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.The SAT Reasoning Test (formerly Scholastic Aptitude Test and Scholastic Assessment Test) is a standardized test for college admissions in the United States.^ Sponsored Results SAT.do-something.com SAT The SAT Reasoning Test (formerly Scholastic Aptitude Test and Scholastic Assessment Test ) is a standardized test for college admissions in the United States .
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^ SAT is now an acronym for Scholastic Assessment Test.
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^ These colleges do not require the SAT for admission.
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.The SAT is owned, published, and developed by the College Board, a non-profit organization in the United States.^ The SAT is owned, published, and developed by the College Board , a non-profit organization in the United States, and was once developed, published, and scored by the Educational Testing Service (ETS).
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^ The College Board began on June 17 , 1901 , when 973 students took its first test, across 67 locations in the United States, and two in Europe.
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^ Originally used mainly by colleges and universities in the north-eastern United States, and developed by Carl Brigham , one of the psychologists who worked on the Army Alpha and Beta tests, the SAT was originally developed as a way to eliminate test bias between people from different socio-economic backgrounds.
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.It was formerly developed, published, and scored by the Educational Testing Service[1] which still administers the exam.^ This study was introduced by The Educational Testing Service, which administers the SAT, and has been conducting research on how to make it easier for minorities and individuals who suffer from social and economic barriers.
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^ Educational Testing Service (ETS), which produces the SAT and four other entrance exams 1 , claims that the test measures not just how capably individuals answer analogy and geometry questions, but how capably they will perform in the academic world.
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^ Princeton, NJ: Educational Testing Service, 1978.
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.The College Board claims the test can assess a student's readiness for college.^ The College Board began on June 17 , 1901 , when 973 students took its first test, across 67 locations in the United States, and two in Europe.
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^ Students who choose to take more subject tests than they signed up for will later be billed by College Board for the additional tests and their scores will be withheld until the bill is paid.
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^ The College Board decided not to change the scores for the students who were given a higher score than they earned.
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.The test was first introduced in 1901, and its name and scoring have changed several times.^ Since the SAT's introduction in 1901, its name and scoring has changed several times.
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^ Name changes and recentered scores .
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^ The College Board began on June 17 , 1901 , when 973 students took its first test, across 67 locations in the United States, and two in Europe.
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.The current SAT Reasoning Test, introduced in 2005, takes three hours and forty-five minutes, and costs $45 ($71 International), excluding late fees.^ The current SAT Reasoning Test is administered in about four hours and costs $45 ($71 International), excluding late fees.
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^ The SAT Reasoning Test costs $45 ($71 International).
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^ In 2005, the test was renamed as "SAT Reasoning Test" with possible scores from 600 to 2400 combining test results from three 800-point sections (math, critical reading, and writing), along with other subsections scored separately.
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[2] .Possible scores range from 600 to 2400, combining test results from three 800-point sections (math, critical reading, and writing).^ Scores range in value from 200 to 800 points for both the math and verbal sections.
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^ Mathematics section consists of three scored sections.
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^ In 2005, the test was renamed as "SAT Reasoning Test" with possible scores from 600 to 2400 combining test results from three 800-point sections (math, critical reading, and writing), along with other subsections scored separately.
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Contents

Function

.The College Board states that the SAT measures literacy and writing skills that are needed for academic success in college.^ The College Board states that the SAT measures critical thinking skills that are needed for academic success in college .
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^ The College Board began on June 17 , 1901 , when 973 students took its first test, across 67 locations in the United States, and two in Europe.
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^ Specifically, the College Board states that use of the SAT in combination with high school grade point average (GPA) provides a better indicator of success in college than high school grades alone, as measured by college freshman GPA .
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.They state that the SAT assesses how well the test takers analyze and solve problems—skills they learned in school that they will need in college.^ They state that the SAT assesses how well the test takers analyze and solve problems—skills they learned in school that they will need in college.
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^ Educational Testing Service (ETS), which produces the SAT and four other entrance exams 1 , claims that the test measures not just how capably individuals answer analogy and geometry questions, but how capably they will perform in the academic world.
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^ This led one ETS researcher to suggest that students should learn "how to behave effectively when taking a test" ( qtd in Nairn 95 ).
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.The SAT is typically taken by high school sophmores, juniors and seniors.^ The SAT is typically taken by high school juniors and seniors .
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^ Various studies conducted over the lifetime of the SAT show a statistically significant increase in correlation of high school grades and freshman grades when the SAT is factored in.
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^ The most selective schools in the United States (for example, those in the Ivy League ) typically had SAT averages exceeding 1400 on the old test.
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[3] .Specifically, the College Board states that use of the SAT in combination with high school grade point average (GPA) provides a better indicator of success in college than high school grades alone, as measured by college freshman GPA.^ An American Council on Education study of 36,581 students in 55 colleges concluded that: "The income of a student's parents has no relationship to freshman GPA, either before of after controlling for high school grades, academic aptitude, and college selectivity" ( Astin; 1971: 14 ).
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^ According to research summarized by ETS in 1979, "the best predictor of accomplishment in college" is not the SAT but "accomplishment in the same area in high school, as measured by simple check lists of nonacademic achievements" ( Baird qtd in Nairn 77 ).
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^ In a very practical sense, the student's ability to stay in college is a more appropriate measure of his success than is his freshman GPA. Although it is true that good grades will help him gain admission to graduate school, to win graduate fellowships, and even to secure certain types of jobs, they are irrelevant to any of these outcomes if the student drops out of college before completing his degree requirements ( 14-15 ).
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.Various studies conducted over the lifetime of the SAT show a statistically significant increase in correlation of high school grades and freshman grades when the SAT is factored in.^ Various studies conducted over the lifetime of the SAT show a statistically significant increase in correlation of high school grades and freshman grades when the SAT is factored in.
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^ An American Council on Education study of 36,581 students in 55 colleges concluded that: "The income of a student's parents has no relationship to freshman GPA, either before of after controlling for high school grades, academic aptitude, and college selectivity" ( Astin; 1971: 14 ).
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^ The SAT is typically taken by high school juniors and seniors .
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[4]
.There are substantial differences in funding, curricula, grading, and difficulty among U.S. secondary schools due to American federalism, local control, and the prevalence of private, distance, and home schooled students.^ There are substantial differences in funding, curricula, grading, and difficulty among U.S. secondary schools due to American federalism , local control, and the prevalence of private, distance, and home schooled students.
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^ ACT /SAT scores are intended to supplement the secondary school record and help admission officers put local data—such as course work, grades, and class rank—in a national perspective.
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^ In Stock Private Secondary Schools 2010 by Peterson's List Price: $39.95 .
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.SAT (and ACT) scores are intended to supplement the secondary school record and help admission officers put local data—such as course work, grades, and class rank—in a national perspective.^ Using data from the National Longitudinal Study (NLS) of the high school class of 1972, they calculated the number of additional correct admissions using high school rank (HSR) alone and with the SAT. With four different measures of undergraduate success, they calculated that using the SAT in admissions adds between 0.1 and 2.7 additional correct forecasts per 100 applicants (see Table 1).
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^ High school rank, which is a better measure of academic achievement than SAT scores, shows no such correlation.
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^ In a rare practical experiment Williams College admitted 358 students, ten percent of each year's new admissions, over a ten year period who would otherwise have been rejected by the school's normal test score and grade requirements.
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[5]
.Historically, the SAT has been more popular among colleges on the coasts and the ACT more popular in the Midwest and South.^ Historically, the SAT has been more popular among colleges in the coasts and the ACT more popular in the Midwest and South.
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^ There are some colleges that require the ACT to be taken for college course placement, and a few schools that do not accept the SAT at all.
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^ Jul 01, 2007; FOR MOST HIGH school students who want to attend an elite college, the SAT is more than a test.
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.There are some colleges that require the ACT to be taken for college course placement, and a few schools that formerly did not accept the SAT at all.^ Rajiv Raju says: If you are not happy with SAT score, then you should consider taking the ACT. Almost all the colleges accept either the ACT or SAT. You may be able to do better on the ACT because the ACT has less tricky questions, but require more speed.
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^ You also need to know few more concepts for the ACT then you need to know for the SAT. If you have already prepped for the SAT, the good news is that all your...
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^ Read: 10 times Last updated: 11/15/09 Rated: Not rated yet Tags: act , boarding school , business school , college admission , college guide , college guides .
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.Nearly all colleges accept the test.^ There are some colleges that require the ACT to be taken for college course placement, and a few schools that do not accept the SAT at all.
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[6]
.Certain high IQ societies, like Mensa, the Prometheus Society and the Triple Nine Society, use scores from certain years as one of their admission tests.^ A question is used only if high scoring students tend to get it right and low scoring students tend to get it wrong.
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^ All versions of the test subsequent to 1941 are equated to one another using the experimental section.
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^ One study found that the ability of college admission tests to predict grades declined consistently from one semester to the next throughout eight semesters ( Humphreys ).
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For instance, the Triple Nine Society accepts scores of 1450 on tests taken before April 1995, and scores of at least 1520 on tests taken between April 1995 and February 2005.
.The SAT is sometimes given to students younger than 13 by organizations such as the Study of Mathematically Precocious Youth, who use the results to select, study and mentor students of exceptional ability.^ Students who choose to take fewer subject tests than they signed up for are not eligible for a refund.
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^ The College Board announced they would change the scores for the students who were given a lower score than they earned, but at this point many of those students had already applied to colleges using their original scores.
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^ However, an important exception exists: Questions that follow the long and short reading passages are organized chronologically, rather than by difficulty.
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Structure

.SAT consists of three major sections: Critical Reading, Mathematics, and Writing.^ Mathematics section consists of three scored sections.
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^ SAT consists of three major sections: Critical Reading , Mathematics , and Writing .
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^ In 2005, the test was renamed as "SAT Reasoning Test" with possible scores from 600 to 2400 combining test results from three 800-point sections (math, critical reading, and writing), along with other subsections scored separately.
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.Each section receives a score on the scale of 200–800. All scores are multiples of 10. Total scores are calculated by adding up scores of the three sections.^ Mathematics section consists of three scored sections.
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^ All scores are multiples of 10.
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^ Total scores are calculated by adding up scores of the three sections.
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Each major section is divided into three parts. .There are 10 sub-sections, including an additional 25-minute experimental or "equating" section that may be in any of the three major sections.^ All versions of the test subsequent to 1941 are equated to one another using the experimental section.
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.The experimental section is used to normalize questions for future administrations of the SAT and does not count toward the final score.^ The experimental section is not identified on the test and does not count towards a candidate's score.
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^ A different thirty minute section of each SAT consists of untried questions that don't count towards the test-taker's score.
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^ All versions of the test subsequent to 1941 are equated to one another using the experimental section.
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.The test contains 3 hours and 45 minutes of actual timed sections,[7] although most administrations, including orientation, distribution of materials, completion of biographical sections, and eleven minutes of timed breaks, run about four and a half hours long.^ A different thirty minute section of each SAT consists of untried questions that don't count towards the test-taker's score.
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.The questions range from easy, medium, and hard depending on the scoring from the experimental sections.^ Scores range in value from 200 to 800 points for both the math and verbal sections.
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^ A different thirty minute section of each SAT consists of untried questions that don't count towards the test-taker's score.
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^ The experimental section is not identified on the test and does not count towards a candidate's score.
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.Easier questions typically appear closer to the beginning of the section while harder questions are towards the end in certain sections.^ A different thirty minute section of each SAT consists of untried questions that don't count towards the test-taker's score.
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This is not true for every section but it is the rule of thumb mainly for math and sentence completions and vocabulary.

Critical Reading

.The Critical Reading, formerly verbal, section of the SAT is made up of three scored sections, two 25-minute sections and one 20-minute section, with varying types of questions, including sentence completions and questions about short and long reading passages.^ The format was much the same then as it is now: two 30-minute "verbal" sections on "vocabulary, verbal reasoning, and reading comprehension;" two 30-minute "math" sections on "arithmetic, algebra, and geometry;" and an additional 30-minute "experimental" section (verbal or math) used to equate the exam with previous versions of itself and to pre-test questions that might appear on future exams 2 ( CEEB; 1991: 3 ).
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^ Scores range in value from 200 to 800 points for both the math and verbal sections.
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^ A different thirty minute section of each SAT consists of untried questions that don't count towards the test-taker's score.
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Critical Reading sections normally begin with 5 to 8 sentence completion questions; the remainder of the questions are focused on the reading passages. .Sentence completions generally test the student's vocabulary and understanding of sentence structure and organization by requiring the student to select one or two words that best complete a given sentence.^ This led one ETS researcher to suggest that students should learn "how to behave effectively when taking a test" ( qtd in Nairn 95 ).
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^ No one would presume to describe a student's mind in a single sentence; but we are confident that a number can say it all.
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^ This results in a circular reasoning where the right answer is the one that the students who perform best on the test chose most.
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The bulk of the Critical Reading questions is made up of questions regarding reading passages, in which students read short excerpts on social sciences, humanities, physical sciences, or personal narratives and answer questions based on the passage. Certain sections contain passages asking the student to compare two related passages; generally, these consist of shorter reading passages. The number of questions about each passage is proportional to the length of the passage. Unlike in the Mathematics section, where questions go in the order of difficulty, questions in the Critical Reading section go in the order of the difficulty of the passage. .Overall, question sets towards the beginning of the section are easier, and question sets towards the end of the section are harder.^ A different thirty minute section of each SAT consists of untried questions that don't count towards the test-taker's score.
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Mathematics

The Mathematics section of the SAT is widely known as the Quantitative Section or Calculation Section. .The mathematics section consists of three scored sections.^ A different thirty minute section of each SAT consists of untried questions that don't count towards the test-taker's score.
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There are two 25-minute sections and one 20-minute section, as follows:
.
  • One of the 25-minute sections is entirely multiple choice, with 20 questions.
  • The other 25-minute section contains 8 multiple choice questions and 10 grid-in questions.^ A different thirty minute section of each SAT consists of untried questions that don't count towards the test-taker's score.
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    The 10 grid-in questions have no penalty for incorrect answers because the student guessing isn't limited.
  • The 20-minute section is all multiple choice, with 16 questions.
.Notably, the SAT has done away with quantitative comparison questions on the math section, leaving only questions with symbolic or numerical answers.^ A different thirty minute section of each SAT consists of untried questions that don't count towards the test-taker's score.
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^ When they answer the questions at random, they reduce the difficulty of future SATs by making the pretest questions look harder than they are.
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.Since the quantitative comparison questions were well-known for their deceptive nature—often turning on the student's recognition of a single exception to a rule or pattern—this choice has been equated to a philosophical shift away from "trickery" and toward "straight math" on the SAT[citation needed].^ A different thirty minute section of each SAT consists of untried questions that don't count towards the test-taker's score.
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^ If low scoring students do as well as high scoring students, then the question will have an unacceptably low discrimination, and ETS will either have to rewrite it or discard it.
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.Also, many test experts have attributed this change, like the addition of the new writing section, to an attempt to make the SAT more like the ACT.^ Another section, the Test of Standard Written English (TSWE), was recently added to the SAT test battery.
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^ Another study of the SAT would likely draw more attention to the exam than to itself and thus defeat its purpose.
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^ In order for a test question to make it onto a real SAT it has to have certain statistical characteristics.
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  • New topics include Algebra II and scatter plots. These recent changes have resulted in a shorter, more quantitative exam requiring higher level mathematics courses relative to the previous exam.
Calculator Use
.With the recent changes to the content of the SAT math section, the need to save time while maintaining accuracy of calculations has led some to use calculator programs during the test.^ Another section, the Test of Standard Written English (TSWE), was recently added to the SAT test battery.
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^ Ford and Campos found average predictive accuracies of 16% for SAT-Verbal, 12% for SAT-Math, and 25% for high school record ( 11 ).
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^ A different thirty minute section of each SAT consists of untried questions that don't count towards the test-taker's score.
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.These programs allow students to complete problems faster than would normally be possible when making calculations manually.^ In every instance, far fewer black and Chicano students would be selected when the SAT is used than when it is not" ( 196 ).
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The use of a graphing calculator is sometimes preferred, especially for geometry problems and questions involving multiple calculations. .According to research conducted by the CollegeBoard, performance on the math sections of the exam is associated with the extent of calculator use, with those using calculators on about a third to a half of the items averaging higher scores than those using calculators less frequently [8].^ Scores range in value from 200 to 800 points for both the math and verbal sections.
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^ The average scores of the children of professionals are higher than the children of white collar workers, which in turn, are higher than the children of blue collar workers.
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^ An ETS study of students at integrated colleges found that, in the six schools for which the information was available, "while SAT score means for blacks were lower than those for their white counterparts, their mean high school ranks were higher" ( Davis & Temp 2 ).
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The use of a graphing calculator in mathematics courses, and also becoming familiar with the calculator outside of the classroom, is known to have a positive effect on the performance of students using a graphing calculator during the exam.

Writing

Page 1 of an SAT essay. This student received a 7/12 from two judges, one giving 3/6 and the other giving 4/6.
Page 2 of the same essay.
.The writing section of the SAT, based on but not directly comparable to the old SAT II subject test in writing, includes multiple choice questions and a brief essay.^ The triumph of Princeton Review over the SAT reveals an inherent problem with a test based on a statistical model.
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^ The key to a successful test preparation course lies in its ability to address the circular logic in writing questions on a statistical foundation.
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^ Another section, the Test of Standard Written English (TSWE), was recently added to the SAT test battery.
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.The essay subscore contributes about 30% towards the total writing score, with the multiple choice questions contributing 70%.^ A different thirty minute section of each SAT consists of untried questions that don't count towards the test-taker's score.
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This section was implemented in March 2005 following complaints from colleges about the lack of uniform examples of a student's writing ability.
The multiple choice questions include error identification questions, sentence improvement questions, and paragraph improvement questions. .Error identification and sentence improvement questions test the student's knowledge of grammar, presenting an awkward or grammatically incorrect sentence; in the error identification section, the student must locate the word producing the source of the error or indicate that the sentence has no error, while the sentence improvement section requires the student to select an acceptable fix to the awkward sentence.^ A different thirty minute section of each SAT consists of untried questions that don't count towards the test-taker's score.
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^ In their method, test candidates are taught how to recognize the incorrect alternatives to a question.
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^ No one would presume to describe a student's mind in a single sentence; but we are confident that a number can say it all.
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.The paragraph improvement questions test the student's understanding of logical organization of ideas, presenting a poorly written student essay and asking a series of questions as to what changes might be made to best improve it.^ This results in a circular reasoning where the right answer is the one that the students who perform best on the test chose most.
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^ When Princeton Review students come to a hard question they don't understand, they ask themselves: What would Joe do here?
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^ The key to a successful test preparation course lies in its ability to address the circular logic in writing questions on a statistical foundation.
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.The essay section, which is always administered as the first section of the test, is 25 minutes long.^ A different thirty minute section of each SAT consists of untried questions that don't count towards the test-taker's score.
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^ It's interesting to note that when the first SAT was administered, the idea of multiple choice testing was almost unknown in American schools.
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All essays must be in response to a given prompt. The prompts are broad and often philosophical and are designed to be accessible to students regardless of their educational and social backgrounds. For instance, test takers may be asked to expound on such ideas as their opinion on the value of work in human life or whether technological change also carries negative consequences to those who benefit from it. .No particular essay structure is required, and the College Board accepts examples "taken from [the student's] reading, studies, experience, or observations."^ College Board Review no.
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^ Similarly, an ETS study of 15,535 college bound students found that actual accomplishments outside the classroom did not correlate with income either: .
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^ In a rare practical experiment Williams College admitted 358 students, ten percent of each year's new admissions, over a ten year period who would otherwise have been rejected by the school's normal test score and grade requirements.
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.Two trained readers assign each essay a score between 1 and 6, where a score of 0 is reserved for essays that are blank, off-topic, non-English, not written with a Number 2 pencil, or considered illegible after several attempts at reading.^ Realistically speaking this is the shortest time possible between two exams allowing for scoring and entrance deadlines.
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The scores are summed to produce a final score from 2 to 12 (or 0). .If the two readers' scores differ by more than one point, then a senior third reader decides.^ Despite variable factors from one study to another, the net result across all studies is that score gains directly attributable to coaching amount, on the average, to fewer than 10 points — a difference of such small magnitude...
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^ This means that, on the average, for 88% of the applicants (though it is impossible to know which ones) an SAT score will predict their grade rank no more accurately than a pair of dice.
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^ The initial FTC report found that coaching courses, on the average, raised scores more than 100 points on both the verbal and math sections 6 ( Nairn 102 ).
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The average time each reader/grader spends on each essay is less than 3 minutes.[9]
.Despite the College Board's claims that the SAT Essay is a nonbiased assessment of a student's writing ability, many different claims of bias have surfaced, including claims that readers give higher points to those who write in cursive, writers who write about personal experiences are less likely to get higher scores, and that topics favor the higher social classes.^ Their claim was that the aptitude the SAT measured was acquired over years — promises of significant results (over 100 points) in six weeks were false advertising.
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^ Many of the students who took the test were hesitant to guess when they weren't certain of an answer.
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^ Whatever else has changed in the world, the SAT remains, according to a College Board publication, an "unchanging standard" ( Advisory Panel 8 ).
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.January 2008" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] The College Board strongly denies any forms of bias on all portions of the SAT Reasoning Exam.^ In addition to its socioeconomic bias, the SAT is also prejudiced against non-whites.
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^ The first SAT was developed by Carl Campbell Brigham for the College Entrance Examination Board (CEEB) who had previously participated in the development of the "Army-Alpha" intelligence tests.
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^ The SAT is not a measure of how successful one will be in college, but how well one conforms to the demographics of the group that did well on the first exam.
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In March 2004 Dr. Les Perelman analyzed 15 scored sample essays contained in the College Board's Score Write book and found that 90% of essays that contained more than 400 words got the highest score of 12 and that the essays with 100 words or fewer got the lowest grade of 1.[9]

Style of questions

.Most of the questions on the SAT, except for the essay and the grid-in math responses, are multiple choice; all multiple-choice questions have five answer choices, one of which is correct.^ It's interesting to note that when the first SAT was administered, the idea of multiple choice testing was almost unknown in American schools.
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^ When they answer the questions at random, they reduce the difficulty of future SATs by making the pretest questions look harder than they are.
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^ This results in a circular reasoning where the right answer is the one that the students who perform best on the test chose most.
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The questions of each section of the same type are generally ordered by difficulty. .However, an important exception exists: Questions that follow the long and short reading passages are organized chronologically, rather than by difficulty.^ When they answer the questions at random, they reduce the difficulty of future SATs by making the pretest questions look harder than they are.
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Ten of the questions in one of the math sub-sections are not multiple choice. They instead require the test taker to bubble in a number in a four-column grid.
The questions are weighted equally. For each correct answer, one raw point is added. For each incorrect answer one-fourth of a point is deducted.[10] No points are deducted for incorrect math grid-in questions. This ensures that a student's mathematically expected gain from guessing is zero. .The final score is derived from the raw score; the precise conversion chart varies between test administrations.^ Estimates of the correlation between SAT score and family income vary from 0.23 to 0.40 ( Crouse & Trusheim and Doermann , respectively).
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.The SAT therefore recommends only making educated guesses, that is, when the test taker can eliminate at least one answer he or she thinks is wrong.^ Many of the students who took the test were hesitant to guess when they weren't certain of an answer.
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^ Educational Testing Service (ETS), which produces the SAT and four other entrance exams 1 , claims that the test measures not just how capably individuals answer analogy and geometry questions, but how capably they will perform in the academic world.
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^ A different thirty minute section of each SAT consists of untried questions that don't count towards the test-taker's score.
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Without eliminating any answers one's probability of answering correctly is 20%. .Eliminating one wrong answer increases this probability to 25%; two, a 33.3% probability; three, a 50% probability of choosing the correct answer and thus earning the full point for the question.^ Were all the SAT candidates to enroll in a coaching school, the actual increases would average 25 points ( Levine 5 ).
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^ There is no Platonic correct answer to any of these questions; it's all determined by the statistical performance of the question as it relates to other questions.
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Section Average Score Time (Minutes) Content
Writing 493 60 Grammar, usage, and diction.
Mathematics 515 70 Number and operations; algebra and functions; geometry; statistics, probability, and data analysis
Critical Reading 501 70 Critical reading and sentence-level reading

Taking the test

.The SAT is offered seven times a year in the United States, in October, November, December, January, March (or April, alternating), May, and June.^ The SAT is offered seven times a year during the regular academic calendar of most schools.
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The test is typically offered on the first Saturday of the month for the November, December, May, and June administrations. .In other countries, the SAT is offered on the same dates as in the United States except for the first spring test date (i.e., March or April), which is not offered.^ It's interesting to note that when the first SAT was administered, the idea of multiple choice testing was almost unknown in American schools.
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^ The first SAT was developed by Carl Campbell Brigham for the College Entrance Examination Board (CEEB) who had previously participated in the development of the "Army-Alpha" intelligence tests.
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^ Every SAT since has been normed against the test administered in April 1941.
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In 2006, the test was taken 1,465,744 times.[11]
.Candidates may either take the SAT Reasoning Test or up to three SAT Subject Tests on any given test date, except the first spring test date, when only the SAT Reasoning Test is offered.^ It's interesting to note that when the first SAT was administered, the idea of multiple choice testing was almost unknown in American schools.
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^ The first SAT was developed by Carl Campbell Brigham for the College Entrance Examination Board (CEEB) who had previously participated in the development of the "Army-Alpha" intelligence tests.
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.Candidates wishing to take the test may register online at the College Board's website, by mail, or by telephone, at least three weeks before the test date.^ Subject: re: SAT Inquiry Date: Wed, 16 Oct 96 15:38:24 EDT From: sat_agent3 To: gae4@columbia.edu Thank you for contacting College Board Online.
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^ The first SAT was developed by Carl Campbell Brigham for the College Entrance Examination Board (CEEB) who had previously participated in the development of the "Army-Alpha" intelligence tests.
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^ In Effects of Coaching on Scholastic Aptitude Test Scores the College Board reported that: .
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.The SAT Subject Tests are all given in one large book on test day.^ All versions of the test subsequent to 1941 are equated to one another using the experimental section.
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Therefore, it is actually immaterial which tests, and how many, the student signs up for; with the possible exception of the language tests with listening, the student may change his or her mind and take any tests, regardless of his or her initial sign-ups. .Students who choose to take more subject tests than they signed up for will later be billed by College Board for the additional tests and their scores will be withheld until the bill is paid.^ Many of the students who took the test were hesitant to guess when they weren't certain of an answer.
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^ Every year, 1.7 million students subject themselves to the Scholastic Aptitude Test at the request of college admissions officers looking for just such a short cut ( Milwaukee Journal ).
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^ Alan Nairn's original work on the test, before the Nader report, is nearly 20 years old and yet we hear more talk of standardized testing than ever before.
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.Students who choose to take fewer subject tests than they signed up for are not eligible for a refund.^ Given that the test is a better predictor of status quo demographics than of scholastic aptitude I would imagine that any statistically significant changes are directly attributable to demographic changes in the population of students that take the test.
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^ Many of the students who took the test were hesitant to guess when they weren't certain of an answer.
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^ They were subjected to the same academic requirements as other students and received no special aid.
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The SAT Reasoning Test costs $45 ($94 International). For the Subject tests, students pay a $20 Basic Registration Fee and $9 per test (except for language tests with listening, which cost $20 each).[2] .The College Board makes fee waivers available for low income students.^ Similarly, an ETS study of 15,535 college bound students found that actual accomplishments outside the classroom did not correlate with income either: .
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^ Since family income and SAT scores are slightly correlated and test preparation fees attract students from upper income brackets in disproportionately high numbers they do not represent the across-the-board gains expected.
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.Additional fees apply for late registration, standby testing, registration changes, scores by telephone, and extra score reports (beyond the four provided for free).^ In Effects of Coaching on Scholastic Aptitude Test Scores the College Board reported that: .
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^ On Further Examination: Report of the Advisory Panel on the Scholastic Aptitude Test Score Decline .
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Candidates whose religious beliefs prevent them from taking the test on a Saturday may request to take the test on the following Sunday, except for the October test date in which the Sunday test date is eight days after the main test offering. Such requests must be made at the time of registration and are subject to denial.
.Students with verifiable disabilities, including physical and learning disabilities, are eligible to take the SAT with accommodations.^ This led one ETS researcher to suggest that students should learn "how to behave effectively when taking a test" ( qtd in Nairn 95 ).
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^ ETS' scoring machines are programmed to set aside the answer sheets of students who score suspiciously higher or lower in taking the SAT for the second time.
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The standard time increase for students requiring additional time due to learning disabilities is time + 50%; time + 100% is also offered.

Raw scores, scaled scores, and percentiles

.Students receive their online score reports approximately three weeks after test administration (six weeks for mailed, paper scores), with each section graded on a scale of 200–800 and two sub scores for the writing section: the essay score and the multiple choice sub score.^ The experimental section is not identified on the test and does not count towards a candidate's score.
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^ Scores range in value from 200 to 800 points for both the math and verbal sections.
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^ It's interesting to note that when the first SAT was administered, the idea of multiple choice testing was almost unknown in American schools.
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.In addition to their score, students receive their percentile (the percentage of other test takers with lower scores).^ A different thirty minute section of each SAT consists of untried questions that don't count towards the test-taker's score.
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^ ETS' scoring machines are programmed to set aside the answer sheets of students who score suspiciously higher or lower in taking the SAT for the second time.
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^ Average scores are proportional to family income: students from families with higher incomes tend to receive higher scores 8 0.
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.The raw score, or the number of points gained from correct answers and lost from incorrect answers (ranges from just under 50 to just under 60, depending upon the test), is also included.^ Scores range in value from 200 to 800 points for both the math and verbal sections.
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^ Since family income and SAT scores are slightly correlated and test preparation fees attract students from upper income brackets in disproportionately high numbers they do not represent the across-the-board gains expected.
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[12] .Students may also receive, for an additional fee, the Question and Answer Service, which provides the student's answer, the correct answer to each question, and online resources explaining each question.^ There is no Platonic correct answer to any of these questions; it's all determined by the statistical performance of the question as it relates to other questions.
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.The corresponding percentile of each scaled score varies from test to test—for example, in 2003, a scaled score of 800 in both sections of the SAT Reasoning Test corresponded to a percentile of 99.9, while a scaled score of 800 in the SAT Physics Test corresponded to the 94th percentile.^ "Validity Versus Utility of Mental Tests: Example of the SAT." Journal of Vocational Behavior 29 (1986): 363-78.
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^ Scores range in value from 200 to 800 points for both the math and verbal sections.
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^ Another section, the Test of Standard Written English (TSWE), was recently added to the SAT test battery.
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The differences in what scores mean with regard to percentiles are because of the content of the exam and the caliber of students choosing to take each exam. Subject Tests are subject to intensive study (often in the form of an AP, which is relatively more difficult), and only those who know they will perform well tend to take these tests, creating a skewed distribution of scores.
The percentiles that various SAT scores for college-bound seniors correspond to are summarized in the following chart:[11][13]
Percentile Score, 1600 Scale
(official, 2006)
Score, 2400 Scale
(official, 2006)
99.93/99.98* 1600 2400
99+ ≥1540 ≥2290
99 ≥1480 ≥2200
98 ≥1450 ≥2140
97 ≥1420 ≥2100
88 ≥1380 ≥1900
83 ≥1280 ≥1800
78 ≥1200 ≥1770
72 ≥1150 ≥1700
61 ≥1090 ≥1600
48 ≥1010 ≥1500
36 ≥950 ≥1400
15 ≥810 ≥1200
4 ≥670 ≥1010
1 ≥520 ≥790
* The percentile of the perfect score was 99.98 on the 2400 scale and 99.93 on the 1600 scale.
The older SAT (before 1995) had a very high ceiling. In any given year, only seven of the million test-takers scored above 1580. A score above 1580 was equivalent to the 99.9995 percentile.[14]

SAT-ACT score comparisons

Map of states according to high school graduates' (2006) preference of exam. States in orange had more students taking the SAT than the ACT.
Although there is no official conversion chart between the SAT and its biggest rival, the ACT, the College Board released an unofficial chart based on results from 103,525 test takers who took both tests between October 1994 and December 1996 here;[15] however, both tests have changed since then. Several colleges have also issued their own charts. The following is based on the University of California's conversion chart.[16]
SAT (Prior to Writing Test Addition) SAT (With Writing Test Addition) ACT Composite Score
1600 2400 36
1560–1590 2340–2390 35
1520–1550 2280–2330 34
1480–1510 2220–2270 33
1440–1470 2160–2210 32
1400–1430 2100–2150 31
1360–1390 2040–2090 30
1320–1350 1980–2030 29
1280–1310 1920–1970 28
1240–1270 1860–1910 27
1200–1230 1800–1850 26
1160–1190 1740–1790 25
1120–1150 1680–1730 24
1080–1110 1620–1670 23
1040–1070 1560–1610 22
1000–1030 1500–1550 21
960-990 1440–1490 20
920-950 1380–1430 19
880-910 1320–1370 18
840-870 1260–1310 17
800-830 1200–1250 16
760-790 1140–1190 15
720-750 1080–1130 14
680-710 1020–1070 13
640-670 960-1010 12
600-630 900-950 11

Historical development

Mean SAT Scores by year[17]
Year of
exam
Reading
/Verbal
Score
Math
Score
1972 530 509
1973 523 506
1974 521 505
1975 512 498
1976 509 497
1977 507 496
1978 507 494
1979 505 493
1980 502 492
1981 502 492
1982 504 493
1983 503 494
1984 504 497
1985 509 500
1986 509 500
1987 507 501
1988 505 501
1989 504 502
1990 500 501
1991 499 500
1992 500 501
1993 500 503
1994 499 504
1995 504 506
1996 505 508
1997 505 511
1998 505 512
1999 505 511
2000 505 514
2001 506 514
2002 504 516
2003 507 519
2004 508 518
2005 508 520
2006 503 518
2007 502 515
Mean SAT Reading and Math test scores over time.
Originally used mainly by colleges and universities in the north-eastern United States, and developed by Carl Brigham, one of the psychologists who worked on the Army Alpha and Beta tests, the SAT was originally developed as a way to eliminate test bias between people from different socio-economic backgrounds.

1901 test

The College Board began on June 17, 1901, when 973 students took its first test, across 67 locations in the United States, and two in Europe. Although those taking the test came from a variety of backgrounds, approximately one third were from New York, New Jersey, or Pennsylvania. The majority of those taking the test were from private schools, academies, or endowed schools. About 60% of those taking the test applied to Columbia University. The test contained sections on English, French, German, Latin, Greek, history, mathematics, chemistry, and physics. The test was not multiple choice, but instead was evaluated based on essay responses as "excellent", "good", "doubtful", "poor" or "very poor". [18]

1926 test

The first administration of the SAT occurred on June 23, 1926, when it was known as the Scholastic Aptitude Test.[19][20] This test, prepared by a committee headed by Princeton psychologist Carl Campbell Brigham, had sections of definitions, arithmetic, classification, artificial language, antonyms, number series, analogies, logical inference, and paragraph reading. It was administered to over 8,000 students at over 300 test centers. Men composed 60% of the test-takers. Slightly over a quarter of males and females applied to Yale University and Smith College.[20] The test was paced rather quickly, test-takers being given only a little over 90 minutes to answer 315 questions.[19]

1928 and 1929 tests

In 1928 the number of verbal sections was reduced to 7, and the time limit was increased to slightly under two hours. In 1929 the number of sections was again reduced, this time to 6. These changes in part loosened time constraints on test-takers. Math was eliminated entirely for these tests, instead focusing only on verbal ability.[19]

1930 test and 1936 changes

In 1930 the SAT was first split into the verbal and math sections, a structure that would continue through 2004. The verbal section of the 1930 test covered a more narrow range on content than its predecessors, examining only antonyms, double definitions (somewhat similar to sentence completions), and paragraph reading. In 1936, analogies were re-added. Between 1936 and 1946, students had between 80 and 115 minutes to answer 250 verbal questions (over a third of which were on antonyms). The mathematics test introduced in 1930 contained 100 free response questions to be answered in 80 minutes, and focused primarily on speed. From 1936 to 1941, like the 1928 and 1929 tests, the mathematics section was eliminated entirely. When the mathematics portion of the test was re-added in 1942, it consisted of multiple choice questions.[19]

1946 test and associated changes

Paragraph reading was eliminated from the verbal portion of the SAT in 1946, and replaced with reading comprehension, and "double definition" questions were replaced with sentence completions. Between 1946 and 1957 students were given 90 to 100 minutes to complete 107 to 170 verbal questions. Starting in 1958 time limits became more stable, and for 17 years, until 1975, students had 75 minutes to answer 90 questions. In 1959 questions on data sufficiency were introduced to the mathematics section, and then replaced with quantitative comparisons in 1974. In 1974 both verbal and math sections were reduced from 75 minutes to 60 minutes each, with changes in test composition compensating for the decreased time.[19]

1980 test and associated changes

The inclusion of the "Strivers" Score study was implemented. This study was introduced by The Educational Testing Service, which administers the SAT, and has been conducting research on how to make it easier for minorities and individuals who suffer from social and economic barriers. The original "Strivers" project, which was in the research phase from 1980–1994, awarded special "Striver" status to test-takers who scored 200 points higher than expected for their race, gender and income level. The belief was that this would give minorities a better chance at being accepted in to a college of higher standard, i.e. an Ivy League school. In 1992, the Strivers Project was leaked to the public; as a result the Strivers Project was terminated in 1993. After Federal Courts heard arguments from the ACLU, NAACP and the Educational Testing Service, the courts ordered the study to alter its data collection process, stating that only the age, race and zip code could be used to determine the test-takers eligibility for "Strivers" points. These changes were introduced to the SAT effective in 1994.

1994 changes

In 1994 the verbal section received a dramatic change in focus. Among these changes were the removal of antonym questions, and an increased focus on passage reading. The mathematics section also saw a dramatic change in 1994, thanks in part to pressure from the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics. For the first time since 1935, the SAT asked some non-multiple choice questions, instead requiring students to supply the answers. 1994 also saw the introduction of calculators into the mathematics section for the first time in the test's history. The mathematics section introduced concepts of probability, slope, elementary statistics, counting problems, median and mode.[19]
The average score on the 1994 modification of the SAT I was usually around 1000 (500 on the verbal, 500 on the math). The most selective schools in the United States (for example, those in the Ivy League) typically had SAT averages exceeding 1400 on the old test.

2002 changes - Score Choice

In October 2002, the College Board dropped the Score Choice Option. Under this option, scores were not released to colleges until the student saw and approved of the score.[21] The reasoning was that the option benefited wealthier students who could afford to take it multiple times. The College Board has since decided to re-implement Score Choice in the spring of 2009. It is described as optional, and it is not clear if the reports sent will indicate whether or not this student has opted-in or not. A number of highly selective colleges and universities have announced they will require applicants to submit all scores, including Yale and Stanford. Others, such as MIT and Harvard, have embraced Score Choice.

2005 changes

In 2005, the test was changed again, largely in response to criticism by the University of California system.[22] Because of issues concerning ambiguous questions, especially analogies, certain types of questions were eliminated (the analogies from the verbal and quantitative comparisons from the Math section). The test was made marginally harder, as a corrective to the rising number of perfect scores. A new writing section, with an essay, based on the former SAT II Writing Subject Test, was added, in part to increase the chances of closing the opening gap between the highest and midrange scores. Other factors included the desire to test the writing ability of each student in a personal manner; hence the essay. The New SAT (known as the SAT Reasoning Test) was first offered on March 12, 2005, after the last administration of the "old" SAT in January 2005. The Mathematics section was expanded to cover three years of high school mathematics. The Verbal section's name was changed to the Critical Reading section.

2008 changes

In late 2008, a new variable came into play. Previously, applicants to most colleges were required to submit all scores, with some colleges who embraced Score Choice retaining the option of allowing their applicants not to have to submit all scores. However, in 2008, an initiative to make Score Choice universal had begun, with some opposition from colleges desiring to maintain score report practices. While students theoretically now have the choice to submit their best score (in theory one could send any score they wish to send) to the college of their choice, some popular colleges and universities, such as Cornell, ask that students send all test scores.[23] This had led the College Board to display on their web site which colleges agree with or dislike Score Choice, with continued claims that students will still never have scores submitted against their will.[24] Despite many colleges who may or may not request their students to abide by the Score Choice policy, those who send all scores, good or bad, will not usually be penalized as many universities, such as Columbia University and Cornell University, promise to overlook those scores which may be undesirable to the student and to focus more on those scores which best exemplify the student's achievement and academic potential.

Name changes and recentered scores

The name originally stood for "Scholastic Aptitude Test".[25] But in 1990, because of uncertainty about the SAT's ability to function as an intelligence test, the name was changed to Scholastic Assessment Test. In 1993 the name was changed to SAT I: Reasoning Test (with the letters not standing for anything) to distinguish it from the SAT II: Subject Tests.[25] In 2004, the roman numerals on both tests were dropped, and the SAT I was renamed the SAT Reasoning Test.[25] The scoring categories are now the following: Critical Reading (comparable to some of the Verbal portions of the old SAT I), Mathematics, and Writing. The writing section now includes an essay, whose score is involved in computing the overall score for the Writing section, as well as grammar sections (also comparable to some Verbal portions of the previous SAT).
The test scoring was initially scaled to make 500 the mean score on each section with a standard deviation of 100.[26] As the test grew more popular and more students from less rigorous schools began taking the test, the average dropped to about 428 Verbal and 478 Math. The SAT was "recentered" in 1995, and the average "new" score became again close to 500. Scores awarded after 1994 and before October 2001 are officially reported with an "R" (e.g. 1260R) to reflect this change. Old scores may be recentered to compare to 1995 to present scores by using official College Board tables,[27] which in the middle ranges add about 70 points to Verbal and 20 or 30 points to Math. In other words, current students have a 100 (70 plus 30) point advantage over their parents.

Scoring problems of October 2005 tests

In March 2006, it was announced that a small percentage of the SATs taken in October 2005 had been scored incorrectly due to the test papers being moist and not scanning properly, and that some students had received substantially erroneous scores. The College Board announced they would change the scores for the students who were given a lower score than they earned, but at this point many of those students had already applied to colleges using their original scores. The College Board decided not to change the scores for the students who were given a higher score than they earned. A lawsuit was filed in 2005 by about 4,400 students who received an incorrect low score on the SAT. The class-action suit was settled in August 2007 when The College Board and another company that administers the college-admissions test announced they would pay $2.85 million to over 4,000 students. Under the agreement each student can either elect to receive $275 or submit a claim for more money if he or she feels the damage was even greater.[28]

Criticism

Cultural bias

1995-SAT-Education2.png
As depicted above, SAT scores vary according to race, income, and parental educational background.
For decades many critics have accused designers of the verbal SAT of cultural bias toward the white and wealthy. A famous example of this bias in the SAT I was the oarsman-regatta analogy question.[29] The object of the question was to find the pair of terms that have the relationship most similar to the relationship between "runner" and "marathon". The correct answer was "oarsman" and "regatta". Choice of the correct answer presupposed students' familiarity with crew, a sport popular with the wealthy, and so upon their knowledge of its structure and terminology. Fifty-three percent (53%) of white students correctly answered the question, while only 22% of black students also scored correctly.[30] Analogy questions have been replaced by short reading passages.

Dropping SAT

A growing number of liberal arts colleges have responded to this criticism by joining the SAT optional movement. These colleges do not require the SAT for admission.
In a 2001 speech to the American Council on Education, Richard C. Atkinson, the president of the University of California, urged dropping the SAT Reasoning Test as a college admissions requirement:
"Anyone involved in education should be concerned about how overemphasis on the SAT is distorting educational priorities and practices, how the test is perceived by many as unfair, and how it can have a devastating impact on the self-esteem and aspirations of young students. There is widespread agreement that overemphasis on the SAT harms American education."[31]
In response to threats by the University of California to drop the SAT as an admission requirement, the College Entrance Examination Board announced the restructuring of the SAT, to take effect in March 2005, as detailed above.

MIT Study

In 2005, MIT Writing Director Les Perelman plotted essay length versus essay score on the new SAT from released essays and found a high correlation between them. After studying over 50 graded essays, he found that longer essays consistently produced higher scores. In fact, he argues that by simply gauging the length of an essay without reading it, the given score of an essay could likely be determined correctly over 90% of the time. He also discovered that several of these essays were full of factual errors, although the College Board does not claim to grade for factual accuracy.
Perelman, along with the National Council of Teachers of English also criticized the 25-minute writing section of the test for damaging standards writing teaching in the classroom. They say that writing teachers training their students for the SAT will not focus on revision, depth, accuracy, but will instead produce long, formulaic, and wordy pieces.[32] "You're getting teachers to train students to be bad writers," concluded Perelman.[33]

Test preparation

SAT test preparation is a highly lucrative field.[34] Many companies and organizations (such as the Princeton Review, the College Board, Kaplan, etc.) offer test preparation in the form of books, classes, online courses, tutoring and only recently, board games.[35]
Some test-preparation programs have been shown to help students improve test scores,[36] but others may have little effect.

See also

References

  1. ^ "About the College Board". College Board. http://www.collegeboard.com/about/index.html. Retrieved May 29 2007. 
  2. ^ a b "SAT Fees: 2008–09 Fees". College Board. http://www.collegeboard.com/student/testing/sat/calenfees/fees.html. Retrieved July 4 2008. 
  3. ^ "Official SAT Reasoning Test page". College Board. http://www.collegeboard.com/student/testing/sat/about/SATI.html. Retrieved June 2007. 
  4. ^ 01-249.RD.ResNoteRN-10 rv.1
  5. ^ Korbin, L. (2006). SAT Program Handbook. A Comprehensive Guide to the SAT Program for School Counselors and Admissions Officers, 1, 33+. Retrieved January 24, 2006, from College Board Preparation Database.
  6. ^ "College Admissions - SAT & SAT Subject Tests". College Board. http://www.collegeboard.com/student/testing/sat/about.html. Retrieved November 2009. 
  7. ^ "SAT FAQ: Frequently Asked Questions". College Board. http://www.collegeboard.com/student/testing/sat/about/sat/FAQ.html. Retrieved May 29 2007. 
  8. ^ http://professionals.collegeboard.com/data-reports-research/cb/calculator-use-and-sat
  9. ^ a b Winerip, Michael (May 5, 2005). "SAT Essay Test Rewards Length and Ignores Errors". New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2005/05/04/education/04education.html. Retrieved 2008-03-06. 
  10. ^ "Collegeboard Test Tips". Collegeboard. http://www.collegeboard.com/student/testing/sat/prep_one/test_tips.html. Retrieved September 9 2008. 
  11. ^ a b The scoring categories are the following, Reading, Math, Writing, and Essay.
  12. ^ My SAT: Help
  13. ^ "SAT Percentile Ranks for Males, Females, and Total Group:2006 College-Bound Seniors—Critical Reading + Mathematics + Writing" (PDF). College Board. http://www.collegeboard.com/prod_downloads/highered/ra/sat/SATPercentileRanksCompositeCR_M_W.pdf. Retrieved May 29 2007. 
  14. ^ Membership Committee (1999). 1998/99 Membership Committee Report. Prometheus Society. http://www.prometheussociety.org/mcreport/memb_comm_rept.html#Some%20Available%20Psychometric%20Instruments. Retrieved 2006-07-26. 
  15. ^ http://www.collegeboard.com/prod_downloads/highered/ra/sat/satACT_concordance.pdf
  16. ^ University of California Scholarship Requirement. . Retrieved June 26, 2006.
  17. ^ "National Report: 2007 College-Bound Seniors: Total Group Profile Report" (PDF). The College Board. 2007. pp. 3. http://www.collegeboard.com/prod_downloads/about/news_info/cbsenior/yr2007/national-report.pdf. Retrieved 2008-09-14. 
  18. ^ "frontline: secrets of the sat: where did the test come from?: the 1901 college board". Secrets of the SAT. Frontline. http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/sats/where/1901.html. Retrieved 2007-10-20. 
  19. ^ a b c d e f Lawrence, Ida; Rigol, Gretchen W.; Van Essen, Thomas; Jackson, Carol A. (2002). "Research Report No. 2002-7: A Historical Perspective on the SAT: 1926–2001" (PDF). College Entrance Examination Board. http://www.collegeboard.com/research/pdf/rr20027_11439.pdf. Retrieved 2007-10-20. 
  20. ^ a b "frontline: secrets of the sat: where did the test come from?: the 1926 sat". Secrets of the SAT. Frontline. http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/sats/where/1926.html. Retrieved 2007-10-20. 
  21. ^ Schoenfeld, Jane. College board drops 'score choice' for SAT-II exams. St. Louis Business Journal, May 24, 2002.
  22. ^ College Board To Alter SAT I for 2005-06 - Daily Nexus
  23. ^ "Cornell Rejects SAT Score Choice Option". The Cornell Daily Sun. http://cornellsun.com/section/news/content/2009/01/20/cornell-rejects-sat-score-choice-option. Retrieved 2008-02-13. 
  24. ^ "Universities Requesting All Scores" (PDF). http://professionals.collegeboard.com/profdownload/sat-score-use-practices-list.pdf. Retrieved 2009-06-22. 
  25. ^ a b c "SAT FAQ". The College Board. http://www.collegeboard.com/student/testing/sat/about/sat/FAQ.html#quest14. Retrieved 2008-09-13. 
  26. ^ "Intelligence". Intelligence. MSN Encarta. http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761570026_3/intelligence.html. Retrieved 2008-03-02. 
  27. ^ SAT I Individual Score Equivalents
  28. ^ Hoover, Eric (2007-08-24). "$2.85-Million Settlement Proposed in Lawsuit Over SAT-Scoring Errors". The Chronicle of Higher Education. http://chronicle.com/news/index.php?id=2911. Retrieved 2007-08-27. 
  29. ^ Don't Believe the Hype, Chideya, 1995; The Bell Curve, Hernstein and Murray, 1994
  30. ^ Culture And Racism
  31. ^ Achievement Versus Aptitude Tests in College Admissions
  32. ^ MICHAEL WINERIP (May 4, 2005). "SAT Essay Test Rewards Length and Ignores Errors". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2005/05/04/education/04education.html?ei=5090&en=94808505ef7bed5a&ex=1272859200&partner=rssuserland&emc=rss&pagewanted=all. 
  33. ^ http://dir.salon.com/story/mwt/feature/2005/05/17/sat/index.html
  34. ^ 2009 Worldwide Exam Preparation & Tutoring Industry Report - Market Research Reports - Research and Markets
  35. ^ Board game preps students for SAT, but it's not easy
  36. ^ American Book Company Validation Study

Further reading

  • Coyle, T.R., & Pillow, D.R. (2008). SAT and ACT predict college GPA after removing g. Intelligence, 36(6):719–729.
  • Frey, M.C. and Detterman, D.K. (2003) Scholastic Assessment or g? The Relationship Between the Scholastic Assessment Test and General Cognitive Ability. Psychological Science, 15(6):373–378. PDF
  • Gould, Stephen Jay. The Mismeasure of Man. W. W. Norton & Company; Rev/Expd edition 1996. ISBN 0-393-31425-1.
  • Hoffman, Banesh. The Tyranny of Testing. Orig. pub. Collier, 1962. ISBN 0-486-43091-X (and others).
  • Hubin, David R. "The Scholastic Aptitude Test: Its Development and Introduction, 1900–1948" A Ph.D. Dissertation in American History at the University of Oregon, 1988. Available for download at http://www.uoregon.edu/~hubin/
  • Hubin, David R. "Bibliography" to The Scholastic Aptitude Test: Its Development and Introduction, 1900–1948. A 63 Page Bibliography to 1988 Ph.D. Dissertation with Archival References, Primary Sources, Oral History References. http://www.uoregon.edu/~hubin/BIBLIO.pdf
  • Owen, David. None of the Above: The Truth Behind the SATs. Revised edition. Rowman & Littlefield, 1999. ISBN 0-8476-9507-7.
  • Sacks, Peter. Standardized Minds: The High Price of America's Testing Culture and What We Can Do to Change It. Perseus, 2001. ISBN 0-7382-0433-1.
  • Zwick, Rebecca. Fair Game? The Use of Standardized Admissions Tests in Higher Education. Falmer, 2002. ISBN 0-415-92560-6.
  • Gladwell, Malcolm. Examined Life: What Stanley H. Kaplan taught us about the S.A.T. http://www.newyorker.com/archive/2001/12/17/011217crat_atlarge

External links


Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

See also sat, sắt, sát, and Sat.

Contents

English

Pronunciation

Acronym

SAT
  1. (US): Standardized Aptitude Test - a national exam taken annually by high school juniors and seniors.
  2. (Australian) Scholastic Aptitude Test.

Anagrams


Wikibooks

Up to date as of January 23, 2010
(Redirected to SAT Study Guide article)

From Wikibooks, the open-content textbooks collection

This book is about the SAT Reasoning Test taken in the United States. If you are looking for SATs Study Guide taken in UK, see SATs Study Guide
SAT Study Guide
Contents | Introduction | Part 1 | Part 2 | Part 3 | Part 4 | Part 5
  1. Strategies for Test-takers
  2. The Math Section
    1. General Numerical Concepts
    2. Concepts from Geometry
    3. Concepts from Algebra
    4. Concepts from Algebra 2
    5. General Math Review
  3. The Critical Reading Section
    1. Sentence Completion
    2. Passage-based Reading
    3. General Critical Reading Review
  4. The Writing Section
    1. The Essay
    2. Improving Sentences
    3. Identifying Sentence Errors
    4. Improving Paragraphs
    5. General Writing Review
  5. Practice Tests
    1. Practice Test 1
    2. Practice Test 2
    3. Practice Test 3
    4. List of Practice Tests

Simple English

The SAT Reasoning Test (used to be called Scholastic Aptitude Test and Scholastic Assessment Test) is a test for college admissions in the United States. The SAT is owned, published, and created by the College Board, a non-profit organization in the United States, and was once owned by the Educational Testing Service (ETS). The test consists of 3 sections, Critical Reading, Writing and Math. Each section is graded on a scale of 200-800 points. A perfect score on all three sections is a score of 2400 points. [1] ETS now administers the exam.

Notes


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 12, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on SAT, which are similar to those in the above article.








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