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S-400 Triumf
NATO reporting name: SA-21 Growler
S-400 Triumf SAM.png
S-400 Triumf launch vehicle
Type Transportable SAM system
Place of origin  Russia
Service history
In service 2007[1]–present
Used by  Russia
Production history
Designer Almaz/Antei Concern of Air Defence (PVO Konsern)
Designed Late 1990s-Early 2000s
Manufacturer Fakel Machine-Building Design Bureau

The S-400 Triumf (Russian: C-400 «Триумф») is a new generation air defense system developed primarily by the Almaz Central Design Bureau as an upgrade of the S-300 family.

The S-400's NATO reporting name is SA-21 Growler, and the system was previously known as S-300PMU-3. It overshadows the capabilities of the other systems from the S-300 series, and its range is claimed to be at least two times the MIM-104 Patriot system's.[2][3]

According to Russian sources, the S-400 is capable of detecting and simultaneously engaging six targets[4] out to a range of 400 km (250 miles), including aircraft, cruise missiles, and ballistic missiles up to the Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty limits of a range of 3,500 km and a speed of 4.8 km/s[1].Furthermore, it is claimed to have heightened capabilities to counter stealth aircraft.[5][6][7] The S-400 is expected to be superseded by the future S-500 missile, with development expected to be completed by 2012.[4]



The development of the S-400 system began in the late 1990s. The system was formally announced by the Russian Air Force in January 1999. On 12 February 1999, the first tests were performed at Kapustin Yar in Astrakhan which was reportedly successful. As a result of this, the S-400 was scheduled for deployment in the Russian army in 2001..

In that same year, the project started encountering delays due to unclear reasons. In 2003 it first became apparent that the system was ready for deployment, but in August two high ranking military officials expressed concerns that the S-400 was being tested using 'obsolete' interceptors from the S-300P and concluded that it was not ready for production.

Finally the completion of the project was announced in February 2004. In April, a ballistic missile was successfully intercepted in a test of the upgraded 48N6DM interceptor missile.


A regular S-400 battalion reportedly consists of at least eight launchers with 32 missiles and a mobile command post.[8]

On 21 May 2007, the Russian Air Force announced that S-400 will be put on combat duty around Moscow and Central Russia by July 1.[9] Further sources claim that S-400 will be deployed near the town of Elektrostal.[10]

On 6 August 2007, the first regiment equipped with S-400 entered active service in Moscow Oblast' near town of Elektrostal, according to Channel One Russia. Russian sources report the regiment based at Elektrostal is the 606th Guards 'Zenith' Rocket Regiment, 9th PVO Division, 1st PVO Corps, of the Special Purpose Command, the air defence command responsible for Moscow and the central industrial region.[11]

On 8 February 2008, Lt. Gen. Vladimir Sviridov announced that Russia will be replacing the S-300 systems in the Northwest of Russia with the more technologically advanced S-400. This could mean that Russia plans for this system to be in place and represent a major component of their ballistic missile defense system until 2020.[12]

A simplified version of the S-400 is also targeting the export market, with China reportedly already having spent $500 million on it. It has also been reported China may have been part of the development process.[13] Russia has also offered the system to the United Arab Emirates and Greece.[14] After showing of the S-400 during the IDEF 2009 in Istanbul Turkey has expressed interest in buying the system.[15]

Perhaps the biggest impact for in particular the United States is nations like Iran expressing interest in the system.[6] Vice Chairman of Russia's State Duma Vladimir Zhirinovsky has urged the fast delivery of the S-400 anti-aircraft missile systems to Iran. Such a move is likely seen as bolstering ties between Moscow and Tehran, something Washington has found difficult to deal with.[16]

23 divisions (8 - 12 launchers each) of S-400 are planned for purchase to 2015.[17]

South Korea is developing a simplified version of the S-400 called Cheolmae-2 with the help of Almaz Central Design Bureau. The Cheolmae-2 will be composed of an X-band multi-function radar vehicle built by Almaz, a command post vehicle and several transporter-erector-launchers for Koreanized 9M96 missiles. The prime contractor is Samsung Thales, a joint venture between Samsung Electronics and Thales of France.[18]

On March 17, 2009 Russia's defence minister announced that a second regiment equipped with advanced S-400 Triumf air defense missile systems has been put into combat service.[19]

On 23 August 2009, RIA Novosti reported that their sources indicated that Russia will not export the S-400 for the next few years.[20]

On 24 August 2009, RIA Novosti reported that their sources indicated that Belarus had submitted a formal request for two battalions of S-400 systems.[21]

India and Iran have also shown interest in this system.In the Turkish Long Range Anti Aircraft Missile Program S-400 is competing with Patriot Advanced Capability 3.SSM is going to make a decision in January 2010.

On August 26, 2009, the General Staff said S-400 systems had been deployed in the Russian Far East to counter possible North Korean missile tests and prevent fragments from falling on Russian territory.[8]

It was recently reported that the S-400 system is part of a two billion dollar arms deal between Russia and Saudi Arabia. Under the deal, the Saudi kingdom would be purchasing at least eight launch units and up to thirty two missiles.[22]


Type Surface-to-air missile
Place of origin  Russia
Production history
Variants 9M96, 9M96E and 9M96E2
Specifications (9M96[1])

Propellant solid propellant rocket motor
400 kilometres (250 mi)[1]
Boost time cold launch ejection system
Speed Mach 12.0
inertial guidance with radio command corrections
gas dynamic flight control system
  • The S-400 is intended to intercept and destroy airborne targets at a distance of up to 400 km (250 miles).[3]
  • The ABM capabilities are near the maximum allowed under the (now void) Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty.
  • Carlo Kopp claims that the radar system possess advanced capabilities against low flying and low RCS targets.[23][24]
  • Detection ranges of 500-600 km have been theorized for future radars.[3]


  •  Russia - Operates 2 battalions as of 2009, to arm 5 more battalions in 2010.

See also


  1. ^ a b c "Almaz/Antei S-400 Triumf (Triumph) (SA-21 Growler) low to high-altitude surface-to-air missile system". Jane's Information Group. 2008-07-28. Retrieved 2008-08-21.  
  2. ^ RIA Novosti - Russia - S-400 system deployment postponed - Russian AF commander -1
  3. ^ a b c - "S-400 Triumf"
  4. ^ a b "Russia set to finish development of new air defense system". RIA Novosti. 16 September 2009. Retrieved 15 September 2009.  
  5. ^ Antey S-300V/VM Giant/Gladiator Air Defence Missile Systems
  6. ^ a b MissileThreat :: S-400 (SA-20 Triumf)
  7. ^ Russia Boasts Most Sophisticated Anti-Aircraft System
  8. ^ a b "Russia deploys S-400 air defense systems in Far East". RIA Novosti. 2009-08-26. Retrieved 2009-08-26.  
  9. ^ RIA Novosti - Russia - S-400 missile defense systems to start defending Moscow July 1
  10. ^ operational deployment near Elektrostal (czech)
  11. ^ 16va_mvo
  12. ^ Russia moves to longer-range interceptors -
  13. ^
  14. ^ - (In Greek)
  15. ^
  16. ^ Press TV - Iran's army to be equipped with S-400
  17. ^ ВЕДОМОСТИ - Оружия не хватит - Для переоснащения армии нет средств
  18. ^ New Contract: ALMAZ Corp. creates Multi-functional radar for South Korea
  19. ^
  20. ^ Russia unlikely to export S-400 SAM systems any time soon - source
  21. ^ Belarus asks Russia for S-400 SAM systems by 2010 - source
  22. ^ Saudi Arabia signs 2 billion dollar weapons deal with Russia - source
  23. ^ Carlo Kopp (November 2003). "Asia's new SAMs" (PDF). Australian Aviation: 30. Retrieved 2006-07-09.  
  24. ^ "Encyclopedia Astronautica - "S-400"". Retrieved 2006-07-09.  

External links



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