SV Dynamo: Wikis

  
  
  

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The Sportvereinigung Dynamo (German: About this sound Sportvereinigung Dynamo ) (English: Dynamo Sports Association) was the sport organization of the security agencies (Volkspolizei, Ministry for State Security and customs) of former East Germany. The sports club was founded on 27 March 1953 and was headquartered in Hohenschönhausen in East Berlin. From the date of its inception until 23 November 1989 the president of the SV Dynamo was Erich Mielke, who was also the Minister of State Security. Dynamo was created in accordance with the multi-sports club model developed in the Soviet Union and adopted throughout Eastern Europe. From the beginning it had an overtly political as well as sporting agenda and its many successes were always portrayed as a triumph of the GDR state. After the German reunification in 1990 the SV Dynamo was liquidated. At its height the association had a membership of over 280,000 active members.[1] Athletes of the association enjoyed considerable success both in national and international competitions, winning for example more than 200 olympic medals. After the German reunification the systematic doping of Dynamo athletes from 1971 until 1990 was revealed in German media reports. The systematic doping of athletes was done under the supervision of the Staatssicherheit and with full backing of the government.[2]

Contents

Organization

The SV Dynamo was divided into fifteen regional units, corresponding to the fifteen districts of the German Democratic Republic. Within each regional unit individual sports clubs existed, with each sport club specializing in different disciplines. Important sport clubs were the SG Dynamo Dresden (football), SC Dynamo Hoppegarten (judo, shooting sports, parachuting), the SC Dynamo Klingenthal (Nordic skiing), SG Dynamo Luckenwalde (wrestling), SG Dynamo Potsdam (rowing and canoe sprint), SG Dynamo Weißwasser (ice hockey) and the SG Dynamo Zinnwald in Altenberg (biathlon, bobsleigh, luge, skeleton). The most famous sports club of the SV Dynamo was probably the SC Dynamo Berlin offering most Olympic disciplines.

Controversies surrounding the Sport Club Dynamo

The case of doping

The Sportvereinigung Dynamo[3] was especially singled out as a center for doping in the former East Germany.[4] Many former club officials and some athletes found themselves charged after the dissolution of the country. A special page on the internet was created by doping victims trying to gain justice and compensation, listing people involved in doping at the club, the so called Dynamo Liste.[5]

State-endorsed doping began with the Cold War when every eastern bloc gold was an ideological victory. From 1974, Manfred Ewald, the head of the GDR's sports federation, imposed blanket doping. At the 1968 Mexico City Olympics, the country of 17 million collected nine gold medals. Four years later the total was 20 and in 1976 it doubled again to 40.[6] Ewald was quoted as having told coaches, "They're still so young and don't have to know everything." He was given a 22-month suspended sentence, to the outrage of his victims.[7]

Often, doping was carried out without the knowledge of the athletes, some of them as young as ten years of age. It is estimated that around 10,000 former athletes bear the physical and mental scars of years of drug abuse[8], one of them is Rica Reinisch, a triple Olympic champion and world record-setter at the Moscow Games in 1980, has since suffered numerous miscarriages and recurring ovarian cysts. Athletes like Renate Vogel, silver medalist at the 1972 Olympics in the swimming competitions, were told the injections were vitamins but failed to believe the explanation and quit her sport.[9]

Two former Dynamo Berlin club doctors, Dieter Binus, chief of the national women's team from 1976 to 80, and Bernd Pansold, in charge of the sports medicine center in East-Berlin, were committed for trial for allegedly supplying 19 teenagers with illegal substances.[10] Binus was sentenced in August[11], Pansold in December 1998 after both being found guilty of administering hormones to underage female athletes from 1975 to 1984.[12]

Virtually no East German athlete ever failed an official drug test, though Stasi files show that many did, indeed, produced positive tests at Kreischa, the Saxon laboratory (German:Zentrale Dopingkontroll-Labor des Sportmedizinischen Dienstes) that was at the time approved by the International Olympic Committee[13], now called the Institute of Doping Analysis and Sports Biochemistry (IDAS).[14]

In 2005, fifteen years after the end or the GDR, the manufacturer of the drugs in former East Germany, Jenapharm, still finds itself involved in numerous lawsuits from doping victims, being sued by almost 200 former athletes.[15] Many of the substances handed out were, even under East German law, illegal.[16]

Former Sport Club Dynamo athletes who publicly admitted to doping, accusing their coaches[17]:

Former Sport Club Dynamo athletes disqualified for doping:

  • Ilona Slupianek[18] (Ilona Slupianek tested positive along with three Finnish athletes at the 1977 European Cup, becoming the only East German athlete ever to be convicted of doping[19]). Based on the self-admission by Pollack, the United States Olympic Committee asked for the redistribution of gold medals won in the 1976 Olympics.[20] Despite court rulings in Germany that substantiate claims of systematic doping by some East German swimmers, the IOC executive board announced that it has no intention of revising the Olympic record books. This is an understandable decision as it could otherwise trigger a flood of such claims involving former eastern block athletes. In rejecting the American petition on behalf of its women's medley relay team in Montreal and a similar petition from the British Olympic Association on behalf of Sharron Davies, the IOC made it clear that it wanted to discourage any such appeals in the future.[21]
Ministry for State Security-The Stasi

The Stasi and Erich Mielke

Erich Mielke, chief of Dynamo, was also the all-powerful leader of the Stasi[22], the Secret Police of East Germany, mother organisation of Dynamo. The Stasi was widely regarded as one of the most effective intelligence agencies in the world. The intensity of state surveillance was probably without parallel anywhere in the world. In 1989, the Stasi had 91,000 staff members and 174,000 unofficial collaborators - a ratio of one spy for every 62 citizens.[23] Some of them were well known athletes, like Harald Czudaj, who admitted working as an informer for the Stasi, writing at least 10 reports about teammates and officials of the Dynamo bobsled club in Altenberg, East Germany, from 1988 to 1990. He apologized to his teammates. After his admission, Czudaj's teammates appealed to German officials to let him compete in the 1992 Winter Olympics because they had not been harmed by his work for the Stasi.[24] Mielke himself was sentenced in Berlin to six years in prison in 1993 for the murder of two policemen in 1931. However he was freed after two years when he was diagnosed as senile.[25]

Football

With the decision by the East German authorities to create a number of "independent' football clubs in January 1966, the BFC Dynamo Berlin was separated from the Sportvereinigung Dynamo.[26] The controversies surrounding this club are therefore part of this clubs article. The other Dynamo football departments however remained under the authority of the Sportvereinigung. The accusations of match fixing associated with the BFC Dynamo do not extend to the other Dynamo clubs and a club like Dynamo Dresden remains immensely popular in former East Germany and beyond.

Further reading

See also

References

  1. ^ Michael, Barsuhn; Jutta Braun and Hans Joachim Teichler. "Chronik der Sporteinheit vom Mauerfall bis zur Aufnahme der fünf neuen Landessportbünde am 15. Dezember 1990 in den Deutschen Sportbund". Deutscher Sportbund. http://www.dosb.de/fileadmin/fm-dsb/arbeitsfelder/wiss-ges/Dateien/Siegel-Endversion-Sporteinheit-19072006.pdf. Retrieved 2008-05-13.  
  2. ^ "Sports Doping Statistics Reach Plateau in Germany". Deutsche Welle. 2003-02-26. http://www.dw-world.de/dw/article/0,2144,786574,00.html. Retrieved 2007-08-04.  
  3. ^ Pain And Injury in Sport: Social And Ethical Analysis, Section III, Chapter 7, Page 111, by Sigmund Loland, Berit Skirstad, Ivan Waddington, Published by Routledge in 2006, ASIN: B000OI0HZG
  4. ^ "Dynamo Liste" (in German). doping_opfer@yahoo.com. September 2002. http://members.lycos.co.uk/dopingopfer/kommentar_ordner/09_2002/dynamo_liste_web.htm. Retrieved 2008-03-10.  
  5. ^ "Dynamo Liste: Die Täter" (in German). doping_opfer@yahoo.com. September 2002. http://members.lycos.co.uk/dopingopfer/taeter/taeter_alle.htm. Retrieved 2008-03-11.  
  6. ^ "Jenapharm says drugs were legal". ESPN. 28 April 2005. http://sports.espn.go.com/oly/news/story?id=2048448. Retrieved 2008-03-11.  
  7. ^ "Obituary: Manfred Ewald". The Independent. 25 October 2002. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qn4158/is_20021025/ai_n12658822. Retrieved 2008-03-11.  
  8. ^ "GDR athletes sue over steroid damage". BBC News Europe. 13 March 2005. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/4341045.stm. Retrieved 2008-03-11.  
  9. ^ "Doping im DDR-Sport: "Wir waren Versuchskaninchen"" (in German). 3sat.online. 3 February 2005. http://www.3sat.de/3sat.php?http://www.3sat.de/nano/bstuecke/63280/index.html. Retrieved 2008-03-13.  
  10. ^ "New doping charges against East German doctors". BBC News. 25 November 1997. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sport/34496.stm. Retrieved 2008-03-07.  
  11. ^ "East German coaches fined over doping". BBC News. 31 August 1998. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/sport/161913.stm. Retrieved 2008-03-11.  
  12. ^ "Doping of underage athletes in the former GDR" (in German). Schwimmverein Limmat Zürich. 23 March 2000. http://www.svl.ch/doping/ddr_doping_minderjaehrige.html. Retrieved 2008-03-10.  
  13. ^ "Drug claim could be a bitter pill". Times Online. 2 March 2005. http://www.ergogenics.org/ddrroids2.html. Retrieved 2008-03-13.  
  14. ^ "Accredited Laboratories". World Anti-Doping Agency. January 2004. http://www.wada-ama.org/en/dynamic.ch2?pageCategory.id=333. Retrieved 2008-03-13.  
  15. ^ "Forgotten victims of East German doping take their battle to court". The Guardian. 1 November 2005. http://sport.guardian.co.uk/athletics/story/0,10082,1605761,00.html. Retrieved 2008-03-11.  
  16. ^ "Eine gewisse Geheimniskrämerei" (in German). Times Online, Grit Hartmann. 28 July 2005. http://www.ergogenics.org/ddrroids2.html. Retrieved 2008-03-14.  
  17. ^ "Drugs update". Sports Publications. July 1998. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3883/is_199807/ai_n8790764. Retrieved 2008-03-11.  
  18. ^ "1977: Here comes Mr. Doping". European Cup - Milan 2007. 2007. http://www.milano2007.org/html_eng/storia_coppa.asp. Retrieved 2008-03-11.  
  19. ^ Michael Janofsky (4 July 1988). "Article on Sports in East Germany". The New York Times. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=940DE6DD1031F937A35754C0A96E948260&sec=&spon=&pagewanted=all. Retrieved 2008-03-13.  
  20. ^ "OLYMPICS; U.S. Seeks Redress for 1976 Doping In Olympics". The New York Times. 25 October 1998. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9A05E0DE173CF936A15753C1A96E958260&sec=&spon=&pagewanted=3. Retrieved 2008-03-12.  
  21. ^ "Despite Doping, Olympic Medals Stand". International Herald Tribune. 16 December 1998. http://www.iht.com/articles/1998/12/16/medals.t.php. Retrieved 2008-03-12.  
  22. ^ "Ex-Stasi chief dies". BBC News. 25 May 2000. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/764397.stm. Retrieved 2008-03-11.  
  23. ^ "GERMANY AND THE GERMAN DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC - Truth and justice". Amnesty International, Daan Bronkhorst. June 2006. http://www.amnesty.nl/bibliotheek_vervolg/thema_berechting_case_1. Retrieved 2008-03-11.  
  24. ^ "Germany Won't Ban Sledder Who Informed". The New York Times. 11 February 1992. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9E0CE3DB1131F932A25751C0A964958260. Retrieved 2008-03-12.  
  25. ^ "Erich Mielke—the career of a German Stalinist". World Socialist Web Site, Ludwig Niethammer. 24 August 2000. http://www.wsws.org/articles/2000/aug2000/miel-a24.shtml. Retrieved 2008-03-11.  
  26. ^ "Behind the Wall: East German football between state and society". GFL-Journal, Mike Dennis. 2008. http://www.gfl-journal.de/2-2007/dennis.html. Retrieved 2008-03-18.  







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