the Presidential Guard.
  • COULD THE RWANDAN GENOCIDE HAVE BEEN PREVENTED 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.genocidewatch.org [Source type: Original source]

.On April 9, UN observers witnessed the massacre of children at a Polish church in Gikondo.^ The massacres committed in the church in Mubuga, where thousands of men, women and children were killed and many others persons were beaten up, between April 14 and 17, 1994; .

^ They found the UN observers huddled together in the church.
  • The Media and the Rwanda Genocide 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.idrc.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On April 14 The New York Times reported the shooting and hacking to death of nearly 1,200 men, women, and children in the church where they had sought refuge.

.The same day 1000 heavily armed and trained European troops arrived to escort European civilian personnel out of the country.^ Troops from other countries that were less well trained and less well armed filled the remaining places, producing a force that was weaker than it would have been with a full Belgian batallion.
  • Rwanda — Global Issues 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.globalissues.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It read: 'Attacks on defenceless civilians have occurred throughout the country, especially in areas under the control of members or supporters of the armed forces of the interim Government of Rwanda.'
  • The Media and the Rwanda Genocide 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.idrc.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It also accuses French troops of training the troops who carried out the massacres, though France denies the charges, pointing to its role in the U.N. peacekeeping mission sanctioned in Rwanda.
  • �����Rwanda Massacre and Genocide � Clinton and the world, Rwanda government genocide ������The WE News Archives ������ 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.thewe.cc [Source type: Original source]

.The troops did not stay to assist UNAMIR. Media coverage picked up on the 9th as the Washington Post reported the execution of Rwandan employees of relief agencies in front of their horrified expatriate colleagues.^ Special reports: media coverage of Africa .
  • The Media and the Rwanda Genocide 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.idrc.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On April 9 a front-page Washington Post story quoted reports that the Rwandan employees of the major international relief agencies had been executed "in front of horrified expatriate staffers."

^ In addition, the report was based on evidence from only one side - the Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF) and its collaborators - although interviews with those in exile would have also been useful.
  • United Nations report on the 1994 Rwanda genocide 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.antisemittisme.no [Source type: Original source]

.On April 9–10, US Ambassador Rawson and 250 Americans were evacuated.^ On April 9 and 10, in five different convoys, Ambassador Rawson and 250 Americans were evacuated from Kigali and other points.

^ It was US ambassador David Rawson's opinion that the euphemisms used over the airwaves were open to interpretation.
  • Rwandan Genocide 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.usm.maine.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After the entire U.S. mission left for Burundi on April 10, with Ambassador Rawson in the last car, no further official channels existed to confirm reports from Kigali.
  • COULD THE RWANDAN GENOCIDE HAVE BEEN PREVENTED 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.genocidewatch.org [Source type: Original source]

Skulls of genocide victims in museum
.Killings quickly took place throughout most of the country.^ The killing was quickly implemented throughout most of the country.
  • �����Rwanda Massacre and Genocide � Clinton and the world, Rwanda government genocide ������The WE News Archives ������ 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.thewe.cc [Source type: Original source]

^ Hate propaganda was spread throughout the country and local representatives got their orders on whom to kill and whom to involve in the killings.
  • Anglican Complicity in the Genocide in Rwanda 20 September 2009 14:38 UTC www.rci.rutgers.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Although most of the Tutsis in Rwanda were killed, several hundred thousand Tutsis who lived outside Rwanda moved into that country when the Tutsi army gained control of it.
  • Amazon.com: The Rwanda Crisis: History of a Genocide (9780231104081): Gérard Prunier: Books 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.amazon.com [Source type: General]

.The first person to organize killings on a genocidal scale was the mayor of the northwestern town of Gisenyi, who on the evening of April 6 called a meeting to distribute arms and send out militias to kill Tutsis.^ Who organized the genocide?
  • The Harvard Law Record - Release of Rwanda's mastermind of death promotes genocide denial 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.hlrecord.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The first to organize on the scale that was to characterize the genocide was the mayor of the northwestern town of Gisenyi, who on the evening of April 6th called a meeting to distribute arms and send out militias to kill Tutsis.
  • �����Rwanda Massacre and Genocide � Clinton and the world, Rwanda government genocide ������The WE News Archives ������ 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.thewe.cc [Source type: Original source]

^ The Bishop is also said to have paid the militias who carried out the killings.
  • Anglican Complicity in the Genocide in Rwanda 20 September 2009 14:38 UTC www.rci.rutgers.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Gisenyi was a center of anti-Tutsi sentiment, both as the homeland of the Akazu and as a refuge for thousands of people displaced by the rebel occupation of large areas in the south.^ Gisenyi was a center of anti-Tutsi sentiment, both as the homeland of the akazu and as the refuge for thousands of people displaced by the rebel occupation of large areas in the north.
  • �����Rwanda Massacre and Genocide � Clinton and the world, Rwanda government genocide ������The WE News Archives ������ 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.thewe.cc [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1990, by that time, there were up to one million Rwandan refugees in neighboring states, refugees who had fled the country during murderous anti-Tutsi campaigns, during which time thousands of people had been killed.
  • Rwanda Accuses Top French Officials in 1994 Genocide 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.democracynow.org [Source type: News]

^ Despite ongoing ethnic tension, including the displacement of large numbers of Hutu in the north by the rebels and periodic localized ethnic cleansing of Tutsi to the south, pressure on the government of Juvénal Habyarimana led to a cease-fire in 1993 and the preliminary implementation of the Arusha Accords.
  • The Walrus » The Rwanda Genocide: A Reconciliation » By Jina Moore 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC walrusmagazine.com [Source type: General]
  • The Walrus » The Rwanda Genocide: A Reconciliation » By Jina Moore 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.walrusmagazine.com [Source type: General]

.While killing occurred in other towns immediately after Habyarimana's assassination, it took several days for them to become organized on a similar scale.^ While killing occurred in other towns immediately after Habyarimana's assassination, it took several days for them to become organized on the scale of Gisenyi.
  • �����Rwanda Massacre and Genocide � Clinton and the world, Rwanda government genocide ������The WE News Archives ������ 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.thewe.cc [Source type: Original source]

^ The plaintiff and her family had found refuge there on 8 April, just two days after the bloodbath began on April 6 following assassination of Rwandan President Juvenal Habyarimana.
  • allAfrica.com: Rwanda: Genocide Survivor Wants to Sue Belgium 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC allafrica.com [Source type: News]

^ As soon as people in the other group are perceived as 'less than human', engaging in conflict with them and killing them becomes easier to justify.
  • The Media and the Rwanda Genocide 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.idrc.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The major exception to this pattern was in Butare Province.^ The major exception to this pattern was in Butare Province.
  • �����Rwanda Massacre and Genocide � Clinton and the world, Rwanda government genocide ������The WE News Archives ������ 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.thewe.cc [Source type: Original source]

.In Butare, Jean-Baptiste Habyarimana was the only Tutsi prefect and the province was the only one dominated by an opposition party.^ In Butare, Jean-Baptiste Habyarimana (no relation to the president), was the only Tutsi prefect and the province was the only one dominated by an opposition party.
  • �����Rwanda Massacre and Genocide � Clinton and the world, Rwanda government genocide ������The WE News Archives ������ 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.thewe.cc [Source type: Original source]

^ Soon after Habyarimana's death, extremist Hutu militias, the Presidential Guard, and the Hutu-dominated national army unleashed a systematic campaign of murder and genocide against hundreds of moderate and opposition Hutu and all Tutsi.
  • Judicial Responses to Genocide: International Criminal Tribunal 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC web.africa.ufl.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Under its terms the Rwandan government agreed to share power with Hutu opposition parties and the Tutsi minority.

[23] .Habyarimana opposed the genocide, resulting in the province becoming a haven of relative calm, until he was deposed in lieu of an extremist, Sylvain Ndikumana.^ Prefect Habyarimana opposed the genocide, resulting in the province becoming a haven of relative calm, until he was arrested and killed on April 19th.
  • �����Rwanda Massacre and Genocide � Clinton and the world, Rwanda government genocide ������The WE News Archives ������ 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.thewe.cc [Source type: Original source]

^ It was the next morning that the Rwandan Council of Ministers met and decided to extend the genocide into the central and southern parts of the country, which had until then been relatively untouched.
  • Rwanda: Genocide and the Continuing Cycle of Violence 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC commdocs.house.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Most students of the genocide believe the finger most plausibly points to Habyarimana's extremist allies, fed up with his attempts to placate outsiders.
  • The Media and the Rwanda Genocide 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.idrc.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[23] .Finding the population of Butare unenthusiastic about the killings, the government proceeded to fly in militia members from Kigali by helicopter, and the killing began immediately.^ The killings began almost immediately in Kigali through the night of 6–7 April.
  • The Media and the Rwanda Genocide 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.idrc.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A Sudanese sheikh accused of being a leader of the Janjaweed militias that have been killing and raping black farmers in Darfur admitted that he had been "appointed" by his government to "defend their land."
  • Genocide (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

^ Finding the population of Butare to lack enthusiasm for the killing, the government sent in militia members from Kigali and armed and mobilized the large population of Burundian refugees in the province, who had fled the Tutsi-dominated army fighting in the Burundian Civil War .
  • �����Rwanda Massacre and Genocide � Clinton and the world, Rwanda government genocide ������The WE News Archives ������ 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.thewe.cc [Source type: Original source]

[23]
Murambi Technical School, where many victims were killed, is now a genocide museum.
.Most of the victims were killed in their villages or in towns, often by their neighbors and fellow villagers.^ Most of the victims were killed in their villages or in towns, often by their neighbors and fellow villagers.
  • �����Rwanda Massacre and Genocide � Clinton and the world, Rwanda government genocide ������The WE News Archives ������ 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.thewe.cc [Source type: Original source]
  • AfrikaDating.com - Country Information Rwanda - Information on Rwanda 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.afrikadating.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ordinary citizens were called on by local officials and government-sponsored radio to kill their neighbors and those who refused to kill were often killed themselves.
  • AfrikaDating.com - Country Information Rwanda - Information on Rwanda 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.afrikadating.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ To have had to have stopped the genocide, we would have had to have a force in every hamlet, in every village, where neighbors were killing neighbors.
  • frontline: the triumph of evil: interviews: iqbal riza 20 September 2009 14:38 UTC www.pbs.org [Source type: Original source]

.Militia members typically murdered their victims by hacking them with machetes, although some army units used rifles.^ The militia members mostly killed their victims by chopping them up with machetes, although some army units used rifles.
  • �����Rwanda Massacre and Genocide � Clinton and the world, Rwanda government genocide ������The WE News Archives ������ 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.thewe.cc [Source type: Original source]
  • AfrikaDating.com - Country Information Rwanda - Information on Rwanda 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.afrikadating.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some militia members were able to acquire AK-47 assault rifles by completing requisition forms.
  • AfrikaDating.com - Country Information Rwanda - Information on Rwanda 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.afrikadating.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The members of the central committee, including their leader, the upper ranks of the army and the director of ORINFOR were furious with me and some insulted me personally.
  • The Media and the Rwanda Genocide 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.idrc.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Victims were often found hiding in churches and school buildings, where Hutu gangs massacred them.^ In some towns the victims were forcibly crammed into churches and school buildings, where Hutu extremist gangs massacred them.
  • AfrikaDating.com - Country Information Rwanda - Information on Rwanda 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.afrikadating.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The victims were often hiding in churches and school buildings, where Hutu extremist gangs massacred them.
  • �����Rwanda Massacre and Genocide � Clinton and the world, Rwanda government genocide ������The WE News Archives ������ 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.thewe.cc [Source type: Original source]

^ He was there to build schools and operate health centers for the Adventist Development and Relief Agency, the humanitarian arm of the Seventh- Day Adventist Church.
  • Witness to Rwanda genocide tells of ordeal | Penn State News | Local - Centre Daily Times 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.centredaily.com [Source type: News]

.Ordinary citizens were called on by local officials and government-sponsored radio to kill their neighbors, and those who refused to kill were often murdered themselves.^ Ordinary citizens were called on by local officials and government-sponsored radio to kill their neighbors and those who refused to kill were often killed themselves.
  • AfrikaDating.com - Country Information Rwanda - Information on Rwanda 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.afrikadating.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Even ordinary citizens were called on to kill their neighbors by local officials and government-sponsored radio.
  • Rwanda (12/09) 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ordinary citizens were called on by local officials and government-sponsored radio to kill their neighbours and those who refused to kill were often killed themselves.
  • �����Rwanda Massacre and Genocide � Clinton and the world, Rwanda government genocide ������The WE News Archives ������ 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.thewe.cc [Source type: Original source]

."Either you took part in the massacres or you were massacred yourself."^ "Either you took part in the massacres or you were massacred yourself."
  • �����Rwanda Massacre and Genocide � Clinton and the world, Rwanda government genocide ������The WE News Archives ������ 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.thewe.cc [Source type: Original source]

^ "Either you took part in the massacres or you were massacred yourself," said one Hutu, rationalizing an ambivalent mixture of regret, fear, and shame at being forced to kill Tutsis.
  • AfrikaDating.com - Country Information Rwanda - Information on Rwanda 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.afrikadating.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[24] .One such massacre occurred at Nyarubuye.^ One such massacre occurred at Nyarubuye.
  • �����Rwanda Massacre and Genocide � Clinton and the world, Rwanda government genocide ������The WE News Archives ������ 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.thewe.cc [Source type: Original source]
  • AfrikaDating.com - Country Information Rwanda - Information on Rwanda 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.afrikadating.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sylvestre Gacumbitsi led the massacre of thousands of people sheltering in Nyarubuye Church, which was one of the worst events in the genocide.
  • �����Rwanda Massacre and Genocide � Clinton and the world, Rwanda government genocide ������The WE News Archives ������ 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.thewe.cc [Source type: Original source]

.On April 12, more than 1,500 Tutsis sought refuge in a Catholic church in Nyange, then in Kivumu commune.^ In June about 3,000 Tutsis sought refuge in a Catholic church in Kivumu.
  • AfrikaDating.com - Country Information Rwanda - Information on Rwanda 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.afrikadating.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On 12 April 1994, more than 1,500 Tutsis sought refuge in a Catholic church in Kivumu.
  • �����Rwanda Massacre and Genocide � Clinton and the world, Rwanda government genocide ������The WE News Archives ������ 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.thewe.cc [Source type: Original source]

^ More than 90% of its people are baptized Christians, with the Roman Catholic and Anglican Churches having the greatest number of adherents (65% and 20% respectively).
  • Paragon House :: Subjects :: Genocide and Holocaust :: Genocide in Rwanda: Complicity of the Churches? 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.paragonhouse.com [Source type: Academic]
  • A Look at Genocide, Part 3: Rwanda Book Recommendations | Maw Books 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC blog.mawbooks.com [Source type: General]
  • Paragon House :: Subjects :: Genocide and Holocaust :: Genocide in Rwanda: Complicity of the Churches? 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.paragonhouse.com [Source type: Academic]

.Local Interahamwe, acting in concert with the other local authorities, then used bulldozers to knock down the church building.^ Local Interahamwe then used bulldozers supplied by the local police to knock down the church building.
  • AfrikaDating.com - Country Information Rwanda - Information on Rwanda 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.afrikadating.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Local Interahamwe then used bulldozers to knock down the church building.
  • �����Rwanda Massacre and Genocide � Clinton and the world, Rwanda government genocide ������The WE News Archives ������ 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.thewe.cc [Source type: Original source]

^ In some cases, authorities picked up radio messages and used them to mobilize local people more effectively.
  • Part 1: Hate media in Rwanda• Call to genocide: radio in Rwanda, 1994: International Development Research Centre 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.idrc.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • The Media and the Rwanda Genocide 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.idrc.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[25] .People who tried to escape were hacked with machetes or shot.^ People who tried to escape were hacked down with machetes.
  • AfrikaDating.com - Country Information Rwanda - Information on Rwanda 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.afrikadating.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ People who tried to escape were hacked down with machetes or shot.
  • �����Rwanda Massacre and Genocide � Clinton and the world, Rwanda government genocide ������The WE News Archives ������ 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.thewe.cc [Source type: Original source]

^ About three months later, eight hundred thousand people were dead, mostly hacked to death with machetes.
  • Obsidian Wings: Rwanda: Remembering Genocide And A Hero 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC obsidianwings.blogs.com [Source type: General]

.Local priest Athanase Seromba was later found guilty and sentenced to life in prison by the ICTR for his role in the demolition of his church and convicted of the crime of genocide and crimes against humanity.^ The International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda on Thursday convicted the "mastermind" of the Rwandan genocide and sentenced him to life in prison for genocide, crimes against humanity, and war crimes.
  • Rwanda: News & Videos about Rwanda - CNN.com 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC topics.edition.cnn.com [Source type: News]

^ Kambanda is serving a life sentence for genocide .
  • �����Rwanda Massacre and Genocide � Clinton and the world, Rwanda government genocide ������The WE News Archives ������ 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.thewe.cc [Source type: Original source]

^ Genocide and crimes against humanity (that is, crimes against you and me) were allowed to happen.
  • Prosecuting Genocide in Rwanda 20 September 2009 14:38 UTC donika.com [Source type: Original source]

[25][26][27] .In another case, thousands sought refuge in Ecole Technique Officielle school in Kigali where Belgian UNAMIR soldiers were stationed.^ In another case, thousands sought refuge in Ecole Technique Officielle school in Kigali where Belgian UNAMIR soldiers were stationed.
  • �����Rwanda Massacre and Genocide � Clinton and the world, Rwanda government genocide ������The WE News Archives ������ 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.thewe.cc [Source type: Original source]

^ UNAMIR troops in Kigali listened to news reports of the French intervention with trepidation, having been threatened with violence by local RPF soldiers if Operation Turquoise got underway.
  • 100 Days of Rwanda: June 2004 Archives 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.silent-edge.org [Source type: News]

^ The United Nations (UN) Assistance Mission in Rwanda (UNAMIR) stationed international troops in the country to oversee the transition; a battalion of six hundred RPF troops was stationed in Kigali.
  • Rwanda: Genocide and Crimes Against Humanity 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.enotes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, on April 11, Belgian soldiers withdrew from the school and members of the Rwandan armed forces and militia killed all the Tutsis who were hiding there.^ People were forced to kill by those soldiers.
  • The Media and the Rwanda Genocide 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.idrc.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Do you believe or do you deny the Rwandan Armed Forces, militia like the Interahamwe, and members of the gendarmes killed thousands of Tutsi?
  • Rwanda genocide | Uganda 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC freeuganda.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Belgium withdrew its forces after ten Belgian soldiers were killed while trying to protect the Rwandan prime minister.
  • Prosecuting Genocide in Rwanda 20 September 2009 14:38 UTC donika.com [Source type: Original source]

[28]
.There is no consensus on the number of dead between April 6 and mid-July.^ There were no significant taboos between them."
  • ZNet - Rwandan Genocide 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.zmag.org [Source type: Original source]
  • ZNet - Rwandan Genocide 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.zmag.org [Source type: Original source]

^ No issues were published between April and July 1994.
  • The Media and the Rwanda Genocide 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.idrc.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ What was going on between April and July 1994?
  • The Media and the Rwanda Genocide 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.idrc.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Unlike the genocides carried out by the Nazi Germany and by the Khmer Rouge in Cambodia, authorities made no attempts to record deaths.^ You can tour the Nazi concentration camps of Dachau in Germany and Auschwitz in Poland, or the killing fields of Choeung Ek in Cambodia.
  • Rwanda an emotional trip from genocide to gorillas :: CHICAGO SUN-TIMES :: Lifestyles 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.suntimes.com [Source type: General]
  • Rwanda an emotional trip from genocide to gorillas :: CHICAGO SUN-TIMES :: Africa 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.suntimes.com [Source type: General]

^ On Christmas Day 1978, 100,000 Vietnamese troops invaded Cambodia in response to the Khmer Rouge's treatment of its Vietnamese citizens.

^ In 2003, the Rwandan government carried out a mass release of 23,000 prisoners accused of genocide.
  • Ingando Solidarity Camps:Reconciliation and Political Indoctrination in Post-Genocide Rwanda 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.law.harvard.edu [Source type: Original source]

.The RPF government has stated that 1,071,000 were killed, 10% of whom were Hutu.^ The RPF government has stated that 1,071,000 were killed, 10% of which were Hutu.
  • �����Rwanda Massacre and Genocide � Clinton and the world, Rwanda government genocide ������The WE News Archives ������ 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.thewe.cc [Source type: Original source]

^ An estimated 800,000 people were killed in 100 days, mainly members of the Tutsi ethnic minority by Hutu soldiers and militia.
  • Rwandan refugee allegedly linked to family’s killing in sixth appeal 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.nationalpost.com [Source type: General]

^ Reprisal killings of Hutus As soon as the genocide broke out, the Tutsi-led RPF launched a concerted drive on Kigali, crushing Rwandan government resistance and bringing a halt to the genocide in successive areas of the country.
  • Gendercide Watch: Rwanda 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.gendercide.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Gendercide Watch: Rwanda 19 September 2009 0:39 UTC gendercide.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Philip Gourevitch agrees with an estimate of one million, while the United Nations lists the toll as 800,000. Alex de Waal and Rakiya Omar of African Rights estimates the number as "around 750,000," while Alison Des Forges of Human Rights Watch states that it was "at least 500,000." James Smith of Aegis Trust notes, "What's important to remember is that there was a genocide.^ Alison Des Forges, op.
  • Disconnecting the Threads: Rwanda and the Holocaust Reconsidered - by Ren� Lemarchand 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.ideajournal.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We said at least 500,000.
  • �����Rwanda Massacre and Genocide � Clinton and the world, Rwanda government genocide ������The WE News Archives ������ 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.thewe.cc [Source type: Original source]

^ The most exhaustive study of the genocide was done by Human Rights Watch: .
  • Anglican Complicity in the Genocide in Rwanda 20 September 2009 14:38 UTC www.rci.rutgers.edu [Source type: Original source]

.There was an attempt to eliminate Tutsis — men, women, and children — and to erase any memory of their existence."^ There was an attempt to eliminate Tutsis men, women, and children and to erase any memory of their existence."
  • AfrikaDating.com - Country Information Rwanda - Information on Rwanda 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.afrikadating.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Here, there were women, children, and old men.
  • Sample Chapter for Mamdani, M.: When Victims Become Killers: Colonialism, Nativism, and the Genocide in Rwanda. 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC press.princeton.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ On the other hand, in contrast, the Tutsis were systematically wiped out, men, women and children.
  • Rwanda: Genocide and the Continuing Cycle of Violence 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC commdocs.house.gov [Source type: Original source]

[29]
.Out of a population of 7.3 million people - 84% of whom where Hutu, 15% Tutsi and 1% Twa - the official figures published by the Rwandan government estimated the number of victims of the genocide to 1,174,000 in 100 days (10,000 murdered every day, 400 every hour, 7 every minute).^ An estimated 800,000 people were killed in 100 days, mainly members of the Tutsi ethnic minority by Hutu soldiers and militia.
  • Rwandan refugee allegedly linked to family’s killing in sixth appeal 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.nationalpost.com [Source type: General]

^ Both Tutsi and Hutu were among the top government officials.
  • Judicial Responses to Genocide: International Criminal Tribunal 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC web.africa.ufl.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ In the aftermath of the genocide, estimated 30,000 Hutus are believed to have been murdered then.
  • Rwanda Accuses Top French Officials in 1994 Genocide 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.democracynow.org [Source type: News]

.Other sources put the death toll to 800,000, 20% of whom were Hutus.^ An estimated 800,000 people were killed in 100 days, mainly members of the Tutsi ethnic minority by Hutu soldiers and militia.
  • Rwandan refugee allegedly linked to family’s killing in sixth appeal 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.nationalpost.com [Source type: General]

^ Macabre memorial sites scattered throughout the country mark the horrific genocide in 1994 when extremist Hutus slaughtered 800,000 Tutsis and moderate Hutus.
  • Rwanda an emotional trip from genocide to gorillas :: CHICAGO SUN-TIMES :: Lifestyles 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.suntimes.com [Source type: General]
  • Rwanda an emotional trip from genocide to gorillas :: CHICAGO SUN-TIMES :: Africa 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.suntimes.com [Source type: General]

^ Within a few days, the death toll had mounted to close to 50,000 and some estimate that the total number of deaths reached 1 million.
  • RwandaGenocideHISTORY 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.July 2009" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] It is estimated that about 300,000 Tutsis survived the genocide.^ There were about 900,000 Tutsis.
  • Amazon.com: The Rwanda Crisis: History of a Genocide (9780231104081): Gérard Prunier: Books 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.amazon.com [Source type: General]

^ Only about 130,000 Tutsis survived the massacres."
  • Gendercide Watch: Rwanda 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.gendercide.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Gendercide Watch: Rwanda 19 September 2009 0:39 UTC gendercide.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ An estimated 800,000 people were killed in 100 days, mainly members of the Tutsi ethnic minority by Hutu soldiers and militia.
  • Rwandan refugee allegedly linked to family’s killing in sixth appeal 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.nationalpost.com [Source type: General]

.Thousands of widows, many of whom were subjected to rape, are now HIV-positive.^ Thousands of Tutsi are forced to resign from these positions, and many go into exile.
  • �����Rwanda Massacre and Genocide � Clinton and the world, Rwanda government genocide ������The WE News Archives ������ 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.thewe.cc [Source type: Original source]

^ Tests conducted on the 25,000 Tutsi women members of the Widows of Genocide organisation (Avega) showed that "two-thirds were found to be HIV-positive.
  • Gendercide Watch: Rwanda 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.gendercide.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Gendercide Watch: Rwanda 19 September 2009 0:39 UTC gendercide.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In addition to seeing their husbands’ killed (over 50% of Rwandan women are widows), thousands of women were raped—many by men with AIDS. The challenges they face are unimaginable.
  • It's Almost Supernatural: Rwanda Genocide 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC supernatural.blogs.com [Source type: General]

.There are about 400,000 orphans and nearly 85,000 of them have become heads of families.^ There were about 5,000 in our secteur .
  • Sample Chapter for Mamdani, M.: When Victims Become Killers: Colonialism, Nativism, and the Genocide in Rwanda. 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC press.princeton.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ There were about 900,000 Tutsis.
  • Amazon.com: The Rwanda Crisis: History of a Genocide (9780231104081): Gérard Prunier: Books 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.amazon.com [Source type: General]

^ They would be marking the map and saying, 'Yes, I've been through there and, yeah, there is a massacre site there and, yes, there are about 50,000 people on the side of that hill over there.'
  • The Media and the Rwanda Genocide 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.idrc.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[citation needed]
.Several individuals were active in attempting to halt the Rwandan genocide, or to shelter vulnerable Tutsis, as the genocide was being carried out.^ More misleading, outrageous and hate inciting messages being stretched by Paul Rusesabagina include: “Rwanda went through 400 years of Tutsi domination over Hutus”; this is false and an attempt to re-write Rwandan history.
  • Deborah Lipstadt’s Blog: Rwanda: A new form of genocide denial 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC lipstadt.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This risk was exacerbated in the Rwandan context, due to the tenuous relationship between genocide survivors and the Tutsi returnees, whose interests many survivors would eventually argue were being more seriously represented by the government.
  • Ingando Solidarity Camps:Reconciliation and Political Indoctrination in Post-Genocide Rwanda 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.law.harvard.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Reprisal killings of Hutus As soon as the genocide broke out, the Tutsi-led RPF launched a concerted drive on Kigali, crushing Rwandan government resistance and bringing a halt to the genocide in successive areas of the country.
  • Gendercide Watch: Rwanda 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.gendercide.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Gendercide Watch: Rwanda 19 September 2009 0:39 UTC gendercide.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Among them there are Pierantonio Costa, Antonia Locatelli, Jacqueline Mukansonera, Paul Rusesabagina, Carl Wilkens, and André Sibomana.

War rape

.In 1998, the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda made the landmark decisions that war rape in Rwanda was an element of the crime of genocide.^ Rwanda genocide tribunal urged to prosecute top officers suspected of war crimes .
  • Rwanda News - Breaking World Rwanda News - The New York Times 19 September 2009 0:39 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: News]

^ The tapes that remain are part of the documentation of the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda.
  • The Media and the Rwanda Genocide 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.idrc.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ ICTR-97–32-DP (International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda).
  • The Media and the Rwanda Genocide 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.idrc.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The Trial Chamber held that "sexual assault formed an integral part of the process of destroying the Tutsi ethnic group and that the rape was systematic and had been perpetrated against Tutsi women only, manifesting the specific intent required for those acts to constitute genocide."[30] Although no explicit written orders to rape or commit sexual violence have been found, evidence suggests that military leaders encouraged or ordered their men to rape Tutsi as well as condoned the acts taking place, without making efforts to stop them.[14] .Compared to other conflicts the sexual violence in Rwanda stands out in terms of the organized nature of the propaganda that contributed significantly to fueling sexual violence against Tutsi women, the very public nature of the rapes and the level of brutality towards the women.^ Programma Magazzino : Sexual violence against Tutsi women was also widespread, and the United Nations only conceded that "acts of genocide" had likely happened after an estimated half-million Rwandans had already been killed.
  • The Walrus » The Rwanda Genocide: A Reconciliation » By Jina Moore 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC walrusmagazine.com [Source type: General]

^ Conflict Transformation, Reconciliation and Human Rights Links on Rwanda Conventions, Treaties, and Comparative Legislation in Other Countries News Sources Other online Bibliographies on Rwanda Return to Peacebuilding and Reconciliation in Rwanda Other resources on reconciliation more generally Return to Peacemakers Trust .
  • Peacemakers Trust - Peacebuilding and Reconciliation in Rwanda: A Selected Bibliography 20 September 2009 14:38 UTC www.peacemakers.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ During the 1994 Rwandan genocide, Radio Tlvision Libre des Mille Collines (RTLM) broadcast anti-Tutsi propaganda and called for violence against Tutsis, which many experts believe significantly contributed to the violence.
  • Rwandan Genocide - Blogrunner 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.blogrunner.com [Source type: News]

[31]
.In his 1996 report the United Nations Special Rapporteur on Rwanda, Rene Degni-Segui stated that "rape was the rule and its absence the exception."^ United Nations report on the 1994 Rwanda genocide .
  • United Nations report on the 1994 Rwanda genocide 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.antisemittisme.no [Source type: Original source]

^ Rwanda and for the sake of the United Nations”.
  • Prosecuting Genocide in Rwanda 20 September 2009 14:38 UTC donika.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The United Nations and Rwanda, 1993–1996 .
  • The Media and the Rwanda Genocide 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.idrc.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The report also stated that "rape was systematic and was used as a weapon" by the perpetrators of the massacres.^ Western media encouraged by the present Rwanda government usually state that a majority of the killings were perpetrated by the Interahamwe, but reports from observers state that most of the killing was done by the Impuzamugambi.
  • �����Rwanda Massacre and Genocide � Clinton and the world, Rwanda government genocide ������The WE News Archives ������ 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.thewe.cc [Source type: Original source]

^ France, which felt the United States and United Kingdom would use the massacres to try to expand their influence in that Francophone part of Africa, also worked to prevent a foreign intervention.
  • AfrikaDating.com - Country Information Rwanda - Information on Rwanda 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.afrikadating.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The report states that a force of 2,500 should have been able to stop or at least limit massacres like those in Rwanda after the deaths of the Presidents of Rwanda and Burundi.
  • United Nations report on the 1994 Rwanda genocide 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.antisemittisme.no [Source type: Original source]

.This can be estimated from the number and nature of the victims as well as from the forms of rape.^ The number of Hutu killed during the genocide and civil war is even less certain, with estimates ranging from 10,000 to well over 100,000."
  • Gendercide Watch: Rwanda 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.gendercide.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Gendercide Watch: Rwanda 19 September 2009 0:39 UTC gendercide.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Special Rapporteur estimated that between 250,000 and 500,000 Rwandese women and girls had been raped.^ The U.N. said from 100,000 to 500,000 total were killed and independent organizations like some NGOs (Non-Governmental Organizations) said 250,000 were killed.
  • Rwanda genocide | Uganda 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC freeuganda.com [Source type: Original source]

^ One Africanist estimates that the number of Rwandans directly involved in the acts of killing amounted to between 75,000-150,000.
  • Judicial Responses to Genocide: International Criminal Tribunal 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC web.africa.ufl.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Amnesty International estimated that 500,000 Rwandans had been killed by this day.
  • 100 Days of Rwanda: June 2004 Archives 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.silent-edge.org [Source type: News]

[32] .A 2000 report prepared by the Organization of African Unity’s International Panel of Eminent Personalities concluded that "we can be certain that almost all females who survived the genocide were direct victims of rape or other sexual violence, or were profoundly affected by it".[32] The victims were mostly Tutsi women and girls, of all ages, while men were only seldom the victims of war rape.^ Persons who looked stereotypically Tutsi were almost certainly killed.
  • Rwanda: Genocide and Crimes Against Humanity 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.enotes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I know only one who survived.
  • Sample Chapter for Mamdani, M.: When Victims Become Killers: Colonialism, Nativism, and the Genocide in Rwanda. 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC press.princeton.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Organization of African Unity, Rwanda: the preventable genocide .
  • The Media and the Rwanda Genocide 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.idrc.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[14] .War rape during the genocide was also directed against Hutu women considered moderates, but also occurred regardless of ethnicity or political affiliation, with young or beautiful women being targeted based only on their gender.^ And their beautiful women were being used to do it.
  • The Media and the Rwanda Genocide 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.idrc.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The outpouring of violence directed against Rwandan women on the basis of their gender and ethnicity was fuelled by the hate propaganda before and during the genocide.
  • The Media and the Rwanda Genocide 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.idrc.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Programma Magazzino : Sexual violence against Tutsi women was also widespread, and the United Nations only conceded that "acts of genocide" had likely happened after an estimated half-million Rwandans had already been killed.
  • The Walrus » The Rwanda Genocide: A Reconciliation » By Jina Moore 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC walrusmagazine.com [Source type: General]
  • The Walrus » The Rwanda Genocide: A Reconciliation » By Jina Moore 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.walrusmagazine.com [Source type: General]

.August 2009" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] Sexual violence against men was much less common, but frequently included mutilation of the genitals, which were often displayed in public.^ When the violence began in 1994, not surprisingly, aggression against Tutsi women targeted their sexuality and was fuelled by both ethnic and gender stereotypes.
  • The Media and the Rwanda Genocide 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.idrc.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is more or less a rule of thumb that the more Western settlement a colony experienced, the greater was the violence unleashed against the native population.
  • Sample Chapter for Mamdani, M.: When Victims Become Killers: Colonialism, Nativism, and the Genocide in Rwanda. 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC press.princeton.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ It was the first indictment by an international tribunal solely for crimes of sexual violence against women and the first conviction by the ICTY for rape and enslavement as crimes against humanity.
  • The Media and the Rwanda Genocide 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.idrc.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[14] .The perpetrators of war rape during the Rwanda genocide were mainly members of the Hutu militia, the "Interahamwe". Rapes were also committed by military soldiers of the Rwandan Armed Forced (RAF), including the Presidential Guard, and civilians.^ The bad guys were in the [Hutu led] Rwandan government and armed forces.
  • �����Rwanda Massacre and Genocide � Clinton and the world, Rwanda government genocide ������The WE News Archives ������ 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.thewe.cc [Source type: Original source]

^ The sexual violence was perpetrated largely by members of the Hutu militia groups known as the Interahamwe , by other civilians and by soldiers of the Rwandan armed forces (Forces Armées Rwandaises (FAR)), including the Presidential Guard.
  • The Media and the Rwanda Genocide 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.idrc.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ So it began: Hutu civilians and members of the Interahamwe led by Rwanda soldiers began to attack and kill ethnic Tutsi.
  • �����Rwanda Massacre and Genocide � Clinton and the world, Rwanda government genocide ������The WE News Archives ������ 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.thewe.cc [Source type: Original source]

[14]

UNAMIR and the international community

A school chalkboard in Kigali. Note the names "Dallaire", UNAMIR Force Commander, and "Marchal", UNAMIR Kigali sector commander.
.The United Nations Assistance Mission for Rwanda (UNAMIR) was hampered from the outset by resistance from numerous UN Security Council members, who were reluctant to become involved, first in the Arusha process and then the genocide.^ The government of Rwanda becomes involved in the first Congo territories war.
  • �����Rwanda Massacre and Genocide � Clinton and the world, Rwanda government genocide ������The WE News Archives ������ 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.thewe.cc [Source type: Original source]

^ United Nations report on the 1994 Rwanda genocide .
  • United Nations report on the 1994 Rwanda genocide 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.antisemittisme.no [Source type: Original source]

^ He led the United Nations Assistance Mission for Rwanda (UNAMIR) to help implement the Arusha accords.
  • The Media and the Rwanda Genocide 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.idrc.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[33][34] .Only Belgium had asked for a strong UNAMIR mandate, but after the murder of ten Belgian peacekeepers protecting the Prime Minister in early April, Belgium pulled out of the peacekeeping mission.^ (Her ten Belgian UNAMIR guards were also slaughtered.
  • COULD THE RWANDAN GENOCIDE HAVE BEEN PREVENTED 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.genocidewatch.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Many UN officials, including Boutros Ghali and Kofi Annan were involved in watering down the response of the UN. Only Belgium protested for a strong UNAMIR mandate at the UN. But after the murder of ten Belgian peacekeepers in early April, they turned tail and pulled out of the peacekeeping mission altogether.
  • It's Almost Supernatural: Rwanda Genocide 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC supernatural.blogs.com [Source type: General]

^ Belgium withdrew its forces after ten Belgian soldiers were killed while trying to protect the Rwandan prime minister.
  • Prosecuting Genocide in Rwanda 20 September 2009 14:38 UTC donika.com [Source type: Original source]

[35]
.The UN and its member states appeared largely detached from the realities on the ground.^ The United Nations and its member states appeared largely detached from the realities on the ground (Report; Statement).
  • AfrikaDating.com - Country Information Rwanda - Information on Rwanda 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.afrikadating.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ UN and US role The UN and its member states appeared largely detached from the realities on the ground.
  • �����Rwanda Massacre and Genocide � Clinton and the world, Rwanda government genocide ������The WE News Archives ������ 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.thewe.cc [Source type: Original source]

^ UN recruitment procedures are notoriously slow and cumbersome and by sending national experts member-states can accelerate the tribunal's capacity to work.

In the midst of the crisis, Lt. General Roméo Dallaire was instructed to focus UNAMIR on only evacuating foreign nationals from Rwanda. The change in orders led Belgian peacekeepers to abandon a technical school filled with 2,000 refugees, while Hutu militants waited outside, drinking beer and chanting "Hutu Power." After the Belgians left, the militants entered the school and massacred those inside, including hundreds of children. .Four days later the Security Council voted to reduce UNAMIR to 260 men.^ Four days later, the Security Council voted to reduce UNAMIR to 260 men.
  • �����Rwanda Massacre and Genocide � Clinton and the world, Rwanda government genocide ������The WE News Archives ������ 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.thewe.cc [Source type: Original source]
  • AfrikaDating.com - Country Information Rwanda - Information on Rwanda 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.afrikadating.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Four days later the Security Council voted to reduce the UNAMIR down to 260 men.
  • It's Almost Supernatural: Rwanda Genocide 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC supernatural.blogs.com [Source type: General]

^ Four days later, the soldiers arrived.
  • The Walrus » The Rwanda Genocide: A Reconciliation » By Jina Moore 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC walrusmagazine.com [Source type: General]

[36]
.Following the withdrawal of the Belgian forces, Dallaire consolidated his contingent of Canadian, Ghanaian, and Dutch soldiers in urban areas and focused on providing areas of "safe control". His actions directly saved the lives of 20,000 Tutsis.^ His actions are credited with directly saving the lives of 20,000 Tutsis.
  • �����Rwanda Massacre and Genocide � Clinton and the world, Rwanda government genocide ������The WE News Archives ������ 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.thewe.cc [Source type: Original source]
  • AfrikaDating.com - Country Information Rwanda - Information on Rwanda 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.afrikadating.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Following the withdrawal of the Belgian forces, General Dallaire consolidated his contingent of Canadian, Ghanaian and Dutch soldiers in urban areas and focused on providing areas of "safe control".
  • AfrikaDating.com - Country Information Rwanda - Information on Rwanda 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.afrikadating.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Following the withdrawal of the Belgian forces, Lt-Gen Dallaire consolidated his contingent of Canadian, Ghanaian and Dutch soldiers in urban areas and focused on providing areas of "safe control".
  • �����Rwanda Massacre and Genocide � Clinton and the world, Rwanda government genocide ������The WE News Archives ������ 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.thewe.cc [Source type: Original source]

.September 2009" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] The administrative head of UNAMIR, former Cameroonian foreign minister Jacques-Roger Booh-Booh, has been criticized for downplaying the significance of Dallaire's reports and for holding close ties to the Hutu militant elite.^ The administrative head of UNAMIR, former Cameroonian foreign minister Jacques-Roger Booh-Booh, has been criticized for downplaying the significance of Dallaire's reports and for holding close ties to the Hutu militant elite.
  • �����Rwanda Massacre and Genocide � Clinton and the world, Rwanda government genocide ������The WE News Archives ������ 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.thewe.cc [Source type: Original source]

^ Romeo Dallaire, head of UNAMIR, said, .
  • 100 Days of Rwanda: June 2004 Archives 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.silent-edge.org [Source type: News]

^ On 4 September 1998, the Tribunal convicted and sentenced Jean Kambanda, former Prime Minister of Rwanda, to life imprisonment for genocide and crimes against humanity.
  • Prosecuting Genocide in Rwanda 20 September 2009 14:38 UTC donika.com [Source type: Original source]

[citation needed]
.The U.S. government was reluctant to involve itself in the "local conflict" in Rwanda and refused to label the killings as "genocide", a decision which then-president Bill Clinton later came to regret in a Frontline television interview.^ In Rwanda, the government did not kill.
  • Sample Chapter for Mamdani, M.: When Victims Become Killers: Colonialism, Nativism, and the Genocide in Rwanda. 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC press.princeton.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Relief efforts The United States had experienced trouble in Somalia shortly before the Genocide, and President Clinton decided not to get involved in the "local" conflict in Rwanda (a decision which he later said he regrets).
  • AfrikaDating.com - Country Information Rwanda - Information on Rwanda 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.afrikadating.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (Actually, the plane carrying the presidents of Rwanda and Burundi crashed on April 6, 1994, and there was some killing that night; but April 7 was the first day of organized genocide.
  • Obsidian Wings: Rwanda: Remembering Genocide And A Hero 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC obsidianwings.blogs.com [Source type: General]

.In the interview, five years after the genocide, Clinton stated that he believes if he had sent 5,000 U.S. peacekeepers, more than 500,000 lives could have been saved.^ INTERVIEWER: Do you believe that you were a bystander to genocide?
  • �����Rwanda Massacre and Genocide � Clinton and the world, Rwanda government genocide ������The WE News Archives ������ 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.thewe.cc [Source type: Original source]

^ And most crucial, what could the United States have done to save lives?

^ More than seven years have passed since the genocide.
  • Prosecuting Genocide in Rwanda 20 September 2009 14:38 UTC donika.com [Source type: Original source]

[37]
.The new Rwandan government, led by interim President Théodore Sindikubwabo, worked to minimize international criticism.^ The new Rwandan government, led by interim President Thodore Sindikubwabo, worked hard to minimize international criticism.
  • �����Rwanda Massacre and Genocide � Clinton and the world, Rwanda government genocide ������The WE News Archives ������ 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.thewe.cc [Source type: Original source]
  • AfrikaDating.com - Country Information Rwanda - Information on Rwanda 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.afrikadating.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They took place against the background of a civil war between Rwandan government forces and the Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF): a rebel force led by Paul Kagame, the current Rwandan president.
  • WPR Article | French Complicity in the Rwandan Genocide: An Interview with Jean-Paul Gouteux 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.worldpoliticsreview.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The government of Francois Mitterand continued to receive fierce opposition from RPF spokesmen and criticism from opposition parties and skeptical international observers.
  • 100 Days of Rwanda: June 2004 Archives 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.silent-edge.org [Source type: News]

.Rwanda at that time had a seat on the Security Council and its ambassador argued that the claims of genocide were exaggerated and that the government was doing all that it could to stop it.^ Rwanda at that time had a seat on the Security Council and its ambassador argued that the claims of genocide were exaggerated and that the government was doing all that it could to stop it.
  • �����Rwanda Massacre and Genocide � Clinton and the world, Rwanda government genocide ������The WE News Archives ������ 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.thewe.cc [Source type: Original source]

^ It used this position of power to argue that the claims of genocide were exaggerated and that the government was doing all that it could to stop it.
  • It's Almost Supernatural: Rwanda Genocide 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC supernatural.blogs.com [Source type: General]

^ By coincidence Rwanda held one of the rotating seats on the Security Council at the time of the genocide.

.The UN conceded that "acts of genocide may have been committed" on May 17, 1994.[38] By that time, the Red Cross estimated that 500,000 Rwandans had been killed.^ Amnesty International estimated that 500,000 Rwandans had been killed by this day.
  • 100 Days of Rwanda: June 2004 Archives 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.silent-edge.org [Source type: News]

^ May – genocide continues while the UN dithers .
  • The Media and the Rwanda Genocide 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.idrc.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Estimates of the number of people killed ranged from 500,000 to 1 million.
  • Rwanda: Genocide and the Continuing Cycle of Violence 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC commdocs.house.gov [Source type: Original source]

.The UN agreed to send 5,500 troops, mostly from African countries, to Rwanda.^ The UN agreed to send 5,500 troops to Rwanda, most of whom were to be provided by African countries.
  • �����Rwanda Massacre and Genocide � Clinton and the world, Rwanda government genocide ������The WE News Archives ������ 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.thewe.cc [Source type: Original source]

^ The United Nations (UN) Assistance Mission in Rwanda (UNAMIR) stationed international troops in the country to oversee the transition; a battalion of six hundred RPF troops was stationed in Kigali.
  • Rwanda: Genocide and Crimes Against Humanity 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.enotes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although it felt concerned enough about Rwanda to contribute troops to the force, it felt too poor to contribute the full battalion of 800 requested and agreed to send only half that number.
  • Rwanda — Global Issues 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.globalissues.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[39] .This was the original number of troops requested by General Dallaire before the killing escalated.^ This was the original number of troops requested by General Dallaire before the killing escalated.
  • �����Rwanda Massacre and Genocide � Clinton and the world, Rwanda government genocide ������The WE News Archives ������ 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.thewe.cc [Source type: Original source]

^ The UN Security Council was finally moved to action by RTLM threats against General Dallaire and the peacekeeping troops under his command.
  • Part 1: Hate media in Rwanda• Call to genocide: radio in Rwanda, 1994: International Development Research Centre 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.idrc.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • The Media and the Rwanda Genocide 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.idrc.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Later in May, RTLM said that General Dallaire should be killed, identifying him as a white man with a moustache (Dallaire 2004: 37980).
  • Part 1: Hate media in Rwanda• Call to genocide: radio in Rwanda, 1994: International Development Research Centre 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.idrc.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The UN also requested 50 armoured personnel carriers from the United States, but for the transport alone they were charged $6.5 million (U.S.) by the U.S. Army.^ The UN also requested 50 armoured personnel carriers from the U.S., but for the transport alone they were charged 6.5 million U.S. dollars by the U.S. army.
  • �����Rwanda Massacre and Genocide � Clinton and the world, Rwanda government genocide ������The WE News Archives ������ 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.thewe.cc [Source type: Original source]

^ There was a request for 50 armored personnel carriers.
  • Rwanda: Genocide and the Continuing Cycle of Violence 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC commdocs.house.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Because policy memos and cables were classified, and because all personnel evaluations in the State and Defense departments are top-down, they might be right.
  • COULD THE RWANDAN GENOCIDE HAVE BEEN PREVENTED 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.genocidewatch.org [Source type: Original source]

.Deployment of these forces was delayed due to arguments over their cost and other factors.^ Deployment of these forces was delayed due to arguments over their cost and other factors.
  • �����Rwanda Massacre and Genocide � Clinton and the world, Rwanda government genocide ������The WE News Archives ������ 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.thewe.cc [Source type: Original source]

^ The argument of [manipulative elite] forces is compelling, but it cannot by itself explain the violence: conspiracies exist, but that fact on its own cannot explain why some succeed and others fail.
  • The Media and the Rwanda Genocide 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.idrc.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Governments should be encouraged to second personnel and the UN should deploy prosecutors, investigators and other seconded personnel without delay.

[40]

French role

A French soldier, part of the international force supporting the relief effort for Rwandan refugees, adjusts the concertina wire surrounding the airport.
.In the analysis of U.K. Linda Melvern, documents recently released from the Paris archive of former president François Mitterrand show how the RPF invasion was considered as clear aggression by an Anglophone neighbour on a Francophone country[41].^ The mounting tension as President Habyarimana delayed implementing the Arusha accords received little coverage in the anglophone press and only slightly more in the francophone.
  • The Media and the Rwanda Genocide 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.idrc.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But also remember that, at that time, we had the so-called “La Baule” meeting where French President François Mitterrand asked African nations to accept democratic values.
  • Rwanda genocide | Uganda 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC freeuganda.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I was born in the south of the country, considered at the time to be a largely Tutsi region and later supportive of the RPF. I was married to a woman whose parents were also in a mixed marriage.
  • The Media and the Rwanda Genocide 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.idrc.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The documents are said to argue that the RPF was a part of an "Anglophone plot", involving the President of Uganda, to create an English-speaking "Tutsi-land" and increase Anglophone influence at the expense of French influence.^ France was its biggest supplier of heavy military equipment, and sent troops in 1990 to help repel a military offensive from Uganda by the largely Tutsi Rwandan Patriotic Front, (RPF), against the corrupt president, Juvenal Habyarimana.
  • Rwanda genocide accusation causes an uproar - Small Wars Council 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC council.smallwarsjournal.com [Source type: General]

^ Also, tensions increased after Tutsi returnees, who had remained refugees in Burundi, Congo, and Uganda for over four decades, demanded the return of lands they had lost following the 1959 massacres that drove them into exile.
  • Ingando Solidarity Camps:Reconciliation and Political Indoctrination in Post-Genocide Rwanda 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.law.harvard.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ This is important since most witnesses are unlikely to speak English or French and interpreting from and into Kinyarwanda, the language of all Rwandese, will be necessary.

.In Melvern's analysis, the policy of France was to avoid a military victory by the RPF. The policy had been made by a secretive network of military officers, politicians, diplomats, businessmen, and senior intelligence operatives.^ Military correspondence, as well as propaganda, had made clear in the preceding months that the 'enemy' included Tutsi civilians as well as RPF combatants.
  • Part 1: Hate media in Rwanda• Call to genocide: radio in Rwanda, 1994: International Development Research Centre 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.idrc.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • The Media and the Rwanda Genocide 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.idrc.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Despite the good diplomatic relations between Paris and Washington and the apparent unity of the Western military alliance, it was an undeclared war between France and America.
  • The Geopolitics behind the Rwandan Genocide: Paul Kagame accused of War Crimes 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.globalresearch.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ France on Wednesday said accusations by Rwanda that French politicians and military officials helped prepare and carry out the 1994 Rwandan genocide are "unacceptable."
  • Rwanda: News & Videos about Rwanda - CNN.com 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC topics.edition.cnn.com [Source type: News]

At its centre was Mitterrand. .French policy had been unaccountable to either parliament or the press.^ In Britain, both the press and Parliament have failed to question the policies of the British government of John Major toward Rwanda.
  • The Media and the Rwanda Genocide 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.idrc.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[41]
.On June 22, with no sign of UN deployment taking place, the Security Council authorized French forces to land in Goma, Zaire on a humanitarian mission.^ On June 22, with no sign of UN deployment taking place, the Security Council authorized French forces to land in Goma, Zaire on a humanitarian mission.
  • �����Rwanda Massacre and Genocide � Clinton and the world, Rwanda government genocide ������The WE News Archives ������ 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.thewe.cc [Source type: Original source]

^ The UN Security Council rejected the plan.
  • Deborah Lipstadt’s Blog: Rwanda: A new form of genocide denial 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC lipstadt.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ French forces landed in Goma, Zaire, in June 1994 on a humanitarian mission.
  • Rwanda (12/09) 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.They deployed throughout southwest Rwanda in an area they called "Zone Turquoise," quelling the genocide and stopping the fighting there, but often arriving in areas only after genocidaires had expelled or killed Tutsi citizens.^ The Rwanda genocide refers to the third type of killing, that of Tutsi by Hutu.
  • Sample Chapter for Mamdani, M.: When Victims Become Killers: Colonialism, Nativism, and the Genocide in Rwanda. 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC press.princeton.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Call to Genocide: Radio in Rwanda, 1994 .
  • The Media and the Rwanda Genocide 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.idrc.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They killed Tutsi because Tutsi have things.
  • The Walrus » The Rwanda Genocide: A Reconciliation » By Jina Moore 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC walrusmagazine.com [Source type: General]

.Operation Turquoise was charged with aiding the Hutu army against the RPF by Jacques Bihozagara, the then-Rwandan ambassador to France, who later testified, "Operation Turquoise was aimed only at protecting genocide perpetrators, because the genocide continued even within the Turquoise zone."^ Rwandan official has testified that France was complicit in the 1994 genocide .
  • Rwanda genocide accusation causes an uproar - Small Wars Council 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC council.smallwarsjournal.com [Source type: General]

^ France denies role in Rwandan genocide .
  • Rwanda: News & Videos about Rwanda - CNN.com 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC topics.edition.cnn.com [Source type: News]

^ Rwandan victims of the genocide have even filed a criminal complaint "against x" [i.e.
  • WPR Article | French Complicity in the Rwandan Genocide: An Interview with Jean-Paul Gouteux 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.worldpoliticsreview.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[42]
.Following an investigation of the plane crash of 6 April 1994 that killed both the Rwandan President Juvénal Habyarimana and Burundian President Cyprien Ntaryamira and precipitated the genocide, and in which three French crew had also died, the French judge Jean-Louis Bruguière indicted eight associates of Rwandan president Paul Kagame on November 17, 2006. President Kagame himself was not indicted, as he had immunity under French law as a head of state.^ Then, in April 1994, came the genocide.
  • The Media and the Rwanda Genocide 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.idrc.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Both presidents were killed.
  • Rwanda (12/09) 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On April 6, 1994, a plane carrying Habyarimana and Burundian President Cyprien Ntaryamira crashed near Kigali airport, killing both men and igniting an explosion of violence and brutality.
  • Rwanda: Accountability for War Crimes and Genocide | United States Institute of Peace 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.usip.org [Source type: Original source]

Kagame denied the allegations, decrying them as politically motivated, and broke diplomatic relationships with France in November 2006. He then ordered the formation of a commission of his own Rwandan Justice Ministry's employees that was officially "charged with assembling proof of the involvement of France in the genocide".[43] The political character of that investigation was in turn further averred when the commission issued its report solely to Kagame - symbolically on November 17, 2007, exactly one year after Bruguière's announcement - and the head of the Rwandan commission, Jean de Dieu Mucyo, stated that the commission would now "wait for President Kagame to declare whether the inquiry was valid."[43] In July 2008, Kagame threatened to indict French nationals over the genocide if European courts did not withdraw arrest warrants issued against Rwandan officials, which by then included broader indictments against 40 Rwandan army officers by Spanish judge Fernando Andreu.[44][45] .Findings of the commission were released at Kagame's order on August 5, 2008 and accused the French government of knowing of preparations for the genocide and helping to train the ethnic Hutu militia members; named 33 senior French military and political officials of involvement in the genocide, including then-President Mitterrand and his then general secretary Hubert Védrine, then-Prime Minister Edouard Balladur, then-Foreign Minister Alain Juppe, and his chief aide at the time, Dominique de Villepin[46][47][48] A statement accompanying the release claimed that "French soldiers themselves directly were involved in assassinations of Tutsis and Hutus accused of hiding Tutsis...^ At the same time, they continued to act as senior political and military advisors to the government.
  • The Media and the Rwanda Genocide 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.idrc.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On 16 May, the French foreign minister, Alain Juppe, referred to 'genocide' in Rwanda.
  • The Media and the Rwanda Genocide 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.idrc.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Both Tutsi and Hutu were among the top government officials.
  • Judicial Responses to Genocide: International Criminal Tribunal 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC web.africa.ufl.edu [Source type: Original source]

.French forces committed several rapes on Tutsi survivors", though the latter was not documented in the report.^ After separating the Tutsi from the Hutu and humiliating the Tutsi by forcing them to perform the Ikinyemera , a traditional dance, at several public meetings, Barayagwiza threatened to kill them and said it would not be difficult.
  • The Media and the Rwanda Genocide 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.idrc.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Survivor organisations estimate that two-thirds of Tutsi women who were raped are HIV-positive.
  • Rwanda 10 years on: not forgiven, not forgotten - FeaturesWorld - www.theage.com.au 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.theage.com.au [Source type: Original source]

^ It is the acquittal of a man whose acts, though not properly documented by a prosecutor, are not easily forgotten in a country where genocide was committed in broad daylight.
  • The Harvard Law Record - Release of Rwanda's mastermind of death promotes genocide denial 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.hlrecord.org [Source type: Original source]

[46] .A BBC report commented that French Foreign Minister, Bernard Kouchner, denied French responsibility in connection with the genocide but said that political errors had been made.^ Do you really think that French political or military leaders could some day face trial and that France could some day make a public apology to the victims of the genocide?
  • WPR Article | French Complicity in the Rwandan Genocide: An Interview with Jean-Paul Gouteux 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.worldpoliticsreview.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Rwanda and France have turned over a new leaf in relations marked by a "dark history," the two countries' foreign ministers said, following a dispute over events surrounding Rwanda's 1994 genocide...
  • Rwandan Genocide - Blogrunner 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.blogrunner.com [Source type: News]

^ The report clearly challenged the conscience of the international community and evoked the responsibility of the parties to the 1948 Genocide Convention.
  • United Nations report on the 1994 Rwanda genocide 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.antisemittisme.no [Source type: Original source]

[46] Another BBC report delved into the motivations for the Rwandan report and stated that
.Chief among them has been an iron determination to keep the world's attention focused on the genocide, rather than on the role of the Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF), the force that took power in 1994, bringing President Paul Kagame to power.^ The genocide ended when the then rebel Rwanda Patriotic Front came to power.
  • �����Rwanda Massacre and Genocide � Clinton and the world, Rwanda government genocide ������The WE News Archives ������ 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.thewe.cc [Source type: Original source]

^ Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF) newspapers; .
  • The Media and the Rwanda Genocide 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.idrc.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The RPF won the war and took power in July 1994.
  • �����Rwanda Massacre and Genocide � Clinton and the world, Rwanda government genocide ������The WE News Archives ������ 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.thewe.cc [Source type: Original source]

.In recent years uncomfortable questions have been raised about the war crimes the RPF are alleged to have committed during and after 1994. While stressing there can be no equation between genocide and war crimes, Alison Des Forges of Human Rights Watch says RPF leaders do have a case to answer.^ Kagame has insisted that any human rights violations committed by RPF soldiers were isolated cases.
  • AFTER ARUSHA: Gacaca Justice in Post-Genocide Rwanda 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC web.africa.ufl.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Alison Des Forges, op.
  • Disconnecting the Threads: Rwanda and the Holocaust Reconsidered - by Ren� Lemarchand 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.ideajournal.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Alison Des Forges is no longer,” writes Charles Onana.
  • Dissident Voice : The Rwanda Genocide Fabrications 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC dissidentvoice.org [Source type: Original source]

"Their victims also deserve justice," she says.[49]
.The suspicions about United Nations and French policies in Rwanda between 1990 and 1994 and allegations that France supported the Hutus led to the creation of a French Parliamentary Commission on Rwanda, which published its report on December 15, 1998.[50] In particular, François-Xavier Verschave, former president of the French NGO Survie, which accused the French army of protecting the Hutus during the genocide, was instrumental in establishing this Parliamentary commission.^ Call to Genocide: Radio in Rwanda, 1994 .
  • The Media and the Rwanda Genocide 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.idrc.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A French parliamentary commission closed in December 1998 a nine-month investigation on France's part before and during the genocide in Rwanda.
  • Prosecuting Genocide in Rwanda 20 September 2009 14:38 UTC donika.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The story of U.S. policy during the genocide in Rwanda is not a story of willful complicity with evil.

.The commission released its final report on December 15, 1998. It documented ambiguities and confusion in both the French and UN responses.^ The Secretary- General transmitted the report to the Council and made it public in December of last year (document S/1999/1257).
  • United Nations report on the 1994 Rwanda genocide 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.antisemittisme.no [Source type: Original source]

^ The responsibility to protect: report of the International Commission on Intervention and State Sovereignty .
  • The Media and the Rwanda Genocide 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.idrc.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Report of the Independent Inquiry into the Actions of the United Nations During the 1994 Genocide in Rwanda , New York, 15 December 1999.
  • Prosecuting Genocide in Rwanda 20 September 2009 14:38 UTC donika.com [Source type: Original source]

.Regarding Operation Turquoise, it regretted that the intervention took place too late, though it noted that this was better than the non-response from the UN and the opposition by the U.S. and U.K. governments to such a response.^ From a government's perspective, it was clear that the RPF would have an easier time mastering the opposition votes than would MRND. (Jones 1999: 139) .
  • The Media and the Rwanda Genocide 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.idrc.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ American criticisms were deliberately and steadfastly leveled at "both sides," though Hutu government and militia forces were usually responsible.

^ After she left the podium, Michael McCurry, the department spokesman, took her place and criticized foreign governments for preventing the screening of the Steven Spielberg film Schindler's List .

.The report documented mixed success at disarming the Rwandan Army and militias, but a definite and systematic attempt (though not fast enough as far as then-General Paul Kagame of the opposing RPF forces was concerned, in documentation of the latter's communications with the French forces).^ Is opposed to the Paul Kagame government.
  • Rwanda on the Internet - Stanford University 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC library.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Paul Kagame accused by French Court .
  • The Geopolitics behind the Rwandan Genocide: Paul Kagame accused of War Crimes 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.globalresearch.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Major General Paul Kagame had been head of military intelligence in the Ugandan Armed Forces; he had been trained at the U.S. Army Command and Staff College (CGSC) in Leavenworth, Kansas which focuses on warfighting and military strategy.
  • The Geopolitics behind the Rwandan Genocide: Paul Kagame accused of War Crimes 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.globalresearch.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It did not find any evidence of French participation in the genocide, of collaboration with the militias, or of willful disengagement from endangered populations, to the contrary.^ Twa, who were a minuscule minority of the Rwandan population, were rarely targets of the genocide and in many communities participated in the killing in an effort to improve their social status.
  • Rwanda: Genocide and Crimes Against Humanity 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.enotes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Prisons and detention centers overflow with tens of thousands, most suspected of participating in the genocide but in many cases with little or no evidence supporting this charge.

^ He did so both through the institutions he created, and through his own personal acts of participation in the genocide.
  • The Media and the Rwanda Genocide 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.idrc.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It documented multiple French operations, all at least partly successful, to disable genocide-inciting radio broadcasts, tasks which the UN and the United States had rejected calls for assistance with.^ Call to Genocide: Radio in Rwanda, 1994 .
  • The Media and the Rwanda Genocide 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.idrc.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ RADIO BROADCAST: "All Tutsis will perish.
  • �����Rwanda Massacre and Genocide � Clinton and the world, Rwanda government genocide ������The WE News Archives ������ 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.thewe.cc [Source type: Original source]

^ During the 1994 Rwandan genocide, Radio Tlvision Libre des Mille Collines (RTLM) broadcast anti-Tutsi propaganda and called for violence against Tutsis, which many experts believe significantly contributed to the violence.
  • Rwandan Genocide - Blogrunner 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.blogrunner.com [Source type: News]

.The report concluded that there had been errors of judgment pertaining to the Rwanda Armed Forces, but before the genocide only; further errors of judgment about the scale of the threat, at the onset of the genocide; over-reliance on the UNIMAR mission without awareness that it would be undercut by the United States and other parties; and ineffective diplomacy.^ Rwanda Armed Forces officer .
  • The Media and the Rwanda Genocide 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.idrc.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Later, while the genocide was already underway and the Clinton Administration knew about it because of reports from the State Department and satellite photographs,16 President Clinton created PDD-25 (Presidential Decision Directive),17 which essentially said the United States could not participate in any peacekeeping operations unless there was a geostrategic interest.
  • Rwanda genocide | Uganda 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC freeuganda.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Given that there was no air threat to the RPA at the time - because the RPA units were in the center of the common capital city, Kigali, and because the Rwandan Armed Forces of Habyalimana had only a few armed helicopters - it is clear that the purpose of the training was specifically to shoot down the presidential aircraft of Pres.

.Ultimately, it concluded that France had been the foreign power most involved in limiting the scale of the genocide once it got started, though it regretted that more had not been done.^ His analysis examines the questions of what the United States knew about the genocide and how the world’s most powerful nation turned a blind eye.
  • A Look at Genocide, Part 3: Rwanda Book Recommendations | Maw Books 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC blog.mawbooks.com [Source type: General]

^ Of all of the books and articles I have read about the Rwandan genocide, even Samantha Powers book, yours is one of the most moving.
  • The Walrus » The Rwanda Genocide: A Reconciliation » By Jina Moore 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC walrusmagazine.com [Source type: General]
  • The Walrus » The Rwanda Genocide: A Reconciliation » By Jina Moore 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.walrusmagazine.com [Source type: General]

^ But MSF–France did have a clear idea of its own limitations – in May it launched a campaign with the slogan 'You can't stop genocide with doctors.'
  • The Media and the Rwanda Genocide 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.idrc.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[50]
.In 2010, French President Nicolas Sarkozy acknowledged that France made "mistakes" during the genocide, but did not offer an apology.^ All of the American policy makers who made the decisions during the Rwandan genocide, including the decision to order withdrawal UNAMIR troops, were later promoted.
  • COULD THE RWANDAN GENOCIDE HAVE BEEN PREVENTED 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.genocidewatch.org [Source type: Original source]

^ A French parliamentary commission closed in December 1998 a nine-month investigation on France's part before and during the genocide in Rwanda.
  • Prosecuting Genocide in Rwanda 20 September 2009 14:38 UTC donika.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The hate propaganda before and during the genocide demonized Tutsi women's sexuality and, as the Media Trial judgement noted, 'made the sexual attack of Tutsi women a foreseeable consequence'.
  • The Media and the Rwanda Genocide 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.idrc.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[51]

American role

.Prior to the war, the U.S. government had aligned itself with Tutsi interests, in turn raising Hutu concerns about potential U.S. support to the opposition.^ The 1990 invasion of the RPF plunged the country into civil war for three years and precipitated a political crisis: political moderates (who supported a power-sharing arrangement with the Tutsi-led RPF) broke away from the government and formed an opposition.
  • LAND CONFLICT AND GENOCIDE IN RWANDA - EJSD Journal of Sustainable Development 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.ejsd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At the beginning of 1994, about ten percent of its people were Tutsis and almost all of the rest were Hutus.
  • Amazon.com: The Rwanda Crisis: History of a Genocide (9780231104081): Gérard Prunier: Books 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.amazon.com [Source type: General]

^ In the case of Rwanda, in 1959 when Rwanda gained independence and the Belgians turned over the government to the then-Hutu majority, you had a number of killings which led to a massive exodus of Tutsis into the surrounding countries, particularly Uganda and Tanzania.
  • Rwanda: Genocide and the Continuing Cycle of Violence 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC commdocs.house.gov [Source type: Original source]

.Paul Kagame, a Tutsi officer in exile in Uganda who had co-founded the Rwandese Patriotic Front (RPF) in 1986 and was in open conflict with the incumbent Rwandan government, was invited to receive military training at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, home of the Command and General Staff College.^ Is opposed to the Paul Kagame government.
  • Rwanda on the Internet - Stanford University 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC library.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The RPF insisted that military chiefs also be invited.

^ Nkunda has been arrested but who will arrest Paul Kagame ?
  • Rwanda genocide | Uganda 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC freeuganda.com [Source type: Original source]

.In October 1990, while Kagame was at Fort Leavenworth, the RPF started an invasion of Rwanda.^ October 1990 – RPF invades Rwanda .
  • The Media and the Rwanda Genocide 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.idrc.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Kagame returned from Leavenworth to lead the RPA, shortly after the 1990 invasion.
  • The Geopolitics behind the Rwandan Genocide: Paul Kagame accused of War Crimes 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.globalresearch.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The October 1990 invasion of Rwanda by the Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF) changed the political equation in the country, as it both further compromised the security of the regime and provided an opportunity for Habyarimana and his cohorts to regain popular support by playing the ethnic card.
  • Rwanda: Genocide and Crimes Against Humanity 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.enotes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Only two days into the invasion, his close friend and RPF co-founder Fred Rwigema was killed, upon which the U.S. arranged the return of Kagame to Uganda from where he became the military commander of the RPF.[52] An article in the Washington Post of August 16, 1997, authored by its Southern African bureau chief Lynne Duke, indicates that the connection continued as RPF elements received counterinsurgency and combat training from U.S. Special Forces.^ The RPF insisted that military chiefs also be invited.

^ Washington Post , 16 April: A12.
  • The Media and the Rwanda Genocide 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.idrc.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "Washington pumped military aid into Kagame's army, and U.S. Army Special Forces and other military personnel trained hundreds of Rwandan troops.
  • The Geopolitics behind the Rwandan Genocide: Paul Kagame accused of War Crimes 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.globalresearch.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[53][54]
.In January 1994 NSC member Richard Clark developed formal US peacekeeping doctrine, Presidential Decision Directive 25 (PDD-25).^ Presidential decision directive NSC-68.
  • Part 1: Hate media in Rwanda• Call to genocide: radio in Rwanda, 1994: International Development Research Centre 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.idrc.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • The Media and the Rwanda Genocide 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.idrc.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Later, while the genocide was already underway and the Clinton Administration knew about it because of reports from the State Department and satellite photographs,16 President Clinton created PDD-25 (Presidential Decision Directive),17 which essentially said the United States could not participate in any peacekeeping operations unless there was a geostrategic interest.
  • Rwanda genocide | Uganda 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC freeuganda.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Second of all, the Presidential decision directive that is operable on peacekeeping, and participation in peacekeeping and support for peacekeeping operations, which is PDD 25, must be changed so that the United States will formally have in its policy that it is a policy of the United States to support humanitarian intervention for stopping genocide.
  • Rwanda: Genocide and the Continuing Cycle of Violence 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC commdocs.house.gov [Source type: Original source]

.There were no U.S. troops officially in Rwanda at the onset of the genocide.^ In Rwanda, there was indeed acts of genocide.
  • The Harvard Law Record - Release of Rwanda's mastermind of death promotes genocide denial 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.hlrecord.org [Source type: Original source]

^ But in Rwanda there were no more sanctuaries.
  • �����Rwanda Massacre and Genocide � Clinton and the world, Rwanda government genocide ������The WE News Archives ������ 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.thewe.cc [Source type: Original source]

^ There was no genocide.

A National Security Archive report points out five ways in which decisions made by the U.S. government contributed to the slow U.S. and worldwide response to the genocide:
    .
  1. The U.S. lobbied the U.N. for a total withdrawal of U.N. (UNAMIR) forces in Rwanda in April 1994;
  2. Secretary of State Warren Christopher did not authorize officials to use the term "genocide" until May 21, and even then, U.S. officials waited another three weeks before using the term in public;
  3. Bureaucratic infighting slowed the U.S. response to the genocide in general;
  4. The U.S. refused to jam extremist radio broadcasts inciting the killing, citing costs and concern with international law;
  5. U.S. officials knew exactly who was leading the genocide, and actually spoke with those leaders to urge an end to the violence but did not follow up with concrete action.^ Broadcasting Genocide, Censorship, Propaganda and State-Sponsored Violence in Rwanda, 1990–1994.
    • The Media and the Rwanda Genocide 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.idrc.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Lawyers who did not understand the law refused to call it genocide.
    • COULD THE RWANDAN GENOCIDE HAVE BEEN PREVENTED 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.genocidewatch.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Broadcasting Genocide: Censorship, propaganda and state-sponsored violence in Rwanda 1990-1994 .
    • Peacemakers Trust - Peacebuilding and Reconciliation in Rwanda: A Selected Bibliography 20 September 2009 14:38 UTC www.peacemakers.ca [Source type: Academic]

    [55]

Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF) renewed invasion

.The Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF) battalion of Tutsi rebels stationed in Kigali under the Arusha Accords came under attack immediately after the shooting down of the president's plane.^ The genocide ended when the then rebel Rwanda Patriotic Front came to power.
  • �����Rwanda Massacre and Genocide � Clinton and the world, Rwanda government genocide ������The WE News Archives ������ 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.thewe.cc [Source type: Original source]

^ The RPF battalion stationed in Kigali under the Arusha accords came under attack immediately after the shooting down of the president's plane.
  • Rwanda (12/09) 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF) newspapers; .
  • The Media and the Rwanda Genocide 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.idrc.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The battalion fought its way out of Kigali and joined up with RPF units in the north.^ The battalion fought its way out of Kigali and joined up with RPF units in the north.
  • Rwanda (12/09) 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Then we turned west to Kigali and joined the RPF front line in the hills overlooking the city from the northeast.
  • The Media and the Rwanda Genocide 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.idrc.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The RPF battalion stationed in Kigali under the Arusha accords came under attack immediately after the shooting down of the president's plane.
  • Rwanda (12/09) 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[56] .The resulting civil war raged concurrently with the genocide for two months.^ The RPF then resumed its invasion, and civil war raged concurrently with the genocide for 2 months.
  • Rwanda (12/09) 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ First, it mistook genocide for civil war.
  • The Media and the Rwanda Genocide 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.idrc.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Civil wars are two-sided (or multi-sided.
  • COULD THE RWANDAN GENOCIDE HAVE BEEN PREVENTED 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.genocidewatch.org [Source type: Original source]

.The nature of the genocide was not immediately apparent to foreign observers, and was initially explained as a violent phase of the civil war.^ First, it mistook genocide for civil war.
  • The Media and the Rwanda Genocide 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.idrc.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Still, many foreign observers could not conceive that genocide was under way.
  • The Media and the Rwanda Genocide 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.idrc.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The official version of the Rwandan Genocide is that it was triggered by ethnic conflict in the context of what was characterised as a "civil war".
  • The Geopolitics behind the Rwandan Genocide: Paul Kagame accused of War Crimes 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.globalresearch.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Mark Doyle, the correspondent for the BBC News in Kigali, tried to explain the complex situation in late April 1994 thus:
.Look you have to understand that there are two wars going on here.^ Look you have to understand that there are two wars going on here.
  • The Media and the Rwanda Genocide 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.idrc.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But are you ready to go back there?
  • Rwandan Genocide: 15 Years Later » Christian Blog on Child Poverty 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC blog.compassion.com [Source type: General]

^ I said, if you go back and look at the genesis of the Rwandan genocide, why didn't the red flags go up when the Interahamwe militias were being trained and armed?
  • Rwanda: Genocide and the Continuing Cycle of Violence 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC commdocs.house.gov [Source type: Original source]

.There's a shooting war and a genocide war.^ There's a shooting war and a genocide war.
  • The Media and the Rwanda Genocide 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.idrc.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But she had clearly not understood the difference between the shooting war and the genocide war, and who was doing what to whom.
  • The Media and the Rwanda Genocide 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.idrc.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are the authors of the genocide, the authors of war crimes, and there were war crimes committed by both sides.
  • Rwanda: Genocide and the Continuing Cycle of Violence 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC commdocs.house.gov [Source type: Original source]

.The two are connected, but also distinct.^ The two are connected, but also distinct.
  • The Media and the Rwanda Genocide 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.idrc.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the shooting war, there are two conventional armies at each other, and in the genocide war, one of those armies, the government side with help from civilians, is involved in mass killings.^ Mass killings genocide begins.
  • �����Rwanda Massacre and Genocide � Clinton and the world, Rwanda government genocide ������The WE News Archives ������ 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.thewe.cc [Source type: Original source]

^ The RPF had won one of the wars, the shooting war.
  • The Media and the Rwanda Genocide 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.idrc.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the shooting war, there are two conventional armies at each other, and in the genocide war, one of those armies – the government side with help from civilians – is involved in mass killings.
  • The Media and the Rwanda Genocide 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.idrc.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[57]
.The victory of the RPF rebels and overthrow of the Hutu regime ended the genocide in July 1994, 100 days after it began.^ In July 1994, the RPF defeated the genocidal regime and took revenge killings against Hutu civilians.
  • Ingando Solidarity Camps:Reconciliation and Political Indoctrination in Post-Genocide Rwanda 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.law.harvard.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ What I AM arguing is that genocide is not necessarily a Hutu phenomenon that began and ended in the spring of 1994.
  • Deborah Lipstadt’s Blog: Rwanda: A new form of genocide denial 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC lipstadt.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The RPF took Kigali on July 4, 1994, and the war ended on July 16, 1994.
  • Rwanda (12/09) 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Aftermath

Refugee camp in Zaire, 1994
.Approximately two million Hutus, participants in the genocide, and the bystanders, with anticipation of Tutsi retaliation, fled from Rwanda, to Burundi, Tanzania, Uganda, and for the most part Zaire.^ The Rwanda genocide refers to the third type of killing, that of Tutsi by Hutu.
  • Sample Chapter for Mamdani, M.: When Victims Become Killers: Colonialism, Nativism, and the Genocide in Rwanda. 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC press.princeton.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The listening area covered part of eastern Zaire, Rwanda and Burundi.
  • The Media and the Rwanda Genocide 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.idrc.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Rwanda is made of Hutus and Tutsi.
  • The Media and the Rwanda Genocide 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.idrc.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Thousands of them died in epidemics of diseases common to the squalor of refugee camps, such as cholera and dysentery.^ There was an opportunity cost in the arrival of inefficient organizations, especially at the beginning of the disaster when thousands of refugees were dying daily.
  • The Media and the Rwanda Genocide 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.idrc.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It was the cholera, followed by dysentery for good measure, plus all the spectacular visuals that came with such a massive displacement of population and such an unprecedented, unmanageable flood of refugees, that really triggered the media influx to the region.
  • The Media and the Rwanda Genocide 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.idrc.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1996, the RPF attacked the refugee camps in eastern Congo, killing thousands, in an attempt to disarm the militias and forcibly repatriate the Hutu refugees.
  • Ingando Solidarity Camps:Reconciliation and Political Indoctrination in Post-Genocide Rwanda 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.law.harvard.edu [Source type: Original source]

[58] .The United States staged the Operation Support Hope airlift from July to September 1994 to stabilize the situation in the camps.^ A key turning point was the United States Congress' passage in 1994 of the Cambodian Genocide Justice Act .
  • The Media and the Rwanda Genocide 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.idrc.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Who did we support when we had the President of the United States saying let's not support the U.N; let's hold back our money?
  • Rwanda: Genocide and the Continuing Cycle of Violence 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC commdocs.house.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ First, what did the United Nations, the United States, and other non-African governments do either to deter or to stop the 1994 genocide?
  • Rwanda: Genocide and the Continuing Cycle of Violence 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC commdocs.house.gov [Source type: Original source]

[59]
After the victory of the RPF, the size of UNAMIR (henceforth called UNAMIR 2) was increased to its full strength, remaining in Rwanda until March 8, 1996.[60]
.In October 1996, an uprising by the ethnic Tutsi Banyamulenge people in eastern Zaire marked the beginning of the First Congo War, and led to a return of more than 600,000 to Rwanda during the last two weeks of November.^ The government of Rwanda becomes involved in the first Congo territories war.
  • �����Rwanda Massacre and Genocide � Clinton and the world, Rwanda government genocide ������The WE News Archives ������ 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.thewe.cc [Source type: Original source]

^ Following an uprising by the ethnic Tutsi Banyamulenge people in eastern Zaire in October 1996, a huge movement of refugees began which brought more than 600,000 back to Rwanda in the last 2 weeks of November.
  • Rwanda (12/09) 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During the worst days of the genocide, more than 20,000 people a day were killed.
  • Rwandan Genocide: 15 Years Later » Christian Blog on Child Poverty 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC blog.compassion.com [Source type: General]

.This massive repatriation was followed at the end of December 1996 by the return of 500,000 more from Tanzania after they were ejected by the Tanzanian government.^ This massive repatriation was followed at the end of December 1996 by the return of another 500,000 from Tanzania, again in a huge, spontaneous wave.
  • Rwanda (12/09) 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Following the official end of the conflict in eastern Congo, the Rwandan government is encouraging all Rwandan rebels/ex-Armed Groups (both genocidaires and non- genocidaires ) to return to Rwanda.
  • Ingando Solidarity Camps:Reconciliation and Political Indoctrination in Post-Genocide Rwanda 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.law.harvard.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Government spokespeople have often used a figure of 'more than a million', while a new official figure is 937,000 dead.
  • The Media and the Rwanda Genocide 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.idrc.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Various successor organizations to the Hutu militants operated in eastern DR Congo until May 22, 2009.

Political development

.After its military victory in July 1995, the Rwandan Patriotic Front organized a coalition government similar to that established by President Juvénal Habyarimana in 1994. Called The Broad Based Government of National Unity, its fundamental law is based on a combination of the constitution, the Arusha accords, and political declarations by the parties.^ Broad-based government of national unity formed after the 1994 civil war.
  • Rwanda (12/09) 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ RPF had its military branch, called the Rwandan Patriotic Army (RPA).
  • Prosecuting Genocide in Rwanda 20 September 2009 14:38 UTC donika.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In July 1994, the RPF created a coalition national unity government, with a Hutu president, Pasteur Bizimunga, in a key leadership role.
  • LAND CONFLICT AND GENOCIDE IN RWANDA - EJSD Journal of Sustainable Development 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.ejsd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The MRND party was outlawed.^ He outlawed political parties and created his own Revolutionary Movement for Development (MRND) .
  • LAND CONFLICT AND GENOCIDE IN RWANDA - EJSD Journal of Sustainable Development 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.ejsd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The MRND Party was outlawed.
  • Rwanda (12/09) 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Political organizing was banned until 2003. The first post-war presidential and legislative elections were held in August and September 2003 respectively.^ Rwanda held its first-ever legislative elections September 29 to October 2, 2003.
  • Rwanda (12/09) 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 2003, multi-party elections were held.
  • LAND CONFLICT AND GENOCIDE IN RWANDA - EJSD Journal of Sustainable Development 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.ejsd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Recent reports suggest that the Gacaca trials will not begin until early 2005, following delays from the presidential election and changes to the administrative levels.
  • AFTER ARUSHA: Gacaca Justice in Post-Genocide Rwanda 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC web.africa.ufl.edu [Source type: Original source]

[citation needed]
.The current government prohibits discrimination on the basis of ethnicity, race or religion.^ In fact, governments have an obligation under international law to prohibit any advocacy of national, racial or religious hatred that constitutes incitement to discrimination, hostility or violence.
  • The Media and the Rwanda Genocide 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.idrc.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The government has also passed laws prohibiting emphasis on Hutu or Tutsi identity in most types of political activity.^ The Rwanda genocide refers to the third type of killing, that of Tutsi by Hutu.
  • Sample Chapter for Mamdani, M.: When Victims Become Killers: Colonialism, Nativism, and the Genocide in Rwanda. 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC press.princeton.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Hutu government of Rwanda and its extremist allies very nearly succeeded in exterminating the country's Tutsi minority.

^ The vast majority of the hundreds of thousands of killings in Rwanda have been committed by the government militia and government army who have been implementing a well-organized plan of genocide of Tutsis, the tribe from which the rebels draw most support, and ethnic Hutu government opponents.
  • The Media and the Rwanda Genocide 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.idrc.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[citation needed]
.In March 1998, on a visit to Rwanda, U.S. President Bill Clinton spoke to the crowd assembled on the tarmac at Kigali Airport: "We come here today partly in recognition of the fact that we in the United States and the world community did not do as much as we could have and should have done to try to limit what occurred" in Rwanda.^ But here, I have to again state that what I stated was conveyed to the international community.
  • Rwanda: Genocide and the Continuing Cycle of Violence 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC commdocs.house.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Kigali Airport, Rwanda, 25 March 1998.
  • The Media and the Rwanda Genocide 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.idrc.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The lack of action over Rwanda should be the defining scandal of the presidency of Bill Clinton.
  • The Media and the Rwanda Genocide 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.idrc.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[61] .Four years after the genocide, Clinton issued what is now known as the "Clinton apology," acknowledging his failure to efficiently deal with the situation in Rwanda, but not formally apologizing for inaction by the U.S. government or the international community.^ The United States has formally apologized for its failure to prevent the genocide.
  • The Media and the Rwanda Genocide 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.idrc.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Rwanda: Fifteen years after the genocide .
  • Global Voices Online » Rwanda: Fifteen years after the genocide 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC globalvoicesonline.org [Source type: General]

^ Denominations acknowledge inaction on Rwanda genocide .
  • Denominations acknowledge inaction on Rwanda genocide 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC archives.umc.org [Source type: News]

[citation needed]
.Despite substantial international assistance and political reforms, the country continues to struggle to boost investment and agricultural output and to foster reconciliation.^ They would have to be provided with another country, under international control and assistance.
  • The Media and the Rwanda Genocide 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.idrc.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although the government, remarkably, has restored the physical infrastructure of the country, post-genocide Rwanda continues to grapple with a desperate need for reconciliation.
  • Ingando Solidarity Camps:Reconciliation and Political Indoctrination in Post-Genocide Rwanda 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.law.harvard.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Since the sanctions on Burundi had been lifted, the international community must speedily resume economic assistance to reinforce stability in that country.
  • United Nations report on the 1994 Rwanda genocide 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.antisemittisme.no [Source type: Original source]

.In March 2000, after removing Pasteur Bizimungu, Paul Kagame became President of Rwanda.^ Kagame eventually removed Bizimungu and became president in 2001.
  • Rwanda Genocide | Go2Africa | Africa Travel Newsletter | African Safari Travel | Go 2 Africa 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.go2africa.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ March 2000 Rwanda President Pasteur Bizimungu resigns April 2000 Major General Paul Kagame is sworn in as the fifth President of Rwanda.
  • �����Rwanda Massacre and Genocide � Clinton and the world, Rwanda government genocide ������The WE News Archives ������ 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.thewe.cc [Source type: Original source]

^ In 2000 President Bizimungu resigned and Paul Kagame was sworn in as President.
  • LAND CONFLICT AND GENOCIDE IN RWANDA - EJSD Journal of Sustainable Development 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.ejsd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.On August 25, 2003 Kagame won the first national elections since the RPF took power in 1994. A series of massive population displacements, a nagging Hutu extremist insurgency, and Rwandan involvement in the First and Second Congo Wars in the neighboring Democratic Republic of the Congo continue to hinder Rwanda's efforts.^ The presidential election of 2003, the first since 1994, was won by Paul Kagame with an almost unbelievable 95 per cent of the vote.
  • The Media and the Rwanda Genocide 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.idrc.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Since August 1998, the United Nations had been confronted by war in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, he said.
  • United Nations report on the 1994 Rwanda genocide 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.antisemittisme.no [Source type: Original source]

^ The war that ensued in the Democratic Republic of the Congo has since cost over two million lives.
  • COULD THE RWANDAN GENOCIDE HAVE BEEN PREVENTED 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.genocidewatch.org [Source type: Original source]

[citation needed]

Economic and social developments

Graph showing the population of Rwanda from 1961 to 2003. (Data from U.N. Food and Agriculture Organization)
.The biggest problems facing the government are reintegration of the more than two million refugees, ending the insurgency among ex-soldiers and Interahamwe militia fighters and the Rwandan Patriotic Army in the north and southwest of the country, and the shift away from crisis to medium and long-term development planning.^ The government also trained a new militia, the interahamwe .
  • The Walrus » The Rwanda Genocide: A Reconciliation » By Jina Moore 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC walrusmagazine.com [Source type: General]

^ Less than 100,000 Rwandans are estimated to remain outside of Rwanda, and they are thought to be the remnants of the defeated army of the former genocidal government, its allies in the civilian militias known as Interahamwe , and soldiers recruited in the refugee camps before 1996.
  • Rwanda (12/09) 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Challenges facing the government include promoting further democratization and judicial reform; completion of prosecution of hundreds of thousands of individuals for crimes relating to the 1994 genocide, either by the regular court system or the gacaca system; preventing the recurrence of any insurgency directed by ex-military and Interahamwe militia who remain in eastern Congo; and the continuing work on medium- and long-term development planning.
  • Rwanda (12/09) 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.August 2008" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] The prison population will continue to be an urgent problem for the foreseeable future, having swelled to more than 100,000 in the three years after the war.^ More than 90% of its people are baptized Christians, with the Roman Catholic and Anglican Churches having the greatest number of adherents (65% and 20% respectively).
  • Paragon House :: Subjects :: Genocide and Holocaust :: Genocide in Rwanda: Complicity of the Churches? 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.paragonhouse.com [Source type: Academic]
  • A Look at Genocide, Part 3: Rwanda Book Recommendations | Maw Books 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC blog.mawbooks.com [Source type: General]
  • Paragon House :: Subjects :: Genocide and Holocaust :: Genocide in Rwanda: Complicity of the Churches? 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.paragonhouse.com [Source type: Academic]

^ At least 800,000 people are estimated to have been killed in the genocide at a rate over just 100 days that was far faster than the Holocaust of the Jews in World War Two.
  • �����Rwanda Massacre and Genocide � Clinton and the world, Rwanda government genocide ������The WE News Archives ������ 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.thewe.cc [Source type: Original source]

^ In more modern times, '[Edmund] Burke said there were three estates in parliament; but in the reporters' gallery yonder, there sat a fourth estate more important than them all.'
  • The Media and the Rwanda Genocide 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.idrc.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Trying this many suspects of genocide will tax Rwanda's resources sorely.^ Sweden to extradite Rwanda genocide suspect .
  • PhillyBurbs.com:  Sweden to extradite Rwanda genocide suspect 19 September 2009 0:39 UTC www.phillyburbs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most of those chiefly responsible had fled the country, and Rwanda lacks the political leverage, the necessary extradition treaties, and the resources necessary to gain custody and to try them(30).
  • Judicial Responses to Genocide: International Criminal Tribunal 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC web.africa.ufl.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The majority of the few lawyers in Rwanda do not wish to defend genocide suspects.
  • Prosecuting Genocide in Rwanda 20 September 2009 14:38 UTC donika.com [Source type: Original source]

[citation needed]
.The long-term effects of war rape in Rwanda for the victims include social isolation (social stigma attached to rape meant some husbands left wives who had become victims of war rape, or that the victims were rendered unsuitable for marriage), unwanted pregnancies and babies (some women resorted to self-induced abortions), sexually transmitted diseases, including syphilis, gonorrhoea and HIV/AIDS.^ Women in touch : women often becomes a victim of war.
  • The Walrus » The Rwanda Genocide: A Reconciliation » By Jina Moore 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC walrusmagazine.com [Source type: General]
  • The Walrus » The Rwanda Genocide: A Reconciliation » By Jina Moore 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.walrusmagazine.com [Source type: General]

^ But there is also poverty and the burden of HIV/AIDS and the legacy of the Rwanda Genocide.
  • �����Rwanda Massacre and Genocide � Clinton and the world, Rwanda government genocide ������The WE News Archives ������ 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.thewe.cc [Source type: Original source]

^ Moreover, the government is pursing educational and healthcare programs that bode well for the long-term quality of Rwanda's human resource skills base.
  • Rwanda (12/09) 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[31] .The Special Rapporteur on Rwanda estimated that between 2,000 and 5,000 pregnancies resulted from war rape (between 250,000 and 500,000 Rwandan women and girls had been raped).^ By that time, the Red Cross estimated that 500,000 Rwandans had been killed.
  • �����Rwanda Massacre and Genocide � Clinton and the world, Rwanda government genocide ������The WE News Archives ������ 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.thewe.cc [Source type: Original source]

^ By mid-May, an estimated 500,000 had been murdered in Rwanda.
  • �����Rwanda Massacre and Genocide � Clinton and the world, Rwanda government genocide ������The WE News Archives ������ 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.thewe.cc [Source type: Original source]

^ The U.N. said from 100,000 to 500,000 total were killed and independent organizations like some NGOs (Non-Governmental Organizations) said 250,000 were killed.
  • Rwanda genocide | Uganda 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC freeuganda.com [Source type: Original source]

[32] .Rwanda is a patriarchal society and children therefore take the ethnicity of the father, underlining that war rape occurred in the context of genocide.^ "Caring for children born of rape in Rwanda."
  • Peacemakers Trust - Peacebuilding and Reconciliation in Rwanda: A Selected Bibliography 20 September 2009 14:38 UTC www.peacemakers.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ He sees Rwanda’s 1994 genocide as a modern example of a society collapsing tragically and dramatically.
  • LAND CONFLICT AND GENOCIDE IN RWANDA - EJSD Journal of Sustainable Development 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.ejsd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Perpetrators of sexual violence can be convicted for rape as a war crime, a crime against humanity or as an act of genocide or torture, if their actions meet the elements of each.
  • The Media and the Rwanda Genocide 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.idrc.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[31] .The main issue involving reintegration is the fact that the violence that had occurred often involved neighbors; people lived next to rapists, murderers and torturers.^ This may have to do with the fact that we live in a post-Holocaust era, in the sense that the Holocaust set new standards for the acceptability of mass murder on a scale never previously known to humankind.
  • The Media and the Rwanda Genocide 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.idrc.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If you are demonizing people, if you are stigmatizing other tribes, other clans, you're involved in violence.'
  • The Media and the Rwanda Genocide 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.idrc.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By and large, however, the Church had allowed these ethnic tensions to continue unresolved, often below the surface, until conditions occurred where the issue exploded beyond their control in horrific violence.
  • Anglican Complicity in the Genocide in Rwanda 20 September 2009 14:38 UTC www.rci.rutgers.edu [Source type: Original source]

.It was very difficult right after the genocide for Tutsis to trust Hutus, whether or not they had any involvement in the genocide.^ They looted the Hutu and killed the Tutsi?"
  • �����Rwanda Massacre and Genocide � Clinton and the world, Rwanda government genocide ������The WE News Archives ������ 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.thewe.cc [Source type: Original source]

^ They were fighting for the rights of all Tutsi.
  • The Walrus » The Rwanda Genocide: A Reconciliation » By Jina Moore 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC walrusmagazine.com [Source type: General]

^ The Hutu who were with them, they said, did not understand that only Tutsi were being targeted for killing (African Rights 1995: 329, 330, 332).
  • The Media and the Rwanda Genocide 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.idrc.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda

.With the return of the refugees, the government began the long-awaited genocide trials, which had an uncertain start at the end of 1996 and inched forward in 1997. In 2001, the government began implementing a participatory justice system, known as Gacaca, in order to address the enormous backlog of cases.^ In 2001, the government began implementation of a grassroots village-level justice system, known as gacaca , in order to address the enormous backlog of cases stemming from the genocide.
  • Rwanda (12/09) 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Less than 100,000 Rwandans are estimated to remain outside of Rwanda, and they are thought to be the remnants of the defeated army of the former genocidal government, its allies in the civilian militias known as Interahamwe , and soldiers recruited in the refugee camps before 1996.
  • Rwanda (12/09) 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Despite periodic prison releases, including the most recent January 2006 release of approximately 7,000 prisoners, tens of thousands of individuals remain in the prison system, some scheduled to face the traditional court system, some awaiting trial by gacaca courts, some convicted by gacaca courts and returned to serve their sentences.
  • Rwanda (12/09) 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[62] .Meanwhile, the UN set up the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda, currently based in Arusha, Tanzania.^ It opened a news correspondents' desk at the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR), which had recently been set up at Arusha.
  • The Media and the Rwanda Genocide 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.idrc.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The tapes that remain are part of the documentation of the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda.
  • The Media and the Rwanda Genocide 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.idrc.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ ICTR-97–32-DP (International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda).
  • The Media and the Rwanda Genocide 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.idrc.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The UN Tribunal has jurisdiction over high level members of the government and armed forces, while Rwanda is responsible for prosecuting lower level leaders and local people.^ Rwanda Armed Forces officer .
  • The Media and the Rwanda Genocide 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.idrc.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The government has done everything in its power to prevent the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda from prosecuting RPF crimes, has tried and convicted only one RPF senior officer for massacres committed in 1994, and has refused to allow accountability for RPF crimes in the gacaca courts.
  • Ingando Solidarity Camps:Reconciliation and Political Indoctrination in Post-Genocide Rwanda 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.law.harvard.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Nowrojee takes issue with the Rwanda tribunal's failure to prosecute journalists specifically for inciting sexual violence.
  • The Media and the Rwanda Genocide 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.idrc.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[63] .Tensions arose between Rwanda and the UN over the use of the death penalty, though these were largely resolved once Rwanda abolished the punishment in 2007.[64] However, domestic tensions continued over support for the death penalty, and the interest in conducting the trials at home.^ For Madalena, there has been continuing death and suffering but Louis Rutaganira remarried and passionately wants to believe in a better Rwanda for the sake of his three young children.
  • Rwanda 10 years on: not forgiven, not forgotten - FeaturesWorld - www.theage.com.au 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.theage.com.au [Source type: Original source]
  • Anglican Complicity in the Genocide in Rwanda 20 September 2009 14:38 UTC www.rci.rutgers.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ In addition to this incongruity, the use of capital punishment by Rwanda in such a politically and emotionally charged atmosphere will not contribute to the process of reconciliation, some conference particpants believed.
  • Rwanda: Accountability for War Crimes and Genocide | United States Institute of Peace 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.usip.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Philip, 56, also awaiting trial, claimed that two of his own friends were once saluted by Hitimana on Radio Rwanda.
  • The Media and the Rwanda Genocide 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.idrc.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In ten years the Arusha tribunal only succeeded in sentencing 20 people.^ Ten years ago today : Pope John Paul II addressed a message to the people of Rwanda: .
  • 100 Days of Rwanda: June 2004 Archives 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.silent-edge.org [Source type: News]

^ The organisation is also involved in informing the people about the work of the Arusha Tribunal and the ordinary court processes in Rwanda.
  • Prosecuting Genocide in Rwanda 20 September 2009 14:38 UTC donika.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Thousands of people were directly involved in acts of genocide, but the UN Tribunal will be able to prosecute only about 50 persons a year.
  • Judicial Responses to Genocide: International Criminal Tribunal 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC web.africa.ufl.edu [Source type: Original source]

.In 2003, in an attempt to redress this mismanagement,[citation needed] the UN appointed Hassan Bubacar Jallow chief prosecutor with exclusive jurisdiction over Rwanda.^ Del Pontes successor at the ICTR, the Gambian Hassan Bubacar Jallow, subsequently confirmed that the shooting down of the aircraft is not a case that falls within our jurisdiction (3).
  • �����Rwanda Massacre and Genocide � Clinton and the world, Rwanda government genocide ������The WE News Archives ������ 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.thewe.cc [Source type: Original source]

^ It wished “to challenge the attempt by the prosecutor to point to Rwanda as the cause of the crisis and not to the Tribunal itself.” .
  • Prosecuting Genocide in Rwanda 20 September 2009 14:38 UTC donika.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Chief Prosecutor is common for the Rwanda and Yugoslavia tribunals.
  • Prosecuting Genocide in Rwanda 20 September 2009 14:38 UTC donika.com [Source type: Original source]

.Faced with the local criminal system's inability to cope with a number of detainees awaiting trial in Rwandan jails reaching 90,000, in 2000 a series of popular tribunals called gacaca courts were setup.^ In order to face this great challenge, the authorities have introduced “popular courts”, called “Gacaca”.
  • Prosecuting Genocide in Rwanda 20 September 2009 14:38 UTC donika.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Despite periodic prison releases, including the most recent January 2006 release of approximately 7,000 prisoners, tens of thousands of individuals remain in the prison system, some scheduled to face the traditional court system, some awaiting trial by gacaca courts, some convicted by gacaca courts and returned to serve their sentences.
  • Rwanda (12/09) 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The government has done everything in its power to prevent the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda from prosecuting RPF crimes, has tried and convicted only one RPF senior officer for massacres committed in 1994, and has refused to allow accountability for RPF crimes in the gacaca courts.
  • Ingando Solidarity Camps:Reconciliation and Political Indoctrination in Post-Genocide Rwanda 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.law.harvard.edu [Source type: Original source]

.The convicted are invited to admit their guilt in exchange for significant reductions in their sentences.^ Category 1 offenders cannot have their sentence reduced even if they admit guilt before trial.

^ The law establishes degrees of culpability based on several factors and then offers graduated sentences which can be reduced, in many cases, if the accused admits guilt.

.On Thursday, December 18, 2008, Theoneste Bagosora was found guilty of crimes against humanity.^ It defined the crime of rape as a crime against humanity.
  • The Media and the Rwanda Genocide 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.idrc.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Crimes against Humanity (62) .
  • Dissident Voice : The Rwanda Genocide Fabrications 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC dissidentvoice.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Article 3 prohibits crimes against humanity.

.He was charged by UN judge Erik Møse, and sentenced to life in prison.^ Nahimana was sentenced to life in prison and Barayagwiza received a sentence of 35 years (ICTR 2003: para.
  • The Media and the Rwanda Genocide 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.idrc.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These will be judged by the Gacaca on municipality level and may be sentenced to life in prison.
  • Prosecuting Genocide in Rwanda 20 September 2009 14:38 UTC donika.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Rwandan historian Ferdinand Nahimana (sentenced to life in prison in 2003).
  • The Media and the Rwanda Genocide 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.idrc.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[65] .The court also found Bagosora responsible for the deaths of former Rwandan Prime Minister Agathe Uwilingiyimana and 10 Belgian peacekeepers.^ The prime minister and her 10 Belgian bodyguards were among the first victims.
  • Rwanda (12/09) 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On April 6 and April 7, 1994 the staff of the Rwandan Armed Forces (FAR) and Colonel Bagosora clashed verbally with the UNAMIR Force Commander Lieutenant General Dallaire, who stressed the legal authority of the Prime Minister, Agathe Uwilingiyimana, to take control of the situation as outlined in the Arusha Accords.
  • �����Rwanda Massacre and Genocide � Clinton and the world, Rwanda government genocide ������The WE News Archives ������ 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.thewe.cc [Source type: Original source]

^ After the airplane carrying Rwandan President Juvenal Habyarimana and Hutu president of Burundi Cyprien Ntaryamira was shot down, UN peacekeeping personnel were assigned to protect Agathe Uwilingiyimana, the prime minister of Rwanda's interim government.
  • Rwanda Genocide | Go2Africa | Africa Travel Newsletter | African Safari Travel | Go 2 Africa 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.go2africa.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Media and popular culture

.Lieutenant-General Roméo Dallaire became the most well-known eyewitness to the genocide after co-writing the 2003 book Shake Hands with the Devil: The Failure of Humanity in Rwanda describing his experiences with depression and post-traumatic stress disorder.^ Roméo Dallaire is a retired Lieutenant-General.
  • The Media and the Rwanda Genocide 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.idrc.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Shake hands with the devil: the journey of Roméo Dallaire .
  • The Media and the Rwanda Genocide 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.idrc.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Shake Hands with the Devil Film named for Roméo Dallaire's book.
  • Rwanda on the Internet - Stanford University 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC library.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

[66] Another firsthand account of the Rwandan genocide is offered by Dr. James Orbinski in his book "An Imperfect Offering: Humanitarian Action in the Twenty-first Century." The critically acclaimed and multiple Academy Award-nominated 2004 film Hotel Rwanda is based on the experiences of Paul Rusesabagina, a Kigali hotelier at the Hôtel des Mille Collines who sheltered over a thousand refugees during the genocide.[67] .It is listed by the American Film Institute as one of the 100 most inspirational movies of all time.^ Of all of the books and articles I have read about the Rwandan genocide, even Samantha Powers book, yours is one of the most moving.
  • The Walrus » The Rwanda Genocide: A Reconciliation » By Jina Moore 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC walrusmagazine.com [Source type: General]
  • The Walrus » The Rwanda Genocide: A Reconciliation » By Jina Moore 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.walrusmagazine.com [Source type: General]

^ One of the most startling figures about Rwanda is that in 1994, 95% of the population was rural—this was the lowest degree of urbanization in the world at that time (Verwimp 2000, p.
  • LAND CONFLICT AND GENOCIDE IN RWANDA - EJSD Journal of Sustainable Development 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.ejsd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Why did you join an association with killers?” I spent one week thinking about it all the time.
  • The Walrus » The Rwanda Genocide: A Reconciliation » By Jina Moore 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.walrusmagazine.com [Source type: General]

This same story is related in Rusesabagina's autobiography An Ordinary Man.
.In 2005, Alison Des Forges wrote that eleven years after the genocide, films for popular audiences on the subject greatly increased the "widespread realization of the horror that had taken the lives of more than half a million Tutsi".[13] In 2007, Charlie Beckett, Director of POLIS, made the following observation: "How many people saw the movie Hotel Rwanda?^ Alison Des Forges, op.
  • Disconnecting the Threads: Rwanda and the Holocaust Reconsidered - by Ren� Lemarchand 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.ideajournal.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ How many people are in your party?
  • Rwanda Genocide | Go2Africa | Africa Travel Newsletter | African Safari Travel | Go 2 Africa 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.go2africa.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ How many were taken in or set up?
  • The Media and the Rwanda Genocide 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.idrc.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[it is] ironically the way that most people now relate to Rwanda."[68]
.The song Rwanda by the punk-ska band Rancid from the album Rancid (2000 album) is about the Rwandan genocide.^ Rwanda: obscuring the truth about the genocide .
  • �����Rwanda Massacre and Genocide � Clinton and the world, Rwanda government genocide ������The WE News Archives ������ 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.thewe.cc [Source type: Original source]

^ As hundreds of thousands of ordinary Rwandans had picked up their machetes and actively participated in the genocide, Rwanda faced an unprecedented situation.
  • The Media and the Rwanda Genocide 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.idrc.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In all the discussions held about Rwanda before the genocide began, the focus had been on how to implement the Arusha accords.
  • The Media and the Rwanda Genocide 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.idrc.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In 2006, Immaculée Ilibagiza survived the genocide and documented her story in Left to Tell: Discovering God Amidst the Rwandan Holocaust (2006).^ One page on the book which "tells the story of the 1994 Rwanda genocide through drawings by its child survivors."
  • Rwanda on the Internet - Stanford University 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC library.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The USA has not done that, but the American president at the time, Bill Clinton, apologised to the surviving Rwandans for USA's failure to take action to prevent the genocide.
  • Prosecuting Genocide in Rwanda 20 September 2009 14:38 UTC donika.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1994, 500,000 to one million Rwandan Tutsis along with thousands of moderate Hutus, were murdered in the clearest case of genocide since the Holocaust.
  • COULD THE RWANDAN GENOCIDE HAVE BEEN PREVENTED 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.genocidewatch.org [Source type: Original source]

.Left to Tell recounts how Immaculée Ilibagiza survived for 91 days with seven other women during the holocaust in a damp and small bathroom, no larger than 3 feet (0.91 m) long and 4 feet (1.2 m) wide.^ But after the initial flurry of attention in the first few days of April, most international media representatives were evacuated with the other expatriates and it seemed like there was no one left, like no one cared.
  • The Media and the Rwanda Genocide 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.idrc.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ According to RTLM, any controversy, no matter how big or small, was due to the RPF and Tutsi.
  • The Media and the Rwanda Genocide 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.idrc.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Media Trial is unfortunately symptomatic of a larger neglect by the ICTR prosecutor to fully prosecute crimes of sexual violence directed at Rwandan women during the genocide.
  • The Media and the Rwanda Genocide 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.idrc.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[69]

Accusations of revisionism

.The context of the 1994 Rwandan genocide continues to be a matter of historical debate.^ Sacrifice as Terror: the Rwandan Genocide of 1994 .
  • The Media and the Rwanda Genocide 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.idrc.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ More than 500,000 members of the Tutsi ethnic minority and moderates from the Hutu majority were slaughtered during the 100-day Rwandan genocide in 1994.
  • PhillyBurbs.com:  Key Rwandan genocide suspect pleads not guilty 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.phillyburbs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Both physical and rhetorical violence against the Tutsi continued to escalate from the RPF incursion until the genocide actually started in April 1994.
  • The Media and the Rwanda Genocide 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.idrc.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[70] There have been frequent charges of revisionism.[71] .A "double genocides" theory, accusing the Tutsis of engaging in a "counter-genocide" against the Hutus,[72] is promulgated in Black Furies, White Liars (2005), the controversial book by French investigative journalist Pierre Péan.^ Concerns the genocide against the Tutsis.
  • Rwanda on the Internet - Stanford University 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC library.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ More than 500,000 members of the Tutsi ethnic minority and moderates from the Hutu majority were slaughtered during the 100-day Rwandan genocide in 1994.
  • PhillyBurbs.com:  Key Rwandan genocide suspect pleads not guilty 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.phillyburbs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Questions over the causes of the genocide, over the downing of Habyarimana's plane, over the non-intervention of the Western UN members, over suspected French complicity with the Hutus, all remain unanswered.
  • Rwanda Genocide | Go2Africa | Africa Travel Newsletter | African Safari Travel | Go 2 Africa 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.go2africa.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Jean-Pierre Chrétien, a French historian whom Péan describes as an active member of the "pro-Tutsi lobby," criticizes Péan's "amazing revisionist passion".[73]
Another person accused of genocide revisionism[74][75] with respect to Rwanda is the Montreal writer Robin Philpot, whom Gerald Caplan identified in a 2007 Globe and Mail article as believing that "many people were killed in 1994 by both sides making those who carried out the genocide and their enemies morally equivalent." He further charges that Philpot argued "[t]here was no one-sided conspiracy by armed Hutu forces and militias against a million defenceless Tutsi, he says. Since the evidence completely contradicts these assertions, Mr. Philpot churns out a strange, incoherent series of assertions, rumours and speculation tied together solely by his unwavering determination to deny the truth."

See also

Bibliography

Filmography

Notes

  1. ^ a b Des Forges, Alison (1999). Leave None to Tell the Story: Genocide in Rwanda. Human Rights Watch. ISBN 1-56432-171-1. http://www.hrw.org/reports/1999/rwanda. Retrieved 2007-01-12. 
  2. ^ See, e.g., Rwanda: How the genocide happened, BBC, April 1, 2004, which gives an estimate of 800,000, and OAU sets inquiry into Rwanda genocide, Africa Recovery, Vol. 12 1#1 (August 1998), page 4, which estimates the number at between 500,000 and 1,000,000. 7 out of every 10 Tutsis were killed.
  3. ^ Wallis, Andrew. Silent accomplice. 2006, page 38-41
  4. ^ Walter, Barbara F. and Snyder, Jack L. Civil Wars, Insecurity, and Intervention. 1999, page 135
  5. ^ Staff. pastgenocides, Burundi resources on the website of Prevent Genocide International lists the following resources:
    • Michael Bowen, Passing by;: The United States and genocide in Burundi, 1972, (Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, 1973), 49 pp.
    • René Lemarchand, Selective genocide in Burundi (Report - Minority Rights Group ; no. 20, 1974), 36 pp.
    • Rene Lemarchand, Burundi: Ethnic Conflict and Genocide (New York: Woodrow Wilson Center and Cambridge University Press, 1996), 232 pp.
    • Edward L. Nyankanzi, Genocide: Rwanda and Burundi (Schenkman Books, 1998), 198 pp.
    • Christian P. Scherrer, Genocide and crisis in Central Africa : conflict roots, mass violence, and regional war; foreword by Robert Melson. Westport, Conn. : Praeger, 2002.
    • Weissman, Stephen R. "Preventing Genocide in Burundi Lessons from International Diplomacy", United States Institute of Peace
  6. ^ Linda Melvern, Conspiracy to Murder: The Rwandan Genocide, Verso, 2004, ISBN 1859845886, p. 49
  7. ^ Neuffer, Elizabeth. The Key to My Neighbor's House. 2002, page 102
  8. ^ "Leave None to Tell the Story: Genocide in Rwanda." Human Rights Watch. Report (Updated April 1, 2004)
  9. ^ Qtd. by Mark Doyle. "Ex-Rwandan PM reveals genocide planning." BBC News. On-line posting. March 26, 2004.
  10. ^ Melvern, Linda. Conspiracy to Murder. 2006, p. 25-8
  11. ^ http://www.comminit.com/en/node/189378/36
  12. ^ http://www.internews.org.rw/case_study.htm
  13. ^ a b c d e http://www.idrc.ca/rwandagenocide/ev-108178-201-1-DO_TOPIC.html
  14. ^ a b c d e f de Brouwer, Anne-Marie (2005) [2005]. Supranational Criminal Prosecution of Sexual Violence. Intersentia. pp. 13. ISBN 9050955339. http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=JhY8ROsA39kC&dq=war+rape+in+ancient+times&source=gbs_summary_s&cad=0. 
  15. ^ "Report of the Independent Inquiry into the Actions of the United Nations During the 1994 Genocide in Rwanda" (PDF). December 15, 1999. pp. 4–5. http://129.194.252.80/catfiles/1614.pdf. Retrieved 2007-02-24. 
  16. ^ Hate media in Rwanda The International Development Research Centre
  17. ^ a b Dictionary of Genocide", Samuel Totten, Paul Robert Bartrop, Steven L. Jacobs, p. 380, Greenwood Publishing Group, 2008, ISBN 0313346445
  18. ^ Rwandan Genocide: The Clergy Human Rights Watch
  19. ^ http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/africa/791907.stm
  20. ^ [1]
  21. ^ Roméo Dallaire. "Shake Hands with the Devil: The Failure of Humanity in Rwanda". London: Arrow Books, 2004. 242-244. ISBN 0-09-947893-5
  22. ^ Faustin Twagiramungu from the opposition party Democratic Republican Movement was supposed to become Prime Minister after Agathe Uwilingiyimana assassination. However, on April 9, 1994, Jean Kambanda was sworn in. Faustin Twagiramungu became Prime Minister on July 19, 1994, only after the Rwandese Patriotic Front captured Kigali.
  23. ^ a b c Prunier, Gérard. The Rwanda Crisis. 1997, p.244
  24. ^ Qtd. in The Rwanda Crisis: History of a Genocide (London: Hurst, 1995), by Gérard Prunier; rpt. in "Rwanda & Burundi: The Conflict." Contemporary Tragedy. On-line posting. The Holocaust: A Tragic Legacy.
  25. ^ a b APPEALS CHAMBER DECISIONS
  26. ^ International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (December 13, 2006). "Catholic Priest Athanase Seromba Sentenced to Fifteen Years". Press release. http://69.94.11.53/ENGLISH/PRESSREL/2006/503.htm. Retrieved 2007-01-07. 
  27. ^ International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (December 22, 2006). "Prosecutor to Appeal Against Seromba's Sentence". Press release. http://69.94.11.53/ENGLISH/PRESSREL/2006/507.htm. Retrieved 2007-01-07. 
  28. ^ (PDF) ICTR YEARBOOK 1994-1996. International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda. pp. 77–8. http://129.194.252.80/catfiles/0714.pdf. Retrieved 2007-01-07. 
  29. ^ "RWANDA: No consensus on genocide death toll". Agence France-Presse. hosted by iAfrica.com. On-line posting. April 6, 2004.
  30. ^ Fourth Annual Report of the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda to the General Assembly (September, 1999), accessed at [2].
  31. ^ a b c de Brouwer, Anne-Marie (2005) [2005]. Supranational Criminal Prosecution of Sexual Violence. Intersentia. pp. 14. ISBN 9050955339. http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=JhY8ROsA39kC&dq=war+rape+in+ancient+times&source=gbs_summary_s&cad=0. 
  32. ^ a b c de Brouwer, Anne-Marie (2005) [2005]. Supranational Criminal Prosecution of Sexual Violence. Intersentia. pp. 11. ISBN 9050955339. http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=JhY8ROsA39kC&dq=war+rape+in+ancient+times&source=gbs_summary_s&cad=0. 
  33. ^ Report of The Independent Inquiry into the Actions of the UN During the 1994 Genocide in Rwanda; Statement of the Secretary-General on Receiving the Report [1999])
  34. ^ "Frontline: interview with Phillip Gourevitch.". http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/evil/interviews/gourevitch.html. Retrieved 2007-04-09. 
  35. ^ Timeline of Events in Rwanda, American RadioWorks (see April 14, 1994)
  36. ^ UN Security Council Resolution 912 (1994), implementing an "adjustment" of UNAMIR's mandate and force level as outlined in the Special Report of the Secretary-General on the United Nations Assistance Mission for Rwanda dated April 20, 1994 (document no. S/1994/470)
  37. ^ "Frontline: the triumph of evil.". http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/evil/. Retrieved 2007-04-09. 
  38. ^ Various PBS contributors, 100 days of Slaughter: A Chronology of U.S./U.N. Actions, http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/evil/etc/slaughter.html, retrieved 2007-07-26 
  39. ^ Schabas 2000:461
  40. ^ Evidence of Inaction: A National Security Archive Briefing Book, ed. Ferroggiaro)
  41. ^ a b Linda Melvern, "France and genocide", The Times, 08 August 2008.
  42. ^ "France accused on Rwanda killings", BBC News, October 24, 2006
  43. ^ a b "Génocide rwandais: le rapport sur le rôle de la France remis à Paul Kagamé", AFP, November 17, 2007
  44. ^ Tracy Wilkinson (2008-02-07). "Spanish judge indicts Rwanda officers". LA Times. http://articles.latimes.com/2008/feb/07/world/fg-rwanda7. Retrieved 2009-04-02. 
  45. ^ "SFrance took part in 1994 genocide: Rwandan report". AFP. 2008-02-05. http://afp.google.com/article/ALeqM5jOlufsBxNXIw5nXaUj6N_f1QVvuQ. Retrieved 2009-04-02. 
  46. ^ a b c "France accused in Rwanda genocide"BBC, 05 August 2008.
  47. ^ Rwanda: French accused in genocide, New York Times, 06 August 2008.
  48. ^ Arthur Asiimwe (2008-08-05). "Rwanda accuses France directly over 1994 genocide". Reuters. http://www.reuters.com/article/newsMaps/idUSL568658520080805. Retrieved 2008-08-05. 
  49. ^ Martin Plaut (2008-08-05). "Rwanda report raises issue of motive". BBC News. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/7544267.stm. Retrieved 2009-04-02. 
  50. ^ a b N° 1271: ASSEMBLÉE NATIONALE: CONSTITUTION DU 4 OCTOBRE 1958: ONZIÈME LÉGISLATURE: Enregistré à la Présidence de l'Assemblée nationale le 15 décembre 1998: RAPPORT D'INFORMATION: DÉPOSÉ: en application de l'article 145 du Règlement: PAR LA MISSION D'INFORMATION(1) DE LA COMMISSION DE LA DÉFENSE NATIONALE ET DES FORCES ARMÉES ET DE LA COMMISSION DES AFFAIRES ÉTRANGÈRES, sur les opérations militaires menées par la France, d'autres pays et l'ONU au Rwanda entre 1990 et 1994. Online posting. National Assembly of France. December 15, 1998. Proposition 1271
  51. ^ http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/low/africa/8535803.stm
  52. ^ "Kagame: Quiet soldier who runs Rwanda". BBC. November 14, 2000. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/africa/689405.stm. Retrieved 26 November 2007. 
  53. ^ Lynn Duke (1997-08-16). "U.S. military role in Rwanda greater than disclosed". Washington Post. http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1P2-738116.html. Retrieved 2009-08-22. 
  54. ^ "Rwandan crisis deepens as Kagame begins seven-year term" by Alex Lefebvre, September 13, 2003
  55. ^ "The U.S. and the genocide in Rwanda 1994", edited by William Ferroggiaro, August 20, 2001
  56. ^ Col. Scott R. Feil. "Could 4,999 Peacekeepers Have Saved 500,000 Rwandans?: Early Intervention Reconsidered", ISD Report
  57. ^ Transcript of remarks by Mark Doyle in Panel 3: International media coverage of the Genocide of the symposium Media and the Rwandan Genocide held at Carleton University, March 13, 2004
  58. ^ Ch. 10: "The Rwandan genocide and its aftermath"PDF in State of the World's Refugees 2000, United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees
  59. ^ "Operation Support Hope". GlobalSecurity.org. 2005-04-27. http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/ops/support_hope.htm. Retrieved 2008-10-02. 
  60. ^ Homepage for the United Nations Assistance Mission for Rwanda, un.org
  61. ^ Power, Samantha. "Bystanders to Genocide." Atlantic Monthly. Sept. 2001.<http://www.theatlantic.com/doc/200109/power-genocide>.
  62. ^ "Rwanda still searching for justice" by Robert Walker, BBC News, March 30, 2004
  63. ^ "Justice and Responsibility" chapter in "Leave None to Tell the Story: Genocide in Rwanda", Human Rights Watch, 1999
  64. ^ "Rwanda's ban on executions helps bring genocide justice", Reuters via CNN, July 27, 2007
  65. ^ Planner of Rwandan Massacres convicted of Genocide.
  66. ^ "Camouflage and exposure", Canadian Medical Association Journal, April 29, 2003; 168 (9)
  67. ^ 'Hotel Rwanda' Official movie site
  68. ^ http://www.polismedia.org/rwandatranscript.aspx
  69. ^ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Immaculee_Ilibagiza
  70. ^ Letter by Gasana Ndoba (President de La Commission Nationale des Droits de L'Homme du Rwanda). Conference Mondiale sur Le Racisme, La Discrimation Raciale, La Xenophobie et L'Intolerance qui y est associée. Durban, South Africa, 31 August-7 September 2001. Online posting.
  71. ^ N° 300 ASSEMBLÉE NATIONALE: CONSTITUTION DU 4 OCTOBRE 1958: DOUZIÈME LÉGISLATURE: Enregistré à la Présidence de l'Assemblée nationale le 15 octobre 2002. Online posting. National Assembly of France. Proposition 300
  72. ^ Jean-Paul Gouteux. "Mémoire et révisionnisme du génocide rwandais en France: Racines politiques, impact médiatique." Online posting. Amnistia.net February 12, 2004.
  73. ^ "Point de Vue: Un pamphlet teinté d'africanisme colonial." Le Monde December 9, 2005. Qtd. by Thierry Perret in "Les dossiers de presse : Afrique-France: Rwanda/« l’affaire » Péan." Online posting. RFI Service Pro December 22, 2005. Chrétien's "Point de Vue" posted online in Observatoire de l'Afrique centrale 8 (December 2005).
  74. ^ http://www.genocidewatch.org/images/Rwanda-13-Mar-07-First_the_Deed,_Then_the_Denial.pdf
  75. ^ Release of Rwanda's mastermind of death promotes genocide denial, Harvard Law Record, 4 December 2009

External links

.


Study guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010
(Redirected to Rwandan Genocide article)

From Wikiversity

.The Rwandan Genocide (1994) involved the mass killing of hundreds of thousands of ethnic Tutsis and moderate [[w:HBold textutu|Hutu]] sympathisers in Rwanda and was the largest atrocity during the Rwandan Civil War and was one of the most significant human atrocities of the twentieth century.^ Rwanda in Central Africa was the scene of the mass killing of hundreds of thousands of Tutsis and Hutu political moderates in 1994 by Hutus over the course of 100 days.
  • Tune In: Understanding the Rwandan genocide (SMU Forum) 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC blog.smu.edu [Source type: News]

^ Mass killings genocide begins.
  • �����Rwanda Massacre and Genocide � Clinton and the world, Rwanda government genocide ������The WE News Archives ������ 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.thewe.cc [Source type: Original source]

^ In about one hundred days in 1994, hundreds of thousands of Rwandans were killed, not in battle but simply murdered.
  • Rwanda Since the Genocide 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.edhelper.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Overview

.
Kigali Memorial Centre, Gisozi, Rwanda.
  • The Rwandan genocide was mostly carried out by two extremist Hutu militia groups, the Interahamwe and the Impuzamugambi, during about 100 days from April 6 through mid-July, 1994.
  • Somewhere between half a million and one million people were systematically slaughtered in three months (~100 days).
  • Approx.^ Discussion about Key Rwandan genocide .
    • Discussion about Key Rwandan genocide | Gather 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.gather.com [Source type: General]

    ^ The attack on Kigali Memorial Centre is not just an attack on memory.
    • Holocaust Centre hosts Rwandan Genocide vigil | Holocaust Centre News 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.aegistrust.org [Source type: News]

    ^ "Did we 'fail' to denounce the genocide committed by Hutu extremists starting in April 1994?
    • News - Africa: Juppe slams Rwanda genocide claims 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.iol.co.za [Source type: News]
    • France condemns Rwanda genocide report - Telegraph 19 September 2009 0:39 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: News]

    .14% of the Rwandan population died, including approximately 77% of Tutsis living in Rwanda.
  • This is numerically equivalent to approximately three September 11 incidents occurring every day for three months.
  • At least 500,000 Tutsis and thousands of moderate Hutus died.^ More than 500,000 Tutsis and moderate Hutus were massacred in 100 days of frenzied killing.
    • Rwandan inquiry concludes soldiers shot down presidential plane on eve of 1994 genocide | San Francisco Examiner 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.sfexaminer.com [Source type: News]
    • Rwandan inquiry concludes soldiers shot down presidential plane on eve of 1994 genocide - WJW 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.fox8.com [Source type: News]
    • Rwandan inquiry concludes soldiers shot down presidential plane on eve of 1994 genocide - South Florida Sun-Sentinel.com 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.sun-sentinel.com [Source type: News]
    • Rwandan inquiry concludes soldiers shot down presidential plane on eve of 1994 genocide - KTVI 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.fox2now.com [Source type: News]
    • Rwandan panel says army shot down president's jet - WLOX-TV and WLOX.com - Building South Mississippi Together | 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.wlox.com [Source type: News]
    • Rwandan panel says army shot down president's jet 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.wate.com [Source type: News]
    • Rwandan inquiry concludes soldiers shot down presidential plane on eve of 1994 genocide - KTLA 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.ktla.com [Source type: News]
    • Rwandan inquiry concludes soldiers shot down presidential plane on eve of 1994 genocide - dailypress.com 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.dailypress.com [Source type: News]
    • Rwandan inquiry concludes soldiers shot down presidential plane on eve of 1994 genocide - baltimoresun.com 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.baltimoresun.com [Source type: News]
    • Rwandan inquiry concludes soldiers shot down presidential plane on eve of 1994 genocide - themorningcall.com 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.mcall.com [Source type: News]
    • Rwandan inquiry concludes soldiers shot down presidential plane on eve of 1994 genocide - KIAH 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.39online.com [Source type: News]

    ^ Amnesty International estimated that 500,000 Rwandans had been killed by this day.
    • 100 Days of Rwanda: June 2004 Archives 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.silent-edge.org [Source type: News]

    ^ The Tutsis are a small minority of the population (14% or so.
    • Transitional Justice Forum: Rwanda: Challenges of the post-genocide 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC tj-forum.org [Source type: Original source]

    Note that several estimates put the death toll between 700,000 and 1,000,000, depending on the source.

See also

Wikipedia-logo.png .Run a search on Rwandan Genocide at Wikipedia.^ Search.com: Rwandan Genocide .
  • �����Rwanda Massacre and Genocide � Clinton and the world, Rwanda government genocide ������The WE News Archives ������ 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.thewe.cc [Source type: Original source]

^ Rwandans are searching for comfort, respect, societal and individual betterment, and for answers as to why the genocide occurred and how it can be prevented in the future.
  • Global Youth Connect: Rwanda Background Information 6 February 2010 13:22 UTC www.globalyouthconnect.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In April 1994, the launching of a genocide by Rwandan extremists brought about the collapse of a long-running cease-fire and brought the two sides back to war.
  • Custom essay on Politics / Rwanda Genocide Genocide in Rwanda - Essay Empire: Premium Custom Essay Writing Service 20 September 2009 14:38 UTC www.essayempire.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Commons-logo.svg Search Wikimedia Commons for images, sounds and other media related to: Rwandan Genocide

External links


Simple English


The Rwandan Genocide was the killing in the central African nation of Rwanda of abatutsi as well as abahutu.

Contents

Common mistake

Though many people think the slaughter took place only from April 6th to mid-July in 1994, the genocide had been happening on a smaller scale since the so-called Hutu Revolution in 1959.

Trivia

It was five times faster than the Holocaust, and was carried out mostly by tools like imipanga (machetes) and clubs. Many countries did almost nothing to stop it, and some countries, such as France, even helped the génocidaires. France and Rwanda decided to restore diplomatic ties again in November 2009.[1]

1994

The 1994 genocide started when the aeroplane of Hutu Rwandan dictator Juvénal Habyarimana was shot down on the night of April 6th. It is still not known who shot the plane down, though many people think that Hutu extremists shot it down in order to make Hutu supporters angry and start the 1994 genocide. Within a half an hour, roadblocks had been set up all over Kigali by the Hutu extremist Interahamwe and Impuzamugambi militias.

Intervention

They and the army soon began going house to house in Kigali, killing abatutsi (whom the killers called inyenzi meaning 'cockroaches') and moderate abahutu. By morning on April 7th the killings had reached full swing in Kigali. Interahamwe were running around with bloody tools killing and looting. Other countries' journalists were able to film many of these things. Abatutsi gathered in places they thought would be safe, like schools and churches. In a few days, the genocide had spread all over the country. Three days later, Westerners were taken away while Rwandans were forced to stay behind.

Example

One memorable case was at Rwanda's only psychiatric hospital, which had been surrounded by the Interahamwe. Belgian soldiers came to take away Westerners to safety. Journalists had come with them to film what happened. A large group of abatutsi came running out with their hands raised, asking for help. A few of them who could speak French tried negotiating with the soldiers for help. But the soldiers would not let them come. As they left, they could clearly see the Interahamwe starting to kill the batutsi. Similar things happened all over Rwanda.

Recovery

Recovery has been slow but significant. A gacaca court system has been established to try the killers. A lot of victims are starting to forgive the killers, and it is widely said that the first step to preventing it from happening again is forgiveness instead of vengeance.

References

  1. New York Times, 29.11.09


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 20, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Rwandan Genocide, which are similar to those in the above article.








Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address
Message